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  • 201. Flygt, Elisabeth
    Glasbranshen har nytta av virtual reality och augmented reality2018Inngår i: Glas, Vol. 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 202.
    Flygt, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Hur långt har vi kommit med cirkulärt tänk kring planglas?2018Inngår i: Glas, Vol. 3, s. 51-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 203.
    Flygt, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lang, Maria
    Hur ser förutsättningarna ut för transparent intelligens i bostäder2015Inngår i: Glas, Vol. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 204.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Löwgren, Jonas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lemon, Nina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system.
    Eriksson, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system.
    An Interactive Visualization Tool for Collaborative Construction Logistics Planning—Creating a Sustainable Project Vicinity2022Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, nr 24, artikkel-id 17032Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The intensity of urban development is presently high, creating a construction boom. The number of transports per project is a major consideration in urban goods transport and emissions from a project. Presently, the stakeholders take part in a “blame game” in assigning fault for the emissions from construction transport and the disturbances to society in the vicinity of construction sites. Incorporation of logistics into urban planning requires an increased understanding of the interaction between construction transport flows and urban land use, and the inclusion of different stakeholders. The purpose of the study is to support collaborative planning of construction transport in urban planning, and specifically to explore how a planning tool based on interactive visualization could be designed. An action research process has generated two prototypes of an interactive visualization tool for collaborative planning of construction transport. The prototype facilitates a “shared deliberation space” by identifying alternatives and assessing predicted consequences, which supports a collaborative urban planning process. Based on the research conducted, we claim that the responsibility of construction transport planning should be taken by the municipality, i.e., the urban planning and traffic planning functions. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 205.
    Fredriksson, Marie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Gustavsson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Jarfors, Anders
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Förstudie för forsknings- och demonstrationsanläggning för tillverkning via pressgjutning2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-study for research and demo facility for smart die

    casting

    This report summarizes a preliminary study carried out with the aim of investigating how

    a center for applied industrial research should be built to ensure that this benefits the

    Swedish manufacturing industry in the best way possible. The work has been carried out

    in collaboration between RISE, Jönköping University, Chalmers, Husqvarna, Comptech

    and Volvo Cars. The work originates in discussions, study visits, state-of-the-art and

    collective experiences from the group.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 206.
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul Christian
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Long-term performance of MSWI Bottom ash in a test road construction2016Inngår i: International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2180-3242, Vol. 7, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on long-term performances of MSWI bottom ash used as a reinforcement layer in a 8 years old road-construction. Long term properties may change under the combined effects of loading, climate- and chemical conditions. Characterization of the chemical changes in aged MSWI bottom ash is thus of prime interest as secondary alteration is a key process for the ageing of these kind of materials. The MSWI bottom ash in this study comprises a 60 meter-long segment of a test road, which was sampled eight years after construction. The objective of the sampling was to obtain a very low degree of disturbance to the application’s in-situ properties. Access to the sub-base was achieved by removing the surface course and unbound base course, leaving the top surface of the unbound sub-base reachable.  Epoxy impregnated slabs were also used for a micro textural and chemical characterization by SEM/EDS of the bottom ash sub-base layer. No cracks that imply movements or rotation of particles in the road construction or other disturbances as due to the sampling process were found. This undisturbed material made it possible to study chemical processes and structural changes that have been ongoing in the test road since it was constructed. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that most particles had reacted to some extent and that reaction-products surrounding aluminum particles were undisturbed. Partly decomposed particles indicate that the reaction (that has been ongoing since the road was constructed) has been slow and incomplete because of the coexistence of metallic aluminum and aluminum hydroxide. It also shows that the material not has been subjected to any physical influence during these 8 years that otherwise would have moved the reaction products from the particles that originally have reacted. Clay mineralization that indicates long-term ageing of the ash material was also detected by XRPD. The pH of the material was lower than 8.5, indicating a mature degree of carbonization. It is also concluded from the study that chemical reactions consistent with this maturity have been taking place in the road construction as indicated by textural relationships.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 207.
    Gales, John
    et al.
    York University, Canada.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire research for timber structures2023Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 413-414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 208.
    Gamlemshaug, Aleksander
    et al.
    Multiconsult, Norway.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Rambøll, Norway.
    Dragland Granum, Martin
    Asplan Viak, Norway.
    Leikanger Friquin, Kathinka
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Risholt, Birgit
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Denstadt, Dag
    Rambøll, Norway.
    Ervik Olsen, Vegard
    Multiconsult, Norway.
    Bjørhovde Rindal, Eli
    Treindustrien, Norway.
    Analytisk brannteknisk prosjektering av trebygninger i brannklasse 3 : Veileder for brannrådgivere og konstruktører2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the use of timber as load-bearing structures in buildings is an important contribution in the efforts towards a more sustainable building industry. Fire safety requirements for buildings in Norway are given in the Building Regulations from 2017. The authorities have also developed a prescriptive guideline, with pre-accepted solutions that can be chosen to ensure that the building meets the requirements. However, there are no pre-accepted solutions for buildings taller than 3-4 floors. The fire safety for these buildings must be documented through an analytical approach. This can be challenging as the methods usually require documented or verified data as input. Such data are often hard to find, and their applicability to the building must be assessed. Data from other countries or for other types of structures might not be relevant or applicable. This guideline is therefore developed to collect and share knowledge on analytical fire safety engineering of timber structures for buildings where pre-accepted solutions are not given. The guideline aims to increase the fire safety engineers' knowledge and expertise, as well as improve the quality of the analyses. It can also contribute to a more harmonised approach amongst the fire safety engineers. The guideline describes methodologies for analytical fire safety engineering and refers to publications that can be relevant and useful. The methods described are given in the Norwegian standard NS 3901 Krav til risikovurdering av brann i byggverk (Requirements for risk analysis of fire in buildings), and SN-INSTA/TS 950 Fire Safety Engineering - Comparative method to verify fire safety design in buildings. The target group is consultants performing analytical fire safety engineering of buildings with timber structures, in Fire class 3 according to the Norwegian Building Regulations from 2017, including amendments dated earlier than 2023. The guideline is not a handbook with detailed descriptions, but gives recommendations on which methods, tools and data that should be used. References to publications with detailed descriptions are given. Analyses of buildings in the lower Fire classes 1 and 2 with deviations from the pre-accepted solutions can also be performed according to the recommendations given here. Extensive knowledge on the methods and experience in analytical fire safety engineering is a prerequisite for the use of the guideline. The main focus is the load-bearing timber structure, but conditions regarding safe egress and rescue, as well as fire spread, are also discussed. The main chapters describe methodologies for analyses, relevant analytical methods, fire scenarios and calculations of the energy from the fire load.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 209.
    Garberg Olsø, Brynhild
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Stølen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Schjøth Bunkholt, Nora
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Leikanger Friquin, Kathinka
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Hjertnes, Jostein
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Factors Affecting the Fire Safety Design of Photovoltaic Installations Under Performance-Based Regulations in Norway2023Inngår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 59, s. 2055-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of Photovoltaic (PV) installations on the fire safety of buildings must be considered in all building projects where such energy systems are established. The holistic fire safety of the building largely depends on how the fire safety of the PV installation is considered by the different actors during the design and construction process. Research has therefore been undertaken to study how performance-based regulations in combination with the lack of national guidelines affect the overall fire safety considerations for PV installations in Norway. Four factors were found to govern to which extent PV installations are emphasised in the fire safety design phase: (1) whether the building was first of its kind as a pioneering building, (2) whether the building was built before or after the publication of the 2018 revision of the norm NEK 400, (3) The level of knowledge and experience of the fire safety consultant, which in turn affects the use of performance-based engineering tools and the level of detailing in the design and construction phases, and (4) The degree of integration in the building. The main goal of the study is to give an insight and a contribution to the development of in-depth knowledge on how fire safety design for PV installations on buildings is handled in Norway, which may also be relevant to other countries with similar performance-based regulations.

