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  • 201.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Poster: Säker automatiserad körning från ett policyperspektiv2023Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Automatiserade fordon har på sikt potential att kunna bidra till positiva effekter i samhället. Men med obemannad körning följer också nya utmaningar. En del av dessa är relaterade till regelverk och policy.

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  • 202.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Steering the Future: An Overview of Current and Upcoming Regulations in Automated Driving: Version 0.52024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of current and upcoming legal frameworks and instruments relevant for automated vehicles (AV) and automated driving (AD). It is the first version of this overview, which will be updated every six months as long as the project ‘Network AD regulation’ runs. Next version of the overview can be expected around June 2024. In this version, legislation as of December 2023 has been considered. Laws and regulations play a vital role in the safe and efficient integration of AVs into our transportation system. They can ensure that we maximise the benefits of the new technology while minimising the downside risks and help to build public trust in the technology. Vehicles are sold on an international market and much of the traffic goes across national borders. Therefore, harmonised rules are needed, at least to some extent. A regulatory development around AD is ongoing at international level and regional level within Europe, and this has already resulted in some new regulations. More will come within the next few years. Knowledge of international and EU regulations as well as ongoing and planned regulatory initiatives that affect the development and use of AVs is important for actors in the AV space to follow. The shift towards AD is disruptive and complex, not least from a regulatory perspective. AVs need partly different requirements than previous vehicles, necessitating the development of new vehicle regulations and traffic rules. AVs must be able to interact safely with other road users (not least unprotected road users) in various traffic situations and driving conditions; anticipate and detect risks and drive with a margin of safety to prevent accidents and injuries; and follow traffic rules. (It is even likely that some traffic rules will have to be written differently than today.) ‘Vehicle regulations’ set requirements for how the vehicles should be designed and function, while ‘traffic rules’ set requirements for how road users should behave in traffic. In AD, it is the vehicle and not the driver that must follow traffic rules. This means that the AV must be designed to comply with traffic rules. This needs to be considered from a regulatory perspective. At the same time, users of AVs may need to have different traffic rules for how they should behave in relation to these vehicles. The legislator also needs to consider this.

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  • 203.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Framtidens trafikregler – Hur når vi dit?2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic regulations of tomorrow

    Traffic regulations are traditionally analogue and paper-oriented. In the future, they need to be able to be interpreted by machines. How can we ensure exchange of reliable data on traffic regulations to support technological innovation such as advanced driver assist and autonomous driving technologies? In this report, we share our knowledge on digital traffic rules – what it is, why it matters and how we get there. The transport sector is becoming increasingly connected, digitalized, and automated. The development is taking place at a rapid pace and has the potential to improve the transport system in several areas (safety, efficiency, environmental impact and accessibility). To meet this development, we need to move towards a more digitalized road infrastructure. A digital representation of the road network is becoming increasingly important. One part of this is digital and machine-readable traffic rules. In a digital world we need data on traffic rules (what applies where). Road users, citizens, companies, and other actors in our society would benefit from such data (they get access to more and clearer regulations). Data on traffic rules also provides completely new opportunities, for example more dynamic traffic regulations, which can further contribute to positive effects for the transport system and for society. It is also a necessity for the implementa-tion of autonomous driving on public roads, since automated vehicles will need a reliable digital infrastructure. Drive Sweden Policy Lab (DSPL) targets specific cases in projects of the strategic innovation program Drive Sweden. The purpose is to explore how technology and service development relate to existing laws and regulations for new mobility services that are being developed, and to identify and overcome bottlenecks. DSPL was initiated in 2019 to support technology development projects within Drive Sweden’s portfolio that had encountered regulatory challenges. New cases (subprojects) have been added since. Project partners vary by case. The independent, state-owned research institute RISE is the coordinator. In this case (or subproject), we investigate the need for improved processes and possibly new regulations on how traffic rules are prepared, decided and published. We consider possible solutions and the consequences of different solutions. Many partners have participated in this work, and a large reference group with both private and public actors.

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  • 204.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Faxer, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Elsparkcyklar från ett policyperspektiv2023Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Elsparkcyklar har potential att kunna bidra till positiva effekter i samhället. Men med friflytande elsparkcyklar följer också nya utmaningar. En del av dessa är relaterade till regelverk och policy.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 205.
    Lundberg, Hampus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Mowla, Nishat
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Abedin, Sarder
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Thar, Kyi
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Experimental Analysis of Trustworthy In-Vehicle Intrusion Detection System Using eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI)2022Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, s. 102831-102841Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anomaly-based In-Vehicle Intrusion Detection System (IV-IDS) is one of the protection mechanisms to detect cyber attacks on automotive vehicles. Using artificial intelligence (AI) for anomaly detection to thwart cyber attacks is promising but suffers from generating false alarms and making decisions that are hard to interpret. Consequently, this issue leads to uncertainty and distrust towards such IDS design unless it can explain its behavior, e.g., by using eXplainable AI (XAI). In this paper, we consider the XAI-powered design of such an IV-IDS using CAN bus data from a public dataset, named 'Survival'. Novel features are engineered, and a Deep Neural Network (DNN) is trained over the dataset. A visualization-based explanation, 'VisExp', is created to explain the behavior of the AI-based IV-IDS, which is evaluated by experts in a survey, in relation to a rule-based explanation. Our results show that experts' trust in the AI-based IV-IDS is significantly increased when they are provided with VisExp (more so than the rule-based explanation). These findings confirm the effect, and by extension the need, of explainability in automated systems, and VisExp, being a source of increased explainability, shows promise in helping involved parties gain trust in such systems. 

  • 206.
    Magazinius, Ana
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Olsson, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    What We Know About Bug Bounty Programs - An Exploratory Systematic Mapping Study2019Inngår i: International Workshop on Socio-Technical Aspects in Security and Trust STAST 2019: Socio-Technical Aspects in Security and Trust. Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11739), Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2019, s. 89-106Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a systematic mapping study of the research on crowdsourced security vulnerability discovery. The aim is to identify aspects of bug bounty program (BBP) research that relate to product owners, the bug-hunting crowd or vulnerability markets. Based on 72 examined papers, we conclude that research has mainly been focused on the organisation of BBPs from the product owner perspective, but that aspects such as mechanisms of the white vulnerability market and incentives for bug hunting have also been addressed. With the increasing importance of cyber security, BBPs need more attention in order to be understood better. In particular, datasets from more diverse types of companies (e.g. safety-critical systems) should be added, as empirical studies are generally based on convenience sampled public data sets. Also, there is a need for more in-depth, qualitative studies in order to understand what drives bug hunters and product owners towards finding constructive ways of working together. 

  • 207.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Beltramelli, Luca
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Fakhrul Abedin, Sarder
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Zeb, Shah
    National University of Science and Technology, Pakistan.
    Mowla, Nishat
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Hassan, Syed Ali
    National University of Science and Technology, Pakistan.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Industrial IoT in 5G-and-Beyond Networks: Vision, Architecture, and Design Trends2022Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 4122-4137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular networks are envisioned to be a cornerstone in future industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) wireless connectivity in terms of fulfilling the industrial-grade coverage, capacity, robustness, and timeliness requirements. This vision has led to the design of vertical-centric service-based architecture of 5G radio access and core networks. The design incorporates the capabilities to include 5G-AI-Edge ecosystem for computing, intelligence, and flexible deployment and integration options (e.g., centralized and distributed, physical, and virtual) while eliminating the privacy/security concerns of mission-critical systems. In this article, driven by the industrial interest in enabling large-scale wireless IIoT deployments for operational agility, flexible, and cost-efficient production, we present the state-of-the-art 5G architecture, transformative technologies, and recent design trends, which we also selectively supplemented with new results. We also identify several research challenges in these promising design trends that beyond-5G systems must overcome to support rapidly unfolding transition in creating value-centric industrial wireless networks.

