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  • 2051.
    Bergstrand, Kjell
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Asp, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Dynamics of nitrogen availability in pot grown crops with organic fertilization2019In: Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, ISSN 0144-8765, E-ISSN 2165-0616, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pot grown herbs are often cultivated as certified organic products, and there is an increasing demand for organically certified ornamental plants. Supplying the required nutrients using organic fertilizers is a challenge with respect to matching the mineralization and thus the availability of dissolved nutrients in the growing medium with plant demand. In experiments, sweet basil and Pelargonium × hortorum were cultivated using two different organic fertilizer strategies and controlled-release mineral nutrients as control treatment. The two organic strategies were, i) blood meal + Baralith® Enslow (a plant-based organic fertilizer), and ii) poultry manure. The availability of dissolved nitrogen was monitored during the crop cycle by under-pressure lysimeter sampling. Plant development parameters were measured along with chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration of leaves. For both organic treatments, nitrate-N availability was low at the beginning of the experiment, whereas ammonium-N was high. During the experiment, ammonium availability decreased at the same time as nitrate availability increased after a few weeks and then declined again by the end of the experiment. The blood meal + Enslow treatment caused poor germination and slow growth in basil. Plant height and fresh weight was also affected by this treatment for basil but not for Pelargonium. Chlorophyll concentration was affected by treatment, with also visually detectable paler leaves in the treatment with poultry manure. There were no differences in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) between treatments, indicating that plants were not stressed in any of the treatments.

  • 2052.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Evaluation of GNSS Monument Stability2010In: IAG Symposium on Reference Frames for Applications in Geosciences, REFAG 2010, 2010, , p. 45-50Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2053.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Herbertsson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Rieck, Carsten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Spetz, Jörgen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Svantesson, Claes-Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Haas, Rüdiger
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A gravitational telescope deformation model for geodetic VLBI2019In: Journal of Geodesy, ISSN 0949-7714, E-ISSN 1432-1394, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 669-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have measured the geometric deformations of the Onsala 20 m VLBI telescope utilizing a combination of laser scanner, laser tracker, and electronic distance meters. The data put geometric constraints on the electromagnetic raypath variations inside the telescope. The results show that the propagated distance of the electromagnetic signal inside the telescope differs from the telescope’s focal length variation, and that the deformations alias as a vertical or tropospheric component. We find that for geodetic purposes, structural deformations of the telescope are more important than optic properties, and that for geodetic modelling the variations in raypath centroid rather than focal length should be used. All variations that have been identified as significant in previous studies can be quantified. We derived coefficients to model the gravitational deformation effect on the path length and provide uncertainty intervals for this model. The path length variation due to gravitational deformation of the Onsala 20 m telescope is in the range of 7–11 mm, comparing elevation 0$$^{\circ }$$∘and 90$$^{\circ }$$∘, and can be modelled with an uncertainty of 0.3 mm.

  • 2054.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Ralf, Schmid
    German Geodetic Research Institute, Germany.
    Activities of the IERS Working Group on Site Survey and Co-location2016In: International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2016 General Meeting Proceedings: "New Horizons with VGOS" / [ed] Dirk Behrend, Karen D. Baver, and Kyla L. Armstrong, Greenbelt, MD: National Aeronautics and Space Administration , 2016, p. 113-117Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Working Group on Site Survey and Co-location is to improve local measurements at space geodesy sites. We appointed dedicated Points of Contact (POC) with the four different services of IERS as well as the NASA Space Geodesy Project in order to improve the efficiency of internal communication within the working group. Following the REFAG2014 conference, the POCs agreed on a common and general terminology on local ties that clarifies the communication regarding site surveying and co-location issues between and within the IERS services. We give brief introductions to the different observation techniques and mention some contemporary issues related to site surveying and co-location.

