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  • 20701.
    Willén, Agnes
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Emissions of Nitrous Oxide, Methane and Ammonia After Field Application of Digested and Dewatered Sewage Sludge With or Without Addition of Urea2016In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 281-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: By recycling sewage sludge (SS) to productive land, its plant nutrients can be utilised. However, the use of organic fertilisers carries health risks and causes emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3). One measure to sanitise SS from human pathogens is addition of NH3. Methods: Mesophilically digested and dewatered SS treated with urea and stored, or only stored, was applied to arable land in spring and autumn, respectively, and the effects of immediate or delayed incorporation (by 4 h) on emissions of N2O, CH4 and, in spring, NH3 were investigated. Results: N2O emissions in autumn from soil treated with SS were significantly higher than from soil without SS application (0.09, 1.31 and 0.68 kg N2O-N ha−1 for control, immediate and delayed incorporation, respectively). These emissions were significantly correlated with volumetric water content in soil. Corresponding N2O emissions in spring were 0.15, 0.57 and 0.41 kg N2O-N ha−1. Delayed incorporation (0.20 and 0.34 % of added N in spring and autumn, respectively) tended to reduce N2O emissions compared with immediate incorporation (0.32 and 0.71 % of added N in spring and autumn, respectively). Nitrous oxide emissions from SS were apparently lower after spring than after autumn application, likely because of drier soil and crop uptake of nitrogen in spring. Methane emissions were negative or negligible. Timing of incorporation had no statistically significant effect on NH3 emissions. Conclusions: Nitrous oxide emissions from soil treated with SS at a rate based on the maximum permissible P level were moderate and CH4 emissions negligible.

  • 20702.
    Willén, Agnes
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nitrous oxide and methane emissions during storage of dewatered digested sewage sludge2016In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 184, no 3, p. 560-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effect on greenhouse gas emissions during storage of digested sewage sludge by using a cover during storage or applying sanitisation measures such as thermophilic digestion or ammonia addition. In a pilot-scale storage facility, nitrous oxide and methane emissions were measured on average twice monthly for a year, using a closed chamber technique. The thermophilically digested sewage sludge (TC) had the highest cumulative emissions of nitrous oxide (1.30% of initial total N) followed by mesophilically digested sewage sludge stored without a cover (M) (0.34%) and mesophilically digested sewage sludge stored with a cover (MC) (0.19%). The mesophilically digested sewage sludge sanitised with ammonia and stored with a cover (MAC) showed negligible cumulative emissions of nitrous oxide. Emissions of methane were much lower from TC and MAC than from M and MC. These results indicate that sanitisation by ammonia treatment eliminates the production of nitrous oxide and reduces methane emissions from stored sewage sludge, and that thermophilic digestion has the potential to reduce the production of methane during storage compared with mesophilic digestion. The results also indicate a tendency for lower emissions of nitrous oxide and higher emissions of methane from covered sewage sludge compared with non-covered.

  • 20703. Wilson, Michael D.
    et al.
    Chadwick, David
    Dimitrakos, Theo
    Döser, Jürgen
    Giambiagi, Pablo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. TrustCoM.
    Golby, David
    Geuer-Pollman, Christian
    Haller, Jochen
    Ketil, Stølen
    Mahler, Tobias
    Martino, Lorenzo
    Parent, Xavier
    Ristol, Santi
    Sairamesh, Jakka
    Schubert, Lutz
    Tuptuk, Nilufer
    The TrustCoM approach to enforcing agreements between interoperating enterprises2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20704.
    Wilton, I
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Emulgatorer i maten - stabiliserar och finfördelar1977In: Kemisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1650-0725, Vol. 10, p. 98-99Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20705.
    Wilton, I
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Friberg, S
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Influence of temperature-induced phase transitions of fat emulsions1971In: Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, ISSN 0003-021X, E-ISSN 1558-9331, Vol. 48, p. 771-774Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20706.
    Winberg, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    International Fire Death Rate Trends2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of fire fatalities in Sweden has not changed significantly during the last two decades, in spite of information campaigns and an increased use of smoke detectors and fire extinguishers in homes. In recognition of this The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency initiated and funded a research program to investigate what could be done in order to reduce the fatalities in residential fires. This work is a first step in that process where fire fatalities statistics are studied to determine what measures have proven efficient in other countries. Both USA and Great Britain have reduced the number of fire fatalities steadily over the last three decades, and now have a lower fire death rate per capita compared to Sweden. One explanation to this could be that both countries have introduced fire regulations for furniture and furnishing, which is something that Sweden has not yet done.Key words: Fire, fire fatalities, fire statistics, residential fires.