  • 208.
    Maleki, Mehdi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    SUFI: A Simulation-based Fault Injection Tool for Safety Evaluation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Modelled in SUMO2021Inngår i: Proceedings - 2021 17th European Dependable Computing Conference, EDCC 2021, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021, s. 45-52Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded electronic systems used in vehicles are becoming more exposed and thus vulnerable to different types of faults and cybersecurity attacks. Examples of these systems are advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) used in vehicles with different levels of automation. Failures in these systems could have severe consequences, such as loss of lives and environmental damages. Therefore, these systems should be thoroughly evaluated during different stages of product development. An effective way of evaluating these systems is through the injection of faults and monitoring their impacts on these systems. In this paper, we present SUFI, a simulation-based fault injector that is capable of injecting faults into ADAS features simulated in SUMO (simulation of urban mobility) and analyse the impact of the injected faults on the entire traffic. Simulation-based fault injection is usually used at early stages of product development, especially when the target hardware is not yet available. Using SUFI we target car-following and lane-changing features of ADAS modelled in SUMO. The results of the fault injection experiments show the effectiveness of SUFI in revealing the weaknesses of these models when targeted by faults and attacks.

  • 209.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Viktor
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Enerbäck, Oscar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Dolins, Sigma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    User acceptance of mixed-traffic autonomous shuttles in Gothenburg, Sweden2020Inngår i: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 588, nr 4, artikkel-id 042002Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A user acceptance questionnaire study was carried out during the first phase of the Shared Shuttle Services (S3) pilot project in Gothenburg Sweden. Autonomous vehicles in the form of shuttle buses (AV shuttles) embody three major developments in transportation: mobility solutions that are electrified, shared, and automated. The adoption of these three developments is closely connected to the UN SDG (11) Sustainable cities and communities and in order to achieve any broader societal benefits, it is crucial to understand and address user acceptance and adoption of these services in real-life settings. The questionnaire included attitudinal and context specific questions, resulting in overall high ratings except for perceived speed and comfort. Still, the main reasons for not wanting to use the AV shuttle services could be linked to performance expectancy, route reasons and effort expectancy. Future implementations of AV shuttles will need to address this in order to expect any widespread adoption. 

  • 210.
    Markelius, Alva
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Cambridge, UK.
    Sjöberg, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergström, Martin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ravandi, Bahram Salamat
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vivas, Ana B.
    University of York Europe Campus, Greece.
    Khan, Imran
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lowe, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Differential Outcomes Training of Visuospatial Memory: A Gamified Approach Using a Socially Assistive Robot2024Inngår i: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 363-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study represents the first stage of evaluating whether cognitive training interventions may be facilitated by the presence of a socially assistive robot (SAR) and gamification. Our experimental setup involves using a SAR providing feedback to a gamified visuospatial working memory task, administered according to a differential outcomes training (DOT) protocol. The study’s main objective was to investigate whether performance and attitude towards the task would be affected by different robotic setups (none, simulated or physical) and in relation to different challenge levels. We measured performance accuracy on the gamified visuospatial memory task and self-reported affective ratings, which are relevant for assessing attitude towards the task and providing indicators to the potential for using a SAR for a longer-term cognitive intervention. Additionally, we conducted exploratory analyses of eye movement strategies for memory encoding during the task. The results demonstrated a significant differential outcomes effect (DOE) on memory performance accuracy, regardless of Robot type and Challenge level, providing evidence that a DOE can still be obtained when a SAR interacts with participants. Moreover, the results from the affective ratings revealed that participants accompanied by the physical robot reported lower levels of stress and increased levels of control. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a DOE using a SAR in a gamified context. This result, coupled with positive subjective reporting of the human–robot interactive experience of participants, demonstrates the potential for using a SAR to: (i) promote positive attitudes for a DOT-based cognitive intervention, without (ii) negatively affecting task performance. 

  • 211.
    Martelaro, Nikolas
    et al.
    Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Dey, Debargha
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Burnett, Gary
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Strömberg, Helena K.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Löcken, Andreas
    Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Germany.
    How to Manage Social Order in Shared Automated Vehicles2022Inngår i: Adjunct Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Association for Computing Machinery , 2022, s. 201-203Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous shared ride vehicles may be prone to similar social issues and non-ideal passenger behaviors as today’s public transit. Such issues may include passengers littering, harassing others, and creating an environment that is generally unpleasant for riders. Transportation user experience designers should preemptively consider such scenarios early in their design work to help develop possible interfaces to manage social order and maintain good rider experience. Through a short video prototype, we present three possible non-ideal scenarios that may occur on shared autonomous shuttles and provide three potential solutions to begin a discussion around how to design for such non-ideal situations.

  • 212.
    Martini, Antonio
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Besker, Terese
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Posch, Torsten
    Siemens AG, Germany.
    Bosch, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    TD Pulse: Assessing the Systematic Management of Technical Debt2023Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 54-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical Debt requires the management of several technical and non-technical aspects: process, organization, tools, etc. Software companies must identify where TD is not well managed and where to improve. Based on ten years of research and practice, we have created an effective approach, TD Pulse, to assess Technical Debt Management in large software companies and find critical improvement areas. The approach was used by 232 and evaluated by more than 200 practitioners in three large companies, including Siemens and Zenseact. The results show that our approach is valuable and lightweight. We also share lessons learned from the whole assessment experience. 

  • 213.
    Melkamu Daniel, Aemiro
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Habibi, Shiva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Medin, Ingrid
    Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Kautto, Arja H.
    Swedish Food Agency, Sweden; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Expert elicitation of remote meat inspection prerequisites in Sweden using best-worst scaling (case 1)2024Inngår i: Food Control, ISSN 0956-7135, E-ISSN 1873-7129, Vol. 162, artikkel-id 110460Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote work technologies offer unprecedented flexibility to modernise official meat inspection (MI). Remote meat inspections, alongside on-site controls have a potential to make MI more sustainable when it comes to working conditions, logistic control hurdles and travel-related emissions. Nevertheless, preferences of meat control staff for features and technological set up of remote MI remain unknown. The paper investigates preferences of official Swedish MI staff for different features of remote MI. The study utilises a quantitative method, namely best-worst scaling to compare the relative importance of six aspects of remote inspections: camera location and settings, connectivity, availability of personnel at abattoirs, communication and language, security and fraud prevention, and ability to relay olfaction and haptics. The survey, administered in September–October 2023 was answered by 54.7% of the Swedish meat control staff employed by the Swedish Food Agency. The results show that respondents rate security and fraud prevention (Security) as the most important aspect for remote MI followed by connectivity and camera placement (Camera). Communication and language (Communication) and ability to relay olfaction and haptics (Senses) are considered the least important aspects. The latter findings can be explained by the fact that Official Veterinarians, which represent the majority of respondents (49%), do not routinely communicate directly with slaughter personnel who are often seasonal workers coming from outside Sweden. Moreover, olfaction and haptics could be considered naturally impractical with remote technologies. The study also finds that respondents from different administrative units and job titles have different preferences for the features of remote MI. Respondents from the headquarter generally have higher preferences for connectivity than respondents from other units. Additionally, respondents with more hands-on experience in MI, such as Official Veterinarians, tend to rate security issues higher than respondents with leading or support roles. Overall, it seems possible to meet the control staff expectations and preferences regarding the prerequisites of remote MI by legal and technical adaptations needed for this type of control flexibility. © 2024 The Authors

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  • 214.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Levin, Daniel
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Lind, Kenneth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Magazinius, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Contrasting Big Bang with Continuous Integration through Defect Reports2021Inngår i: 2021 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C), 2021, s. 29-29Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous integration promises earlier defect detection, quality improvements, and more customer value delivered faster. In this case study, we examined development of software for the advanced safety and driver support component of a Swedish vehicle manufacturer in two consecutive projects.