  • 2055.
    Bergstrand, Sten
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Saracoglu, Erhan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Continuous monitoring of a long-span cable-stayed timber bridge2014In: Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring, ISSN 2190-5452, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 183-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2056. Bergstrm, E.M.
    et al.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Kochumalayil, J.
    Berglund, L.
    Plasticized xyloglucan for improved toughness: Thermal and mechanical behaviour2012In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, no 4, p. 2532-2537Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2057.
    Bergström, B
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, TräteknikCentrum , Trätek.
    Kryprumsgrundläggning i trähus1986Report (Other academic)
  • 2058.
    Bergström, Birgitta
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lång hållbarhet utan mögel - Slutrapport till Jordbruksverket, SJV2010Report (Other academic)
  • 2059.
    Bergström, G
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Rapid crack propagation, RCP, in the PE casing of district heating pipes1999In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on District heating and Cooling, May 18-20, 1999 at Lund, Sweden. Session 2B, Nordic Energy Research Programme , 1999, , p. Paper 18Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2060.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Compressive creep of polystyrene cellular plastics1989Report (Refereed)
  • 2061.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Fuktdiffusion i plaströrssystem2002Report (Refereed)
  • 2062.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Isocyanaterexponering vid svetsning av fjärrvärmerör2002Report (Refereed)
  • 2063.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Erlandsson, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Bestämning av härdningsgrad på armerad plast1990Report (Refereed)
  • 2064.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Karlsson, Linda
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Sällberg, Sven-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    Thörnblom, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    Acceptanskriterier för repor och intryck i plaströr2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2065.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Karlsson, Linda
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Sällberg, Sven-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    Thörnblom, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    Acceptanskriterier för repor och intryck i plaströr Accpetance criteria for scratches and indentations in plastic pipes2009Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Development of materials and laying techniques have arisen the question how scratches and indentations in plastics pipes affect the strength and technical lifetime of pipelines. Scratches may occur both in the manufacturing of the pipes, in connection with the installation and subsequent maintenance. The problems in assessing the failure risk from scratches and indentations are similar for pipes used in gas and water distribution and in district heating applications. Therefore, a broad effort to identify the risks in relation to current pipe materials is technically and economically justified. The project has aimed to evaluate the effect of scratches and indentations on the technical lifetime of plastics pipes and to present criteria for maximum allowable depth of scratches and indentations. The study on pressure pipes focused on the conditions for scratched polyethylene pipes to achieve a lifetime of 50 years. It is noted that a scratch damage can not be judged solely on the basis of its depth and sharpness. To assess the impact of the scratch on the serviceability of the pipe, consideration must also be taken to the material from which the pipe was made and the safety factor used in the design. Extensive pressure tests show that pipes made of modern materials can withstand surface scratches to a higher degree than pipes of older materials. For pipes made of modern bimodal PE80 and PE100 materials, scratches up to 10% depth may be accepted without reduction of rated pressure. However, for pipes of older material, a reduction in pressure may be required already at smaller scratches. The study also indicates that for the same relative scratch depth, a greater reduction in pressure is required with increasing pipe dimension. The study on the non pressure pipes shows that the studied polypropylene pipes resist both deep scratches combined with ovalization and large indentations without any cracks penetrating the pipe wall. However, the extent and development of crazing and surface cracking vary with scratch depth, deformation level and material. The test pipes were subjected to extreme conditions very rarely or never occurring in practice. This suggests that small scratches at moderate ovalization and realistic indentations in temperatures around room temperature do not affect the lifetime of the pipes. One objective of the project was to develop a method for the evaluation of the scratch resistance of a pipe. In the proposed test method the force needed to produce a specified scratch is measured. This force is used as a relative measure of the scratch resistance of a pipe material when compared to other materials. In order to assess to what extent a scratch affects the lifetime of the pipe, the depth of the scratch must be estimated with reasonable accuracy. Since the scratch in many cases is found on existing pipelines the method must be suited for field use. To achieve that a simple instrument for scratch depth measurements was made and evaluated.

