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  • 201.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    larsson, Ida
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Self heating and off-gassing from biomass pellets during storage2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hedenstedt, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jones, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Rekommendation för proaktivt brandskyddsarbete2019Report (Other academic)
  • 203.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Trella, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Bergérus Rensvik, Åsa
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Brandsäkerhet vid lagring av avfallsbränslen2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt har varit att ge ökad kunskap kring olika förekommande brandrisker och råd om hur dessa kan reduceras med olika åtgärder, primärt baserat på praktiska erfarenheter från genomfört säkerhetsarbete samt uppkomna bränder ute i olika anläggningar. Målet är att de samlade kunskaperna och erfarenheterna kan komma till nytta för hela branschen, övriga berörda intressenter och myndigheter och på sikt ligga till grund för t.ex. framtida branschrekommendationer.

    Projektet kan delas in metodmässigt i; statistik, workshoppar samt analys av anläggningsspecifik information.

    Analysen av insatsstatistik från Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) pekar på att det inträffar i storleksordningen 60–70 bränder årligen i avfallsanläggningar och att brandorsaken i de flesta fall är självantändning eller okänd anledning. Tittar man på "brand ej i byggnad" med relevanta bränder för avfallsanläggningar så ser man en svagt ökande trend i antal bränder 2012–2015. 

    De vanligaste materialfraktionerna som enligt statistik från MSB är kopplade till bränder i avfallsanläggningar är sopor, kompost, fluff, papper, trädgårdsavfall, däckgranulat, annat, skrot, återvinningscontainrar. Även en del av flisbränderna kan vara relaterade till RT-trä.

    Från avfallsindustrins sida ansågs bark, returträ, flisat material och GROT (grenar och toppar) kunna ge problem med självuppvärmning. Även krossning av avfall angavs som ett generellt problem av flera deltagare.

    Många incidenter och bränder anses bero på felsorterat eller feldeklarerat avfall och kontrollen av inkommande gods är därför väldigt viktig. Det är också viktigt att kommunicera uppströms i leveranskedjan för att öka chanserna att komma tillrätta med problemen. Många deltagare identifierade batterier (speciellt litiumbatterier) som ett växande problem.

    Hanteringen av förorenat släckvatten varierar mycket. Man påpekar att samma krav över hela landet vore bra. Man önskar tydligare riktlinjer för släckvattenanalyser, kunskap om vad vattnet kan innehålla och information om reningsmetoder för släckvatten.

    Det påpekas att det finns många standarder och normer att förhålla sig till så det vore därför bra att ha en lägsta nivå av krav som bestäms i samarbete med branschen som man kan förhålla sig till och någon form av vägledning från myndigheterna för göra hanteringen mer lik över riket.

    Diskussionerna under workshopparna och tillsammans med projektets referensgrupp har lett fram till 33 rekommendationer uppdelade på olika områden. För varje rekommendation ges i rapporten ytterligare förklaringar. Dessa rekommendationer kan ligga till grund för framtida riktlinjer.

  • 204.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Stripple, Håkan
    Rosén, Bengt
    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie
    Axelsson, Jesper
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Simonson, Margaret
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Emissions from Fires – Methods, Models and Measurements2007In: Proceedings of the 11th International Fire Science & Engineering Conference (Interflam 2007), 2007, , p. 1625-1630Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Lund University, Sweden.
    Palm, Anders
    Storstockholms Brandförsvar, Sweden.
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fridolf, Karl
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Lund University, Sweden.
    Recommendations for Firefighting in Underground Facilities2016In: Proceedings from the 7th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, 2016, p. 115-125Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for a successful fire and rescue operation in an underground facility, e.g., a tunnel, introduces challenges both in the planning phase and during the incident. This is because these types of facilities can be very complex, and thus, specific tactics are needed compared to the more common incidents, e.g. in residential premises. When planning a fire and rescue operation and developing the tactics many different aspects need to be considered: complexity of the facility, the expected number of people involved in the operation, information available about the incident, the purpose of operation, etc. This paper contains recommendations for firefighting in underground facilities. The recommendations are structured in accordance to the sequential time period during which some specific fire safety design measures are taken. These periods are the design phase, the construction phase and finally when the facility is in operation. The recommendations presented in this paper are based on the results of the Swedish TMU research project (Tactics and methodologies for firefighting in underground facilities), results from other research projects and experience from real fire and rescue operations.