  • 215.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Reichenberg, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    The Day 1 C-ITS Application Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory—A Mapping Study2020Inngår i: Transportation Research Procedia, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 49, s. 170-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports article reports on a mapping study to investigate the C-ROADS Day 1 C-ITS application Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA). In the study, 64 publications between 2006 and 2019 where reviewed and classified according to a schema developed using thematic analysis of the selected publications. Among the findings were that the typical publication evaluates through simulation benefits for the equipped vehicle, leaving considerable gaps in investigations of societal effects. Additionally, there is a lack of investigation on driver behaviour, both for the equipped vehicle and for fellow road users—the ability to accurately model such behaviour is necessary for reliable simulation results.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Fulltext
  • 216.
    Molnar, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Andersson, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Haugen, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Handbok - Utvärdera temporära åtgärder i stadsmiljö: För dig som vill beställa, genomföra eller granska utvärderingar av temporära åtgärder2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Handbok - Utvärdera temporära åtgärder i stadsmiljö
  • 217.
    Mowla, Nishat I.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Rosell, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Vahidi, Arash
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Dynamic Voting based Explainable Intrusion Detection System for In-vehicle Network2022Inngår i: International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, ICACT, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, s. 406-411Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A modern vehicle contains a large number of electronic components communicating over a large in-vehicle network. While the operation of this network is crucial, some implementations are vulnerable to a number of security attacks while lacking sufficient security measures. Intrusion detection systems have been proposed as a possible solution to this, with those using machine learning receiving much attention. However, such systems may be hard to interpret and understand. In this work, we propose an automotive intrusion detection system that utilizes Random Forest with a dynamic voting technique to provide a robust solution with interpretability through feature and model exploration. The proposed solution is evaluated using two publicly available datasets and demonstrates stable performance when compared to similar solutions.

  • 218.
    Mowla, Nishat
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Rosell, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Vahidi, Arash
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Dynamic Voting based Explainable Intrusion Detection System for In-vehicle Network2022Inngår i: 2022 24th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT) 13-16 Feb. 2022, 2022, nr 24th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT) - Artificial Intelligence Technologies toward Cybersecurity, s. 406-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A modern vehicle contains a large number of electronic components communicating over a large in-vehicle network. While the operation of this network is crucial, some implementations are vulnerable to a number of security attacks while lacking sufficient security measures. Intrusion detection systems have been proposed as a possible solution to this, with those using machine learning receiving much attention. However, such systems may be hard to interpret and understand. In this work, we propose an automotive intrusion detection system that utilizes Random Forest with a dynamic voting technique to provide a robust solution with interpretability through feature and model exploration. The proposed solution is evaluated using two publicly available datasets and demonstrates stable performance when compared to similar solutions.

  • 219.
    Nilsson Tengstrand, Sara
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Tomaszewski, Piotr
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Lund University, Sweden.
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Challenges of Adopting SAFe in the Banking Industry – A Study Two Years After Its Introduction2021Inngår i: XP 2021: Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming.Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing book series (LNBIP, volume 419), Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, s. 157-171Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) is a framework for scaling agile methods in large organizations. We have found several experience reports and white papers describing SAFe adoptions in different banks, which indicates that SAFe is being used in the banking industry. However, there is a lack of academic publications on the topic, the banking industry is missing in the scientific reports analyzing SAFe transformations. To fill this gap, we present a study on the main challenges with a SAFe transformation at a large full-service bank. We identify the challenges in the bank under study and compare the findings with experience reports from other banks, as well as with research on SAFe transformations in other domains. Many of the challenges reported in this paper overlap with the generic SAFe challenges, including management and organization, education and training, culture and mindset, requirements engineering, quality assurance, and systems architecture. However, we also report some novel challenges specific to the banking domain, e.g., the risk of jeopardizing customer relations, stability, and trust of external stakeholders. This study validates several SAFe-related challenges reported in previous work in the banking context. It also brings up some novel challenges specific to the banking industry. Therefore, we believe our results are particularly useful to practitioners responsible for SAFe transformations at other banks. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 220.
    Nyström, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Leivas, Matilda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Diener, Derek
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Ahlström, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Willskytt, Siri
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Liljenroth, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Häggström, Maja
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Circular Material Palette: Principles and an Assessment Method to Support Choosing More Circular Materials2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The global annual material throughput exceeds 100 billion tonnes. This accounts for approximately one-third of the world's energy consumption and over half of global greenhouse gas emissions from the extraction of resources to produce construction materials. Principles of circular economy offer ways to reduce this throughput. By employing circular principles and making careful material choices, businesses can transition towards a circular economy characterized by minimal waste and reliance on renewable energy sources. Some companies are now setting circular economy goals and integrating them into their business and operations. One challenge they face is - how do we choose materials based on these new goals, circular economy principles? This report introduces the Circular Material Palette Tool (CMPT) for assessing and selecting more circular materials. Inspired by nature's approach of using a limited palette of only a few elements from the periodic system to build complex systems through lowtemperature, renewable processes and renewable energy. The CMPT provides structured support to firms involved in materials choices in early phases for business and design in exploring ways for more circular material usage. The CMPT aims to support multiple use cycles of materials used and reducing waste to a minimum, fostering informed material choices aligned with eco-sustainability goals. Further, the CMPT supports setting up Circular Material Palettes (CMP), a collection of promising materials, that can meet the circular design criteria set up by the businesses. Additionally, the report provides design guidelines to optimize the use of assessed materials' strengths and weaknesses in business and product design.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 221.
    Ollas, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ghaem Sigarchian, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Leijon, Jennifer
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Döhler, Jessica Santos
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Aalhuizen, Christoffer
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Thiringer, Torbjörn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thomas, Karin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Evaluating the role of solar photovoltaic and battery storage in supporting electric aviation and vehicle infrastructure at Visby Airport2023Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 352, artikkel-id 121946Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the societal electrification trend, airports face an inevitable transition of increased electric demand, driven by electric vehicles (EVs) and the potential rise of electric aviation (EA). For aviation, short-haul flights are first in line for fuel exchange to electrified transportation. This work studies the airport of Visby, Sweden and the effect on the electrical power system from EA and EV charging. It uses the measured airport load demand from one year’s operation and simulated EA and EV charging profiles. Solar photovoltaic (PV) and electrical battery energy storage systems (BESS) are modelled to analyse the potential techno-economical gains. The BESS charge and discharge control are modelled in four ways, including a novel multi-objective (MO) dispatch to combine self-consumption (SC) enhancement and peak power shaving. Each model scenario is compared for peak power shaving ability, SC rate and pay-back-period (PBP). The BESS controls are also evaluated for annual degradation and associated cost. The results show that the novel MO dispatch performs well for peak shaving and SC, effectively reducing the BESS’s idle periods. The MO dispatch also results in the battery controls’ lowest PBP (6.9 years) using the nominal economic parameters. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis for the PBP shows that the peak power tariff significantly influences the PBP for BESS investment. 

  • 222.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Spridning av laddbara bilar och laddinfrastruktur på landet och i mindre orter2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen inom elektromobilitet går mycket snabbt: antalet laddbara fordon ökar snabbt på den svenska marknaden, men ökningen syns främst i de större städerna. Samtidigt pratar man ofta om att laddbara fordon främst behövs på landsbygden och i alla landets mindre orter, där det ofta inte finns så många hållbara mobilitetsalternativ. Syftet med det projekt som presenteras i denna rapport är att förstå förutsättningarna för elektromobilitet på landsbygden och i mindre orter, och att identifiera vilka möjligheter som kan finnas att påskynda elektrifieringen av transporterna. Detta har främst studerats genom djupintervjuer med kommunala energi- och klimatrådgivare, och andra personer med uppdrag att främja elektromobilitet, i landsbygdsområden i olika delar av landet.