  • 2066.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Karlsson, Linda
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Sällberg, Sven-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    Thörnblom, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    Accpetance criteria for scratches and indentations in plastic pipes2009Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Development of materials and laying techniques have arisen the question how scratches and indentations in plastics pipes affect the strength and technical lifetime of pipelines. Scratches may occur both in the manufacturing of the pipes, in connection with the installation and subsequent maintenance. The problems in assessing the failure risk from scratches and indentations are similar for pipes used in gas and water distribution and in district heating applications. Therefore, a broad effort to identify the risks in relation to current pipe materials is technically and economically justified. The project has aimed to evaluate the effect of scratches and indentations on the technical lifetime of plastics pipes and to present criteria for maximum allowable depth of scratches and indentations. The study on pressure pipes focused on the conditions for scratched polyethylene pipes to achieve a lifetime of 50 years. It is noted that a scratch damage can not be judged solely on the basis of its depth and sharpness. To assess the impact of the scratch on the serviceability of the pipe, consideration must also be taken to the material from which the pipe was made and the safety factor used in the design. Extensive pressure tests show that pipes made of modern materials can withstand surface scratches to a higher degree than pipes of older materials. For pipes made of modern bimodal PE80 and PE100 materials, scratches up to 10% depth may be accepted without reduction of rated pressure. However, for pipes of older material, a reduction in pressure may be required already at smaller scratches. The study also indicates that for the same relative scratch depth, a greater reduction in pressure is required with increasing pipe dimension. The study on the non pressure pipes shows that the studied polypropylene pipes resist both deep scratches combined with ovalization and large indentations without any cracks penetrating the pipe wall. However, the extent and development of crazing and surface cracking vary with scratch depth, deformation level and material. The test pipes were subjected to extreme conditions very rarely or never occurring in practice. This suggests that small scratches at moderate ovalization and realistic indentations in temperatures around room temperature do not affect the lifetime of the pipes. One objective of the project was to develop a method for the evaluation of the scratch resistance of a pipe. In the proposed test method the force needed to produce a specified scratch is measured. This force is used as a relative measure of the scratch resistance of a pipe material when compared to other materials. In order to assess to what extent a scratch affects the lifetime of the pipe, the depth of the scratch must be estimated with reasonable accuracy. Since the scratch in many cases is found on existing pipelines the method must be suited for field use. To achieve that a simple instrument for scratch depth measurements was made and evaluated.

  • 2067.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Forsaeus Nilsson, Stefan
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Direktförlagda böjar i fjärrvärmeledningar - Påkänningar och skadegränser2001Report (Refereed)
  • 2068.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Forsaeus Nilsson, Stefan
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Groundwater leakage in pipe joints due to temperature variations2002In: Euroheat & Power, ISSN 0949-166X, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 54-58Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2069.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Forsaeus Nilsson, Stefan
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Sällberg, Sven-Erik
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Fukttransport i skarvskum2002Report (Refereed)
  • 2070.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Forsaeus Nilsson, Stefan
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Sällberg, Sven-Erik
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Tightness of joints in coarse grained backfill material2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2071.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Forsaeus Nilsson, Stefan
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Sällberg, Sven-Erik
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Utvändigt skydd hos fjärrvärmerörsskarvar2002Report (Refereed)
  • 2072.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Forsaeus Nilsson, Stefan
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Sällberg, Sven-Erik
    Göteborg (BMg).
    Vattenläckage genom otät mantelrörsskarv2001Report (Refereed)
  • 2073.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    PERMEA. En utrustning för kontroll av vattenpermeabiliteten hos dräneringsskivor.1995Report (Refereed)
  • 2074.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Vattenpermeabilitet hos sammantryckta dräneringsskivor.1995Report (Refereed)
  • 2075.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Förläggning av gasrör av polyeten i befintliga massor.1999Report (Refereed)
  • 2076.
    Bergström, J.
    et al.
    Forms of Sustainability.
    Mazé, Ramia
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    Redström, Johan
    Forms of Sustainability.
    Vallgårda, Anna
    Forms of Sustainability.
    Symbiots: Conceptual interventions into energy systems2009In: Proceedings of NORDES, 2009, 10, , p. 10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symbiots set out to examine values such as ease-of-use, comfort, and rationality assumed within conventions of ‘good design’, in order to expose issues related to energy consumption and current human- (versus eco-) centered design paradigms. Exploring re-interpretations of graphical patterns, architectural configurations and electrical infrastructure typical in Swedish cities, Symbiots takes the form of a photo series in the genre of contemporary hyper-real art photography. Painting a vivid picture of alternatives to current local priorities around energy consumption, the three design concepts depicted are strangely familiar, alternatively humorous and sinister.