  • 20707.
    Winberg, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Beklädnad enligt det europeiska systemet2014In: Brandposten, no 50, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20708.
    Winberg, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Sjöstrand, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Rörcentrum.
    Vattensprinkleranläggningar och kommunala vattenledningsnät - en vattendelare2015In: Brandposten, no 52, p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20709.
    Winberg, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Sjöstrand, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Farestveit, Tomas
    Fire Sprinkler Systems- Capacity tests and Public Water Mains2016Report (Other academic)
  • 20710.
    Winberg, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Sjöstrand, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Farestveit, Tomas
    Nordiska Brand AB.
    Vattensprinkleranläggningar - Kapacitetsprov och kommunala vattenledningsnät2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to provide support to local municipalities and other stakeholders on how sprinkler installations connected to the water mains should be installed and maintained so that a high fire safety can be obtained without any inconvenience or disturbances to the municipal water supply. The report includes recommendations for how Swedish municipalities can manage applications for sprinkler connections, and how the sprinkler industry can handle the design, installation and maintenance to minimize the risk for drinking water quality problems.Key words:Sprinkler, public water mains, drinking water quality, backflow prevention, sprinkler pumps, capacity test.

  • 20711.
    Windlin, Charles
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Laaksolahti, Jarmo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Unpacking visible light communication as a material for design2017In: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, Association for Computing Machinery , 2017, p. 2019-2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication through visible light (VLC) is gaining ground as an alternative to traditional radio communication in many settings. Effectively using VLC in creative design processes may however be difficult as the material properties of VLC can be hard to grasp and therefore to use. This paper presents a design exploration where a set of artifacts was created to enable designers to play around with VLC and better understand its properties and their potential use for design. Each artifact was designed to illustrate a particular property of light communication ranging from inner workings of transmission protocols to properties of light in itself. The set was used in two small scale workshops where users played around with the artifacts and afterward were interviewed about their experiences. Interviews and observations from the workshops suggest that users gained insights into the material properties of light communication and were also inspired to think of creative uses for VLC based on those insights.

  • 20712. Winestrand, S.
    et al.
    Larsson, S.
    Cassland, P.
    Nilvebrant, N.-O.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jonsson, L.J.
    Effects of ionic substances in bleaching filtrates and of lignosulfonates on the activity of oxalate oxidase from barley2011In: Engineering in Life Sciences, ISSN 1618-0240, E-ISSN 1618-2863, no 3, p. 245-252Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20713.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Music, Technology & Research and Music, Technology & Learning2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20714.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Narrative functions of film music in a relational perspective2004In: ISME Proceedings - Sound Worlds to Discover, 2004, 1Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20715.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Narrative music: towards an understanding of musical narrative functions in multimedia2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the computer screen is replacing the book as the dominant medium for communication (Kress, 2003), questions about how meaning is constituted by the multimodal interaction of different media (including music) is becoming increasingly important in contemporary research of pedagogy, sociology and media studies. The overall aim with this licentiate thesis is to explore musical narrative functions as they appear in multimedia such as film and computer games. The thesis is based on three publications. Publication 1 proposes a classification of musical narrative functions, with 6 narrative classes(the Emotive, Informative, Descriptive, Guiding, Temporal and Rhetorical classes) and 11 categories. The relational interplay of music with contextual factors is emphasized. Publication 2 describes the design of a software tool, REMUPP (Relations Between Musical Parameters and Perceived Properties), to be used for experimental studies of musical expression. REMUPP is used for real time alteration of musical expression, by the manipulation of musical parameters such as tempo, harmony, rhythm, articulation, etc. Publication 3 describes a quasi-experiment using REMUPP, where a group of young participants (12-13 years old) were given the task of adapting musical expression – by manipulating 7 parameters – to make it fit 3 visual scenes shown on a computer screen. They also answered a questionnaire asking about their musical backgrounds and habits of listening to music, watching movies and playing computer games. Numerical data from the manipulations were analyzed statistically with regards to the preferred values of the musical parameters in relation to the different visual scenes. The results indicated awareness and knowledge about codes and conventions of musical narrative functions, and were to some degree affected by the participants’ gender, musical backgrounds and media habits.