    De främsta slutsatserna som kommit fram är:

    • Konkret information om laddbara bilars funktionalitet, räckvidd och ekonomi behövs för att sänka tröskeln för att skaffa laddbar bil. Det är mycket viktigt att den kunskap som utvecklas i olika projekt får bred spridning, exempelvis genom de kommunala energi- och klimatrådgivarna.
    • En fungerande andrahandsmarknad, och enkla och lättillgängliga lösningar för hemmaladdning, exempelvis genom lokala energibolag, är också viktigt för att sänka tröskeln.
    • Kommunerna är viktiga för spridningen av laddbara bilar, såväl när det gäller att introducera dem i sin egen verksamhet, bidra till uppbyggnaden av laddinfrastruktur, och genomföra kunskapshöjande insatser så som prova-på-projekt. För att se till att kommunerna har tillräckliga resurser för att kunna genomföra dessa aktiviteter på ett långsiktigt sätt finns behov av specifikt stöd.
    • Signaler från statliga myndigheter är mycket betydelsefulla för att peka ut riktningen för teknikspridning. Stöd och insatser har i stor utsträckning riktats mot större städer, vilket har bidragit till att befästa synen på laddbara bilar som stadsbilar. Vid utformningen av fortsatta insatser för att främja utveckling och spridning av elektromobilitet är det viktigt att studera möjliga konsekvenser i ett brett systemperspektiv.
    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 223.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Road Data Lab – Creating an open data ecosystem2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal of the Road Data Lab (RoDL) project is to establish a community platform around open data for roads. The community today consists of AI Sweden who provide a technical platform for storing and sharing data as well as legal knowledge and expertise, community cooperation with several partner organizations and other data labs spearheaded by RISE, and the continued work on open data in general with Lund University and others. We have also during the project made a number of data sets available, from the project partners and others. Lastly, we conducted a hackathon with data from the project as a way to disseminate knowledge of our data and promote utilization. We have published 4 data sets as part of RoDL: The Volvo highway data set, the Zenseact data, Hövding data, and a synthetic dataset for pedestrian detection. The datasets are made available under different open licenses. Working with open innovation and open data have an impact on business models. Open-source software is today established and organizations have experience for what part of their software to make openly available. This is not the case for data. One goal of RoDL was to investigate obstacles and solutions for organizations in terms of the business of open data. However, we could only scratch the surface of this problem – mainly from a license perspective. We see a need for future work to better understand and have solutions for organizations in their analysis of the business of open data.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 224.
    Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Robert Bosch AB, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Systems-of-Systems and Digital Twins: A Survey and Analysis of the Current Knowledge2023Inngår i: 2023 18th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSe 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the needs and constraints of systems in general and a system-of-systems in particular can be challenging, yet crucial. Relying only on upfront activities will not be sufficient. Important information can be gathered around the performance and behavior of the system as well as stakeholder needs in operation. A digital twin is a way to model and understand the operation of a system. To understand the challenges and enablers related to digital twins in a system-of-systems context, we performed a literature study. In total, only 10 papers were identified that explicitly address this topic, all from the last five years, indicating that this is an active field of research. The papers revealed that definitions and terminology are unclear and that similar challenges as for systems-of-systems also exist for systems-of-digital twins. The complexity and dynamic nature of systems-of-systems motivate further study of digital twins to understand needs and constraints. However, key challenges such as concepts and principles of digital twins for systems-of-systems, cost and benefits, and evolution needs to be better understood.

  • 225.
    Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    A systematic literature review of empirical research on quality requirements2022Inngår i: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 249-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality requirements deal with how well a product should perform the intended functionality, such as start-up time and learnability. Researchers argue they are important and at the same time studies indicate there are deficiencies in practice. Our goal is to review the state of evidence for quality requirements. We want to understand the empirical research on quality requirements topics as well as evaluations of quality requirements solutions. We used a hybrid method for our systematic literature review. We defined a start set based on two literature reviews combined with a keyword-based search from selected publication venues. We snowballed based on the start set. We screened 530 papers and included 84 papers in our review. Case study method is the most common (43), followed by surveys (15) and tests (13). We found no replication studies. The two most commonly studied themes are (1) differentiating characteristics of quality requirements compared to other types of requirements, (2) the importance and prevalence of quality requirements. Quality models, QUPER, and the NFR method are evaluated in several studies, with positive indications. Goal modeling is the only modeling approach evaluated. However, all studies are small scale and long-term costs and impact are not studied. We conclude that more research is needed as empirical research on quality requirements is not increasing at the same rate as software engineering research in general. We see a gap between research and practice. The solutions proposed are usually evaluated in an academic context and surveys on quality requirements in industry indicate unsystematic handling of quality requirements.

  • 226.
    Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jansen, Slinger
    LUT University, Finland.
    A validated model for the scoping process of quality requirements: a multi-case study2021Inngår i: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 26, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality requirements are vital to developing successful software products. However, there exist evidence that quality requirements are managed mostly in an “ad hoc” manner and down-prioritized. This may result in insecure, unstable, slow products, and unhappy customers. We have developed a conceptual model for the scoping process of quality requirements – QREME – and an assessment model – Q-REPM – for companies to benchmark when evaluating and improving their quality requirements practices. Our model balances an upfront forward-loop with a data-driven feedback-loop. Furthermore, it addresses both strategic and operational decisions. We have evaluated the model in a multi-case study at two companies in Sweden and three companies in The Netherlands. We assessed the scoping process practices for quality requirements and provided improvement recommendations for which practices to improve. The study confirms the existence of the constructs underlying QREME. The companies perform, in the median, 24% of the suggested actions in Q-REPM. None of the companies work data-driven with their quality requirements, even though four out of five companies could technically do so. Furthermore, on the strategic level, quality requirements practices are not systematically performed by any of the companies. The conceptual model and assessment model capture a relevant view of the quality requirements practices and offer relevant improvement proposals. However, we believe there is a need for coupling quality requirements practices to internal and external success factors to motive companies to change their ways of working. We also see improvement potential in the area of business intelligence for QREME in selecting data sources and relevant stakeholders.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 227.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Kaiser, Christian
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, Germany; KTM AG, Austria.
    Moser, Johanna
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, Germany.
    Stocker, Alexander
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, Germany.
    Monitoring Distracted Driving Behaviours with Smartphones: An Extended Systematic Literature Review2023Inngår i: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 23, nr 17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver behaviour monitoring is a broad area of research, with a variety of methods and approaches. Distraction from the use of electronic devices, such as smartphones for texting or talking on the phone, is one of the leading causes of vehicle accidents. With the increasing number of sensors available in vehicles, there is an abundance of data available to monitor driver behaviour, but it has only been available to vehicle manufacturers and, to a limited extent, through proprietary solutions. Recently, research and practice have shifted the paradigm to the use of smartphones for driver monitoring and have fuelled efforts to support driving safety. This systematic review paper extends a preliminary, previously carried out author-centric literature review on smartphone-based driver monitoring approaches using snowballing search methods to illustrate the opportunities in using smartphones for driver distraction detection. Specifically, the paper reviews smartphone-based approaches to distracted driving behaviour detection, the smartphone sensors and detection methods applied, and the results obtained.