  • 2077.
    Bergström, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Värmeavlastning i förarhytter.: Studier i utrustning1979Report (Refereed)
  • 2078.
    Bergström, Jenny
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    This is the air we breathe ...2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    'This is the air we breathe ... ' are posters designed for raising awareness. They present continuous feedback on our urban environment and the effects of traffic. Using flock printing, a dirt-absorbing text or pattern is printed on a less dirt-absorbing surface in order to create a slow but direct response to pollution. Drivers are reminded of their impact on the city, which is also visible to others passing by. This project embraces complexity, making a problematic and abstract issue local and tangible.

  • 2079.
    Bergström, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    Clark, Brendon
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    Frigo, Alberto
    SWITCH!.
    Mazé, Ramia
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    Redström, Johan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    Vallgårda, Anna
    SWITCH!.
    Becoming materials: Material forms and forms of practice2010In: Digital Creativity, ISSN 1462-6268, E-ISSN 1744-3806, Vol. 21, p. 155-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of development toward ‘smart’ materials, materials now enable an expanding range of aesthetic expressions and user experiences. These materials are fundamentally temporal in their capacity to assume multiple, discrete states of expression that can be repeatedly and minutely controlled. These materials come to be, or become, only over time and in context—they are becoming materials. Thus, in the development and application of such materials, we must engage more extensively with the experience of materials in practices of design and of use. This paper introduces and discusses the concept of becoming materials—as well as the implications for practice—through a series of examples from our own practice-led research within art, design and architecture. Coming to terms with the implications for material practices of design and of use, we suggest, requires the development of new concepts and methods for doing and studying the design of becoming materials.

  • 2080.
    Bergström, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    Clark, Brendon
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    Frigo, Alberto
    SWITCH!.
    Mazé, Ramia
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    Redström, Johan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    Vallgårda, Anna
    SWITCH!.
    Telltale2013In: SWITCH! Design and everyday energy ecologies, Stockholm, Sweden: Interactive Institute Swedish ICT , 2013, 15, p. 101-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    'Telltale' is a piece of furniture that collects traces of energy (mis)use. Connected remotely to a household’s electricity meter, it responds to increases or decreases in energy consumption. Increases cause its internal structure to become less robust and, when used in weakened states, its textile surface becomes prone to flaking, crackling and wrinkling. Telltale decomposes more or less quickly — users participate in the (de)formation of an object that tells them about themselves, others and the cumulative effect of local actions. A prototype has been built and studied within two households — alterations in household actions as well as family interactions were prompted by Telltale, evolving as the object changed over time in use.

  • 2081.
    Bergström, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    Mazé, Ramia
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    Redström, Johan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. Design Research Unit.
    Vallgårda, Anna
    SWITCH!.
    Jeczmyk, Olivia
    SWITCH!.
    Bildinstitutet,
    SWITCH!.
    Symbiots2013In: SWITCH! Design and everyday energy ecologies, Stockholm: Interactive Institute Swedish ICT , 2013, 17, p. 159-200Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Symbiots’ imagines forms in the urban landscape that operate parasitically — emerging and thriving when households or neighborhoods reduce energy consumption. For people, the provision of these as public functions acts as a reward. For Symbiots, it lures people away from their private habitats and energy-consuming habits, thus leaving more power for others in the electricity grid. The project queries increasing competition for natural resources and current human- (versus eco-) centered design paradigms. Symbiots takes the form of a photo series in the genre of contemporary hyperreal art photography. Produced as posters, these have been the basis for raising awareness and discussions with neighborhood residents.