  • 206.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Palm, Anders
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Kumm, Mia
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Fridolf, Karl
    Rekommendationer för räddningsinsatser i undermarksanläggningar2015Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 207. Meyer, G
    et al.
    Berglund, R
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Kumm, Mia
    Full-Scale Commuter Train Explosion Test2012Report (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Månsson, Margret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Babrauskas, Vytenis
    TOXFIRE - Fire characteristics and smoke gas analyses in under-ventilated large-scale combustion experiments1996Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 209. Nyman, Hans
    et al.
    Dittmer, Torkel
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Model scale tests of a single exit underground station2012Report (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Palm, Anders
    et al.
    Greater Stockholm Fire Brigade, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Storm, Artur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Breathing air consumption during different firefighting methods in underground mining environment2022In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 133, article id 103661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses the breathing air consumption among participating firefighters during full-scale tests performed in the Tistbrottet mine in Sweden 2013. The availability of breathing air during firefighting has in earlier work been identified as a critical tactical factor in underground firefighting. Results from the tests show that there are differences in the breathing air consumption and that this depends on the methods used, equipment and the workload. The use of BA-teams, i.e. firefighters equipped with breathing apparatuses, is a complex group activity where the largest breathing air consumer will set the limits for the whole team. Light equipment and a structured command and control during the activities will enhance the endurance and the firefighting performance. Equipment and methods affect both firefighting performance and the durability of the firefighting activities. Examples of tested methods and equipment during the test series are: different variations of conventional hose lay-out; CAFS; cutting extinguisher; and trolley for equipment and complementary air. The aid of additional air supply and the use of trolleys will support the activities but is dependent on a large degree of preparation and training to function properly. Based on the tests, it is concluded that the larger model of air bottles should be considered for distances longer than 75 m. © 2022 The Authors

  • 211.
    Persson, Bror
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    FOAMSPEX: Large Scale Foam Application-Modelling of Foam Spread and Extinguishment2003In: Fire Technology, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 347-362Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Persson, Bror
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Large Scale Foam Application – Modelling of Foam Spread and Extinguishment2003In: Fire Technology, no 39, p. 347-362Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 213.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Claesson, Alexander
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Piku Amen, Malika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lagring av biobränsle och avfall - Statistik och erfarenheter från incidenter och bränder: summerande rapport2014Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 214.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Claesson, Alexander
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Piku Amen, Malika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lagring av biobränsle och avfall: Statistik och erfarenheter från incidenter och bränder2014Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 215.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Ökade brandrisker med störe lagringsvolymer av fasta biobränslen2013In: Energimagasinet, no 3, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 216.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Tank fires-Review of fire incidents 1951-20032004Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature review has been conducted to gather information related to the extinguishment of actual tank fires and relevant large-scale fire extingiuishing tests. The aim was to search for data that could be used for validation of foam spread models. In total, 480 tank fire incidents have been identified worldwide since the 1950s and the information collected has been compiled into a database. A list of the incident with some data is provided in this report. Out of the 480 fire incidents, only about 30 fires have provided relevant nformation for model validation. A more detailed summary of the exising data from these fires is also provided in this report.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 217.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Persson, Bror
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Modelling of foam spread on a burning liquid2001In: Interflam 2001. International Interflam Conference. 9th proceedings. Vol. 1. September 17-19., Interscience Communications Ltd , 2001, , p. 291-302Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 218.
    Pushp, Mohit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Arun Chaudhari, Ojas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Vikegard, Peter
    Waters Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ghafar, Ali Nejad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Specific heat and excess heat capacity of grout with phase change materials using heat conduction microcalorimetry2023In: Construction and Building Materials, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 401, p. 132915-132915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microencapsulated phase-change-materials (PCMs) incorporated in cementitious grout can be used as a source of energy in an underground thermal energy storage system. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique to measure the latent heat or specific heat of PCM-embedded cementitious materials. However, using milligram sample sizes (as required by DSC) of a cementitious material fails to represent the actual scale of cementitious components. This is the reason why, in the present paper, non-isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry (MC) was evaluated as a tool for determining the thermal properties of PCM-embedded grout as well as pure PCM (three PCMs were used). An MC experimental protocol (using both single and 5–6 temperature cycles) was developed and used to measure latent heat and melting and crystallization temperatures, which were in good agreement with those reported for pure PCMs by the producers. In addition, the specific heats of the PCM-containing grout also agreed with measurements using the hot disk technique. Overall, the results show that the MC technique can be used as a potential standard method in determining thermal processes in complex systems, such as in PCM-embedded cementitious systems, where a large sample size is needed to represent the material.