  • 20716.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Berg, Jan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Relations between Selected Musical Parameters and Expressed Emotions – Extending the Potential of Computer Entertainment2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in computer entertainment technology, 2005, 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental aspect of music is its ability to express emotions. To develop and extend the potential of music in computer entertainment, a deeper understanding of music's emotional aspects is essential. An experiment was designed to explore the suitability of a specially designed interface (REMUPP) as a means to investigate how musical parameters can contribute to expressing the emotions of 'happiness' and 'sadness'. In the experiment, a number of subjects listened to music examples where the musical performance was governed by a set of musical parameters that were controlled by the subject. The subjects adjusted the parameter settings to best express a given emotion. These settings were recorded and analyzed. The experiment verifies the REMUPP tool as a valid means for the investigation of musical parameters and emotion. Issues of importance for realization of music in the computer entertainment context are also addressed.

  • 20717.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Berg, Jan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Liljedahl, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Lindberg, Stefan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    REMUPP: an interface for evaluation of relations between musical parameters and perceived properties2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in computer entertainment technology, 2005, 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New media offers new roles, functions and challenges to music, calling for new methods and tools for music research. To meet these increasingly important challenges. REMUPP, a new software tool for the investigation of relations between music and perceived properties or characteristies, was designed. The ideas behind REMUPP and the technology used to realize it is deseribed. In order to test the sensitivity and validity of REMUPP. a simple experiment aimed to examine some properties of music was carried out. 38 subjects were listening to music and instructed to indicate their priority for different aspects of the music (musical parameters) while they actively controlled these aspects. The results show that REMUPP is able to bring out significant differences between the musical parameters, and that these differences correspond well with findings by others.

  • 20718.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Liljedahl, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    Lindberg, Stefan
    Berg, Jan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute.
    REMUPP - An Interactive Tool for Investigating Musical Properties and Relations2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A typical experiment design within the field of music psychology is playing music to a test subject who listens and reacts – most often by verbal means. One limitation of this kind of test is the inherent difficulty of measuring an emotional reaction in a laboratory setting. This paper describes the design, functions and possible uses of the software tool REMUPP (Relations between musical parameters and perceived properties), designed for investigating various aspects of musical experience. REMUPP allows for non-verbal examination of selected musical parameters (such as tonality, tempo, timbre, articulation, volume, register etc.) in a musical context. The musical control is put into the hands of the subject, introducing an element of creativity and enhancing the sense of immersion. Information acquired with REMUPP can be output as numerical data for statistical analysis, but the tool is also suited for the use with more qualitatively oriented methods.

  • 20719.
    Winikka, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Toth, Pal
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. University of Miskolc, Hungary.
    Jansson, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Molinder, Roger
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Lighty, JoAnn S.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Particle formation during pressurized entrained flow gasification of wood powder: Effects of process conditions on chemical composition, nanostructure, and reactivity2018In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 189, p. 1339-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of operating condition on particle formation during pressurized, oxygen blown gasification of wood powder with an ash content of 0.4 wt% was investigated. The investigation was performed with a pilot scale gasifier operated at 7 bar(a). Two loads, 400 and 600 kW were tested, with the oxygen equivalence ratio (λ) varied between 0.25 and 0.50. Particle concentration and mass size distribution was analyzed with a low pressure cascade impactor and the collected particles were characterized for morphology, elemental composition, nanostructure, and reactivity using scanning electron microscopy/high resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. In order to quantify the nanostructure of the particles and identify prevalent sub-structures, a novel image analysis framework was used. It was found that the process temperature, affected both by λ and the load of the gasifier, had a significant influence on the particle formation processes. At low temperature (1060 °C), the formed soot particles seemed to be resistant to the oxidation process; however, when the oxidation process started at 1119 °C, the internal burning of the more reactive particle core began. A further increase in temperature (> 1313 °C) lead to the oxidation of the less reactive particle shell. When the shell finally collapsed due to severe oxidation, the original soot particle shape and nanostructure also disappeared and the resulting particle could not be considered as a soot anymore. Instead, the particle shape and nanostructure at the highest temperatures (> 1430 °C) were a function of the inorganic content and of the inorganic elements the individual particle consisted of. All of these effects together lead to the soot particles in the real gasifier environment having less and less ordered nanostructure and higher and higher reactivity as the temperature increased; i.e., they followed the opposite trend of what is observed during laboratory-scale studies with fuels not containing any ash-forming elements and where the temperature was not controlled by λ.

