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  • 201.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Wickström, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    The international FORUM of fire research directors: A position paper on future actions for improvning road tunnel fire safety2006In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 111-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 202.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Wickström, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Under threat2011In: FRM Journal, no 2, p. 25-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Wickström, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    The Gothenburg discotheque fire investigation2001In: Interflam 2001. International Interflam Conference. 9th proceedings. Vol. 2. September 17-19., Interscience Communications Ltd , 2001, , p. 965-976Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Ji, Jie
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Sun, Jin Hua
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study of non-monotonous sidewall effect on flame characteristics and burning rate of n-heptane pool fires2015In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 145, p. 228-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the influence of sidewall effect on flame characteristics and burning rate, a series of experiments with heptane pools was conducted. The results showed that as the fires were placed close to the sidewall, the flames inclined to the sidewall due to the restriction on air entrainment, and the burning rate increased on the whole, which could be mainly due to the enhanced radiation from the heated sidewall and ceiling flame. However, regardless of fuel pool shape, the burning rate obtained the peak value when the fire was near the sidewall, rather than attached to the sidewall, resulting from less flame radiation from the vertical flame part to the fuel in the latter case. The ratio of longitudinal ceiling flame length to transverse length tended to decrease with the fire moving close to the sidewall. For cases with the largest length and wall fires, the ratio was nearly 0.5, which could be explained according to the theory of mirror effect. Also, due to the non-monotonous sidewall effect, a higher burning rate did not necessarily lead to a larger ceiling flame length.

  • 205.
    Jiang, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Use of mobile fans during tunnel fires2020In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 106, article id 103618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoke control is a key issue in tunnel fire accidents. While jet fans have been widely used in road tunnels, mobile fans provide a good complement, due to its flexibility to operate, especially if there are no fixed jet fans present. To confirm the feasibility of a mobile fan system, full scale fire tests were conducted in Kalldal tunnel in Sweden, with fire size in the range of 1–2.6 MW and a mobile fan placed at the tunnel portal. In the tests, it takes about 4–5 min to establish full flow in the opposite direction and the final flow velocity can reach 1.5–1.9 m/s. To describe the transient behavior of flow development inside tunnel, a one-dimensional lumped theoretical model has been developed. The model takes into account the pressure losses of external wind, the stack effect of fire and friction losses over tunnel walls and two portals. The model is validated using the data from Kalldal tunnel fire tests. Results show that the model can well predict the initial and final steady state velocity, but underestimates the flow development. The model gives prediction on the safe side.

  • 206.
    Jiang, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. Ningbo University, China.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Effect of opening geometries on fire development in a ro-ro space2023In: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, p. 272-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of model scale experiments were conducted to study the fire development in a ro-ro deck with various opening geometries. The experiments were performed in a 1/8 reduced scale model with a heptane pool fire as fire source. Experimental results show that both the ventilation factor and the opening position affect the fire development. The critical opening ratio for the fire to self-extinguish is 4%, with the opening locating at the bottom of the side walls while no self-extinction is found for other tests. A higher opening position and a larger opening height provide better flow exchange between the deck and the ambient, but this effect is only obvious for 4% opening. Numerical study shows that Fire Dynamic Simulator used with default simple settings underestimates the fire development and yields an early extinction when fire self-extinction occurs. For freely developed fire with large openings, FDS gives more close results to experiments.