  • 228.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Context factors perceived important when looking for similar experiences in decision-making for software components: An interview study2024Inngår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During software evolution, decisions related to components’ origin or source significantly impact the quality properties of the product and development metrics such as cost, time to market, ease of maintenance, and further evolution. Thus, such decisions should ideally be supported by evidence, i.e., using previous experiences and information from different sources, even own previous experiences. A hindering factor to such reuse of previous experiences is that these decisions are highly context-dependent and it is difficult to identify when previous experiences come from sufficiently similar contexts to be useful in a current setting. Conversely, when documenting a decision (as a decision experience), it is difficult to know which context factors will be most beneficial when reusing the experience in the future. An interview study is performed to identify a list of context factors that are perceived to be most important by practitioners when using experiences to support decision-making for component sourcing, using a specific scenario with alternative sources of experiences. We observed that the further away (from a company or an interviewee) the experience evidence is, as is the case for online experiences, the more context factors are perceived as important by practitioners to make use of the experience. Furthermore, we discuss and identify further research to make this type of decision-making more evidence-based. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 229.
    Perez-Cerrolaza, Jon
    et al.
    Ikerlan Technology Research Centre, Spain; Basque Research and Technology Alliance, Spain.
    Abella, Jaume
    Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Spain.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Donzella, Carlo
    Exida, Italy.
    Cerquides, Jesús
    Artificial Intelligence Research Institute, Spain.
    Cazorla, Francisco J.
    Maspatechnologies SL, Spain.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Tauber, Markus
    Research Studios Austria, Austria.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Lulea University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flores, Jose Luis
    Ikerlan Technology Research Centre, Spain.
    Artificial Intelligence for Safety-Critical Systems in Industrial and Transportation Domains: A Survey2024Inngår i: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300, E-ISSN 1557-7341, Vol. 56, nr 7, artikkel-id 176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) can enable the development of next-generation autonomous safety-critical systems in which Machine Learning (ML) algorithms learn optimized and safe solutions. AI can also support and assist human safety engineers in developing safety-critical systems. However, reconciling both cutting-edge and state-of-the-art AI technology with safety engineering processes and safety standards is an open challenge that must be addressed before AI can be fully embraced in safety-critical systems. Many works already address this challenge, resulting in a vast and fragmented literature. Focusing on the industrial and transportation domains, this survey structures and analyzes challenges, techniques, and methods for developing AI-based safety-critical systems, from traditional functional safety systems to autonomous systems. AI trustworthiness spans several dimensions, such as engineering, ethics and legal, and this survey focuses on the safety engineering dimension.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 230.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Applied Sciences Flensburg, Germany.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Context checklist for industrial software engineering research and practice2021Inngår i: Computer Standards & Interfaces, ISSN 0920-5489, E-ISSN 1872-7018, Vol. 78, artikkel-id 103541Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance of context is particularly stressed in case studies, where it is said that “case study is an empirical method aimed at investigating contemporary phenomena in their context”. In this research, we classify context information and provide a context checklist for industrial software engineering. The checklist serves the purpose of (a) supporting researchers and practitioners in characterizing the context in which they are working; (b) supporting researchers with a checklist to identify relevant contextual information to elicit and report during primary and secondary studies. We utilized a systematic approach for constructing the classification of context information and provided a detailed definition for each item. We collected feedback from researchers as well as practitioners. The usefulness of the checklist was perceived more positively by researchers than practitioners, though they highlighted benefits (raising awareness of the importance of context and usefulness for management). The understandability was perceived positively by both practitioners and researchers. The checklist may serve as a “meta-model”, forming the basis for specific adaptations for different research areas, and as input for researchers deciding which context information to extract in systematic reviews. The checklist may also help researchers in reporting context in research papers.

  • 231.
    Peterson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Guest editorial for the best papers of RailNorrköping 20192020Inngår i: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 100204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 232.
    Pettersson, Marjorie Nawila
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Svenson, Pontus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Johansson, Anna
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Towards a Risk Analysis Method for Systems of Systems: A Case Study on Wildfire Rescue Operations2023Inngår i: Proceedings of the International ISCRAM Conference, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM , 2023, s. 530-545Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Crisis management (CM) is facing new challenges due to the increasing complexity of contemporary society. To mitigate a crisis, it is often necessary for a collection of independent systems, people, and organizations to cooperate. These collaborating entities constitute an interconnected socio-technical system of systems (SoS). An important question is how a CM SoS should be constructed to minimize the risk of failure and accurately handle a crisis. SoS pose new challenges in analysing risk during interactions. This paper investigates whether the risk analysis method STAMP (System-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes) is suitable for SoS, using a forest fire rescue operation case study. Results show characteristics of various risk sources and identify some SoS characteristics, such as dynamic structure and latent risks, that are not sufficiently handled in STAMP. The study further contributes to the body of knowledge by presenting potential directions for research on SoS risk assessment methods.

  • 233.
    Pohl, Hans
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Karlström, Magnus
    Lindholmen Science Park, Sweden.
    Elektrifierade vägtransporter: publikationsstudie2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Road transport electrification – publication analysis

    This report summarizes the results of a study of scientific publications within vehicle electrification, i.e. battery, hybrid and/or fuel cell electric vehicles including the recharg-ing or refuelling infrastructure. A new method was developed for the study, which extracts Scopus publications relating to vehicle electrification. Three enabling technolo-gies; batteries, fuel cells, and electric machines including power electronics, were studied separately, as such publications only to a small extent are captured when searching for publications mentioning automotive applications.

    Results are given for the top 16 countries in terms of volume within vehicle electrification with special attention given to publications including Swedish (co-)authors. China is the dominating country and is still increasing its share. Sweden has a percentage of the world production between 0.8 – 1.4% and relatively low growth rate. On the other hand, the citation impact is high.

    Among the enabling technologies, batteries show the highest growth rate, in Sweden as well as in the world. China is approaching a 50% share of all battery publications.

    Other entities studied and discussed are institutions and authors and different dimen-sions including how international the research is and the share of academic-corporate co-publications.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 234.
    Poinsignon, François
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Jiang, Sida
    WSP Sweden, Sweden.
    Gao, Kun
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Badia, Hugo
    UPC Barcelona Tech, Spain.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Autonomous Vehicle Fleets for Public Transport: Scenarios and Comparisons2022Inngår i: Green Energy and Intelligent Transportation, E-ISSN 2773-1537, Vol. 1, nr 3, artikkel-id 100019Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are becoming a reality and may integrate with existing public transport systems to enable the new generation of autonomous public transport. It is vital to understand what are the alternatives for AV integration from different angles such as costs, emissions, and transport performance. With the aim to support AV integration in public transport, this paper takes a typical European city as a case study for analyzing the impacts of different AV integration alternatives. A transport planning model considering AVs is developed and implemented, with a methodology to estimate the costs of the transport network. Traffic simulations are conducted to derive key variables related to AVs. An optimization process is introduced for identifying the optimal network configuration based on a given AV integration strategy, followed by the design of different AV integration scenarios, simulation, and analyses. With the proposed method, a case study is done for the city of Uppsala with presentation of detailed cost results together with key traffic statistics such as mode share. The results show that integrating AVs into public transport does not necessarily improve the overall cost efficiency. Based on the results and considering the long transition period to fully autonomous vehicles, it is recommended that public transport should consider a gradual introduction of AVs with more detailed analysis on different combination and integration alternatives of bus services and AVs.

  • 235.
    Ranjbar, Parivash
    et al.
    University Hospital, Sweden.
    Krishnakumari, Pournami Krishnan
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Folksam Insurance group, Sweden.
    Vibrotactile guidance for trips with autonomous vehicles for persons with blindness, deafblindness, and deafness2022Inngår i: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 100630Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles are becoming a reality with great potential. However, persons with blindness, deafblindness, and deafness, who usually receive information and guidance from the driver, could miss information when travelling in an autonomous car. In this case study, 15 people with hearing and vision impairments explore and compare trips with and without vibrotactile guidance (using Ready-Ride or Ready-Move) in a simulated autonomous vehicle in real traffic (using a Wizard-of-Oz method). The study investigated if vibrotactile aid could enable persons with blindness, deafblindness, and deafness to use autonomous vehicles. Different phases of a trip (before, during, and after) were analysed. The study shows that people with functional impairments such as blindness, deafblindness, and deafness can perform trips independently if given information adapted to their needs through auditory, tactile, or visual information channels. It would be difficult for the target groups to travel without any additional communication aid, such as a vibrotactile guidance aid for all phases of the trip, especially for those with blindness. In all rides with the simulated autonomous car (Wizard-of-Oz set up) without vibrotactile guidance, the driver or assistant (in at least one phase of the trip) had to intervene for the research participants with blindness to complete the trip and continue the study. The study also highlights the usability of the vibrotactile guidance aid and identifies areas in need of improvement.

