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  • 201.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Lund University, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Carolina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Gitter Consult AB, weden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad.
    The renewing of Energy Performance Certificates—Reaching comparability between decade-apart energy records2019Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 255, artikkel-id 113902Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy Performance Certificates are currently one of the most extensive data sources about the energy performance of the EUs building stock and consequently provide support for researchers and policy makers in energy regulation. As Energy Performance Certificates are being renewed, there are new possibilities to study energy performance development over time and to evaluate the building-specific effect of energy policies and measures. This paper aims to explore this possibility. In Sweden, owners of multifamily buildings had to obtain their first Energy Performance Certificate no later than the end of 2008, and with a period of validity of 10 years many owners have now obtained a second Energy Performance Certificate for their building(s). This enables unprecedented quantitative, building-specific evaluations of the change in energy performance over time. However, comparability between old and new Energy Performance Certificates must be assured. This study develops a novel three-step method to attain comparability between old and renewed Energy Performance Certificates. Results show that while many pairs of Energy Performance Certificates were considered comparable, procedural changes in methods for determining heated floor area in Swedish Energy Performance Certificates caused an overestimation of energy performance improvement of approximately 7 kWh/m2 per building which had to be corrected for. The results of this paper indicate that old and renewed Energy Performance Certificates can be utilised to successfully map development of energy performance and enable evaluation of the impact on energy performance from policies and measures that have been carried out between the two points of audit. © 2019 The Authors

  • 202.
    Warneryd, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Wilson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Boork, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Norrblom, Hans Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Affärsmodeller för solcellsinstallation i flerbostadshus och kommersiella fastigheter – en handbok2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Priset på solceller har stadigt minskat under senare år, samtidigt som effektiviteten har ökat. Alltfler, både privatpersoner och företag, väljer att investera i solcellsanläggningar. Drivkrafterna för att genomföra en installation är många och varierande, men vägen mot beslut är inte alltid enkel. Denna handbok riktar sig främst mot fastighetsägare till bostadsfastigheter och lokalfastigheter samt bostadsrättsföreningar. Syftet är att stödja dessa aktörsgrupper inför beslut om en eventuell solcellsinstallation. Innehållet i handboken bygger på resultat från workshops och intervjuer med representanter från de olika grupperna.

    Handboken beskriver möjliga affärsmodeller för solel uppdelat på de olika aktörsgrupperna, men även såväl ekonomiska som icke-ekonomiska nyttor med att installera en solelanläggning. Tre huvudtyper av affärsmodell presenteras:

    - Fastighetsägaren investerar och äger solcellsanläggningen.

    - Anläggningen leasas från ett leasingbolag, med eller utan avbetalning.

    - Fastighetsägaren upplåter takytor till en annan aktör som investerar i solceller.

    Affärsmodellsbeskrivningarna inkluderar ägarförhållanden, lönsamhet, hur den producerade solelen kan användas samt för- och nackdelar med modellen. Styrmedel i form av regler, stöd och ersättningar kan dessutom påverka både anläggningens storlek och dess lönsamhet. Aktuella regler beskrivs i handboken. Eftersom solelmarknaden och regelverk är i ständig förändring bör man alltid kontrollera vad som gäller inför en installation. I slutet på

    handboken finns därför tips på vidare läsning och relevanta myndigheter.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 203.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Norman, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Forsberg, Sarah
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Fredrik
    Geoloc AB, Sweden.
    Josell, Åsa
    Atria Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Prim, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berg, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Eat’em or not?: insects as a culinary delicacy2017Inngår i: PROCEEDINGSICCAS 2017 Exploring Future Foodscapes Copenhagen, 2017, s. 100-106, artikkel-id #39Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The world´s population is increasing and thus the pressure on the earth´s resources. To ensure food supply and sustainability, food habits in western societies have to change. By reducing the ecological footprint of food consumption, e.g., decrease meat consumption, significant contribution to global sustainability can be achieved. Advantages concerning nutrition and sustainability have been found by inclusion of insects in the diet. Insects as food has a large potential, and the “culinary way” seems to be an effective way to reach consumer acceptance for insect based food products. The aim was to examine consumer acceptance and neophobia related to the use of insects as ingredients in food