  • 210.
    Gazzotti, Raphaël
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Logistics Ontologies Landscape: Challenges, Gaps, and Opportunities for Improved Representation2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Data standards are essential for coordinating logistics information across diverse stakeholders. This report explores the role of ontologies in shaping logistics data structures and enhancing interoperability. By assessing current logistics ontologies, it identifies challenges and gaps in data representation, aiming to describe the current state of logistics data standards.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 211.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Uneven exposure of compressed natural gas (CNG) and hydrogen (H2) cylinders: Fire and extinguishment tests2024Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 146, artikkel-id 104170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles that are powered by gaseous fuel, e.g., compressed natural gas (CNG) or hydrogen (H2), may, in the event of fire, result in a jet flame from a thermally activated pressure relief device (TPRD), or a pressure vessel explosion. There have been a few incidents for CNG vehicles where the TPRD was unsuccessful to prevent a pressure vessel explosion in the event of fire, both nationally in Sweden and internationally. If the pressure vessel explosion would occur inside an enclosure such as a road tunnel, the resulting consequences are even more problematic. In 2019 the authors investigated the fire safety of CNG cylinders exposed to localized fires. One purpose of the tests conducted in 2021 reported in this paper is to investigate whether extinguishment with water, e.g., from a tunnel deluge system, may compromise the safety of vehicle gas cylinders in the event of fire. Steel cylinders handles the situation with localizde fire and/or cooling with water well. Composite tanks can rupture if the fire exposure degrades the composite material strength, and the TPRD is not sufficiently heated to activate, e.g., if the fire is localized or if the TPRD is being cooled by water, which prevents its activation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 212.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Millgård, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    TUSC HANDBOK Brandskydd under byggtiden för tunnlar och andra undermarksanläggningar: Med exempel på risker och förslag på åtgärder2022 (oppl. 2)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingen ska skadas eller drabbas av sjukdom på grund av sitt arbete. Detta ställer krav på genomtänkt utformning av brandskyddet och utrymningssäkerhet under byggtiden för tunnel eller andra undermarksanläggningar. Ett syfte med denna handbok är att tydliggöra vilka krav som ställs på brandskydd under byggtiden, samt ge exempel på vanliga brandrisker och förslag på hur dessa kan hanteras.

    Handboken vänder sig till aktörer, såsom byggherrar, projektörer, entreprenörer och byggarbetsmiljösamordnare, involverade i planering, projektering och byggnation av undermarksanläggningar. Med undermarksanläggning menas här väg-, järnväg-, vatten-, avlopps- kabel- och distributionstunnel, bergrum och slutförvar.  Handboken omfattar inte gruva, byggnader ovan mark, eller brandskydd i färdigställd anläggning.

    Handboken är avsedd att användas som vägledning och inspiration vid planering, projektering, genomförande, samt utbildning och övning med fokus på brandsäkerhet. 

    Klicka på länken ”TUSC Handbok” högst upp till höger för att öppna handboken. Strax under finns det en länk till en MS Power Point introduktion till handboken, ett övningsprotokoll och ett kommunikations material.

    Fulltekst (zip)
    PPT_Introduktion
    Fulltekst (zip)
    Övningsprotokoll
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Communication material
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    TUSC Handbook
  • 213.
    Gernay, Thomas
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins University, USA.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liege University, Belgium.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Lund University, Sweden.
    Felicetti, Roberto
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Zehfuß, Jochen
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Concrete columns2022Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 134, artikkel-id 103691Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Structures may collapse during the cooling phase of a fire, yet standard furnace tests only measure the response under heating. There lacks experimental test protocols and design methods to assess resistance until burnout. This paper describes a new experimental approach for burnout resistance evaluation, reports experimental data on loaded reinforced concrete columns in furnace tests with cooling down phases, and presents numerical models of the tests. The test results show that columns designed for a standard fire resistance of 60 min exhibited a fire resistance of 83 min in the furnace but failed during the cooling phase when the burners were shut off after 72 min while the load was maintained. Two other specimens survived exposure to heating of 45 and 55 min, respectively, and their residual capacity was measured. Finite element analyses show agreement with the tests, showing applicability of numerical methods for evaluating burnout resistance of concrete columns. These findings demonstrate experimentally that delayed thermal-mechanical effects can jeopardize structural stability in real fires, and provide a framework to measure these effects. Moving beyond fire resistance to quantify the response until burnout will support designs for safety of occupants and firefighters throughout the fire and promote repairability and resilience. 

  • 214.
    Gernay, Thomas
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins University, USA.
    Zehfuß, Jochen
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liege University, Belgium.
    Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Timber columns2023Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 445-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes fire tests on loaded glued laminated timber columns in which the structural response was measured during the heating and cooling phases. Identical columns with 280 × 280 mm2 cross-section and 3.7 m length were tested under various heating durations in a standard furnace to investigate integrity to full burnout. Two of the columns were subjected to ISO 834 heating until failure and their measured fire resistance was 55 and 58 min, respectively. Two columns were subjected to 15 min of ISO 834 heating followed by controlled cooling; these columns failed during the cooling phase, respectively after 98 and 153 min. Flame self-extinction occurred after approximately 40 min while smoldering continued locally. Two columns tested under 10 min of ISO 834 heating both survived the defined heating–cooling exposure. Thermocouples inside the columns show sustained temperature increases for hours after the end of the heating phase. These full-scale furnace experiments show that timber columns may fail during the cooling phase after exposure to standard heating for about 25% of the standard fire resistance duration. These results, in line with previous numerical predictions, highlight the need for further investigation into fire safety until full burnout for timber structures. 

  • 215.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Slutrapport för Detaljering i tidtabellsplanering: mikro och makro (MIMA)2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens kapacitetstilldelningsprocess konstrueras en tidtabell i TrainPlan baserat på en datamodell som ligger på så kallad makro-nivå. Likaså är många av de optimeringsmetoder för tidtabellkonstruktion som tagits fram inom KAJT-projekt baserade på makro-modeller. Framtidens planeringssystem, TPS, har däremot en mer detaljerad datamodell, en modell på så kallad mikro-nivå. Målet med projektet MIMA var att undersöka och kartlägga vilka olika sorters detaljeringsnivåer som behövs och finns inom Trafikverkets planeringsverksamhet. Projektet fokuserade särskilt på (1) vilken detaljeringsgrad som efterfrågas i olika delar av planeringsprocessen och (2) hur detaljeringsgraden påverkar möjligheterna för framtida stödsystem med automatisk tidtabellsgenerering.

    Resultaten av ett flertal intervjuer och studier av forskningspublikationer och annan teknisk dokumentation visar att det finns flera olika datamodeller inom Trafikverket och att dessa inte alltid är kompatibla med varandra. Det finns också behov på Trafikverket av att kunna planera på både mikro- och makro-nivå. Förenklat kan man säga att om planeringen ska gå snabbt och kunna hantera större ändringar krävs en makro-modell, men om t.ex. påverkan av små infrastrukturförändringar ska analyseras är en mikro-modell nödvändig. När det kommer till möjligheterna för framtida stödsystem med automatisk tidtabellsgenerering så är de flesta modeller som utvecklats makro-modeller. Det finns dock vetenskapliga publikationer som presenterar metoder för att iterativt anpassa en makro-lösning så att den blir kompatibel även med en mikro-modell, samt för hur man kan konstruera en makro-modell som ger lösningar som är kompatibla med en underliggande mikro-modell.