  • 2082.
    Bergström, K
    et al.
    Berol Nobel, Sweden.
    Holmberg, K
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet. Berol Nobel, Sweden.
    Microemulsions as reaction media for immobilization proteins to hydrophilized surfaces1992In: Colloids and Surfaces, ISSN 0166-6622, E-ISSN 1873-4340, Vol. 63, p. 273-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of microemulsion as reaction medium for immobilization of proteins to polystyrene hydrophilized with poly(ethylene glycol) or polysaccharide has been investigated. The amount of albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and collagen immobilized from microemulsion was increased 10-100 times, compared with immobilization from an aqueous buffer system. The stability of anti-IgG and interleukin-2 was studied in different microemulsion systems. Anti-IgG was found to be stable in microemulsions based on sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulphosuccinate (AOT) and C12EO5, whereas the non-ionic surfactant di-C9EO9 almost instantly destroyed the antigen-binding properties. Interleukin-2 completely lost its biological activity in an AOT-based microemulsion. We have also found that the choice of microemulsion influences coupling efficiency of the protein. An AOT-based system is preferred for immobilization of mycoplasma antibody, while a microemulsion based on C12EO5 is preferred for borrelia antigen.

  • 2083.
    Bergström, Karl
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. GAME.
    Björk, Staffan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. GAME.
    Lundgren, Sus
    Exploring Aesthetic Gameplay Design Patterns – Camaraderie in Four Games2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how a vocabulary supporting design-related discussions of gameplay preferences can be developed. Using the preference of experiencing camaraderie as an example, we have analyzed four games: the board games Space Alert and Battlestar Galactica, the massively multiplayer online game World of Warcraft, and the cooperative FPS series Left for Dead. Through a combination of the MDA model on how game mechanics give rise to game aesthetics via game dynamics, and the concept of aesthetic ideals in gameplay, we present gameplay design patterns related to achieving camaraderie. We argue that some of these patterns can be seen as aesthetic gameplay design patterns in that they are closely related to aesthetic ideals. Further, as a consequence, gameplay design pattern collections which include patterns related to all levels of the MDA model can be used as design tools when aiming for certain gameplay aesthetics.

  • 2084.
    Bergström, Karl
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. GAME.
    Jonsson, Staffan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. GAME.
    Björk, Staffan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Interactive Institute. GAME.
    Undercurrents – A Computer-Based Gameplay Tool to Support Tabletop Roleplaying2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces Undercurrents, a computer-based gameplay tool for providing additional communication and media streams during tabletop roleplaying sessions. Based upon a client-server architecture, the system is intended to unobtrusively support secret communication, timing of audio and visual presentations to game events, and real-time documentation of the game session. Potential end users have been involved in the development and the paper provides details on the full design process.

  • 2085.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Characterization of the surface chemistry of silicon nitride powders1994In: Ceramic Transactions: Materials Processing and Design: Grain Boundary Controlled Properties of Fine Ceramics II, American Ceramic Society, 1994, p. 77-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Silicon nitride is a ceramic material with a potential for high strength at room as well as elevated temperatures, good thermal shock resistance and relatively good oxidation resistance. However, optimal properties can only be realized when the microstructure and the grain boundary composition of the sintered body is controlled. Several studies have shown that the surface properties of the starting powder, together with the choice and addition of sintering aids, play a decisive role in determining the final properties [1-3]. However, the final properties of the sintered material depend on many different parameters. These parameters include the green-body characteristics, the physical and bulk chemical powder properties and the sintering conditions together with the powder surface chemical properties. Hence, it has been difficult to define the relationship between only the surface chemical properties and materials properties more precisely. Also, it is not clear how the relevant surface properties of silicon nitride should be characterized and quantified. This paper is a part of a review on the surface chemistry of silicon nitride [4]. The focus will be on an overview of the methods that are available to characterize relevant surface properties of ceramic powders, together with a summary on the present understanding of the surface chemistry of silicon nitride.

