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  • 201. Lundgren, Nils
    et al.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Hagman, Olle
    Oja, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Predicting the strength of Norway spruce by microwave scanning: A comparison with other scanning techniques2007Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 167-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 202. Lundgren, Nils
    et al.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Flodin, Jens
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Choosing green sawing dimensions for Norway spruce from stochastic simulations2010Ingår i: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 57, nr 2, s. sep-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The high accuracy of log positioning and the stability of saw blades in breakdown machinery in modern sawmills have reduced the need to add margins for sawing variations. Oversize green sawing dimensions are still needed, but mainly to allow for drying shrinkage. This has put a new focus on better adapting green sawing dimensions to the shrinkage behavior of wood. In this study, a method for optimization of green sawing dimensions using stochastic simulation is presented. Normal distributions were generated for planed dry dimensions, kerf width, and target moisture content. The minimum share of boards exceeding the specified dry dimensions was decided, and deformations in boards from all positions in the cross section in a number of logs were simulated. The simulated shrinkage allowance from stochastic simulations was compared to experimental results from an industry test and to finite element results based on material data for Norway spruce. The results showed that the green width of the sawn boards should increase when the number of boards in the center yield increases. The green thickness of boards should be thinner for center boards and outer boards than for inner boards.

  • 203.
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Har ni koll på inläggningen?2008Rapport (Refereegranskat)
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  • 204.
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Produktanpassad torkkvalitet2008Rapport (Refereegranskat)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 205.
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Rakt virke spar miljoner2008Rapport (Refereegranskat)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 206.
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Utveckla din process och jämför med andra2008Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 207.
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Utveckla din timmersortering2008Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 208.
    Lycken, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Bengtsson, Charlotte
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Development of a simulation-evaluation program for introducing and using output control in the sawmill industry2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the final conference of COST Action E53, Edinburgh Napier University , 2010, , s. 397-405Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A computer program for simulating output control has been developed. The calculations in the program follow the standard EN 14081-3:2005, where output control is described. The purpose of the simulator is to make it possible to improve the yield without jeopardizing the safety of the produced boards by testing different approaches in grading. The program is a research tool, as well as a program to use in production where output control is used. In the program is it possible to test e.g. the influence of change of IP-values, number of grades, pre-grading of logs, raw material region, etc. The result of a simulation is shown both as diagrams and numeral. The standard C-grades are pre-programmed with K-, Y- and Z-coefficients according to the standard. Other grades can be added by the user.

  • 209. Maller, Fredrik
    et al.
    Jermer, Jöran
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    News on Wood Standardisation: News on CEN and ISO standardisation for wood and wood-based Products. January 20082008Rapport (Refereegranskat)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 210.
    Marklund, Per-Olof
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Europeisk produktstandard för fönster och ytterdörrar på väg att introduceras2007Ingår i: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 99, nr 8, s. 57-62Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 211.
    Marklund, Per-Olof
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Europeisk standard för fönster och ytterdörrar på väg2007Ingår i: AMA-nytt. Informationsdel, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 68-77Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 212. Meyer, Linda
    et al.
    Brischke, Christian
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Modified Timber in Various Above Ground Exposures – Durability and Moisture Performance2012Ingår i: The Sixth European Conference on Wood Modification Proceedings, University of Ljubljana , 2012, , s. 137-144Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 213. Nasu, Hideyuki
    et al.
    Tsubouchi, Keiichi
    Gustafsson, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Noguchi, H
    Experimental study for big screw joint with cross laminated panel: Part 1. Summary and Experiment 12010Ingår i: Proceediongs of Annual Meeting of the Architectural Institute of Japan. C-1, Architectural Institute of Japan , 2010, , s. 383-384Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 214. Nilsson, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    A new model for wetting and drying of wood end-grain – with implications for durability and service-life2011Ingår i: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting IRG/WP 11, 2011, , s. 11Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 215. Nordstierna, L
    et al.
    Lande, Stig
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Furó, István
    Brynildsen, Per
    1H NMR demonstration of chemical bonds between igninlike model molecules and poly(furfuryl alcohol): Relevance to wood furfurylation2010Ingår i: Proceedings of The Third European Conference on Wood Modification., BC , 2010, , s. 41-47Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The process where wood is impregnated by furfuryl alcohol and catalyst and subsequently heated has previously been proposed to be a chemical modification method. But when furfuryl alcohol polymerizes in situ and permanently swells the cell walls, does the reaction indeed generate chemical bonds between the polymer and one or more wood constituents such as lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose? Although indirect observations that support this hypothesis exist, definite proof of such bonding is not yet available. As a first step towards demonstrating the presence of such bonds, we have investigated two liquid model solutions with model compounds (2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-propanediol) that chemically resemble principal repeating units of lignin. The selected methods are NMR spectroscopic ones. 2D COSY spectroscopy reveals atoms that are connected through covalent bonds. NMR diffusion experiments give translational self-diffusion coefficients, which are identical for chemically bonded entities. We find that a fraction of the model molecules formed covalent bonds with poly(furfuryl alcohol). These results indicate that the furan polymer in furfurylated wood is grafted to the wood lignin.