    En intressant iakttagelse är att mikro-modeller företrädelsevis används vid strategisk planering och utbildning, medan man i operativ drift använder grövre modeller (undantaget EBICOS Trafikbilder). Detta väcker frågeställningar om vilken information det egentligen är som fjärrtågklarerare har behov av i det operativa skedet, och om tidtabellsprocessen är anpassat för att ta fram denna. Vi har i MIMA inte haft möjlighetatt intervjua driftledningspersonal, och detta är således en viktig uppgift för framtiden. Likaså vore det värdefullt om Trafikverket skapade en enad modellflora med både mikrooch makro-modeller för planering.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    MIMA_slutrapport
  • 216.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Flexibilitet för ökad kapacitet på Malmbanan2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    I denna rapport undersöks förutsättningar för LKAB att trafikera Malmbanan med större flexibilitet än vad dagens hantering och processer medger. Syftet att säkerställa leveranser och utnyttja transportresurser effektivt – utan att försämra förutsättningarna för annan trafik. Ett antal åtgärder har identifierats som avses förbättra flexibiliteten och anpassningsförmågan. Analys av dagens trafikering visar att trafikledningen redan idag har god förmåga att hantera trafiken flexibelt i avseendet att trafiken ofta avviker från tidtabellen, även om det saknas rutiner och stödsystem för att nyttja flexibiliteten på ett strukturerat sätt. Experiment med ett verktyg för tidtabellsoptimering visar att om man ger andra tåg möjlighet att ändra mellanliggande passagetider med 10 minuter så skapas möjlighet att både senarelägga och tidigarelägga avgångar samt möjlighet att addera kvalitativa tåglägen - utan att påverka andra tågs leveransåtaganden. Detta visar att nyttjande av tidtabellens inneboende flexibilitet skapar möjligheter för ytterligare flexibilitet i t.ex. form av ändrade avgångstider eller tillagda tåg.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 217.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Malmbanan 2025 - Slutrapport2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna genomföra optimeringarna krävdes viss utveckling av M2. Indata tillhandahölls dels av Trafikverket, dels av LKAB. För att hitta en bra lösning tillräckligt snabbt byggdes först en tidtabell upp genom att fler och fler tåg lades in iterativ, och sedan optimerades den giltiga tidtabellen utifrån flera olika målfunktioner. Denna metod beskrivs i ”Metod”.Resultaten var att flödena som lagts in kunde genomföras samtidigt som banarbetena fick den tid som krävdes. När LKAB utvärderade tidtabellen visade det sig dock att malmtågen flyttat på sig på ett sätt som innebär att det skulle krävas fler lok än dagens trafik. För att stoppa optimeringen från att göra sådana omflyttningar krävs nya villkor, vilka beskrivs i ”Framtida arbete”. Även villkor för att modellera hastighetsnedsättningar vore bra. Den sista men kanske viktigaste insikten från projektet är att ett närmare iterativt samarbete, där LKAB och Trafikverket i större utsträckning är med och analyserar olika optimerade tidtabeller och bestämmer hur optimeringsparametrarna ska justeras, nog hade resulterat i ett bättre slutresultat.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 218.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Kjellin, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Backman, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Association, Sweden.
    Slutrapport for Grafiska Prognostidtabeller2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver det arbete som utfördes i projektet Grafiska Prognostidtabeller (GRAPRO). Projektets mål var att undersöka om optimering kan vara ett stöd för kapacitetsanalytiker när en tidtabell ska konstrueras utifrån prognostiserade trafikdata. Rapporten inleds med en genomgång av analysmetoder som Trafikverket använder för att bedöma vilken trafik en viss infrastrukturutveckling kan hantera, och beskriver hur optimering passar in bland dessa metoder. Sedan presenteras den metodutveckling som gjorts inom projektet, och databehov och tillgång diskuteras. Metoden testas på ett exempelfall med infrastrukturförändringar i Skåne, och de resulterande tidtabellerna analyseras. Under projektet gång, och under arbetet med exempelfallet, identifierades ett flertal områden där ytterligare utveckling behövs för att den presenterade metoden ska kunna användas av en kapacitetsanalytiker, och rapporten avslutas med att dessa utvecklingsbehov diskuteras.

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    fulltext
  • 219.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Öhman, Susanna
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Mapping of Risk Perception and Assessment: Inspiring Methods for National Level Risk Mapping in Sweden2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Our modern society is exposed to multiple hazards and risks. To manage these successfully, it is important to have a good overview of the risks that potentially affect our society and how they are perceived and valued. This pilot study investigated possible ways of mapping and analysing risks that Swedish society and its inhabitants are exposed to and aware of. The aim was to capture complementary perspectives on accidents and crises, and to provide a point of departure for future planning and data collection strategies. To achieve this, previous studies are mapped and critically assessed and an example of a method of analysis is presented. The following questions have guided the work: 1) What methods are currently available to describe risks at a broader societal level? 2) What are the limitations, advantages and disadvantages of these existing methods? 3) Which of these methods are of relevance to Sweden? Summarizing previous studies, the report includes examples of methods, structures and data visualizations for mapping risks nationally or in larger regions. The report analyses 11 types of existing study or report as a source of inspiration and to scope existing gaps for potential improvement. The report makes recommendations for national level risk mapping in a Swedish context, supported by an empirical example.

  • 220.
    Glebe, Dag
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Ljud och vibration.
    Vad betyder det nya regelverket runt buller och bostadsbyggande för ljudmiljön inomhus?2016Inngår i: Bo i Ro: Texter från ett tvärvetenskapligt symposium om bostäder, buller och hälsa / [ed] Frans Mossberg, Lund: Ljudmiljöcentrum vid Lunds universitet , 2016, s. 29-42Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    De nya svenska reglerna för tillåtna ljudnivåer vid fasader utomhus vid nybyggnation av bostäder innebär att även inomhusnivåerna påverkas, framförallt i lågfrekvensområdet. Framför allt påverkas upplevelsen av buller inomhus. Störningarna är starkast i lågfrekvensområdet, och detta förvärras av att fasader generellt är sämre i detta område i kombination med hörselns dynamik för lågfrekventa ljud.

  • 221.
    Godio, Michele
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Low-velocity out-of-plane impact tests on double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls instrumented with optical measurements2023Inngår i: International Journal of Impact Engineering, ISSN 0734-743X, E-ISSN 1879-3509, Vol. 178, artikkel-id 104597Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Unreinforced brick masonry makes up today a significant piece of the European built environment, including not only residential buildings but also strategically important structures that are not designed to withstand blasts and impacts. Yet, it is difficult to accurately estimate the response of these structures and the extent of damage they sustain during such extreme loading conditions. This paper presents the implementation and discusses the results of laboratory impact tests conducted on natural-scale double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls, a typology that is frequently found in Northern Europe. The walls were spanning vertically between two reinforced concrete slabs and were subjected to low-velocity drop-weight pendulum tests in which they were repeatedly hit until the opening of a breach in the centre of the wall. The tests were instrumented with both hard-wired and optical measurements, the latter consisting of high-speed cameras and digital image correlation techniques, to face the difficulty of observing cracks and determining the deflections of the walls with adequate accuracy at the time of the impact. Investigated in these tests were the out-of-plane response of the walls and their capacity to resist the impacts. The axial load applied on the top of the walls was varied for two wall configurations and monitored throughout the tests to study the effect of arching on the failure mechanism produced and number of repeated hits needed to open the breach. Of interest was also the evidence of cracking, more specifically the way it initiated on the undamaged walls and next propagated upon consecutive hits. The data generated from these tests are made available to support further investigations on masonry structures subjected to extreme actions.

  • 222.
    Godio, Michele
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Low-velocity out-of-plane impact tests on double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls instrumented with optical measurements2023Inngår i: International Journal of Impact Engineering, ISSN 0734-743X, E-ISSN 1879-3509, Vol. 178, artikkel-id 104597Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Unreinforced brick masonry makes up today a significant piece of the European built environment, including not only residential buildings but also strategically important structures that are not designed to withstand blasts and impacts. Yet, it is difficult to accurately estimate the response of these structures and the extent of damage they sustain during such extreme loading conditions. This paper presents the implementation and discusses the results of laboratory impact tests conducted on natural-scale double-wythe unreinforced brick masonry walls, a typology that is frequently found in Northern Europe. The walls were spanning vertically between two reinforced concrete slabs and were subjected to low-velocity drop-weight pendulum tests in which they were repeatedly hit until the opening of a breach in the center of the wall. The tests were instrumented with both hard-wired and optical measurements, the latter consisting of high-speed cameras and digital image correlation techniques, to face the difficulty of observing cracks and determining the deflections of the walls with adequate accuracy at the time of the impact. Investigated in these tests were the out-of-plane response of the walls and their capacity to resist the impacts. The axial load applied on the top of the walls was varied for two wall configurations and monitored throughout the tests to study the effect of arching on the failure mechanism produced and number of repeated hits needed to open the breach. Of interest was also the evidence of cracking, more specifically the way it initiated on the undamaged walls and next propagated upon consecutive hits. The data generated from these tests are made available to support further investigations on unreinforced masonry structures subjected to extreme actions.