  • 20720.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg .
    Birgisdottir, Birna Drofn
    Reykjavik University.
    Edwards, Kasper
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Gunnarsdóttir, Sigrún
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jarebrant, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johansson Hanse, Jan
    Ulin, Kerstin
    May sustainability of patient flows at hospitals be increased by adding a work environment module to Value Stream Mapping (VSM)?: ANOVO Multicenter study in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden. 8th NOVO Symposium2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20721. Winkel, Jörgen
    et al.
    Birgisdóttir, Birna Drofn
    Dudas, K.
    Edwards, Kasper
    Gunnarsdóttir, Sigrun
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jarebrant, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johansson Hanse, Jan
    Ulin, Kerstin
    Factors facilitating and inhibiting Value Stream Mapping processes at hospital units in three Nordic countries: A Nordic Multicenter study2014In: 11th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organisational Design and Management 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference. / [ed] Broberg, O., Fallentin, N., Hasle, P., Jensen, P. L., Kabel, A., Larsen, M. E. and Weller, T., Centrum för personcentrerad vård vid Göteborgs universitet (GPCC) , 2014, Vol. 1, p. 127-128Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20722.
    Winkel, Jørgen
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Edwards, Kasper
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Jarebrant, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Birgisdóttir, Birna Dröfn
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Johansson Hanse, Jan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gunnarsdóttir, Sigrún
    University of Iceland, Iceland; Bifröst University, Iceland.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Ulin, Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effect modifiers in intervention research at hospitals in three Nordic countries2016In: Abstract book of the 10th NOVO symposium, 2016, p. 33-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20723. Winkler, D
    Superconducting analogue electronics for research and industry2003In: Supercond. Sci. Technol. 16, pp. 1583-1590, 2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20724.
    Winkler, D
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo, Sensor Systems.
    Superconducting mixers2002In: Chapter E4.7 in Handbook of Superconducting Materials (IOP, Bristol, 2002), Ed. D Cardwell, University of Cambridge, UK; D Ginley, NREL, USA, ISBN Hardback:0750308982, 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20725.
    Winnerstam, Lars
    et al.
    Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Olsson, Karl-Axel
    Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Winblad, Jan, Nyman, Peter
    Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Mikrovåguppslutning: användning av mikrovågsugn för upp- slutning av stål, cement och polyeten1991Report (Refereed)
  • 20726.
    Winnes, Kajsa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys.
    Användning och behov av energi- och miljösystem Sex företagsberätterlser om forskningens betydelse för strategiskt beslutsfattande inom energi- och miljöområdet2013Report (Refereed)
  • 20727.
    Winnes, Kajsa
    et al.
    Energiteknik (ET).
    Holgersson, Pernilla
    Energiteknik (ET).
    Minska 50 till 2050: Nya perspektiv på energieffektivisering av allmännyttans miljonprogramsbostäder2013Report (Refereed)
  • 20728.
    Winther, Thea
    et al.
    Swedish National Heritage Board, Sweden.
    Bannerman, Judith
    Swedish National Heritage Board, Sweden.
    Skogstad, Hilde
    Swedish National Heritage Board, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jacobson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Adhesives for adhering polystyrene plastic and their long-term effect2015In: Studies in Conservation, ISSN 0039-3630, E-ISSN 2047-0584, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 107-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To guide conservators in their decisions in active conservation of polystyrene materials, seven adhesives were tested before and after light ageing. The material was investigated by assessment of working properties, appearance, colour measurement, tensile testing, hardness measurement, assessment of break type, scanning electron microscope imaging, and assessment of reversibility. Based on a survey among conservators, the adhesives included were acrylates (Paraloid® B-72 in acetone: ethanol, or only ethanol, Paraloid® B-67 in isopropanol, Primal® AC 35, Acrifix® 116), epoxies (HXTAL®-NYL-1, Araldite ® 2020) and one cyanoacrylate (Loctite® Super Attack Precision). Adhesives were tested on extruded sheets of transparent, general purpose polystyrene applied on joined edges and as an open layer. Damage to the plastic could be seen for Acrifix® 116 and Loctite® Super Attack Precision. The average break force sensitivity values indicate that the cyanoacrylate was weakened while Acrifix® 116 was strengthened after ageing. In general, the cyanoacrylate was the strongest and Paraloid® B-67 the weakest. Most adhesives showed yellowing after ageing apart from Acrifix® 116 and HXTAL®-NYL-1. The Paraloids, Primal® AC 35, and the epoxies were possible to remove from the plastic.