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 204.
    Willquist, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Werker, Alan
    Promiko, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Simon
    Promiko, Sweden.
    Persson, Magnus
    The Paper Province, Sweden.
    Pawar, Sudhanshu
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    van Niel, Ed
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bioplastogen: Innovativ produktion av biologisk vätgas med plaster från svartlut2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta hypotestestförprojekt har haft som mål att validera potentialen för ett nyttmultifunktionellt kaskadbioraffinaderi som producerar fyra viktigaplattformsprodukter från ett Kraftverk: cellulosa, lignobränsle, biovätgas ochbiopolymer. Eftersom cellulosa- och ligninproduktionslinjer är väl karakteriseradefokuserar Bioplastogen på att utvärdera och identifiera möjligheter ochutmaningar vid vätgas- och bioplastproduktion från hemicellulosarestprodukter.Utförandet har varit indelat i tre faser dvs 1) identifierandet av hemicellulosarikaströmmar för biovätgasprocessen, 2) fermenteringexperiment för produktion avvätgas och organisk syra, 3) omvandling av organisk syra till PHA genomaktiverat slam. Valet av hemicellulosafraktion baserades på ett litteraturstudieoch genom diskussioner med personal på olika bruk och på LignoBoostpilotanläggning. Eftersom Lignoboost restprodukt har alternativaanvändningsområdet och hög halt inhibitorer togs ett beslut att användahemicellulosa som extraheras innan den blir en del av svartlut.Hemicellulosafraktionen bestod av 19g/L organiskt material varav sockerarternafrämst var pentoser. Fraktionens effekt på vätgasproduktionen utvärderas iserumflaskor och bioreaktorer med osmotoleranta stammar avCaldicellulosiruptor sacchrolyticus. Bioprocessen utvecklades även förindustriella applikation. Försök i serumflaskor visade potential förbiovätgasproduktion som inte kunde replikeras i reaktorsförsöken. Förslag på nystrategi för att förbättra biovätgasproduktionen också i reaktorförsken kan vara attantinger anpassa mikroorganismerna till de nya substraten och/eller att användablandkulturer som kan vara mer robusta mot denna typ av substrat.Den organiska biprodukten från biovätgasprocessen användes förbiopolymerproduktionsprocessen. Två olika slam från Sjölundavattenreningsanläggning användes och visade en bra potential genom attackumulera mer än 25% av gPHA/gVSS. Detta resultat stärkte projekthypotesen.Nästa steg blir att använda ett acklimatiserat slam från biologisk vattenrening frånett pappersmassabruk.Genom Bioplastogen har vi stärkt våra hypoteser men också identifieradestrategier för fortsatt förbättring som förhoppningsvis kan bli implementerade iansökt fortsättningsprojekt – HyPer