  • 216.
    Nordstierna, Lars
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Lande, Stig
    Karlsson, Olav
    Furó, István
    Avd för kemi.
    Towards novel wood-based materials: Chemical bonds between lignin-like model molecules and poly(furfuryl alcohol) studied by NMR2008Ingår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 62, nr 6, s. 709-713Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood modification with furfuryl alcohol is a non-toxic alternative to conventional preservation treatments. A process in which furfuryl alcohol polymerises in situ was previously proposed for chemical modification of wood. In the present work, liquid model systems were investigated using compounds that resemble repeating units of lignin to verify whether chemical bonds form between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and wood. Using different NMR spectroscopic techniques we confirmed that these model compounds do form covalent bonds with the polymerising polymer. The results indicate that the furan polymer grafts to lignin, supporting observations in similar studies performed with genuine wood materials.

  • 217.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Failure of structural timber when exposed to fire: part 21988Ingår i: 1988 International conference on timber engineering, Forest Products Research Society , 1988, , s. 397-406Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 218.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Fuktsäkra bjälklag för våtrum2008Ingår i: Bygg & teknik, nr 2, s. 37-38,40Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 219.
    Norén, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Träbaserade fasadskivor2006Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Träbaserade skivor kan användas som fasadmaterial i både små och stora byggnader. Skivorna är oftast lätta och starka med god formbarhet vilket leder till flexibla fasadlösningar. Fasader av träbaserade skivor kan utformas så att de får god funktion med lång livslängd och blir lätta att underhålla.

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  • 220.
    Norén, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Contribution to fire resistance from building panels2011Ingår i: Fire Safety Science: Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Hemisphere , 2011, , s. 325-335Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 221.
    Nussbaum, Ralph
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Oxidative activation of wood surfaces by flame treatment1993Ingår i: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 27, s. 183-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 222. Nyström, J
    et al.
    Broman, O
    Oja, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Effektiv produktion av golvprodukter med krav på estetiska egenskaper2007Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 223. Nyström, J
    et al.
    Oja, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Broman, O
    Modelling the connection between industrially measured raw material properties and end user preferences. Part 1. The simulation tool. Submitted to Silva Fennica, Wood quality special Issue, May 20082008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 224.
    Oja, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Process control in sawmills using optical measurement methods.2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 225.
    Oja, Johan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Broman, O
    Nyström, J
    Modelling the connection between industrially measured raw material properties and end user preferences. Part 3. Optimizing the industrial production. Submitted to Silva Fennica, Wood quality special Issue, May 20082008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 226.
    Oja, Johan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Skog, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Edlund, Jacob
    Björklund, Lars
    Deciding log grade for payment based on X-ray scanning of logs2010Ingår i: Proceedings of COST Action E53, Edinburgh Napier University , 2010, , s. 173-179Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 227. Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Källsner, Bo
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Wooden floor structures with high transverse stiffness2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Timber Engineering., 2008, , s. 2219-2225Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 228. Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson, Marie
    Källsner, Bo
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Dynamic excitation and higher bending modes for prediction of timber bending strength2010Ingår i: Proceedings of COST Action E53: ‘Quality control for wood & wood products, Edinburgh Napier University , 2010, , s. 529-537Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 229. Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson, Marie
    Källsner, Bo
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Prediction of timber bending strength using dynamic excitation of bending modes2010Ingår i: Proceedings of World Conference on Timber Engineering - WCTE 2010, World Conference on Timber Engineering , 2010, , s. 770-779Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 230.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggande och boende (TRb).
    Sjökvist, Lars-Göran
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Low frequency measurements of impact sound performance in light weight timber frame office buildings2012Ingår i: Proceedings of EURONOISE 2012, European Acoustics Association , 2012, , s. 6s. 191-196Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is little data available of low frequency impact sound response of light weight wooden buildings. The ISO 140-7, 717-2 standards normally used of impact sound is limited down to 50 Hz. The response in low frequency area is of interest for human comfort. In the present work low-frequency impact sound measurements were carried out in two modern office buildings with lightweight timber frame. The purpose was to assess the levels of impact sound transmission below 50 Hz in these construction types. The low frequency impact sound levels are compared to the higher. Both the tapping machine and the impact ball are used for excitation. It is seen that the present constructions have their highest levels below or close to 50 Hz when excited by the impact ball. From the office rooms sharing joist floor with corridor there is seen increased levels of low frequency impact sound. Up to 10-15 dB higher impact sound was detected compared to room with joist floor separated from corridor.