  • 2086.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Hamaker constants of inorganic materials1997In: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0001-8686, E-ISSN 1873-3727, Vol. 70, p. 125-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calculations of Hamaker constants using Lifshitz theory require the availability of accurate dielectric data, especially in the ultraviolet spectral region, and the use of a convenient and appropriate mathematical representation. In this review, a multiple oscillator model– the so called Ninham-Parsegian (N-P) representation– has been used and spectral parameters for 31 different inorganic materials (including diamond) have been generated from critically evaluated optical data or collected from the literature. For most materials, a two-oscillator model (one UV and one IR term) was used but more detailed representations were included when available. The spectral parameters presented here can be combined with previous data, mainly focused on hydrocarbon and organic systems, to yield an extensive spectral data base for both solids and liquids enabling Lifshitz calculations of Hamaker constants for many materials combinations. Non-retarded Hamaker constants for symmetric material combinations across vacuum (A1v1) and water (A1w1) have been calculated for the different materials; these calculations were performed using the full Lifshitz theory. Asymmetric combinations, A1v3 and A1w3, against four commonly used materials in atomic force microscopy studies: silica, amorphous silicon nitride, sapphire, and muscovite mica, have also been covered. The use of a new dielectric representation for water resulted in significantly lower values of A1w1 compared to previous calculations. Analytical approximations to the full Lifshitz theory were evaluated and found to give surprisingly accurate results (the Tabor-Winterton approximation) for A1v1 when the IR contribution is of minor importance. An attempt to make the TW approximation more general by establishing some scaling relationship between between n0 and wUV was met with little success; only the UV spectral parameters of the covalent oxides, sulphides and nitrides may be fitted to a simple power law relation. The Lifshitz calculations in this study was compared with an alternative method where a more detailed dielectric representation in the visible-ultraviolet spectral range was obtained through Kramers-Kronig (K-K) transformation of reflectivity data over a broad frequency range. Despite the difference in dielectric information, the two methods generally yield non-retarded Hamaker constants which do not differ significantly. This is not true for all materials, e.g. water, where a more detailed representation using either a N-P representations with several oscillators or the K-K representation must be used. It was shown that the omission of the static and low frequency contribution in the latter method may result in a significant underestimation of the value for A1w1 when the dispersive contribution becomes very small.

  • 2087.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Lättflytande som mjölk eller trögflytande som tandkräm1997In: Kemisk Tidskrift/Kemivärlden, ISSN 1650-0725, Vol. 7, p. 57-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2088.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Rheological properties of concentrated, nonaqueous silicon nitride suspensions1996In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 79, p. 3033-3040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheological properties of nonaqueous silicon nitride powder suspensions have been investigated using steady shear and viscoelastic measurements. The polymeric dispersant, Hypermer KD-3 adsorbed strongly on the powder surfaces and colloidally stable, fluid suspensions up to a volume fraction of Φ= 0.50 could be prepared. The concentrated suspensions all displayed a shear thinning behavior which could be modelled using the high shear form of the Cross equation. The viscoelastic response at high concentrations was dominated by particle interactions, probably due to interpenetration of the adsorbed polymer layers, and a thickness of the adsorbed Hypermer KD-3 layer, ∆≈10 nm, was estimated. The volume fraction dependence of the high shear viscosity of three different silicon nitride powders were compared and the differences, analysed by using a modified Krieger-Dougherty model, were related to effective volume effects and the physical characteristics of the powders. The significantly lower maximum volume fraction, Φm= 0.47, of the SN E-10 powder was referred to the narrow particle size distribution and the possibility of an unfavourable particle morphology.

  • 2089.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Rheology of concentrated suspensions1994In: Surface and Colloid Chemistry in Advanced Ceramics Processing / [ed] Pugh, R.J. & Bergström, L., Marcel Dekker, 1994, p. 193-244Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various aspects of alkyd emulsion technology have been investigated. Firstly, the influence of alkyd oil length, acid value and hydroxyl number, as well as the type of surfactant used as emulsifier, on shear stability of alkyds emulsions have been studied. It was found that the acid value was the most important alkyd parameter, the stability increasing with increasing oil length. It is also shown that anionic surfactants give emulsions with small droplet sizes down at lower concentrations than nonionics. Secondly, polymerizable nonionic surfactants have been tested as emulsifiers and compared with conventional surfactants of the same HLB. It was found that surfactants capable of participating in the autoxidative curing process give faster drying and improved film hardness compared with non-reactive surfactants. Thirdly, the distribution of driers between the alkyd phase and the water phase has been investigated. It was found that low pH and the use of hydrophilic anionic surfactants, such as SDS, favour partitioning of cobalt into the aqueous phase which is unfavourable with respect to drying properties.