  • 205.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sehlén, Robert
    Tekniska Verken i Linköping, Sweden.
    Modelling heat recovery potential from household wastewater2019Inngår i: Proceedings of 10th IWA Symposium on Modelling and Integrated Assessment, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strongly growing interest for wastewater heat recovery (WWHR) in Sweden and elsewhere, but a lack of adequate tools to determine downstream impacts due to the associated temperature drop. The heat recovery potential and associated temperature drop after heat recovery on a building level is modelled for a case study in Linköping, Sweden. The maximum temperature drop reaches 4.2 °C, with an annual recovered heat of 0.65 kWh/person/day. Wastewater temperature out from the heat exchanger was 18.0 °C in winter at the lowest. The drinking water source type can be an important factor when considering wastewater heat recovery.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 206.
    Xie, Yujiao
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; Shandong University of Technology, China.
    Björkmalm, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Ma, Chunyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Yngvesson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Wallberg, Ola
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Techno-economic evaluation of biogas upgrading using ionic liquids in comparison with industrially used technology in Scandinavian anaerobic digestion plants2018Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, s. 742-750Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of biogas upgrading with ionic liquids, i.e. pure 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][Tf2N]), aqueous choline chloride/urea (ChCl/Urea), and aqueous 1-allyl-3-methyl imidazole formate ([Amim][HCOO]), was simulated in Aspen Plus and compared with the conventional water scrubbing upgrading technique. The comparisons of the performances on the amount of recirculated solvents and energy usage show the following order: aqueous [Amim][HCOO]<aqueous ChCl/Urea<[bmim][Tf2N]<water. Six different co-digestion plants (anaerobic digestion, AD, plants) were surveyed to acquire data for comparison. The selected plants had different raw biogas production capacities and produced gas with differing methane content. The data confirmed the simulation results that the type of substrate and the configuration of AD process are two factors affecting energy usage, investment cost, as well as operation and maintenance costs for the subsequent biogas upgrading. In addition, the simulation indicated that the energy usage of the ionic liquid-based upgrading was lower than that of the conventional upgrading techniques in Scandinavian AD plants. The estimated cost including investment, operation and maintenance for the ionic liquid technology showed to be lower than that for the water scrubbing upgrading process.

  • 207.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Vega, Alberto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Accelerated ageing and degradation characteristics of rigidpolyurethane foam2017Inngår i: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 138, s. 192-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The urgent need for revision of the normative test method (EN 253) for the lifetime prediction of district

    heating pipes requires a better understanding of the failure mechanisms involved. Therefore, various

    methods were used to study thermal degradation characteristics of rigid polyurethane (PUR) foam in

    both air and nitrogen atmosphere. Accelerated ageing in nitrogen caused insigni

    ficant changes, whereas

    ageing in air caused signi

    ficant changes in weight, dimensions, chemical structure and cell gas composition,

    indicating importance of the thermo-oxidative type of degradation. A clear indication of the

    thermo-oxidative type of degradation was the formation of new carbonyl groups in PUR together with

    the loss of CH

    2 groups after ageing in air. Another result of ageing in air was the loss of pentane and

    cyclopentane, and the formation of some new volatile compounds in the cells of PUR foam. However,

    despite a large difference in degradation characteristics between the samples aged in air and in nitrogen,

    no signi

    ficant difference in the flexural strength of PUR foam was recorded during the induction stage of

    the degradation process. Furthermore, it is shown that the signi

    ficant drop in shear strength, which

    re

    flects the adhesion force between PUR foam and steel pipe, observed during the early stage of

    accelerated ageing of district heating pipes is not caused by thermo-oxidative degradation.

  • 208.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Vega, Alberto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Determination of essential parameters influencing service life time of polyurethane insulation in district heating pipes2017Inngår i: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2017, s. 320-323Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-insulated district heating pipes (DHP) have been in use during the last forty years. Many improvements and development have been done in the system. However, life-time prediction is still an uncertain issue. This paper is a part of a bigger project with the objective to determine mechanisms related to the deterioration of the mechanical and insulation properties of pre-insulated heating pipes as a result of ageing. The focus in this project is on degradation mechanisms of the PUR material at high temperatures. In this paper some results of the two types of exposure are presented. The first type comprises a condition where the new pipes are subjected to accelerated ageing at three different temperatures. The second type comprises condition, when the PUR material itself is aged in different atmospheres in order to identify different degradation mechanisms. The chosen ageing temperatures in the first condition were 130°C, (close to the supply temperature), 150°C and 170°C, (accelerated ageing temperature in EN 253 [1]). Changes in thermal insulation and the adhesion force between the PUR and the steel pipe were evaluated using the transient plane source (TPS) technique and the SP plug method respectively. The results of ageing show that the degradation of PUR is a multi-stage process composed of a rapid change in properties followed by a plateau phase which changes later to a gradual deterioration of the properties. The results of the PUR material exposure at 150°C in air and in nitrogen showed significant differences in the degradation characteristics between the two environments as were revealed by DSC and FTIR methods. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 209.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Vega, Alberto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Livslängd för fjärrvärmerör: Fas 1 - Nedbrytningsmekanismer2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens standard för prefabricerade fjärrvärmerör SS-EN253 innehåller olika testmetoder och krav där ett av de viktigaste är kravet på livslängd på minst 30 år vid en kontinuerlig driftstemperatur på 120 °C. Bestämningen av tekniska livslängden är baserad på mätningar av förändringar i skjuvhållfastheten efter accelererad termisk åldring. Den beräknade livslängden för ett fjärrvärmerör är baserad på extrapolering med hjälp av Arrhenius ekvation. Det finns en stor enighet kring uppfattningen att Arrhenius modellen inte ger en god överensstämmelse med de observerade åldringsdata och att det följaktligen saknas tillförlitliga metoder för livslängdsbestämning av fjärrvärmerör. Trots många forskningsrapporter finns det fortfarande skilda teorier om hur snabbt PUR-isoleringar bryts ner och vilka nedbrytningsmekanismer som dominerar. Syftet med det här projektet är att kartlägga de komplicerade sambanden och förstå vilka nedbrytningsprocesser som dominerar under olika betingelser och utifrån denna kunskap utveckla tillförlitliga metoder för livslängdsprediktering.