  • 236.
    Ranäng, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Esbjörnsson, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Framtidssäkring av leveranser till nybyggda stadsdelar: En kunskapssammanställning om godstransporter i tidiga faser av samhällsplaneringen. Resultat från en förstudie av två stadsutvecklingsprojekt: Mälarporten i Västerås och Tomtebo strand i Umeå2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Futureproofing of deliveries to newly built districts - Aggregated knowledge on considerations on freight transport in early phases of city planning. Results from a feasibility study on two urban development cases: Mälarporten in Västerås and Tomtebo strand in Umeå. The feasibility study has been carried out within the framework of Drive Sweden with a financial contribution from Vinnova, during the period November 2021 to June 2022. The participating municipalities Umeå and Västerås have contributed with time, knowledge and two large urban development cases with high sustainability ambitions, Tomtebo strand and Mälarporten. In addition to the authors, external experts have been interviewed in the state-of-the-art mapping, and additional internal experts from RISE have been engaged in the final stage of the preliminary study, contributing with input on the report but also on the planning for the continuation. The report can be read in its entirety, or selected parts, depending on the reader's interest. The starting point has been that the content should be useful for the participating municipalities, but also for other municipalities and stakeholder groups. Reading instructions have been developed to facilitate navigation in the material. The feasibility study contributes with insights on how cities can work with planning to meet future needs regarding deliveries to residences and businesses. The purpose was to investigate opportunities and obstacles in connection with the planning of new city districts to futureproof efficient deliveries that meet visions/goals in the sustainable society of the future in a changing world. The mapping of cities has taken place through a series of dialogue meetings based on a questionnaire and studies of background material. The report starts with a section about the context for sustainable freight transport, the development of freight transport, freight transport in physical planning and the logistics system for deliveries to, from and within a city district, as a basis for further mapping. The results from the mapping of the municipalities; basic conditions for the cities and areas, compilation of good examples and needs/development opportunities regarding visions, goals and governing documents, investigations, and work materials as well as work process and cooperation are summarized in Table 2. Basic conditions (p.27) and Table 3. Good examples and needs/development opportunities (p. 29). There is much that the municipalities can learn from each other, but also things that can be of great benefit to other municipalities. A general template for self-evaluation/mapping for other municipalities has been developed based on the methodology in the mapping, see appendix 3. The result from the mapping of the "State of the art" is a compilation of knowledge regarding freight transport in the plan- och bygglagens kunskapsbank, a summary of a selection of handbooks, collections of knowledge, training courses, reports, tools, and specific examples, as well as an overview of related projects and collaboration arenas. Briefly, the results can be summarized as: • There is much to learn from the participating municipalities. Challenges and needs are probably shared by other municipalities. More knowledge is needed, and self-mapping of more municipalities could contribute to a more comprehensive collection of inspiration and needs. • There is a lot of knowledge about freight transport. However, it is scattered and not easy to find aggregated information. Several investigations, and results, are not published and searchable since the work is done in one single municipality, often by consultants. A knowledge node is needed to share knowledge in a better way. • Additionally, there is a lack of data for analysis and forecasting. This complicates the dimensioning of logistics areas and traffic systems. Basic key figures and tools for freight trip generation to businesses and inhabitants is needed • Freight transport needs an increased focus in the early planning phases to create effective conditions for deliveries. Important to get into the planning process - quality control of working methods and e.g., checklists for different stages are needed. Several development areas have been identified and several specific examples on what municipalities have the power to do themselves include: • Include freight transport in all important governing documents, freight transport as a separate transport type and secure resources for freight issues • Ensure that logistics and waste concepts and investigations enter all phases of the planning process • Use regulations and incentives as tools to achieve sustainability goals for freight transport • Be an example in the procurement of own goods and services "Take control of the freight" for the municipal group At the national level, the following areas of renewal and collaboration are proposed: • Create a knowledge-node focusing on freight transport in the early planning stage, which is user-friendly, with a plan for management and maintenance • Mapping other municipalities based on the self-evaluation template and aggregating data • National coordination – Research and Innovation programme on Urban logistics • Development of a national competence centre that can support the municipalities in their work • Development of KPI, forecasts and tools for freight transport that can be used in early planning • Further development of plan- och bygglagens kunskapsbank regarding freight transport Knowledge dissemination of this preliminary study takes place partly by making this report available in DIVA, partly through presentations in relevant networks and collaboration arenas.

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    fulltext
  • 237.
    Rex, Emma
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Linden, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Östling, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Quistgaard, Louise
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Välkommen in i det cirkulära: Erfarenheter och slutsatser från projektet ”Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden”2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden” startades med syfte att visa hur en bransch konkret kan ställa om till en mer cirkulär ekonomi. Vi ville möta samhällets behov av minskat resursbehov och mer hållbar industriell utveckling, genom att ge förutsättningar för en produktion och konsumtion av offentliga möbler som var mer resurseffektiv, mindre miljöbelastande och samtidigt stärkte företagens internationella konkurrenskraft.

    Projektet har pågått i tre steg, finansierade genom Vinnovas program Utmaningsdriven innovation under åren 2014-2020. Under steg 1 identifierades intresse, behov, potential och affärsmöjligheter för en ökad cirkulär ekonomi inom svensk möbelindustri gällande främst möbler/inredning för offentligt bruk. I steg 2 utvecklades och testades de identifierade affärsmodellkoncepten, och nytänkande affärsrelationer och affärsmodeller togs fram. I detta steg kunde vi också visa att det gick att förena stark konkurrenskraft med en mer hållbar samhällsutveckling. I steg 3 har fokus varit på att gå från enskilda goda exempel till industriell skala, med nya erbjudanden, ändrade affärsmodeller, ökad efterfrågan och nya rutiner och normer där cirkulärt är det nya normala. Genom alla steg har projektet stävat efter att cirkulära erbjudanden och affärer ska bli ett stolt och självklart inslag hos de som erbjuder och efterfrågar möbler för offentligt bruk i Sverige.

    Nu är vi där. Tillverkare, återförsäljare och återbrukare tävlar idag om att visa upp sina cirkulära erbjudanden och inredningsarkitekter och kunder – inom offentlig såväl som privat sektor – inför nya upphandlingsföremål, roller och rutiner till förmån för cirkulära flöden.

    I den här skriften ges en sammanfattning av den utveckling vi gjort tillsammans inom projektet, och ni får även stifta bekantskap med många av våra partners och deras cirkulära resa. Vi vill på detta sätt visa att det går att ta steget från enstaka återbruksexempel till cirkulära affärer i stor skala – i alla fall om man jobbar tillsammans!

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 238.
    Robles, Gregorio
    et al.
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain.
    Chaudron, Michel R.V.
    TU Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Jolak, Rodi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Hebig, Regina
    Universität Rostock, Germany.
    A reflection on the impact of model mining from GitHub2023Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 164, artikkel-id 107317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Since 1998, the ACM/IEEE 25th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems (MODELS) has been studying all aspects surrounding modeling in software engineering, from languages and methods to tools and applications. In order to enable empirical studies, the MODELS community developed a need for having examples of models, especially of models used in real software development projects. Such models may be used for a range of purposes, but mostly related to domain analysis and software design (at various levels of abstraction). However, finding such models was very difficult. The most used ones had their origin in academic books or student projects, which addressed “artificial” applications, i.e., were not base on real-case scenarios. To address this issue, the authors of this reflection paper, members of the modeling and of the mining software repositories fields, came together with the aim of creating a dataset with an abundance of modeling projects by mining GitHub. As a scoping of our effort we targeted models represented using the UML notation because this is the lingua franca in practice for software modeling. As a result, almost 100k models from 22k projects were made publicly available, known as the Lindholmen dataset. Objective: In this paper, we analyze the impact of our research, and compare this to what we envisioned in 2016. We draw practical lessons gained from this effort, reflect on the perils and pitfalls of the dataset, and point out promising avenues of research. Method: We base our reflection on the systematic analysis of recent research literature, and especially those papers citing our dataset and its associated publications. Results: What we envisioned in the original research when making the dataset available has to a major extent not come true; however, fellow researchers have found alternative uses of the dataset. Conclusions: By understanding the possibilities and shortcomings of the current dataset, we aim to offer the research community i) future research avenues of how the data can be used; and ii) raise awareness of the limitations, not only to point out threats to validity of research, but also to encourage fellow researchers to find ideas to overcome them. Our reflections can also be helpful to researchers who want to perform similar mining efforts.