  • 20729.
    Wirdelius, Håkan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malmström, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Diujster, Arno
    TNO, The Netherlands.
    Volker, A
    TNO, The Netherlands.
    Krix, D
    Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Germany.
    Stolzenberg, M
    Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Germany.
    Martinez-de-Guerenu, A
    CEIT, Spain.
    Gutierrez, I
    CEIT, Spain.
    Jorge-Badiola, D
    CEIT, Spain.
    van den Berg, FD
    Tata Steel, The Netherlands.
    Kok, PJJ
    Tata Steel, The Netherlands.
    Validation of models for Laser Ultrasonic spectraas a function of the grain size in steel2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce costs of production and increase economic sustainability it is necessary to introducequality assessment in an early stage in the manufacturing process. In the European project(Product Uniformity Control – PUC), the intention is to use ultrasonic information to assessmicrostructure parameters that are related to macroscale qualities such as mechanicalproperties. Laser induced ultrasonic technique (LUS) requires no media and can generate anddetect ultrasonic information at some distance from the component. This technique is thereforeaddressed within this project as a solution to measure ultrasonic properties in an industrialenvironment.Mathematical modelling of the ultrasonic wave propagation problem has been used in order toget a deeper understanding of the physics and to identify ultrasonic properties that can be usedas an indirect measurement of grain size. The use of both analytical and numerical modelsenabled extensive parametric studies together with investigation of ultrasonic interactions withwell-defined individual microstructures.The LUS technique has previously been applied to e.g. monitor grain growth duringthermomechanical processing of metals. These applications identified and used a correlationwith the frequency content of the attenuation. This have been investigated as a possible indirectmeasurement of grain size, also in this project. The models have been used to verify thecorrelations and to evaluate different procedures that could be applied as an industrial solution.The suggested procedure is based on deconvolving two successive echoes and has beenexperimentally validated by two different LUS systems. The reference samples used in thevalidation were produced by changing the annealing temperature and time to obtain a variationin grain sizes. These grain sizes were then identified by EBSD and the samples were examinedin terms of grain size influence on spectral attenuation.

  • 20730.
    Wirström, Niclas
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Behboodi, Arash
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Lemic, Filip
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Wolisz, Adam
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Localization using Anonymous Measurements2015In: 2015 International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, 2015, 10, p. 137-146, article id 7165032Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Range-based IEEE 802.15.4 localization systems currently require relatively high anchor density for indoor deployments. It can therefore be beneficial to use external sources of transmission as additional anchors. We present methods for using WiFi beacons to improve localization accuracy of a range-based IEEE 802.15.4 localization system in cases where only two IEEE 802.15.4 anchor nodes are available. We do this by identifying WiFi beacons from RSSI traces that we dynamically sample online, and applying fingerprinting and range-based methods using the RSSI values of the identified beacons. However, because the data of the WiFi traffic is not decodable by the IEEE 802.15.4 devices, these RSSI measurements lack identifiers that can associate them to specific WiFi Access Points (APs). Therefore, novel methods are required for both fingerprinting and range-based approaches to allow for these additional WiFi APs to be used as anchors. We show by using real-world measurements that our beacon identification method gives a false-positive rate of only 3%, and that if the range measurements to the IEEE 802.15.4 anchors are relatively accurate, with a standard deviation of 1 and 3 m, a localization accuracy improvement of 47% and 24% can be gained, respectively.

  • 20731.
    Wirström, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Misra, Prasant
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Spray: A Multi-Modal Localization System for Stationary Sensor Network Deployment2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a localization system that targets rapid deployment of stationary wireless sensor networks (WSN). The system uses a particle filter to fuse measurements from multiple localization modalities, such as RF ranging, neighbor information or maps, to obtain position estimations with higher accuracy than that of the individual modalities. The system isolates different modalities into separate components which can be included or excluded independently to tailor the system to a specific scenario. We show that position estimations can be improved with our system by combining multiple modalities. We evaluate the performance of the system in both an indoor and outdoor environment using combinations of five different modalities. Using two anchor nodes as reference points and combining all five modalities, we obtain RMS (Root Mean Square) estimation errors of approximately 2.5 m in both cases, while using the components individually results in errors within the range of 3.5 and 9 m.

  • 20732.
    Wirström, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Misra, Prasant
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Spray, Embracing Multimodality2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present Spray, a localization system that compensates for low accuracy of individual localization measurements by combining measurements from multiple localization modalities.

  • 20733. Wirtanen, G.
    et al.
    Husmark, U.
    Mattila-Sandholm, T.
    Microbial evaluation of the biotransfer potential from surfaces with Bacillus biofilms after rinsing and cleaning procedures in closed food-processing systems.1996In: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 59, no 7, p. 727-733Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20734. Wirtanen, G.
    et al.
    Mattila-Sandholm, T.
    Manninen, M.
    Ahvenainen, R.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Application of rapid methods and ultrasound imaging in the assessment of the microbial quality of asepticaly packed starch soup.1991In: International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 26, p. 313-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20735.
    Wissmar, S
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    SiGe quantum wells for uncooled long wavelength infra-red radiation (LWIR) sensors2007In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 2007, Vol. 100, p. 42029-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20736.
    With, G. D.
    et al.
    NRG Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, The Netherlands.
    Michalik, B.
    GIG Central Mining Institute, Poland.
    Hoffmann, B.
    BfS Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Germany.
    Döse, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Development of a European harmonised standard to determine the natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials2018In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 171, p. 913-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 the European Commission has published its latest basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation (Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom). The council directive regulates radiation exposure from building materials through the presence of radioactivity (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in these materials. Pivotal to successful regulation is the availability of a harmonised test method for the determination of the radionuclide concentrations as these nuclides form the basis for dose assessment and compliance. In 2017 a Technical Specification (CEN, 2017) on the determination of the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in construction products was published by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The purpose of this work is to give an outline of the proposed method, with the protocols for sampling, measurement and data processing as well as a summary of the robustness testing and the expert comments that have been received following the final consultation. 