  • 219.
    Pushp, Mohit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hedenqvist, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Vikegard, P.
    Waters Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Heat production in municipal and industrial waste as revealed by isothermal microcalorimetry2022In: Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry (Print), ISSN 1388-6150, E-ISSN 1588-2926, Vol. 147, no 15, p. 8271-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-ignited fires at municipal solid waste (MSW) storage sites are relatively common. The minimization of the phenomenon of self-heating in the waste can reduce the risks for smouldering combustion. The purpose of this work was to develop a method that can be used to measure and characterize the heat production in MSW. The method is based on isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry (IMC). The heat production in MSW was determined based on sampling from two sites in two different geographical locations in Sweden. Both the original waste and milled/homogenised waste were tested. The heat production was measured at different temperatures together with gas analysis using micro-gas chromatography. The activity in the waste, in terms of its heat flow, increased when the temperature increased up to 60 °C and decreased at higher temperatures, e.g., 70 and 80 °C. The consumption of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide, together with the heat production, indicated that aerobic metabolism was responsible for the heat production. This is further strengthened by the marginal heat production observed for ultraviolet treated waste. The results showed that IMC is a valuable tool for characterising the self-heating in municipal and industrial waste. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 220.
    Pushp, Mohit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Vikegard, Peter
    Waters Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Wei, Xin-Feng
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ageing tests closer to real service conditions using hyper-sensitive microcalorimetry, a case study on EPDM rubber2023In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 120, article id 107948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated thermal ageing (ATA) coupled to mechanical testing is widely used to predict the lifetime of polymeric products. ATA implies that the mechanisms of ageing are the same at accelerated and service conditions, which may often not be the case. Hence, ageing closer to service conditions is of high importance, but require very sensitive tools. Therefore, a high sensitivity microcalorimetry (MC) method was applied here to assess if it can be a possible tool for lifetime/ageing prediction closer to service conditions. We chose to focus on a complex, yet commonly used, ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. Arrhenius extrapolation of the heat flow data indicated two regimes at low and high temperature, with the former having the lower activation energy. The heat flow values measured by the MC revealed contributions from processes such as the melting of the antioxidant, its consumption at low temperature and the breakdown of residual peroxide. MC tests on the EPDM indicated a very low degree of oxidation appearing above 100 °C, too low to be observed with infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), but noticeable with MC. The high sensitivity of the MC techniques enabled detection of early signs of polymer degradation/ageing and other thermally activated processes that take place at or close to service temperatures (such as those in nuclear power plants). The MC tests were combined with other techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, gas chromatography techniques, differential scanning calorimetry and FTIR to further understand the degradation mechanisms. © 2023 The Authors

  • 221.
    Sedlmayer, Irene
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria; BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Germany.
    Arshadi, Mehrdad
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Haslinger, Walter
    BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Germany; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hofbauer, Hermann
    Vienna university of Technology, Austria.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Nilsson, Calle
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Pollex, Annett
    DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Schmidl, Christoph
    BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Germany.
    Stelte, Wolfgang
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wopienka, Elisabeth
    BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Germany.
    Bauer-Emhofer, Waltraud
    BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Germany; Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Determination of off-gassing and self-heating potential of wood pellets – Method comparison and correlation analysis2018In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 234, p. 894-903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several methods for identifying the phenomena of self-heating and off-gassing during production, transportation and storage of wood pellets have been developed in recent years. Research focused on the exploration of the underlying mechanisms, influencing factors or the quantification of self-heating or off-gassing tendencies. The present study aims at identifying a clear correlation between self-heating and off-gassing. Thus, different methods for determining self-heating and off-gassing potentials of wood pellets are compared. Therefore, eleven wood pellet batches from the European market were analyzed. For this investigation, three methods for the determination of self-heating, like isothermal calorimetry, oxi-press and thermogravimetric analysis, and four methods for off-gassing, like volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions measurements, gas phase analysis of stored pellets in a closed container by offline and by glass flask method and determination of fatty and resin acids content, were performed. Results were ranked according to the self-heating and off-gassing tendency providing a common overview of the analyzed pellets batches. Relations between different methods were investigated by Spearman's correlation coefficient. Evaluation of the results revealed an equal suitability of offline and glass flask methods to predict off-gassing tendency and indicated a very significant correlation with isothermal calorimetry for the identification of self-heating tendency. The thermogravimetric analysis as well as the fatty and resin acids determination proved to be insufficient for the exclusive assessment of self-heating and off-gassing tendency, respectively.

  • 222.
    Vylund, Lotta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Seminarie om räddningsinsatser under mark väckte stort intresse2014In: Brandposten, no 51, p. 36-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 223.
    Yao, Yongzheng
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Study of tunnel fires during construction using a model scale tunnel2019In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 89, p. 50-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a study on the characteristics of tunnel fires during construction. A model-scale tunnel was built and fire tests were conducted. The tunnel consists of an inclined access tunnel and a horizontal main tunnel. The main tunnel has two dead ends (excavation faces) and the only opening is from one side of the access tunnel. Propane gas burner and the fibre board soaked with the heptane were used as fuels. The flame characteristics, O 2 and CO volume fraction and gas temperature were measured and recorded. Two typical characteristics of self-extinguishment and smoke spread were found in the tunnel fires during construction. Results indicate that when a fire occurs in the horizontal main tunnel, the critical equivalence ratio for the occurrence of self-extinguishment is within 0.28–1.38 for the propane gas burner and 1.11–3.6 for the fibre board soaked with heptane. The difference is related to the burning behavior of the different fuels used. The fire location in the horizontal tunnel also has a significant influence on the fire development. A well-ventilated fire at the center of the horizontal tunnel becomes under-ventilated due to vitiation when it is located at the closed end of the horizontal tunnel. Besides, when a fire occurs at the closed end of the horizontal main tunnel, the stratification of smoke is destroyed after hitting the closed end, and then the smoke seems to spread over the entire cross section of the tunnel. The smoke spread velocity is found to be proportional to the ventilation rate. However, when a fire occurs at the closed end of the inclined access tunnel (lower end), the fire does not self-extinguish, even when the ventilation rate is 0 m 3 /s. The corresponding smoke spread velocity is higher than that in the horizontal main tunnel. The outcomes of this study provide new experimental information that contributes to improve the understanding of characteristics of tunnel fires during construction and can help firefighters to make better decisions during the rescue processes.

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