  • 231.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson, Mats
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Covalently attached UV-absorbers for improved UV-protection of wood2010Ingår i: Proceedings of The Fifth European Conference on Wood Modification ECWM5, Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry , 2010, , s. 263-266Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the use of reactive UV-absorbers (UVAs) that can be covalently attached to a wood substrate to obtain an improved exterior durability. It has previously been demonstrated that the photostability of wood is increased if the UVA is grafted to the wood surface. The grafting of an epoxide-functional UVA, 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP), to thin veneer wood specimens had a larger photostabilizing effect than if the corresponding UVA without the reactive handle was added to the wood coating. The present study shows that not only the chemical structure of the UVA is important but also how the modification is performed i.e. the reaction procedure. A successful attachment of the UVA depends on both the reaction conditions as well as if other reactive species are present at the same time. The presence of for example a vegetable oil (epoxy functionalized soy bean oil) affects the grafting reaction of the UVA. Details on the effect of reaction conditions, reaction sequences, and presence of co-reactants will be presented.

  • 232.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson, Mats
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Utilising reactive UV absorber and epoxidised soybean oil for enhanced UV protection of clear coated wood2012Ingår i: The Sixth European Conference on Wood Modification Proceedings, University of Ljubljana , 2012, , s. 455-462Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 233.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson, Mats
    Evans, Philip
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Improving UV-protection of exterior wood by utilizing UV-absorber in combination with epoxy functionalized soybean oil2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2011 IAWS Annual Meeting on Novel Materials from Wood or Cellulose, Innventia , 2011, , s. 63-64Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 234.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Ibach, R.E.
    Clemons, Craig M
    FS Forest Products Laboratory.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Englund, Finn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    The use of esterified lignin for synthesis of durable composites2011Ingår i: 7th meeting of the Nordic-Baltic Network in Wood Material Science & Engineering (WSE), Norsk institutt for skog og landskap , 2011, , s. 173-178Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin is a natural polymer and one of the most abundant materials on earth. Despite this fact, lignin is often viewed as a by-product in chemical pulp processing and the use of lignin as a sustainable material is low. However, research and public awareness of sustainability have opened up new possibilities for using lignin as a material. In this study, Kraft softwood lignin was reacted with acetic and propionic anhydride to synthesize esterified lignin. Reactions were performed at 80 °C. The product was analyzed using IR, DSC and processability parameters, such as melt viscosity. The product was then blended with LDPE and extruded into composite films. The films were analyzed using FTIR and TGA, and the mechanical properties were determined by tensile tests. Preliminary results are positive and further studies are planned to confirm the results and establish the range of properties attainable.