  • 239.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Costa, Nicole
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Ekholm, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Besker, Terese
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Linders, Torsten
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Patrick
    E-sea, Sweden.
    SeaCharging - Investigating the Need for Standardised Charging Infrastructure for Maritime Electrified Vessels2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector, including maritime transport, is facing accelerating electrification, where it is important that charging infrastructure is developed in parallel with electrified vessels. In today's few examples, charging technology is adapted to specific vessels and conditions. The possibility of using standards and standardisation to increase the efficiency of introducing electrified vessels has been the focus of the SeaCharging project. The middle segment of ships, such as waterborne public transport, is facing a rapid increase in electrification.

    The project begins with an exploratory analysis of the current situation with charging stations in Sweden. This analysis covers the obstacles, needs and opportunities in different shipping segments and geographical areas. This results in an informative review providing input to standardisation committees, but also ports and shipping companies. Dissemination of the project’s results was achieved via a workshop, a number of seminars and this final report directed at the maritime, energy, technology, and standardisation communities. Together with Lighthouse, we will in early 2023, do a broad workshop for the whole sector, presenting the final project results and putting them into a wider context.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 240.
    Rogstadius, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Interaktionseffekter mellan batterielektriska lastbilar, elvägar och statisk laddinfrastruktur: Resultat från högupplöst simulering av godstransporter på det svenska vägnätet under perioden 2020–20502022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report explores complex interaction effects between diesel-powered and battery powered heavy trucks, dynamic vehicle charging via electric roads, and static charging via other forms of charging infrastructure. The aim is to identify how these components of the future transport system should be jointly designed to simultaneously minimize the cost to society at the system level and meet society's need for greatly reduced greenhouse gas emissions from heavy road traffic. Focus is on investigating how an expansion of electric roads would affect the system and whether a national investment in electric roads can be assumed to have positive consequences that cannot be achieved at a lower cost using other means. Interaction effects are studied over time (2020–2050), geography (the entire Swedish road network), for four different truck weight classes and four types of charging infrastructure (electric roads, depot charging, destination charging and fast charging at rest stops).

    The results are based on analyzes of hundreds of scenarios for the future expansion of charging infrastructure in Sweden. These scenarios have been analyzed using a custom built simulation tool, which simulates freight transport along millions of routes on the Swedish road network. For each individual route, vehicle class and year, battery capacity and charging locations are optimized to ensure sufficient battery capacity and to minimize the business economic cost of freight transport along the route. The capacity and partially placement of charging infrastructure is demand-driven, based on the aggregate demand from all transport routes. User charges for charging are calculated individually for different charging infrastructure sites based on estimated usage, in competition with other charging infrastructure, and are fed back to influence the choice of charging method along transport routes. Driving patterns, used combinations of charging infrastructure, capacity of battery packs in vehicles and changing battery technology over time are used to dynamically calculate the life cycle cost of vehicle batteries. Today's tax revenue from fuel sales is converted into a kilometer tax that is applied equally to both diesel and battery electric vehicles.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 241.
    Rogstadius, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Recommendations for Charging Infrastructure in Stockholm County : Targeting Full Electrification of Passenger Cars by 20302021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For the County of Stockholm (1 million cars), we calculate the cumulative socio-economic result of a gradual transition to a battery-electric fleet of passenger cars, over the period 2020-2040. Included in the analysis are the direct and indirect costs to deploy necessary charging infrastructure, and the value generated from lowered emissions and operational costs of vehicles. Necessary charging infrastructure investments are derived from a network model of mobility in the city, that ensures sufficient infrastructure to power all passenger cars. The most important conclusions are that cities should prioritize speed of transition rather than cost minimization to maximize cumulative return on investment, due to substantial cumulative cost savings from electrification, and that current undertaxation of fossil greenhouse gas emissions greatly reduces profit margins for private investments contributing to vehicle electrification. We estimate that a total cumulative infrastructure investment of 13 billion SEK can lead to electrification of 90% of the traffic work by passenger cars in Stockholm county by 2030. This would reduce cumulative system costs by 100 billion SEK from 2020 to 2030, with a return on infrastructure investment of 750%. Approximately 50% of this value is from externalized CO2 emission costs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Fulltext
    Fulltekst (zip)
    Bilaga
  • 242.
    Rogstadius, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fordon och automatisering.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Charging Infrastructure Recommendations for Cities Targeting Full Passenger Car Electrification, Based on a Case Study of Stockholm County2022Inngår i: 35th International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition: EVS35, Oslo, Norway, 2022Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel methodology for calculating the density of charging infrastructure required to enable electrification of all passenger cars in a large geographic region. We combine this method with models of charging infrastructure cost, forecasts of levelized costs for operating combustion engine and battery electric cars and forecasts of market penetration, to calculate the socio-economic value of passenger car electrification over the 2020-2040 period. Recommendations for urban regions are derived based on application of the method to Stockholm County, Sweden. Electrification is shown to generate long-term savings of up to 1800 euro per car-year and the opportunity cost of delaying the transition by a single year is comparable to the full cost of deploying the infrastructure that enables the shift. Large-scale deployment of dynamic charging is a cost-viable alternative to static charging for full electrification of urban passenger car fleets.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 243.
    Roos, Annica
    et al.
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    Bergstrand, Jan
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    Strokirk, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Lind, Kenneth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Lind, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Haraldson, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Moback, Daniel
    CLOSER, Sweden.
    Skjutare, Kristoffer
    CLOSER, Sweden.
    Digitaliserade sammodala hållbara transportkedjor, Living Labs i projekt FEDeRATED2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Forsknings- och innovationsprojektet Digitaliserade sammodala hållbara transportkedjor avser en nationell förstärkning till deltagandet i CEF-projektet FEDeRATED, vilket initierats av DTLF (Digital Transport and Logistics Forum). Sverige har inom FEDeRATED haft ett ansvar för WP3 Living labs, där 23 europeiska Living Labs har ingått. För att erhålla en tydlig och mätbar resultathemtagning har det svenska projektet möjliggjort en fördjupning i de demonstrationsstudier som bedrivits i tio svenska Living Labs. Genom denna organisering har projektet haft en unik möjlighet att koppla samman svenska förutsättningar och behov till en bredare internationell valideringsstudie som initierats av Europeiska kommissionen. Till rapporten hör följande delrapporter:

    1.      A Data-sharing Case for SME, Last-mile Delivery Actors (DaLab)

    2.      Better Terminal Flow (BetTerFlow)

    3.      Data Shared Between Distributors to the City of Helsingborg (2TransCity)

    4.      Energiledningssystem för anläggningar, Byggbranschens Elektroniska Affärsstandard (ELSA/BEAst)

    5.      Multimodal Information Sharing (MMIS)

    6.      Optimized Cargo Operations by Cargo Owner Integration (OptiPort)

    7.      Rail-Road Terminal Collaborative Decision Making (RRTCDM)

    8.      RFID in Rail

    9.      Ship’s Arrival and Departure Information Xchange (SADIX)

    10.    Sustainable Intermodal Chain (SIMC)

  • 244.
    Rosberg, Felix
    et al.
    Berge Consulting, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Torstensson, Martin
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Duran, Boris
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Towards Privacy Aware Data collection in Traffic : A Proposed Method for Measuring Facial Anonymity2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing a machine learning-based vehicular safety system that is effective and generalizes well, capable of coping with all the different scenarios in real traffic is a challenge that requires large amounts of data. Especially visual data for when you want an autonomous vehicle to make decisions based on peoples’ possible intent revealed by the facial expression and eye gaze of nearby pedestrians. The problem with collecting this kind of data is the privacy issues and conflict with current laws like General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). To deal with this problem we can anonymise faces with current identity and face swapping techniques. To evaluate the performance and interpretation of the anonymization process, there is a need for a metric to measure how well these faces are anonymized that takes identity leakage into consideration. To our knowledge, there is currently no such investigation for this problem. However, our method is based on current facial recognition methods and how recent face swapping work determines identity transfer performance. Our suggestion is to utilize state-of-the-art identity encoders like FaceNet and ArcFace to make use of the embedding vectors to measure anonymity. We provide qualitative results that show the applicability of publicly available identity encoders for measuring anonymity. We further strengthen the applicability of how these encoders behave on the VGGFace2 dataset compared to samples that have had their identity changed by Faceshifter, along with a survey regarding the anonymization procedure to pinpoint how strong facial anonymization is compared the vector distance measurements.