    Allt testmaterial utgjordes i denna studie av polyuretan (PUR) cellplastisolering som togs ut från nytillverkade fjärrvärmerör. Accelererad åldring genomfördes i luft och i kväveatmosfär vid 150 °C för upp till 8 veckor. Det visade sig att exponering i kväveatmosfär inte orsakar någon mätbar förändring av egenskaper. En motsvarande åldring i luft orsakar däremot stora förändringar i både dimensioner, viktförlust och färg. IR (infraröd) analys kunde också bekräfta att materialet bryts ner genom termo-oxidativa processer. Termo-oxidativ nedbrytning syns också i analyser av cellgassammansättningen. Materialet efter åldring i luft innehåller betydligt mindre halt cyklopentan samtidigt som fyra nya flyktiga ämnen kunde detekteras. Trots alla indikationer på materialets termo-oxidativa nedbrytning har böjhållfastheten inte förändrats hos materialet. Detta måste utredas vidare för att kunna förklara mekanismer bakom resultatet.

    Förutom beständighetsstudier av PUR materialet genomfördes långtidsåldring av fjärrvärmerör vid olika temperaturer. Resultaten av skjuvhållfasthet mätningar indikerar att det åtminstone finns tre olika faser i nedbrytningsprocessen. Initialt sjunker hållfastheten troligen på grund av fysikaliska effekter orsakade av de höga temperaturerna. Därefter ökar skjuvhållfastheten troligen beroende på sidoreaktioner och fortsatt tvärbindning. Det tredje steget är en termo-oxidativ nedbrytning som såsmåningom leder till förlust av vidhäftningen. Även värmeledningsförmågan ökar betydligt som ett resultat av nedbrytningsprocesser. Det finns behov av ytterligare forskning för att kunna föreslå en ny modell för livslängdsberäkningar baserade på experimentella resultat.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 210.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Arfvidsson, Jesper
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The importance of including secondary effects when defining the system boundary with life cycle perspective: Case study for design of an external wall2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 143, s. 1105-1113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis are suitable tools in trying to minimize environmental impact and cost. To get reliable results it is crucial to set up correct system boundaries for the investigation, but it is often difficult to understand a complex products system because of the cascade effects of consequences that can be induced even by small changes. In this paper the effects and consequences evaluation (ECE) method is introduced to systematically identify and organize the effects and consequences for a design change of parts of a complex system. The method is applied in a case study of external wall insulation for a new building to investigate the importance of correct system boundaries. Using the methodical approach in identifying all significant consequences showed that unexpected unit processes can be important when deciding on the relevant system boundary. We also conclude that such processes can have a significant impact on the final results by calculating the change in global warming potential and life cycle cost for the processes affected by the design option.