  • 223.
    Godio, Michele
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Single- and double-wythe brick masonry walls subjected to four-point bending tests under different support conditions: Simply supported, rigid, non-rigid2023Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 404, artikkel-id 132544Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Out-of-plane actions cause confined unreinforced masonry walls (URM) to develop what is known as an arching action. The role of arching is central in the resisting mechanisms of a wall; it contributes significantly to its loadbearing capacity as long as the wall’s deflections are minor, but gradually loses effect with increasing deflections, until collapse occurs. To date, limited experimental data is available on how arching develops in relation to the out-of-plane behaviour of the wall. This study brings new experimental evidence to this aspect. Quasi-static monotonic four-point bending tests were conducted on eleven brick wall strips, with reinforced concrete (RC) slabs affixed below and over the walls to simulate contact conditions of a typical construction system. The walls were tested vis-à-vis three different support conditions: simply supported, rigid, and non-rigid. The influence of these support conditions on the out-of-plane behaviour of the walls was studied on specimens with varying thickness – single and double wythe – and subjected to different levels of axial compression (or overload). While the former support condition was designed not to yield any arching inside the wall (unconfined masonry), the intermediate and latter solutions generated an arching action that was proportional respectively to the elongation of the wall (partially confined masonry), and its deflection (confined masonry). The walls were tested inside a bi-axial test setup that allowed not only the out-of-plane force but also the arching action to be measured, corroborating its central role in the development of the out-of-plane capacity of the walls. To support the observations, deformation characteristics and crack distributions were determined using two optical measurement systems placed in front and to the side of the walls, making use of the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. The results of the tests are discussed in terms of failure mechanism as well as force and displacement capacity of the walls in relation to the investigated parameters. The test data is collected and made available to help with future research on the out-of-plane capacity of URM walls.

  • 224.
    Godio, Michele
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Magnusson, Johan
    Swedish Fortifications Agency, Sweden.
    Byggnevi, Magnus
    Swedish Fortifications Agency, Sweden.
    Experimental and numerical approaches to investigate the out-of-plane response of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to free far-field blasts2021Inngår i: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 239, artikkel-id 112328Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Masonry walls are bulky and heavy and have therefore the potential to act naturally as a protective system to blasts. Yet, they are known to have a limited flexural and torsional capacity, particularly when unreinforced. When exposed to shockwaves, they experience out-of-plane failure mechanisms which may affect the overall stability of the building and engender flying debris inside the building. The out-of-plane response of unreinforced masonry walls to blasts depends on many factors characterizing both the wall and blast action, making any sort of prediction difficult. In this context, experimental tests and numerical models become key tools that can be used to study the wall’s response on a case-by-case basis. This review covers the major experimental and numerical approaches to assess the out-of-plane response of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to blasts. A methodological appraisal is used for the test methods, focusing on the preparation of the test items and test setup, the boundary conditions and failure mechanisms investigated, as well as the commonly employed measurement techniques. The survey on the modelling approaches includes key topics such as level of detail and cost, and reports strategies to model the wall and blast scenario. The review provides a thematic analysis of the available literature, aimed to assist the analyst in selecting a suitable tool for the investigation of masonry in the field of blast engineering. Furthermore, the findings presented herein can support amendments of existing codes and guidelines pertaining to the design of protective masonry structures.

  • 225.
    Gonzales, Sebastian
    et al.
    Clean Motion AB, Sweden.
    Sveder, Christoffer
    Clean Motion AB, Sweden.
    Oscarsson, Ellen
    Clean Motion AB, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Simon
    Clean Motion AB, Sweden.
    Challenges and potential business applications of Automated Delivery Vehicles – a brief overview2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport tar bl.a. upp några av de drivkrafter som kan gynna utvecklingen av mindre självkörande leveransfordon (eng. Automated Delivery Vehicle, ADV), t.ex. ökad urbanisering, ökad e-handel, samt krav på effektiva transporter och krav på att möter de klimatmål som finns både nationellt och internationellt. Det finns flera utmaningar för ADV:er för att de ska kunna operera i kommersiell skala. Dels är tekniken för självkörande fordon inte tillräckligt utvecklad för att köra i publika miljöer (vissa ADV:er kan köra i begränsade områden under övervakning av s.k. säkerhetsförare), dels är godsvolymerna relativt små, samt att logistikkedjan kräver en del manuellt arbete. Dessutom finns transportalternativ med manuella leveransfordon som kan leverera paket dörr-till-dörr, vilket ADV:er inte kan. Eftersom ADV:er är förarlösa finns potential att minska lönekostnader, men föraren har fler roller i transportkedjan än att köra fordonet, t.ex. leverera paketet ända fram till adressaten, attestera, föra dialog med kunderna m.m. För många leveransföretag är föraren är ansiktet utåt och viktig för relationerna med kunderna. I rapporten finns en kortare genomgång av olika ADV-koncept och deras potentiella användningsområden, samt affärsmässiga utmaningar. Utgångspunkt har varit ett par workshops med intressenter kring ADV:er, samt intervjuer med företrädare av tre möjliga användningsområden för ADV:er i Sverige: flygplatser, matleveranser och leveranser och mindre paket. På flygplatser skulle ADV:er t.ex. kunna transportera bagage, men även gods från leverantörer av mat och material. För leverantörer av mindre paket skulle ADV:er kunna utföra vissa transporter och för matleveranser skulle ADV:er kunna bidra till fler och snabbare hemleveranser. Transportbehovet i tätorter kommer att öka, vilket talar för att ADV:er kan fylla en viktig funktion i last mile/sista milen-leveranser. Företag som Google, Amazon, Nvidia och Apple investerar i utveckling av ADV:er, men flera tekniska, legala och marknadsmässiga utmaningar återstår.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 226.
    Gram, Annika
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Particle motion in fluid: Analytical and numerical study2016Inngår i: Applied Rheology, ISSN 1430-6395, E-ISSN 1617-8106, Vol. 26, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle motion in fluid is discussed for one-particle systems as well as for dense suspensions, such as cementitious materials. The difference in large particle motion between larger particles and behaviour of fines (<125 μm) is explained, motion of one particle is shown by numerical simulation. It is concluded and highlighted that it is the particular motion of the fines that to a large extent contribute to the rheological properties of a suspension. It is also shown why larger ellipsoidal particles do not necessarily contribute to the increase of viscosity.