  • 235. Ormarsson, S
    et al.
    Rosenkilde, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson, Carl-Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Moisture-related distortions in wood-based floor structures - Numerical simulation and experimental validation2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 236.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Olsson, Anders
    Enquist, Bertil
    Strain fields around a traversing edge knot in a spruce specimen exposed to tensile forces2010Ingår i: Proceedings of World Conference on Timber Engineering - WCTE 2010, World Conference on Timber Engineering , 2010, , s. 3328-3337Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 237.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Olsson, Anders
    Enquist, Bertil
    Tensile strain fields around an edge knot in a spruce specimen2010Ingår i: Proceedings of COST Action E53, Edinburgh Napier University , 2010, , s. 249-257Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Strain fields around a traversing edge knot in a spruce specimen subjected to tensile loading were measured using a contact-free measuring technique based on digital image correlation. The strain fields were measured by consecutive load tests in which one side of the specimen was studied during each test. The objectives were to examine 1. to what extent the strain fields could be detected, 2. the correlation between strain fields on different sides of the specimen, and 3. the strain distribution around the knot. It was shown that the applied technique is very useful for catching both overall and detailed information about the behaviour of knots in wood members exposed to loading. Both clear wood defects that could not have been detected by visual inspection or scanning and the release of internal stresses were identified. The correlation between strain fields on different sides of the specimen was very good. The correspondence between measurement results and comparative finite element calculations was surprisingly good, considering the fact that the used model was fairly simple.

  • 238.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Olsson, Anders
    Enquist, Bertil
    Johansson, Marie
    Serrano, Erik
    Determination of tensile strain fields in Norway spruce side boards using two masterslave connected contact-free measurement systems based on digital image correlation2011Ingår i: 17th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium, University of West Hungary , 2011, , s. 699-704Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 239.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Olsson, Anders
    Johansson, Marie
    School of Engineering.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Serrano, Erik
    Strength grading of narrow dimension Norway spruce side boards in the wet state using first axial resonance frequency2011Ingår i: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 108-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 240.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Olsson, Anders
    Johansson, Marie
    Enquist, Bertil
    Serrano, Erik
    Strength grading of wet Norway spruce side boards by use of axial dynamic excitation2010Ingår i: Proceedings of World Conference on Timber Engineering - WCTE 2010, World Conference on Timber Engineering , 2010, , s. 1601-1606Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 241.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Olsson, Anders
    Johansson, Marie
    Enquist, Bertil
    Serrano, Erik
    Strength grading of wet Norway spruce side boards for use as laminations in wet-glued laminated beams2010Ingår i: Proceedings of COST Action E53, Edinburgh Napier University , 2010, , s. 249-257Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Strength grading of Norway spruce side boards in the wet state was investigated. For a sample of 58 boards of dimensions 25×120×3000 mm3, density and dynamic modulus of elasticity in the axial direction, MOEdyn, were determined in the wet state. The boards were then split into two parts and the procedure of determining MOEdyn was repeated both before and after the boards were dried to a target moisture content of 12 %. Tensile strength of the split boards was finally measured and its relation to MOEdyn for both split and unsplit boards determined. The investigation also included an evaluation of a so called reversed lamination effect on the stiffness caused by the splitting of boards into two parts. The results show that strength grading of split boards in the wet state could give just as good results as grading performed after drying. The coefficient of determination between MOEdyn in wet and dried states was as high as R2=0.92, and the relation between MOEdyn in the wet state and tensile strength in the dried state, st, was of the same order (R2=0.55) as the relation between MOEdyn in the dried state and st (R2=0.52). Regarding the reversed lamination effect on the stiffness of split boards, it was found to be of low order.