  • 211.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Arfvidsson, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The influence of secondary effects on global warming and cost optimization of insulation in the building envelope2017Inngår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 118, s. 174-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative environmental impact from the building construction phase is increasing compared to the operation phase for new buildings. Therefore, it is important to consider the complete environmental life cycle of energy improvement measures. Many advanced optimization methods have been developed in recent years to assess building life cycle impact. However, these previous studies have not fully addressed the secondary effects, in other words, indirect effects outside the actual design option. This may lead to conclusions of optimization studies based on misleading calculation results. The main purpose this study was to highlight the relevance of including secondary effects in optimization of building design with respect to global warming potential and cost. This was done by conducting a parameter study of the building envelope insulation thickness with regard to global warming potential and life cycle costs, while considering secondary effects induced by the different design options. Findings from this study show that secondary effects influence the system boundary, algorithm architecture, results and the final conclusions of optimal building design. Omitting secondary effects can thus lead to incorrect decision on optimal solutions with regard to global warming potential and life cycle cost. Therefore, it is therefore important to take them into consideration when performing optimization studies of building design options.

  • 212.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Livscykelstudie av kontor med kombinerad betong- och träkonstruktion2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Vasakronan has produced an office building were seven of the floors are mainly made in concrete and two floors are mainly made of wooden materials.  As Vasakronan had little previous experience with wooden construction works they were interested in comparing the different production methods from an environmental and economic perspective.

    The main purpose of the project was to analyze the long-term environmental impact of different building methods with alternative design and production as well as material choice and on-site systems. A secondary purpose was to assess the economic consequences of different construction solutions. The goals were to:

    • provide advice and suggestions on how different material choice, construction solutions and assembly methods can be used from their environmental and economic properties.
    • find environmental hot-spots in the building process.
    • contribute with knowledge and experience to develop methods regarding life cycle assessment (LCA) and calculation of life cycle cost (LCC) for building projects. 
    • compare differences between constructions in concrete and wood.

    An LCA was carried out on the whole building and LCA and LCC calculation were conducted to compare the environmental impact and cost of concrete and wooden constructions.  The results include global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, stratospheric ozone depletion potential, photooxidants creation potential and present costs. The data were collected by the contractors during production to ensure that the results are based on the finished building and not assumptions made during the design stage.

    The report shows the difficulties that arise during life cycle studies of buildings but also provides guidance how to solve them in this particular case, which can be used as a base for continued development of methods.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 213.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Resource efficiency or economy of scale: Biorefinery supply chain configurations for co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis liquids2018Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, s. 912-924Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries for the production of fuels, chemicals, or materials can be an important contributor to reducing dependence on fossil fuels. The economic performance of the biorefinery supply chain can be increased by, for example, industrial integration to utilise excess heat and products, increasing size to improve economy of scale, and using intermediate upgrading to reduce feedstock transport cost. To enable a large-scale introduction of biorefineries it is important to identify cost efficient supply chain configurations. This work investigates a lignocellulosic biorefinery concept integrated with forest industry, focusing on how different economic conditions affect the preferred supply chain configurations. The technology investigated is black liquor gasification, with and without the addition of pyrolysis liquids to increase production capacity. Primarily, it analyses trade-offs between high biomass conversion efficiency and economy of scale effects, as well as the selection of centralised vs. decentralised supply chain configurations. The results show the economic advantage for biomass efficient configurations, when the biorefinery investment is benefited from an alternative investment credit due to the replacement of current capital-intensive equipment at the host industry. However, the investment credit received heavily influenced the cost of the biorefinery and clearly illustrates the benefit for industrial integration to reduce the cost of biorefineries. There is a benefit for a decentralised supply chain configuration under very high biomass competition. However, for lower biomass competition, site-specific conditions will impact the favourability of either centralised or decentralised supply chain configurations.