  • 227. Gram, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Westerholm, Mikael
    Betong med krossat bergmaterial som ballast: Kvalitetskriterier och proportionering2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns i Sverige en lokal brist på naturgrus. Dessutom vill man av miljöskäl bevara kvarvarande naturgrusförekomster. Krossat berg utgör det mest realistiska alternativet till naturgrus. Krossballast skiljer sig från naturgruset genom annorlunda kornkurva, kornform och partikelyta. Krossballast har ofta en betydligt högre andel filler som kan medföra att betongens gjutbarhet försämras kraftigt. Det är dock tekniskt möjligt att påverka andelen filler i slutprodukten genom styrning av krossutrustningen och genom vindsiktning. Krossat berg speciellt som finballast, kommer vid nuvarande proportioneringsmetodik att medföra ett ökat cementbehov vid en given kvalité uttryckt som hållfasthet.  Krossat berg är emellertid ingen enhetlig produkt. Det finns flera olika metoder för krossning och olika typer av bergarter ger olika produkter med olika grad av lämplighet för betong. I Sverige ligger för närvarande bergtäkterna huvudsakligen i granitiskt berg. Som grovballast har granitiskt berg sedan länge använts som betongballast, men nu måste krossmaterialet användas till finballast. Det är känt sedan tidigare att krossat granitiskt berg som finballast kan ställa till med problem. Det beror framför allt på att krossprodukten oftast innehåller flakigt finmaterial och stora mängder filler. Det finns emellertid graniter vars krossprodukt enkelt kan ersätta naturgrus medan det finns graniter som är helt olämpliga.  Bergartstextur och mineralogi avgör kornform och ytstruktur. Man kan finna krossprodukter som fungerar i betong lika bra som naturballast men variationen är mycket stor. Metoder att fragmentera berget påverkar framför allt de grövre partiklarnas kornform och yta medan de finaste partiklarnas kornform och yta bestäms av vilka mineral som ingår i bergarten.  Granit består av en viss uppsättning mineral, framför allt kvarts, fältspat, plagioklas och glimmer som i finfraktionerna ger fria mineral. Det stora problemet med granitiskt krossmaterial är finmaterialet, och då framför allt halten av fri glimmer. Bildanalys visar att det är halten glimmer företrädesvis i form av biotit som styr kornformen som i sin tur kan korreleras mot reologi och arbetbarhet.  Det genomförda arbetet visar prov på hur man på ett relevant sätt kan karakterisera krossprodukter. Materialkarakteriseringen korreleras sedan mot olika typer av enklare ställföreträdande metoder för praktisk provning. Dessa korreleras i sin tur mot reologi och arbetbarhet som ger lämplighet för användning i betong. Materialkarakteristiken kan användas för att selektera berg, optimera processer och finna kostnadseffektiva metoder för resurssnål optimering.  I grunden handlar proportionering om att finna en till kornformen optimerad gradering. En färsk betong är en partikelslurry där de olika fragmenten rör sig mot varandra. En flakig och kantig partikel behöver mera av finare material och vatten för att kunna röra sig än en rund. Detta gäller i alla fraktioner ner till det finaste materialet. För att finna denna kurva har ett databaserat proportioneringsverktyg tagits fram. Skillnaden mellan detta program och andra på marknaden befintliga proportioneringsprogram är att det bättre tar hänsyn till kornformen vilket är det stora problemet vid övergång från naturgrus till krossprodukter. I grunden beräknar det hur stort hålrum som behöver fyllas med mikrobruk (<0,125 mm) för att partikelmassan skall röra sig. Ett mindre hålrum kräver mindre cement för samma hållfasthet. I nästa steg optimeras mikrobruket. Även här gäller det att partiklarna har en så rund/kubisk form som möjligt och metodik för att kvantifiera detta finns redovisad i rapporten. Med hjälp av proportioneringsverktyget och de metoder som anges och har undersökts i rapporten kan man finna metoder att klassificera krossballasten så att man kan proportionera optimalt.  Med hjälp av krossningsmetodik (VSI-krossning) kan man få mera kubiska korn ner till mineralgränsen, dvs., den storlek när fria mineral börjar bli vanligast förekommande. VSI-6(119)metoden bygger på att partiklar sluggas mot en bädd av partiklar vilket ger mera nötning vilket tar bort kanter vilket i sin tur ger mera runda/kubiska partiklar. I vilken storleksfraktion mineralgränsen ligger beror på bergartens grovlek. Fri glimmer är normalt vanlig i fraktioner under runt 0,5 mm. Man kan även minska halten glimmer genom att vindsikta materialet och ersätta fillerfraktionen med något annat. Vid vindsiktning så släpps partiklar i en luftström vilket gör att lätta små partiklar kan separeras från större och tyngre fragment. Det finns även andra klassificeringsmetoder som används inom industrier som arbetar med malm och industrimineral men de blir dyrbara för normal ballastframställning.  Halten glimmer i olika graniter varierar kraftigt från nästan inget till 20–30 %, halter som återspeglas i form av fri glimmer i finfraktionerna. De bergarter som är glimmerfattiga ger det bästa finmaterialet och man kan med hjälp av kubisering och justering av kornkurvan tillverka bra betong med det. En först åtgärd när det gäller krossgrus är därför att finna ett bra berg med låg glimmerhalt. Kalksten och basiska bergarter ger ofta bättre sand än graniter men de kan ge andra problem.  För att kunna spara cement måste man beakta pastafasens egenskaper och hur man kan öka dess volym utan att behöva höja cementhalten. Provningar har visat att man kan minska halten cement utan att sänka hållfastheten genom att öka fillermängden samtidigt som vct hålls konstant. Detta kräver emellertid att man höjer mängden flytmedel och att fillern är av god kvalité, dvs. innehåller runda/kubiska partiklar.  Betongproduktion kräver en jämn kvalité på ballasten. Det finns en mängd metoder för att säkerställa detta men då variationen mellan olika krossprodukter är stor krävs att man först gör en genomlysande analys för att få fram den specifika ballastens problem och därefter tar fram metoder för kvalitetskontroll. Olika metoder för provning och karakterisering av speciellt finballast är beskrivna, testade och korrelerade med framför allt reologiska mätningar i rapporten. Med utgångspunkt från dessa kan man värdera olika typer av krossprodukter och därifrån finna sätt att förbättra egenskaperna.

  • 228.
    Granlund, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Lindh, E. Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Malou Petersson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Evaluation of Snow Removal Methods for Rooftop Photovoltaics2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Avoiding snow on photovoltaic (PV) installations is motivated for two reasons: to decrease power losses from shading, or to decrease mechanical loads to avoid damage to the PV-installation and the underlying construction. We experimentally investigated the effectiveness and suitability of four different snow removal methods at our facility in the north of Sweden (Piteå, 65°N), throughout three winters. The layout of a PV installation and the underlying roof, together with meteorological conditions and snow characteristics, impact which methods are best suited for snow removal. A simple roof rake with a rectangular toolhead works well when the snowpack is compact and not too thick, whereas a roof rake with a slide works better when the snow is dry and packed. Neither the investigated passive hydrophobic surface coatings, nor the active forward bias electrical heating methods induced shedding of the accumulated snowpack in our experiments without additional intervention. At our test facility in Piteå, the roof rake with a slide was the most effective and user-friendly snow removal. Despite maximum snow loads of approximately 1 kPa, far below the modules’ rating, cell damage was observed for both snow removal groups (except for the slide roof rake group) and the control group.

  • 229.
    Granström, Anders
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Perception of wildfire behaviour potential among Swedish incident commanders, and their fire suppression tactics revealed through tabletop exercises2023Inngår i: International journal of wildland fire, ISSN 1049-8001, E-ISSN 1448-5516, Vol. 32, s. 320-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Swedish wildfires are handled by multipurpose municipal rescue services, raisingquestions about how non-specialist incident commanders (ICs) perceive and interpret wildfirebehaviour. Aims. Elucidating ICs’ interpretations of fire behaviour, fuel complexes, weather,landscape structure and the role of these in tactical decisions. Methods. We exposed SwedishICs to questionnaires and tabletop exercises for different standardised fire scenarios.Key results. Despite minimal formal wildfire training, ICs showed reasonable consensus in ratingof fuels, fire behaviour, hose-lay production rates, etc. Tactics were to access the fire from thenearest road with hose-line laid from the engine and water ferried on trucks. In a scenario whereinitial attack failed, they typically fell back to roads, without burning off. This indicates a fundamental flaw in tactics employed for high-intensity fires, which easily breach forestry roads, and inviteoutflanking. Conclusions. The IC wildfire knowledge is built on personal and group experiencerather than formal education. We found reasonable competence, despite the organisations beingdesigned primarily for other purposes. However, tactical understanding of complex, large incidentswas poor. IC training should emphasise potential hazards of such incidents to enhance groupcompetence despite their low frequency. Implications. Standardised tabletop exercises canprovide insight into decision-making of ICs that is otherwise hidden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 230.
    Grigull, Susanne
    et al.
    SGI Sveriges geologiska undersökning, Sweden.
    Evins, Paul
    WSP, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    SGI Statens geotekniska institut, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Ann
    Nitro Consult.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Loorents, Karl-Johan
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Geosigma.
    Svensson, Mats
    Tyréns.
    Swindell, Robert
    Sweco.
    Johan, Thörn
    Bergab / Chalmers.
    Winell, Sofia
    Geosigma.
    Enkätstudie – Insamling och lagring av bergtekniska och hydrogeologiska data2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Insamling av bergtekniska och hydrogeologiska data sker kontinuerligt och i olika faser av bergbyggnadsprojekt. I nuläget är insamlingsprocesserna dock inte standardiserade och det finns inget centralt, nationellt system för att lagra insamlade data. Det är också svårt att värdera eller återanvända data från tidigare projekt och oftast måste all nödvändiga fältdata samlas in från noll inför nya infrastrukturprojekt, även i områden där det finns tidigare bergbyggnation. Arbete inför och under denna förstudie pekar på ett stort behov av dels en tydligare och delvis förbättrad metodik för insamling av data och dels önskemål om en nationell portal för åtkomst till arkiv och databaser, med information från tidigare bergbyggnadsprojekt i ett område.