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  • 207.
    Kim, Hak Kuen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Comparison of road tunneldesign guidelines2008In: Proceedings from the Third International Symposium on Tunnel Safety, SP , 2008, , p. 107-118Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Kim, Hak Kuen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Effective Firefighting Operations in Road Tunnels2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to develop operational procedures for fire brigades in road tunnels. Although much progress has been achieved in various fields of fire safety in tunnels, very little attention has been paid specifically to fire fighting in tunnels. This study is focused on obtaining more information concerning how effectively the fire brigade can fight road tunnel fires and what limitations and threats fire brigades may be faced with. This knowledge can help parties involved in tunnel safety to understand safety issues and enhance the level of fire safety in road tunnels. The report is divided into three main parts. The first part consists of a review of relevant studies and experiments concerning various key parameters for fire safety and emergency procedures. The history of road tunnel fires is then summarised and analyzed. Among all road tunnel fires, three catastrophic tunnel fires are highlighted, focusing on the activities of fire brigades and the operation of technical fire safety facilities. In the second part specific firefighting operations are developed. This has been based on previous experience and new findings from experiments performed in the study. In the last part, information is given on how the proposed firefighting operations can be applied to the management of fire safety for road tunnels. Two proposals are developed and presented: fire scenarios for firefighting strategies and tunnel classification models for risk management for fire brigades.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 209.
    Kumm, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Entrainment in a Free Jet Generated by a Positive Pressure Ventilator2014In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 1499-1515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of a simple flow model to describe the entrainment into the air cone created by a positive pressure ventilator (PPV) fan are compared to experimental data. Velocity profiles measured in the air cone of a conventional PPV ventilator are used. The entrainment coefficient and the cone angle were determined for the fan investigated. The correspondence between calculated and measured values is discussed and disparities explained. The findings from the tests are turned into practical guidance for the fire brigade and the advantages and limitations of the simplified model are discussed.

  • 210.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Ny teknik kan ge säkrare räddningsinsatser2015In: Brandposten, no 52, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 211. Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Unika försök ger säkrare tunnelbana2011In: Brandsäkert, no 7, p. 28-30Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 212.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Storm, Artur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hådell, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Räddningsinsatser med och utan säker tillgång till släckvatten i spårtunnlar2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and rescue operations in buildings require systems that secure access to water for firefighting. The working environment for the firefighters and the risks they are exposed to differ substantially between enclosure fires and fires in tunnels. Traditionally, fire and rescue operations in tunnels in Sweden have included build-up of the hose system parallel with advancement towards the fire. Both real life fires and full-scale firefighting tests have shown the challenges with slow moving speeds when the hose system is built up. In cases when water is not required for extinguishment or self-protection, the simultaneous hose build-up leads to a less effective rescue operation. This report compiles previous research and knowledge regarding fire and rescue operations in underground constructions and suggests a risk-based approach where the required safety level is adapted to the fire-related conditions in rail tunnels. Indicators related to the firefighters’ safety are presented and the need of future research is identified.

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    fulltext
  • 213.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Wirström, Niklas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Nilsson, Martin
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Safety positioning for first responders to fires in underground constructions: A pre-study of demands and possibilities2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of the SafePos pre-study, in which different technologies for safety positioning to be used by first responders were identified, and techniques for ad hoc positioning were evaluated. The aim of the project, was to test various systems for localisation and communication and narrow- and wide-band radio transmission techniques, and to further investigate how the presence of such a system could support fire and rescue operations in complex underground environments. Tests have been carried out in real, pre-existing mining environments, and complex office corridors with similar conditions to those of a mine as regards curves and obstructions have been used for introductory tests. A computer application for digital simulation has been developed and adapted to the system, although this only operates on a relatively basic level, so as to support the testing of the positioning and communication systems; thus, more can be done to improve performance for real-life applications. The analysis was conducted by studying the results of the experiments and linking them to expected usage during a fire and rescue operation. Tests have also been carried out in cooperation with the fire and rescue services in order to identify equipment and wearable technologies that could support and make fire and rescue operations in mines and other complex underground constructions safer and more efficient. In order to transfer information to and from these wearable technologies and to improve the likelihood of a safe and efficient fire and rescue operation, positioning and connectivity are requirements.Keywords: Underground constructions, mine, fire safety, positioning, connectivity

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  • 214.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Model Scale Fire Tests on a Vehicle Deck on Board a Ship2002Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 215.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Effect of cross section on critical velocity in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, p. 303-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical and theoretical work was conducted to investigate the effect of tunnel cross section on critical velocityfor smoke control in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires. The results show that for small fires, the criticalvelocity decreases with both the increasing tunnel height and tunnel width. For large fires, the critical velocitysignificantly increases with the increasing tunnel height but is independent of tunnel width. Differentcalculation models are compared with a focus on effect of tunnel cross section. A new correlation is proposedto account for the effect of tunnel width based on the previous model.

  • 216.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Nyman, Hans
    Brandskyddslaget.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with water-based fire suppression systems2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 18 tests were carried out in the 1:4 model scale tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems together with one free-burn test. The key parameters including fuel load covers, activation time, water flow rate, nozzle type, ventilation velocity, sprinkler section length and tunnel width were tested. Technical information and analyses of test data are presented in this report with a focus on the influence of these different parameters on the design fire in a tunnel with a water-based fire suppression system. Further, guidance for the design fires in tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems is proposed.