  • 20737. Wittberg, L.P.
    et al.
    Björkman, M.
    Khokhar, G.
    Mohlin, U.-B.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Dahlkild, A.
    Flow conditions in the grooves of a Low-Consistency refiner2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 2, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20738.
    Wittbom, Cerina
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne Association of Local Authorities, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ann-Charlotte
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Lund University, Sweden.
    Roldin, Pontus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nordin, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden; Sweco Environment, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Staffan
    Lund University, Sweden; University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Nilsson, Patrik T.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pagels, Joakim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svenningsson, Birgitta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Effect of solubility limitation on hygroscopic growth and cloud drop activation of SOA particles produced from traffic exhausts2018In: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 359-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hygroscopicity measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles often show inconsistent results between the supersaturated and subsaturated regimes, with higher activity as cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) than indicated by hygroscopic growth. In this study, we have investigated the discrepancy between the two regimes in the Lund University (LU) smog chamber. Various anthropogenic SOA were produced from mixtures of different precursors: anthropogenic light aromatic precursors (toluene and m-xylene), exhaust from a diesel passenger vehicle spiked with the light aromatic precursors, and exhaust from two different gasoline-powered passenger vehicles. Three types of seed particles were used: soot aggregates from a diesel vehicle, soot aggregates from a flame soot generator and ammonium sulphate (AS) particles. The hygroscopicity of seed particles with condensed, photochemically produced, anthropogenic SOA was investigated with respect to critical supersaturation (sc) and hygroscopic growth factor (gf) at 90% relative humidity. The hygroscopicity parameter κ was calculated for the two regimes: κsc and κgf, from measurements of sc and gf, respectively. The two κ showed significant discrepancies, with a κgf /κsc ratio closest to one for the gasoline experiments with ammonium sulphate seed and lower for the soot seed experiments. Empirical observations of sc and gf were compared to theoretical predictions, using modified Köhler theory where water solubility limitations were taken into account. The results indicate that the inconsistency between measurements in the subsaturated and supersaturated regimes may be explained by part of the organic material in the particles produced from anthropogenic precursors having a limited solubility in water. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 20739.
    Witte, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Rostock, Germany; Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Müller, Knut
    Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Grüttner, Cordula
    Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Westphal, Fritz
    Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Particle size- and concentration-dependent separation of magnetic nanoparticles2017In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, E-ISSN 1873-4766, Vol. 427, p. 320-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small magnetic nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution are of great interest for several biomedical applications. When the size of the particles decreases, the magnetic moment of the particles decreases. This leads to a significant increase in the separation time by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, in the present study the separation processes of bionized nanoferrites (BNF) with different sizes and concentrations were investigated with the commercial Sepmag Q system. It was found that an increasing initial particle concentration leads to a reduction of the separation time for large nanoparticles due to the higher probability of building chains. Small nanoparticles showed exactly the opposite behavior with rising particle concentration up to 0.1 mg(Fe)/ml. For higher iron concentrations the separation time remains constant and the measured Z-average decreases in the supernatant at same time intervals. At half separation time a high yield with decreasing hydrodynamic diameter of particles can be obtained using higher initial particle concentrations.

  • 20740.
    Wittgren, Hans Bertil
    et al.
    Sweden Water Research, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Berbeyer Cuevas, M.
    Gemit Solutions AB, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Jonas
    Gemit Solutions AB, Sweden.
    A tool to support upstream work2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theupstream work at utilities can be facilitated by a tool for calculatingpollution loads. A web application for mapping sources and performing substanceflow analysis is being developed. It aims to support location of sources,planning of measurement campaigns and evaluation of specific measures.