    Med hjälp av två enkätstudier som skickades ut till olika aktörer i bergbyggbranschen har vi identifierat geologiska, bergtekniska och hydrogeologiska parametrar vars insamlingsmetodik och metodbeskrivningar är i behov av att förbättras och eventuellt standardiseras. Med hjälp av enkätsvaren har befintliga databaslösningar samt önskemål runt funktionaliteten av en framtida nationell databas också analyserats.

    Enkätstudien pekar också på att en standardisering av datainsamlingsprocessen är nödvändig för att säkerställa tillförlitligheten och spårbarheten av data, samt på att standardiserad metodik bör vara anpassad till projektkomplexitet och i möjligaste mån ansluta till nuvarande internationellt accepterad metodik. Studien visar dock även att bergbyggbranschens åsikter är mycket splittrade kring vissa frågor. Hur processen att driva utvecklingen och förvaltandet av metodik, metodbeskrivningar och dataportal/databas är inte heller självklart, eller hur detta ska finansieras och vilka förvaltande organ som ska ansvara.

    Det rekommenderas i denna förstudie att man vid en uppbyggnad av en nationell databas delar upp en sådan i ett sökbart dokumentarkiv och i en parameterdatabas. En eller flera statliga organisationer bör ha huvudansvaret för förvaltning.

    Föreliggande rapport är tänkt att tjäna som beslutsunderlag vid initiering och finansiering av projekt inom det aktuella området. Det rekommenderas starkt att den eller de organisationerna som ska bygga upp ett dokumentarkiv och en nationell parameterdatabas tar hänsyn till de funktionsönskemål som tas upp i rapporten.

    Notera att denna rapport även finns tillgänglig i PDF-format på Stiftelsen BergtekniskForskning – BeFos hemsida. Länkarna i rapporten kan enkelt öppnas direkt från PDF-filen och bilder kan förstoras.

  • 231.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Tianjin Fire Research Institute of MEM, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Yan, Zhigou
    Tongji University, China.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Study on spilled liquid from a continuous leakage in sloped tunnels2022Inngår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 120, artikkel-id 104290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on the behaviors of spilled liquid from a continuously leaked tank in sloped tunnels. Spillage width and area, which impact the potential heat release rates in case of fire, are investigated under different tunnel slopes and leakage flow rates by numerical simulations using interFoam based on the VOF method in the OpenFOAM toolbox following the validation. The simulation results show that the spillage width initially decreases rapidly and then slowly as the tunnel slope increases. Other parameters, including road surface roughness, physical properties of liquid and leakage source height, are also considered. Empirical models for predicting the spillage width and area are established considering both tunnel slope and leakage flow rate. The results may provide guidance for tunnel safety design and drainage system design affiliated with a tank leakage inside a tunnel. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 232.
    Guo, Qinghua
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. Tongji University, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Yan, Zhiguo
    Tongji University, China.
    Zhu, Hehua
    Tongji University, China.
    Theoretical and numerical study on mass flow rates of smoke exhausted from short vertical shafts in naturally ventilated urban road tunnel fires2021Inngår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, artikkel-id 103782Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on the mass flow rate of the buoyancy-driven gases exhausted from the shaft in naturally ventilated urban road tunnel fires. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations are performed. The model to predict the mass flow rate of the incoming smoke exhausted by the nearest shaft is developed by considering that the smoke is exhausted along the four sides of the shaft separately. Based on the heat balance between the incoming smoke exhausted and the total gas flow exhausted, the model to estimate the total mass flow rate exhausted from the shaft (both smoke and entrained air) is also established. Meanwhile, a series of numerical simulation in a naturally ventilated tunnel considering the heat release rate (HRR), the shaft height, shaft length and width, shaft location was carried out. The simulation results show that the shaft height has a limited contribution to the mass flow rate of the incoming smoke exhausted while a larger shaft cross-sectional area shows a favorable performance in exhausting the smoke. Further, the air entrainment into the shaft increases with both the shaft height and shaft cross-sectional area. Comparisons of the mass flow rates of the incoming smoke and the total mass flow rates exhausted between simple calculations and simulations are made, showing that the simple models perform well. Further, it is found that there exist two regimes for the total mass flow rate corresponding to different smoke modes in the shaft (complete plug-holing, plug-holing and without plug-holing), which is caused by the different driven forces in the shaft. The outcomes of this work could provide some guidance for the design of vertical shaft and smoke control in naturally ventilated tunnel in urban area.

  • 233.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Falk, Andreas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Jesper
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Framtidens utmaningar för flervåningshus i trä: Del 2b: Övergripande helhetsperspektiv på flervåningshus2017Inngår i: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, nr 3, s. 50-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 234.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fordon och automatisering.
    Research & Innovation for Electric Roads2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research organizations, industry, and public authoritiesin Sweden and Norway have collaborated within the project “Research and Innovation Platform for Electric Roads” and investigated benefits of Electric Road Systems (ERS) to society, future business ecosystem, and how to support a large-scale deployment. The results cover electricity supply; environmental impact; construction, operations and maintenance; economic impact; business models; and standards. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Full text
  • 235.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Börjesson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Jelica, Darijan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sundelin, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Johnsson, Filip
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taljegård, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Halse, Askill Harkjerr
    Norwegian Institute of Transport Economics, Norway.
    Lina, Nordin
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Käck, Andreas
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Research & Innovation Platform for Electric Road Systems2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government has prioritized achieving a fossil fuel-independent vehicle fleet by 2030 which will require radical transformation of the transport industry. Electrifying the vehicle fleet forms an important part of this transformation. For light vehicles, electrification using batteries and charging during parking is already well advanced. For city buses, charging at bus stops and bus depots is being developed, but for heavy, long-distance road transport, batteries with enough capacity to provide sufficient range would be too cumbersome and too much time would have to be spent stationary for charging.

    One solution might be the introduction of electric roads, supplying the moving vehicle with electricity both to power running and for charging. In the longer term, this approach could also be used for light vehicles and buses.

    The objective of the Research and Innovation Platform for Electric Roads was to enhance Swedish and Nordic research and innovation in this field, this has been done by developing a joint knowledge base through collaboration with research institutions, universities, public authorities, regions, and industries.

    The work of the Research and Innovation Platform was intended to create clarity concerning the socioeconomic conditions, benefits, and other effects associated with electric roads. We have investigated the benefits from the perspectives of various actors, implementation strategies, operation and maintenance standards, proposed regulatory systems, and factors conducive of the acceptance and development of international collaborative activities.