  • 217. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Ji, Jie
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Effect of cross section and ventilation on heat release rates in tunnel fires2016In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 51, p. 414-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale fire tests were performed in tunnels with varying tunnel widths and heights in order to study the effect of tunnel cross-section and ventilation velocity on the heat release rate (HRR) for both liquid pool fires and solid fuel fires. The results showed that for well ventilated heptane pool fires, the tunnel width nearly has no influence on the HRR whilst a lower tunnel height clearly increases the HRR. For well ventilated solid fuel fires, the HRR increases by approximately 25% relative to a free burn test but the HRR is not sensitive to either tunnel width, tunnel height or ventilation velocity. For solid fuel fires that were not well ventilated, the HRRs could be less than those in free burn laboratory tests. In the case of ventilation controlled fires the HRRs approximately lie at the same level as for cases with natural ventilation.

  • 218.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wahlqvist, Jonatan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Verification, validation and evaluation of FireFOAM as a tool for performance design2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The open source CFD code FireFOAM has been verified and validated against analytical solution and real fire tests. The verification showed that FireFOAM solves the three modes of heat transfer appropriately. The validation against real fire tests yielded reasonable results. FireFOAM has not been validated for a large set of real fires, which is the case for FDS. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the user to perform the validation, before using the code. One of the advantages of FireFOAM compared to the Fire Dynamic Simulator is that FireFOAM can use unstructured grid. FireFOAM is parallelised and scales reasonable well, but is in general considerably slower in computation speed than the Fire Dynamic Simulator. Further, the software is poorly documented and has a steep learning curve. At present it is more a tool for researchers than for fire consultants.

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  • 219. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    A new methodology of design fires for train carriages2014In: Proceedings of Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security., SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut , 2014, , p. 133-142Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Analysis of Muskö tunnel fire flows with automatic sprinkler activation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the present study is analyzing the best position of a sprinkler nozzle in a tunnel cross-section in the Muskö tunnel, south of Stockholm, Sweden. Activation of the sprinklers installed along the centerline and along the sidewall is investigated through analysis of full scale experiments and by three dimensional numerical modelling. Then the tunnel velocity is analyzed by one dimensional numerical modelling for various fire locations in the Muskö tunnel. For both activating the automatic sprinklers nearby the fire and avoiding activation of the sprinklers further downstream, the automatic sprinklers are recommended to be installed along the centerline of the tunnel. It has also been found that the tunnel velocity varies significantly with the fire location. When the fire is on the left side of the tunnel, the flow velocity mostly remains in a range of 1 m/s (positive or negative) within the first 10 minutes, which helps early activation of the automatic sprinklers. When the fire is on the right side of the tunnel, the flow velocity mostly remains within a range of -1 m/s and 1 m/s within the first 5 minutes, and the velocity mostly increases to 2 m/s at around 10 min. Therefore, the scenario for fire located on the left side is better than that for fire on the right side, especially when it is located between the middle of the right section and the right portal. As one typical case with fire on the right side, the tunnel velocity maintains at 1 m/s for the first 5 min and gradually increases to 2 m/s at 10 min. Under such conditions, the automatic sprinkler system is expected to perform well. 

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    RISE Rapport 2017:51
  • 221. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Automatic sprinkler system in tunnel fires2012In: Proceedings from the Fifth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, SP , 2012, , p. 113-122Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 222.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Automatic sprinkler systems in tunnel fires2011In: Brandposten, no 44, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 223.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Automatid sprinkler systems in tunnel fires2011In: Fire Safety and Fire Protection News & Insight on Fire Safety SearchArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 224.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Design Fires for Tunnels with Water-Based Fire Suppression Systems2016In: Proceedings from the 7th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, 2016, p. 305-316Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of tests were carried out to investigate design fires for tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems under different conditions in a 1:4 model scale tunnel. The key parameters including fuel load covers, activation time, water flow rate, nozzle type, ventilation velocity, sprinkler section length and tunnel width were tested. Technical information and analyses of test data are presented with a focus on the influence of these different parameters on the design fire in a tunnel with a water-based fire suppression system. Further, guidance for the design fires in tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems is proposed.