  • 20741. Witvrouw, A
    et al.
    Rusu, C
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Jansen, H
    Gunn, R
    Self-aligned 0-level sealing of MEMS devices by a two layer thin film reflow process2004In: Microsystem Technologies: Micro- and Nanosystems Information Storage and Processing Systems, ISSN 0946-7076, E-ISSN 1432-1858, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 364-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20742.
    Wivstad, M
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Cederberg, C
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, U
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Användning och beroende av bekämpningsmedel i vattenskyddsområden2009Report (Other academic)
  • 20743.
    Wnuk, K.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gorschek, T.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards new ways of evaluating methods of supporting requirements management and traceability using signal-to-noise ratio2019In: ENASE 2019 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, SciTePress , 2019, p. 330-339Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing contemporary software solutions requires many processes and people working in synergy to achieve a common goal. Any misalignment between parts of the software production cycle can severely impede the quality of the development process and its resulting products. In this paper, we focus on improving means for measuring the quality of methods used to support finding similarities between software product artifacts, especially requirements. We propose a new set of measures, Signal-to-Noise ratios which extends the commonly used precision and recall measures. We test the applicability of all three types of SNR on two methods for finding similar requirements: the normalized compression distance (NCD) originating from the domain of information theory, and the Vector Space Model originating from computer linguistics. The results obtained present an interesting property of all types of SNR, all the values are centered around 1 which confirms our hypothesis that the analyzed methods can only limit the search space for the analysis. The analyst may still have difficulties in manually assessing the correct links among the incorrect ones.

  • 20744.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Muhammad Sulaman, Sardar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    An Industrial Case Study on Measuring the Quality of the Requirements Scoping Process2016In: Product-Focused Software Process Improvement / [ed] Pekka Abrahamsson, Andreas Jedlitschka, Anh Nguyen Duc, Michael Felderer, Sousuke Amasaki, Tommi Mikkonen, 2016, Vol. 10027, p. 487-494Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision making and requirements scoping occupy central roles in helping to develop products that are demanded by the customers and ensuring company strategies are accurately realized in product scope. Many companies experience continuous and frequent scope changes and fluctuations but struggle to measure the phenomena and correlate the measurement to the quality of the requirements process. We present the results from an exploratory interview study among 22 participants working with requirements management processes at a large company that develops embedded systems for a global market. Our respondents shared their opinions about the current set of requirements management process metrics as well as what additional metrics they envisioned as useful. We present a set of metrics that describe the quality of the requirements scoping process. The findings provide practical insights that can be used as input when introducing new measurement programs for requirements management and decision making.

  • 20745.
    Wogelred, Louise
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Höök, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Agnarsson, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Toward multiplexed quantification of biomolecules on surfaces using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry2018In: Biointerphases, ISSN 1934-8630, E-ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 13, no 3, article id 03B413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate detection and quantification of individual molecules is important for the development of improved diagnostic methods as well as biochemical characterization of disease progression and treatments. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface analysis technique capable of imaging the distribution of specific molecules on surfaces with a high spatial resolution (<1 μm) and high sensitivity. ToF-SIMS is particularly suitable for detection of molecules up to ∼2 kDa, including lipids, whereas larger molecules, such as peptides and proteins, are fragmented during analysis, which makes them difficult to identify. In this study, an approach for extending the molecular detection capability of ToF-SIMS is presented, based on the specific binding of functionalized liposomes to molecular targets on the sample surface and subsequent detection of the liposomes by ToF-SIMS. Furthermore, by using different recognition elements conjugated to liposomes with different lipid compositions, simultaneous detection of different targets was accomplished. This multiplexing capability was investigated for two types of recognition elements (antibodies and cholera toxin) and for target molecules immobilized on surfaces using two frequently applied surface functionalization strategies: a supported lipid bilayer aimed to mimic a cell membrane and a polyethylene glycol modified surface, commonly employed in bioanalytical sensor applications. The efficacy of the conjugation protocols and the specificity of the recognition mechanism were confirmed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, while fluorescence microscopy was used to validate the ToF-SIMS data and the reliability of the freeze-drying step required for ToF-SIMS analysis. The results demonstrated specific binding of the two types of liposomes to each target and showed a concentration-dependent binding to the targets on the different model surfaces. In particular, the possibility to use the contrasts in the mass spectra of SIMS to identify the concentration dependent coverage of different liposomes opens up new opportunities for multiplexed detection and quantification of molecules at biotechnology relevant interfaces.