    The project commenced in the autumn of 2016 and the main research continued until December 2019, the work during year 2020 has been focused on knowledge spread and coordination with the Swedish-Germany research collaboration on ERS (CollERS). The results of the Research and Innovation Platform have been disseminated through information meetings, seminars, and four annual international conferences. Reports have been published in the participating partners’ ordinary publication series and on www.electricroads.org. The project was funded by Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation (FFI) and the Swedish Transport Administration.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 236.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fordon och automatisering.
    Börjesson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kenani Dahlgren, Henrik
    Ericsson, Sweden.
    Revenue Management for Electric Road Systems2019Inngår i: Proc. EVS32, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric Road Systems (ERS) is a technology area that has the potential to significantly reduce fossil fuel dependency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce air pollution, reduce noise in urban environments, and increase energy efficiency in the transport sector. ERS deployed in commercial operation will need to charge for the use of infrastructure, electric energy and potentially other services. An ERS revenue management solution need to handle use cases with multiple actors, roles and commercial relationships. In addition, the future revenue management solutions should be interoperable and independent of business models in order to flexibly meet the needs of new situations for emerging ERS.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 237.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria. RISE.
    Hacker, Florian
    Öko-Institut e.V., Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg, Germany.
    Overview of ERS concepts and complementary technologies2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 238.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fordon och automatisering.
    Harkjerr Halse, Askill
    Institute of Transport Economics, Gaustadalléen, Norway.
    Socioeconomic Analysis of Electric Road Systems2019Inngår i: Proc. of EVS32, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric road systems (ERS) is a technology area that has the potential to significantly reduce fossil fuel dependency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce air pollution, and increase energy efficiency in the transport sector. The implementation of ERS at national and international levels will however be associated with large investments and it is therefore important to study the economic impact and benefits for the society. The present work describes methodology for conducting socioeconomic analysis on electrification of an existing road infrastructure.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 239.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Maturity of power transfer technologies for electric road systems2020Inngår i: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, April 27-30, 2020, Helsinki, Finland, Finnish Transport and Communications Agency , 2020Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the method associated with Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and previous efforts, this article provides a maturity assessment of several electric road system (ERS) technologies with focus on the power transfer technology subsystem, and the transition context is also discussed. ERS involves electric power transfer from the road to the vehicle while the vehicle is in motion and could be achieved through different technologies such as rail, overhead line, and wireless solutions. ERS is a technology area with immense potential to reduce fossil fuel dependency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce air pollution as well as reduce noise in urban environments, while increasing energy efficiency in the transport sector. There are numerous promising ERS development and demonstration projects globally since several years. However, the investment cost for large-scale deployment of ERS is considerable and decision makers will require knowledge about how mature different solutions are compared to other transportation solutions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    TRA2020_Gustavsson_Lindgren_Maturity_ERS
  • 240.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Mottschall, Moritz
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Real-world experiences of ERS: Best practices from demonstration projects in Sweden and Germany2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Demonstration projects currently underway will test Electric Road Systems (ERS) along public roads and in real-life environments, addressing various legal, political, economic, and efficiency aspects of ERS. Public road tests provide decision makers and investors with a foundation for further investments that would bring ERS to commercial operation. 

    At the time of writing, Sweden and Germany together represent the largest collection of real-world experiences in ERS: The Swedish Transport Administration has funded four demonstration projects along public roads in Sweden, and has also initiated planning of a full-scale ERS pilot. Similarly, in Germany there are two ongoing demonstration projects along public roads and the German federal government is funding the construction of one additional demonstration project.

    The purpose of this report is to report best practices from

    • demonstrations of ERS technologies along public roads in Sweden, and
    • procurement and the start of ERS demonstration projects in Germany.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Real-world_expericences_of_ERS-CollERS-20200924
  • 241.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Mottschall, Moritz
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Hacker, Florian
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Jöhrens, Julius
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Johnsson, Filip
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taljegård, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bernecker, Tobias
    Heilbronn University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Key Messages on Electric Roads: Executive Summary from the CollERS Project2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric road systems (ERS) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. The market-ready ERS drive systems are characterised by high energy efficiency and low operational costs compared to fossil fuels and biofuels for combustion engines.

    The introduction of ERS will depend on governmental support, balancing the overall need for GHG-reduction with the business perspectives of the transport market and the energy market.

    There is an urgent need to establish standards for core components and important interfaces in order to build confidence among potential ERS users.

    Since ERS will take time to scale up, we should begin to transform the electricity system to meet the demand for ERS while also meeting GHG reduction goals aligned with strong climate policies.

    There is a need to clarify whether an ERS system is part of the road infrastructure market or the energy market, and to define the role of the public sector in ERS deployment.

    Since a significant part of long-haul road freight transport is international, ERS deployment will benefit from cross-country cooperation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    CollERS_Key_Messages_on_ERS_20210326
  • 242.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI, Sweden.
    Forsknings- och innovationsplattform för elvägar: Resultat från samarbete mellan forskning, industri och myndigheter2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att lyckas uppnå en fossilbränsleoberoende fordonsflotta och minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser krävs en radikal omvandling av transportbranschen. Att elektrifiera fordon är en viktig del i omvandlingen. En del av en sammansatt lösning kan vara elektriska vägar som förser fordon med el, för både framdrift och laddning, medan de kör. Med elvägar kan våra personbilar ha mindre batterier än i dagsläget, men ändå köra långt. Elbussar i stadstrafik behöver inte stanna och ladda på hållplatser. Utöver detta möjliggör elvägar elektrifiering av tunga långväga godstransporter, för vilka batterikapaciteten annars kan vara en utmaning. Forsknings- och innovations-plattform för elvägar Hur tar vi steget från att testa elvägsteknik till storskalig drift? Hur ser affärsekosystemet ut och hur kan gränssnitten standardiseras? Vilka är fördelarna för samhället? Aktörer från forskning, industri och myndigheter har samarbetat i ett gemensamt projekt för att tillsammans undersöka dessa frågor – och mycket mer. I det här dokumentet presenterar vi kortfattat projektets resultat per forskningsområde.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 243.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI, Sweden.
    Research & Innovation Platform for Electric Road Systems: Results from collaboration between research organizations, industry, and public authorities2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving a fossil fuel-independent vehicle fleet and reducing greenhouse gas emissions will require a radical transformation of the transport industry. Electrifying the vehicle fleet forms an important part of this transformation. One part of a complete, socieTy-wide solution could be electric roads that supply vehicles with electricity, to both power them and charge them as they drive. With electric roads, cars can have smaller batteries than at present, but still drive long distances. Electric buses in cities would not need to stop to charge at bus stops. Of equal significance, electric roads facilitate the electrification of heavy long-distance road freight, for which battery capacity would otherwise be a challenge. Research & Innovation Platform for Electric Road Systems How do we take the step from testing electric road technology to large-scale deployment? What does the business ecosystem look like and how can interfaces be standardized? What are the benefits to society? Actors from research organizations, industry, and public authorities have collaborated on a joint project to investigate these questions and much more. In this document, we briefly present the project’s results in each research area.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 244.
    Gustavsson, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Björnlund, Linus
    Conservator AB, Sweden.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    Conservator AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Mats
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Olof
    Moistenginst AB, Sweden.
    Sikander, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Fuktsäkra byggnader: en nulägesbeskrivning2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Boverket ser ett behov av en kunskapssammanställning kring nuläget om fuktsäkra byggnader i Sverige för att ha en så bred och korrekt förståelse som möjligt för vem branschen är, vilka regler som tillämpas, var det finns kunskapscentra och vilka utvecklingsbehov som behöver stödjas för att branschen ska kunna ta större ansvar. De utmaningar som noteras är: Byggsektorn beredskap och förmåga att möta de nya förändrade byggregler som planeras av Boverket.

    Den stora andelen fuktrelaterade fel och skador som rapporteras i olika utredningar. Kraven kopplat till fuktrelaterade innemiljöproblem är otydliga och ofta svåra att följa upp. Detta kan leda till fuktrelaterade innemiljöproblem som orsakar lidande för de individer som drabbas.Miljö och klimatfrågan ställer krav både på resurseffektivitet och minskad klimatpåverkan samt resiliens och klimatanpassning. Förändrade boendevanor och brukarvanor som ändrar på förutsättningarna i en byggnad. Fragmentering och specialisering med många aktörer med ansvar för sin del endast. Några utvecklingsområden har noterats. Områden där det behövs både forskning och utveckling av teknik, processer och samarbeten: Kvalitetssäkring av nya material, konstruktioner och produktionsmetoderKompetensutveckling och kompetensspridning.Framtagning och tillgängliggörande av kunskap, teknikutveckling. Samsyn behöver utvecklas när det gäller bl.a. uttorkning i betong och i vilken omfattning byggnader behöver skyddas mot fukt under byggproduktionen. Undersökning av utvecklingsmöjligheter behövs för att ta vara på digitaliseringens möjligheter med sensorer, digitala tvillingar, AI m.m. i samband med fuktsäkerhet. Kartläggningen skulle förstärkas med en bredare internationell utblick. Det tycks finnas en del skillnader både i arbetssätt och erfarenheter kring fuktsäkra byggnader.Förhoppningen är att kartläggning av fuktsäkra byggnader ska bidra till kunskapsspridning om bransch, aktörer, teknik, system, konstruktion, kontroller, drift och underhåll samt forskning och fortsatt utvecklingsarbete.