  • 242.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    An overview of available DNA-based applications and results relevant for wood protection2008Ingår i: 4th meeting of the Nordic Baltic Network in Wood Material Science and Engineering (WSE), Latvian State Instiute of Wood Chemistry , 2008, , s. 24-29Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 243.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Durability and environmental impact of alternatives to conventional wood preservatives2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 244.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    A better understanding of the mode of action of furfurylated wood2010Ingår i: proceedings of 5th meeting of the Nordic-Baltic Network in Wood Material Science and Engineering (WSE), University of Copenhagen , 2010, , s. 13-19Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 245.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Børja, Isabella
    Gjelstrup Björdal, Charlotte
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Durability and fungal colonisation patterns in wood samples after six years in soil contact evaluated with qPCR, microscopy, TGA, chitin- and ergosterol assays2010Ingår i: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, 2010, , s. 13Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 246.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Gjelstrup Björdal, Charlotte
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Fossdal, Carl Gunnar
    Børja, Isabella
    qPCR as a tool to study basidiomycete colonization in wooden field stakes2011Ingår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 65, nr 6, s. 889-895Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 247.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Hietala, Ari
    Quantification of fungal colonization in modified wood: Quantitative real-time PCR as a tool for studies on Trametes versicolor2010Ingår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 64, nr 5, s. 645–651-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional wood preservatives based on biocides are effective against wood-deteriorating organisms because of their toxicity. By contrast, modified woods are non-toxic by definition. To investigate the efficiency of various wood modifications, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to profile the DNA amounts of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor (L.) [Lloyd strain CTB 863 A] during an 8-week-long growth period in treated Pinus sylvestris (L.) sapwood. The studied wood was modified by acetylation, furfurylation, and thermal treatment. The traditional wood preservatives bis-(N-cyclohexyldiazeniumdioxy)-copper (Cu-HDO) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) were used as references, whereas untreated P. sylvestris (L.) sapwood served as a control. The maximum levels of fungal DNA in native wood occurred at the end of the experiment. For all wood treatments, the maximum fungal DNA level was recorded after an incubation period of 2 weeks, followed by a decline until the end of the trial. For the preservative-treated woods, Cu-HDO showed the lowest level of fungal DNA throughout the experiment, indicating that exploratory hyphal growth is limited owing to the phytotoxicity of the treatment. The other treatments did not inhibit the exploratory hyphal growth phase. We conclude that qPCR studies of hyphal growth patterns within wood should provide a powerful tool for evaluating and further optimizing new wood protection systems.

  • 248.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    De Vetter, Liesbeth
    Van Acker, Joris
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Toxic hazard of leachates from furfurylated wood: Comparison between two different aquatic organisms2010Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 1067-1071Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concern regarding the use of toxic preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been put forward. In the European Union, United States, and Japan, CCA has been phased out for residential and water-contact applications. Ecotoxicological studies of wood treated with conventional preservatives were carried out in the late 1990s, and it was concluded that the main impact is to water and aquatic organisms. Today, alternatives to conventional preservation methods, marketed as “environmentally friendly” or “nontoxic,” are emerging. Examples of such alternatives are modified wood, e.g., thermally modified, furfurylated, and acetylated wood. To date, not enough hazard characterization has been performed. In the present study, the Microtox® assay with the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the Daphtox® procedure with the crustacean Daphnia magna were used as screening methods in an effect assessment. Both organisms were exposed to water leachates from furfurylated wood using two different leaching procedures. The results indicate that Microtox is more sensitive to the toxic components from furfurylated wood than Daphtox. Furthermore, the toxicity of treated Pinus radiata was higher than that of treated Pinus sylvestris. The toxicity did not diminish over the test period, as is the case for preservative-treated wood. The present study found that treatment conditions can influence the toxicity considerably, so toxicity studies should be included in the development of new treatment process. The present study also shows that using an intermediate vacuum-drying step, leading to a more efficient curing/polymerization, results in slightly less hydrophobic oligomers in the product, such that the leachates become less toxic to bacteria.

  • 249.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Gjelstrup Björdal, Charlotte
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Microscopy evaluation of microbial decay patterns in wood stakes after 6 years in soil contact2010Ingår i: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, IRG Secretariat , 2010, , s. 13Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 250.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Treu, Andreas
    van Zeeland, Albert
    Gosselink, Richard
    Westin, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood2010Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, nr 9, s. 1918-1924Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be investigated further to identify the chemical differences between wood furfurylated with furfuryl alcohol monomers and furfuryl alcohol prepolymers.

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