  • 2090.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Shear thinning and shear thickening of concentrated ceramic suspensions1998In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 133, p. 151-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The steady shear properties of two important ceramic systems; Si3N4 powder and the composite system SiC whiskers and A1203 particles, has been investigated. The concentrated, colloidally stable powder suspensions displayed a shear thinning behaviour with an approach to a plateau at high shear rates. The concentrated aqueous SiCw and composite suspensions showed a strong, sometimes discontinuous, shear thickening at some critical shear rate which was attributed to a possible order-disorder transition of the suspension structure. It was possible to fit the volume fraction dependence of the colloidally stable ceramic suspensions to a modified Krieger-Dougherty model which yields values of the maximum volume fraction; Φm. Large differences in Φm could be correlated to the differences in shape between the whiskers and powders. The viscosity of the composite suspensions were sucessfully predicted from the Farris theory using the rheological data for the separate components.

  • 2091.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Surface chemical characterization of ceramic powders1994In: Surface and Colloid Chemistry in Advanced Ceramics Processing / [ed] Pugh, R.J. & Bergström, L., Marcel Dekker, 1994, p. 71-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2092.
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Surface chemistry of silicon nitride powders: adsorption from non-aqueous solutions1992In: Colloids and Surfaces, ISSN 0166-6622, E-ISSN 1873-4340, Vol. 69, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption behaviour in cyclohexane of different silicon nitride powders have been studied. Adsorption isotherms of organic probe molecules covering a wide spectra of Lewis acidity/basicity showed large variation in adsorption behaviour between the different probes. Mathematical analysis showed that the adsorption data could be described by a Langmuir-Freundlich type of isotherm. Using a previously presented model of the silicon nitride surface, it was possible to relate the variation of isoelectric point in water between the three powders to a difference in the relative site density of silanol and amino groups on the surface. It was found that the maximum concentration (M) of benzoic acid increased linearly while M of pyridine decreased with an increase in the relative amount of amino groups on the surface.

  • 2093.
    Bergström, L
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Träanvändning inom ROT-sektorn examensarbete i byggnadsteknik1988Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett examensarbete visas hur trä används vid förbättring av flerbostadshus. Arbetet presenteras så att tidigare erfarenheter av byggteknik inte ska vara nödvändiga för förståelsen. Väggar, bjälklag, fasader, yttertak, vindar, fönster, snickerier och gårdsmiljö tas upp.

  • 2094.
    Bergström, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Blomberg, E
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Probing polymeric stabilization in nonaqueous media by direct measurements2000In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 83, p. 217-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The steric repulsion induced by adsorbed layers of the commercial dispersant Hypermer KD3 has been probed by direct measurements in decalin. The forces are long range (commencing at 30-40 nm) and repulsive, and the distance dependence can be modeled with a simple scaling theory expression valid for polymer brushes. We obtain layer thicknesses on the order of L~9-15 nm for the compressed layers depending on KD3 concentration while the undisturbed layers have a thickness L~23-24 nm, independent of polymer concentration. Comparision of the measured interaction lengths of compressed and undisturbed polymer layers with previous layer thickness estimates based on rheological studies shows that the polymer layers are compressed in dense suspensions.

  • 2095.
    Bergström, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Blomberg, E
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Guldberg-Pedersen, H
    Interparticle forces and rheological properties of ceramic suspensions1999In: Key Engineering Materials, ISSN 1013-9826, E-ISSN 1662-9795, Vol. 159-160, p. 119-126.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersants have a profound influence on the suspension properties of ceramic slurries. We will illustrate the effect of polymers and polyelectrolytes on the colloidal stability and the rheological properties in both aqueous and non-aqueous media. We have related direct measurements of polymerically induced interparticle forces to the rheological properties of different ceramic systems. Simple estimates of the effective volume fractions of non-aqueous, polymerically stabilized silicon nitride suspensions gave a reasonable correspondence between calculated and measured polymer layer thicknesses. We show that PAA stabilize zirconia by an electrosteric mechanism; also, we found an excellent agreement between the presence of bridging attraction and poor colloidal stability at low surface coverage. In addition, the van der Waals forces have been quantified by theoretical calculations and direct measurements.