  • 225.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Discussions on critical velocity and critical Froude number for smoke control in tunnels with longitudinal ventilation2018In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 99, p. 22-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of critical velocity is a key issue for smoke control in any tunnel with longitudinal ventilation. The critical Froude model using single Froude number of 4.5 has for decades been widely used in engineering applications. This value was originally used by Danziger and Kennedy and they argued that the critical Froude number obtained by Lee et al. was in a range of 4.5 and 6.7 and therefore a conservative value of 4.5 was obtained. This paper explores the validity of using single critical Froude number of 4.5 by investigating the original sources and comparing it to recent research results. It was found that the value of 4.5 obtained in the original source corresponds to a large tunnel fire and it correlates well with data from other literature within a narrow range of large fire sizes. Using this value produces a significantly lower critical velocity for a wide range of fire sizes and therefore it is not conservative. The Froude number of 6.7 obtained by Lee et al. corresponds to another Froude number with a different definition and it is therefore not comparable with the value of 4.5. It is found that the use of a single value of 4.5 for the critical Froude number is not reasonable in calculation of the critical velocity for smoke control in tunnels with longitudinal ventilation.

  • 226.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Fire-induced ceiling jet characteristics in tunnels under different ventilation conditions2015Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 227.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Fire-induced ceiling jet characteristics in tunnels under different ventilation conditions2015In: Brandposten, no 52, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 228.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Influence of fire suppression on combustion products in tunnel fires2018In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 97, p. 96-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of model scale tunnel fire tests was carried out to investigate effects of the fire suppression system on production of key combustion products including CO and soot. The key parameters accounted for in the tests include fuel type, ventilation velocity and activation time. The results show that fire suppression indeed has influence on production of combustion products especially for cellulose fuels. In case that the fire is not effectively suppressed, e.g. when the water density is too low or activation is too late, the CO concentration and visibility could be worse than in the free-burn test. From the point of view of production of combustion products, only fire suppression systems with sufficient capability and early activation are recommended to be used in tunnels.

  • 229.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Influence of ventilation on tunnel fires with and without water-based suppression systems2016Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 230.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Maximum Temperature beneath Ceiling in a Tunnel Fire2010Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 231.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Model Scale Tunnel Fire Tests – Automatic Sprinklers2011Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 232. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Model Scale Tunnel Fire Tests - Automatic water spray system2010Report (Refereed)
  • 233.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests on maximum ceiling gas temperature for structural protection2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale tests with varying materials as tunnel structure were carried out to further study the theoretical model of maximum gas temperature for structural protection. New correlation for calculation of air mass flow rate is introduced. Test results showed that the maximum ceiling gas temperatures increases with the increasing heat release rate and decreases with the increasing tunnel width and thermal inertia of the tunnel linings. Higher ventilation velocity may also result in slightly higher temperatures for large fires.

    Comparisons of model scale tests and theoretical models showed that the theoretical models predict the maximum ceiling gas temperature very well. A fire with a fixed heat release rate or a time-varying heat release rate, the effects of tunnel structure, tunnel ventilation, tunnel width and fire size have been well considered by the model. Comparisons of other model and full scale tests with theoretical models further verified this.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 234.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with automatic sprinkler2013In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 61, p. 298-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The study focuses on the performance of an automatic sprinkler system in a model scale tunnel with longitudinal ventilation. A total of 28 tests were carried out in a 1:15 model scale tunnel using an automatic sprinkler system with glass bulbs. The maximum heat release rate, energy content and failure of the automatic sprinkler system were analysed. The results show that high ventilation rates and low water flow rates result in a failure of the automatic sprinkler system in a longitudinal ventilated tunnel fire. The main reason for the failure under the tested water flow rates was the effect of the longitudinal flow on the fire development and the hot gas flow close to the sprinklers. The fire development and the activation heat release rate of the first activated bulb are intimately related to the ventilation velocity. The fire spread to the neighbouring wood crib was investigated and a presentation of tests conducted using a deluge system are given.