  • 245.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Connected Automated Vehicles: Technologies, Developments, and Trends2021Inngår i: International Encyclopedia of Transportation / [ed] Roger Vickerman, Elsevier, 2021, s. 180-188Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 246.
    Hacker, Florian
    et al.
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Mottschall, Moritz
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Jöhrens, Julius
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Kräck, Jan
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Rücker, Julius
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    National and EU freight transport strategies: Status quo and perspectives and implications for the introduction of electric road systems (ERS)2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    National and international freight transport in Europe is significantly influenced by both, national and the European Union (EU) strategies and regulations. The successful market launch of Electric Road Systems (ERS) can only succeed with knowledge of the current state of the European freight transport system and its framework conditions. Within the framework of the collERS project, a possible ERS corridor between Sweden and Germany via Denmark is being investigated. The present paper therefore examines the current strategic orientation of freight transport in the affected countries and at EU level with a view to a possible introduction of ERS. The aim is to identify barriers and opportunities for ERS on a national and European level as well as potential fields of governmental action and possible conflicts with regard to a successful international market ramp-up of ERS.

     

    After an overview of the economic and ecological importance of the European transport sector, the following section first deals with the development of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transport and especially in road freight transport at national and European level. In this context, strategies for reducing GHG emissions in transport that have been adopted so far will also be discussed.

     

    Subsequently, an overview of the socio-economic conditions in the countries considered and their logistics markets is given and possible opportunities and risks for the use of ERS are discussed.

     

    A look at the status and perspectives of freight transport in the countries under consideration and at the available transport infrastructure provides further indications of the importance that alternative drive technologies could have for road freight transport in the future.

     

    The analysis of the framework in terms of policy measures in the transport sector provides an overview of the conditions already existing or to be expected at EU and national level for the use of alternative propulsion technologies in road freight transport.

     

    Finally, based on the preceding analyses, the possible implications of the existing framework conditions in the transport sector for the introduction of ERS are discussed and potential fields of action are defined.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    CollERS_Freight_Transport_Strategies_ERS_20200603
  • 247.
    Hagentoft, C-E
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Stochastic simulation of rain intrusion through small defects due to water rivulet overpressure. Introducing a driving rain leakage potential2021Inngår i: 'Journal of Physics: Conference Series , IOP Publishing Ltd , 2021, Vol. 2069, nr 1Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need of upgrading the old building stock with respect to the thermal insulation of the building envelope and specifically the façades. There are several systems on the market, and some are quite new and innovative. To bring down the cost some of the systems many are based on prefabricated moisture tight insulated units. This means that in case there is moisture tight barrier on the interior side, two moisture tight barriers surround the wall structure. The leakage of driving rain into the structure then represents a major threat to the durability of these systems. This paper investigates the pressure build up in water rivulets running down a façade acting together with the wind pressure. A driving rain leakage potential is introduced. Using real weather data years and Monte Carlo Simulations, the mean and standard deviation of the annual leakage through small hole is estimated. The examples show that the leakage can reach a level 0-0.5 liter/year for a hole with a diameter of 1-2 mm, and 0.5-3 liter/year for a diameter of 3-4 mm.

  • 248.
    Haukø, Anne-Marit
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Garberg Olsø, Brynhild
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Yang, Aileen
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Aamodt, Andreas
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Samuelsen, Per Henning
    Oslobygg KF, Norway.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Functional testing of ventilation systems in schools during activated fire alarm - Coherence with the fire safety strategy2022Inngår i: RISE rapport 2022:72. https://ri.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1657152/FULLTEXT01.pdf, 2022, s. 63-64Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to present results from functional testing of ventilation systems in schools during activated fire alarm. It was investigated whether the results had coherence with the ventilation strategy in the fire safety concept and the function description for the ventilation system. Functional testing was performed at several schools in three different municipalities in Norway. Results from the preliminary mapping showed that some of the personnel responsible for maintenance of the ventilation systems lacked knowledge about the system's function during fire. Older schools often don't have a fire safety strategy at all, whereas newer schools and renovated schools normally have well documented fire safety strategies, including the ventilation system's function during fire. However, there is little or no information in the building's MOM-documentation (management, operation and maintenance) about how functional testing must be performed. The functional testing showed several incoherencies with the fire safety strategy of the school buildings.

  • 249.
    Haukø, Anne-Marit
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Wedvik, Barbro
    NIKU, Norway.
    Bergius, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Upgrading of Fire Resistance to Architectural Heritage Escape Route Timber Doors2023Inngår i: International Journal of Architectural Heritage, ISSN 1558-3058, E-ISSN 1558-3066Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Original timber stairwell doors in historic masonry apartment buildings of architectural heritage value can be found in the larger cities of Norway. In Oslo, there are around 4000 such buildings, of which many still hold preserved original stairwell doors. The doors often have glass with decorative patterns in the upper parts, and timber panels on the lower part. Old residential buildings are vulnerable to fire due to the building construction and need fire protection upgrades. The stairwell doors are critical elements to prevent fire spread and to keep evacuation routes safe, so their function and condition are important to the level of fire protection in the building. The research work in this paper aims to find retrofit methods for upgrading the fire resistance of these types of doors so they maintain their integrity and insulating properties for up to 30 minutes, at the same time as they maintain their architectural expression. The upgrades must be as little intrusive and destructive as possible. Intermediate scale tests were carried out in a fire resistance test furnace, using different door configurations. The tests lasted between 30 minutes and 42 minutes, with a thermal exposure from the standard time/temperature curve described in EN 1363–1. The results from the tests showed that 40 mm thick laminated wood could withstand up to 30 minutes of fire exposure, thin timber panels could be upgraded using stone wool and robust gypsum boards type R, and that fire-resistant glass could be mounted on the inside of the original glass in different ways. Visual observations indicate that adding smoke seals inside the door leaf are effective for stopping cold and hot smoke. The solutions presented enables the preservation of the original doors’ architectural design, their historical values and aesthetic character. 

  • 250.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Shi, Zhicheng
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Yang, Hui
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Zhang, Heping
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study on flame characteristics of double fires in a naturally ventilated tunnel: Flame merging, flame tilt angle and flame height2021Inngår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 114, artikkel-id 103912Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of fire tests was carried out to investigate the diffusion flame characteristics of double fires generated from separated burners in a naturally ventilated tunnel, considering different heat release rates and fire separation distances. The results show that the flame tilt angle, as well as the horizontal projected flame length, first increases with fire separation distance and then remains constant, but the vertical flame length first decreases and then remains constant, which is different from two fires in free spaces where flames do not tilt when the separation distance is relatively long. This difference is caused by the non-dimensional fire induced air flow velocity in the tunnel, which is mainly related to the tunnel cross-section dimensions and burner radius. Three regions can be identified, i.e. flame vertical merging, plume vertical merging and non-merging with flame tilted. The critical flame merging separation distance, estimated by the flame merging probability, is greater than that of two fires in an open environment due to the fire-induced air flows. The merging flame height is lower than that of a single fire with a same heat release rate. A correlation was proposed to estimate flame height of two fires in a tunnel by the modified non-dimensional heat release rate using an air entrainment perimeter as the characteristic length. This work enhances the understanding of diffusion flame behaviors of double fires in naturally ventilated tunnels.

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