  • 214.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Evaluation of value chain configurations for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass - Integration, feedstock, and product choice2018Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 144, s. 564-575Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass constitutes a promising technology to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The product, pyrolysis liquids, can either substitute heavy fuel oil directly, or be upgraded via e.g. hydroprocessing to diesel and petrol. This study presents a systematic evaluation of production costs and CO2 mitigation potentials of different fast pyrolysis value chain configurations. The evaluation considers types of localisations, emissions from electricity and hydrogen production, biomass feedstocks, and final products. The resulting production costs were found to be in the range of 36–60 EUR/MWh for crude pyrolysis liquids, and 61–90 EUR/MWh upgraded to diesel and petrol. Industrial integration was found to be favoured. The CO2 mitigation potential for the pyrolysis liquids was in the range of 187–282 t-CO2/GWh biomass. High variations were found when upgraded to diesel and petrol –best-case scenario resulted in a mitigation of 347 t-CO2/GWh biomass, while worst-case scenarios resulted in net CO2 emissions. Favourable policy support, continued technology development, and/or increased fossil fuel prices are required for the technology to be adapted on an industrial scale. It was concluded that integration with existing industrial infrastructure can contribute to cost reductions and thus help enable the transformation of traditional forest industry into biorefineries.

  • 215.
    Zheng, Wandong
    et al.
    Tianjin University, China.
    Hennessy, Jay
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Reducing renewable power curtailment and CO2 emissions in China through district heating storage2019Inngår i: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, ISSN 2041-8396, E-ISSN 2041-840X, artikkel-id e361Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions reductions are often achieved through the increased share of renewable energy sources (RES) and China is the leader in the growth of RES in the power sector. This growth has led to high levels of curtailment of RES power due to insufficient reinforcement of the electricity grid to support such growth and due to competition with other power sources. Although the problem of curtailment has been alleviated in recent years, large amounts of power are still discarded, and it is important to consider how to address this problem in the short term and how much CO2e emissions could be avoided as a result. The use of district heating systems to reduce the curtailment of renewable power has seen increasing interest in recent years. Based on a review of potential energy storage in district heating, the current paper assesses the capability to use the national storage potential of district heating systems in China to reduce curtailment and to determine what effects that may have on avoiding CO2e emissions. The distribution networks and the thermal inertia of buildings connected to district heating are considered as two major forms of storage that can be “charged” using power that would otherwise be curtailed. The results show that there may be sufficient storage available to absorb all renewable power that is currently curtailed in those provinces using district heating during the heating season, resulting in avoided emissions of up to 14 MtCO2e/annum. This article is categorized under: Energy and Climate > Economics and Policy Wind Power > Climate and Environment Energy Infrastructure > Climate and Environment Energy and Urban Design > Climate and Environment.

  • 216.
    Algehed, Jessica ()
    FOG Innovation, Sweden.
    Eneqvist, Erica ()
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jensen, Christian ()
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lööf, Jenny ()
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    INNOVATION OCH STADSUTVECKLING : En forskningsantologi om organiseringsutmaningar för stad och kommun2019Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Våra städer och kommuner arbetar hårt i en tid av komplexa frågor och stora förändringar. Innovation lyfts gärna fram som vägen framåt för att nå en hållbar stadsutveckling, men det finns fler nyanser och andra sidor av detta begrepp. Inom den akademiska litteraturen pågår en problematiserande diskussion, men den syns inte lika tydligt i resten av samhället.

    Denna antologi fördjupar och problematiserar diskussionen kring innovation i städer, med specifikt fokus på svenska förhållanden. Boken ger en överskådlig bild av en del av forskningsfältet kring ämnen som rör innovationsprocesser med koppling till kommuners stadsutvecklingsuppdrag. I bokens 15 kapitel beskriver och diskuterar forskare bland annat nya roller och utmaningar för kommunen och dess tjänstepersoner, projektifiering, mätbarhet och värdefrågor, samverkan, lärande, ledarskapsfrågor och konflikthantering.

    Boken vänder sig till personer som arbetar med utvecklingsfrågor i kommuner, såsom stadsplanerare eller strateger, men även politiker och tjänstepersoner som arbetar inom andra delar av offentlig sektor.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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