  • 245.
    Rosell, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Vahidi, Arash
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Mowla, Nishat I
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Magazinius, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Järpe, Eric
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    A Frequency-based Data Mining Approach to Enhance in-vehicle Network Intrusion Detection2021Inngår i: FAST-zero '21, Japan: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles have numerous electronic control units (ECUs) that constantly communicate over embedded in-vehicle networks (IVNs) comprised of controlled area network (CAN) segments. The simplicity and size-constrained 8-byte payload of the CAN bus technology makes it infeasible to integrate authenticity and integrity-based protection mechanisms. Thus, a malicious component will be able to inject malicious data into the network with minimal risk for detection. Such vulnerabilities have been demonstrated with various security attacks such as the flooding, fuzzing, and malfunction attacks. A practical approach to improve security in modern vehicles is to monitor the CAN bus traffic to detect anomalies. However, to administer such an intrusion detection system (IDS) with a general approach faces some challenges. First, the proprietary encodings of the CAN data fields need to be omitted as they are intellectual property of the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and differ across vehicle manufacturers and their models. Secondly, such general and practical IDS approach must also be computationally efficient in terms of speed and accuracy. Traditional IDSs for computer networks generally utilize a rule or signature-based approach. More recently, the approach of using machine learning (ML) with efficient feature representation has shown significant success because of faster detection and lower development and maintenance costs. Therefore, an efficient data aggregation technique with enhanced frequency-based feature representation to improve the performance of MLbased IDS for the IVNs is proposed. The performance gain was verified with the Survival Analysis Dataset for automobile IDS.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 246.
    Rosell, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Vahidi, Arash
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Mowla, Nishat
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Magazinius, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Järpe, Eric
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    A Frequency-based Data Mining Approach to Enhance in-vehicle Network Intrusion Detection2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles have numerous electronic control units (ECUs) that constantly communicate over embedded in-vehicle networks (IVNs) comprised of controlled area network (CAN) segments. The simplicity and size-constrained 8-byte payload of the CAN bus technology makes it infeasible to integrate authenticity and integrity-based protection mechanisms. Thus, a malicious component will be able to inject malicious data into the network with minimal risk for detection. Such vulnerabilities have been demonstrated with various security attacks such as the flooding, fuzzing, and malfunction attacks. A practical approach to improve security in modern vehicles is to monitor the CAN bus traffic to detect anomalies. However, to administer such an intrusion detection system (IDS) with a general approach faces some challenges. First, the proprietary encodings of the CAN data fields need to be omitted as they are intellectual property of the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and differ across vehicle manufacturers and their models. Secondly, such general and practical IDS approach must also be computationally efficient in terms of speed and accuracy. Traditional IDSs for computer networks generally utilize a rule or signature-based approach. More recently, the approach of using machine learning (ML) with efficient feature representation has shown significant success because of faster detection and lower development and maintenance costs. Therefore, an efficient data aggregation technique with enhanced frequency-based feature representation to improve the performance of MLbased IDS for the IVNs is proposed. The performance gain was verified with the Survival Analysis Dataset for automobile IDS.

  • 247.
    Rosenstatter, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Melnyk, Kateryna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Towards Synthetic Data Generation of VANET Attacks for Efficient Testing2023Inngår i: 2023 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication can improve traffic safety and efficiency. This technology, however, increases the attack surface, making new attacks possible. To cope with these threats, researchers have made a great effort to identify and explore the potential of cyberattacks and also proposed various intrusion or misbehaviour detection systems, in particular machine learning-based solutions. Simulations have become essential to design and evaluate such detection systems as there are no real publicly available Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) datasets containing a variety of attacks. The drawback is that simulations require a significant amount of computational resources and time for configuration. In this paper, we present an attack simulation and generation framework that allows training the attack generator with either simulated or real VANET attacks. We outline the structure of our proposed framework and describe the setup of a standard-compliant attack simulator that generates valid standardised CAM and DENM messages specified by ETSI in the Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) standards. Based on the introduced framework, we demonstrate the feasibility of using deep learning for the generation of VANET attacks, which ultimately allows us to test and verify prototypes without running resource-demanding simulations.

  • 248.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cities’ Use of MDS as Soft Digital Infrastructure for Micromobility: Key Findings and Challenges2022Inngår i: Proceedings of 28th ITS World Congress 2022: Transformation by Transportation, Los Angeles, USA, 2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the e-scooter has gained exceptional worldwide adoption, and their hybrid vehicle design has placed them in a legislative void. To this end, many cities are developing local regulations to govern and follow-up e-scooter operations within their jurisdiction. As e-scooters are equipped with hardware like SIM cards, GPS sensors, and accelerometers, the vehicles can both collect and act on digital information. Increasingly, cities thus draw on these capabilities using the Mobility Data Specification (MDS) as a soft digital infrastructure to e.g., express local regulations and collect operator data for compliance purposes. This paper uses interview data from European and U.S. cities, e-scooter operators, and systems integrators to provide an overview of the history and components of MDS. The paper also presents cities’ current uses and emerging challenges regarding using MDS for regulation, compliance monitoring, as well as data analytics for physical infrastructure planning.

  • 249.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Digital infrastruktur för elsparkcyklar: resonemang och råd till kommuner2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten riktar sig till dig som söker vägledning om digital infrastruktur och elsparkcyklar, eller har intresse för samspelet mellan policy och digitalisering för elsparkcyklar. Rapporten innehåller sju rekommendationer till kommuner om hur de kan använda den tekniska standarden Mobility Data Specification (MDS) i samband med elsparkcyklar: - MDS är lämpligt för svenska kommuner på kort och medellång sikt. - MDS är möjligt att använda under GDPR, men det behövs nationella riktlinjer för hur kommuner bör hantera MDS under GDPR. - Använd MDS för att uttrycka vissa regler digitalt och bygg också upp central kompetens om hur regler och föreskrifter bäst uttrycks digitalt. - Använd MDS för att följa upp regelefterlevnad men komplettera med fysiska kontroller. Införliva säkerhetsmarginaler i regler och sträva efter öppenhet i uppföljningsalgoritmer. - Använd MDS i planeringssyfte men var uppmärksam på att tolkningen och implementeringen av GDPR påverkar omfattningen av användbarheten. - Ställ krav på att leverantörer publicerar öppna data och överväg om ni kan nyttja en central aktör för att publicera öppna data. - Bygg inte eget systemstöd på kommunnivå. Handla i stället upp en extern systemleverantör eller överväg en gemensam systemlösning. Utveckla samtidigt egen kompetens i kommunen om samspelet mellan systemlösningar och trafikpolicyer. Rekommendationerna bygger primärt på intervjuer med personer som arbetar med frågor om mobilitet och digitala tekniska standarder. Majoriteten av de intervjuade organisationerna har en digital infrastruktur för elsparkcyklar, baserad på MDS. De intervjuade arbetar i städer och kommuner, myndigheter, mobilitetsföretag och företag som arbetar med systemintegration, särskilt med MDS. De intervjuade finns i Sverige, inom EU och i USA.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 250.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Open Data Standards: Vertical Industry Standards to Unlock Digital Ecosystems2020Inngår i: Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2020Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Standards are considered an essential means to facilitate value creation from open data. Despite this importance, we find that empirical studies of open data standards have not been conducted in proportion to its importance. In particular, the literature has insofar been silent about why specific standards are chosen and how these standards are implemented. To this end, we report from an action research project with the Swedish public transport industry, where open data standards were both chosen and implemented. Consistent with the literature, we find standards were selected based on expected increased attractivity for re-users. Also, and more surprisingly, we found that open data standards were chosen as a means to harness resources in adjacent digital ecosystems. Finally, our findings convey that implementing open data standards may hamper the possibility to publish datasets, with its original qualities.

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