  • 2096.
    Bergström, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Bostedt, E
    Surface chemistry of silicon nitride powders: electrokinetic behaviour and ESCA studies1990In: Colloids and Surfaces, ISSN 0166-6622, E-ISSN 1873-4340, Vol. 49, p. 183-197Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2097.
    Bergström, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Carlström, E
    Carlsson, R
    Novel ceramic processing methods using responsive polymers1997In: Key Engineering Materials, ISSN 1013-9826, E-ISSN 1662-9795, Vol. 132-136, p. 12-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract not available.

  • 2098. Bergström, L
    et al.
    Ernstsson, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    The effect of wet and dry milling on the surface properties of silicon nitride powders1991In: Ceramics Today: Tomorrow's Ceramics / [ed] Vincenzini, P., Elsevier, 1991, p. 1005-1014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of dry milling in air and wet miling in isopropanol, on the surface properties of silicon nitride powders have been investigated. The ground powders have been analyzed with resoect to oxygen and carbon content, electrokinetic behviour, wetting characteristics and adsorption of acidic and basic probe molecules. The results show that dry milling in air leeds to a higher degree of surface oxidation which is correlated to substantially lower isoelectric points for dry milled vs. wet milled powders. The wet milled powders were contaminated by an adsorbed layer of isopropanol which resulted in an initially hydrophobic behaviour and low levels of adsorption of most probe molecules. This coating can be removed by heat treatment at elevated tempratures.

  • 2099. Bergström, L Magnus
    et al.
    Skoglund, Sara
    Danerlöv, Katrin
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Garamus, Vasil M
    Pedersen, Jan Skov
    The growth of micelles, and the transition to bilayers, in mixtures of a single-chain and a double-chain cationic surfactant investigated with small-angle neutron scattering2011In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 7, no 22, p. 10935-10944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembly in aqueous mixtures of a single-chain (DTAB) and a double-chain cationic surfactant (DDAB) has been investigated with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Small oblate spheroidal micelles formed by DTAB grow with respect to width and length to form mixed ellipsoidal tablet-shaped micelles as an increasing fraction of DDAB is admixed into the micelles. The growth behaviour of the micelles is rationalized from the general micelle model in terms of three bending elasticity constants spontaneous curvature (H-0), bending rigidity (k(c)) and saddle-splay constant ((k(c)) over bar kc). It is found that micelles grow with respect to width, mainly as a result of decreasing k(c)H(0), and in the length direction as a result of decreasing k(c). The micelles are still rather small, i.e. about 140 angstrom in length, as an abrupt transition to large bilayer aggregates is observed. The micelle-to-bilayer transition is induced by changes in aggregate composition and is observed to occur at a mole fraction of DDAB equal to about x = 0.48 in D2O, which is a significantly higher value than previously observed for the same system in H2O (x = 0.41). An abrupt micelle-to-bilayer transition is in agreement with predictions from the general micelle model, according to which an abrupt transition from micelles to bilayers is expected to occur at xi H-0 = 1/4, where x is the thickness of the self-assembled interface, and we may conclude that H-0(D2O) > H-0(H2O) for the system DDAB/DTAB in absence of added salt. Samples with bilayers are found to be composed of bilayer disks coexisting with vesicles. Disks are found to always predominate over vesicles with mass fractions about 70-90% disks and 10-30% vesicles. Micelles, disks and vesicles are observed to coexist in a few samples close to the micelle-to-bilayer transition.

  • 2100.
    Bergström, L
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Meurk, A
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Measuring granule friction and adhesion with an atomic force microscope2002In: Key Engineering Materials, ISSN 1013-9826, E-ISSN 1662-9795, Vol. 206-213, p. 63-66Article in journal (Refereed)
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