  • 20746.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Smite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Supporting Strategic Decision-Making for Selection of Software Assets2016In: Software Business / [ed] Maglyas A., Lamprecht AL., 2016, Vol. 240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies developing software are constantly striving to gain or keep their competitive advantage on the market. To do so, they should balance what to develop themselves and what to get from elsewhere, which may be software components or software services. These strategic decisions need to be aligned with business objectives and the capabilities and constraints of possible options. These sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to support decision-makers in selecting appropriate types of origins in a specific case that maximizes the benefits of the selected business strategy. The approach consists of three descriptive models, as well as a decision process and a knowledge repository. The three models are a decision model that comprises three cornerstones (stakeholders, origins and criteria) and is based on a taxonomy for formulating decision models in this context, and two supporting models (property models and context models).

  • 20747.
    Wojas, Natalia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Omya International AG, Switzerland.
    Schoelkopf, Joachim
    Omya International AG, Switzerland; Aalto University, Finland.
    Gane, Patrick
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Iceland spar calcite: Humidity and time effects on surface properties and their reversibility2019In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 541, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the complex and dynamic nature of calcite surfaces under ambient conditions is important for optimizing industrial applications. It is essential to identify processes, their reversibility, and the relevant properties of CaCO3 solid-liquid and solid-gas interfaces under different environmental conditions, such as at increased relative humidity (RH). This work elucidates changes in surface properties on freshly cleaved calcite (topography, wettability and surface forces) as a function of time (≤28 h) at controlled humidity (≤3–95 %RH) and temperature (25.5 °C), evaluated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle techniques. In the presence of humidity, the wettability decreased, liquid water capillary forces dominated over van der Waals forces, and surface domains, such as hillocks, height about 7.0 Å, and trenches, depth about −3.5 Å, appeared and grew primarily in lateral dimensions. Hillocks demonstrated lower adhesion and higher deformation in AFM experiments. We propose that the growing surface domains were formed by ion dissolution and diffusion followed by formation of hydrated salt of CaCO3. Upon drying, the height of the hillocks decreased by about 50% suggesting their alteration into dehydrated or less hydrated CaCO3. However, the process was not entirely reversible and crystallization of new domains continued at a reduced rate.

  • 20748.
    Wojtasz-Mucha, Joanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hasani, M
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Theliander, H.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pretreatment and cooking of forest residues2019In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 9454-9471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of processing forest residues by chemical delignification preceded by mild steam explosion. The focus was on using soda pulping, due to its simplicity. Kraft cooking was used for comparison to improve the understanding of the separation of the complex yet promising resource. The raw material consisted of chipped branches, bark, and twigs of mixed hardwood and softwood. Analysis of the raw material proved to be challenging due to the presence of a substantial fraction of extractives. Analysis of the pulps showed that the forest residue delignification was faster than that of wood. The effects of steam explosion were evaluated with the help of composition analysis, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for the molecular weight of lignin, and NMR for the changes in its structure. The impact of steam explosion was found to be limited, possibly due to the relatively small size of the material. 

  • 20749.
    Wolf, Jens
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Ahlroth, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Wadsborn, Rikard
    Stora Enso, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stora Enso, Sweden.
    Model-based performance monitoring in a recovery boiler: proof of concept2017In: International chemical recovery conference, May 24-26, 2017, Halifax, Canada, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of model-based performance monitoring has been tested in a recovery boiler operating in a Swedish kraft pulp mill. Key performance indicators (KPI) have been calculated and used to visualise the degree of fouling of boiler bank, super heaters and economiser of the recovery boiler. The KPIs illustrate the actual degree of fouling independently from the actual thermal load. The presented tool enables an early warning for massive fouling in the boiler. Even smaller changes in boiler performance can be followed enabling operation close to maximum capacity. The tool may also support operators to test modifications of the operation, for instance. A trend for the sticky temperature of dust particles has been added as a first approach to provide a measure for a critical flue gas temperature. That trend in combination with an indirectly measured flue gas temperature adds further value to model-based performance monitoring.

  • 20750.
    Wolf, Jens
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Bialik, Marta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Modelling of precipitation of silicon, aluminium and phosphorus into green liquor dregs2017In: International chemical recovery conference, May 24-26, 2017, Halifax, Canada, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of empirical equations is presented for modelling the precipitation of aluminium, silicon and phosphorous in green liquor plants as a function of initial concentrations of these elements plus magnesium, calcium and alkali in the dissolver. As process parameters, the model includes residence time and temperature. Concentrations, temperature and residence time have been varied according to a factor design plan. Main findings are that in laboratory experiments it was possible to remove aluminium, silicon and phosphorous down to concentrations below their solubility in white liquor thus avoiding accumulation of these elements in the lime cycle. In addition, the experimental work showed that the initial concentrations of aluminium, silicon and phosphorous in raw green liquor have a strong increasing impact on their concentrations in filtered green liquor.

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