  • 235. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with automatic sprinkler2013In: Fire Safety Journal, no 61, p. 298-313Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 236. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    New challenges for the safety in submerged floating tunnels2013In: Sixth Symposium on Strait Crossings - Extreme Crossinga and New Technologies, 2013, , p. 850-861Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 237.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    New models for calculating maximum gas temperatures in large tunnel fires2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this report focuses on estimating maximum gas temperatures at ceiling level during large tunnel fires. Gas temperature is an important parameter to consider when designing the fire resistance of a tunnel structure. Earlier work by the authors has established correlations between excess ceiling gas temperature and effective tunnel height, ventilation rate, and heat release rate. The maximum possible excess gas temperature was set as 1350°C, independent of the tunnel structure and local combustion conditions. As a result of this research, two models have been developed to better estimate possible excess maximum gas temperatures for large tunnel fires in tunnels with differing lining materials and structure types (e.g. rock, concrete). These have been validated using both model- and full-scale tests. Comparisons of predicted and measured temperatures show that both models correlate well with the test data. However, Model I is better and more optimal, due to the fact that it is more conservative and easier to use. The fire duration and flame volume are found to be related to gas temperature development. In reality, the models could also be used to estimate temperatures in a fully developed compartment fire.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 238.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Overview of research on fire safety in underground road and railway tunnels2018In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 81, p. 568-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past two decades, the interest in fire safety science of tunnels has significantly increased, mainly due to the rapidly increasing number of tunnels built and the catastrophic tunnel fire incidents occurred. This paper presents an overview of research on fire safety in underground road and railway tunnels from the perspectives of fire safety design. The main focuses are on design fires, structural protection, smoke control and use of water-based fire suppression systems. Besides, some key fire characteristics, including flame length, fire spread, heat flux and smoke stratification, are discussed.

  • 239.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Parametric study of design fires for tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems2021In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 120, article id 103107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of tests was carried out to investigate the influence of different parameters on design fires for tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems in a 1:4 scale tunnel. The key parameters tested included fuel load covers, activation time, water density, nozzle type, ventilation velocity, sprinkler section length and tunnel width. Analyses of test data are presented with a focus on the influence of these parameters on the design fire. The main findings are that the fuel load covers, activation time and ventilation velocity all play significant roles in the fire development. Further, suggestions on design fires for tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems are proposed. © 2020 The Authors

  • 240. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Position of maximum ceiling temperature in a tunnel fire2014In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 889-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The position of the maximum ceiling gas temperature indicates how far the fire plum could be blown away by a ventilation flow. It could be applied to estimate the activation of a detection system or a sprinkler system, or to estimate the range of damage to the tunnel structure. An equation for predicting the position of the maximum ceiling gas temperature in a tunnel fire is proposed based on a theoretical analysis and validated using both laboratory test data and full scale test data. A flame angle has been defined based on the position of the maximum ceiling temperature in a tunnel fire. The flame angle is directly related to the dimensionless ventilation velocity, and it becomes insensitive to the heat release rate for a large tunnel fire. Further, it is found that a constant critical flame angle exists, defined as the flame angle under the critical condition when the backlayering just disappears. For a given tunnel and fire source, the flame angle under critical conditions is the same value, independent of heat release rate, and the maximum ceiling temperature under critical conditions always corresponds to the same position. Generally the horizontal distance between the position of the maximum ceiling temperature and the fire source centre is around 1.5 times the effective tunnel height under the critical condition.

  • 241. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Probing the effects of auto sprinklers2011In: World Tunneling, ISSN 1756-4107, no may, p. 29-31Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Scaling of wood pallet fires2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 88, p. 96-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    §method for scaling time-resolved burning behaviors of wood pallet fires has been developed. A series of validation tests was carried out in two different scales and the time-resolved heat release rates were obtained and compared. The results show that the scaling method proposed works very well. The scaling method proposed could be applied to general wood pallets.

  • 243. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Scaling of wood pallet fires2014Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 244.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Scaling of wood pallet fires2014In: Brandposten, no 51, p. 20-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 245. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    The Fire Growth Rate in a Ventilated Tunnel Fire2011In: Fire Safety Science proceedings of the tenth international symposium, International Association for fire safety science , 2011, , p. 347-358Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 246. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    The maximum ceiling gas temperature in a large tunnel fire2012In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 48, no Febr, p. 38-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 247. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    The Maximum temperature of buoyancy-driven smoke flow beneath the ceiling in tunnel fires2011In: Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 204-210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 248. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Tunnel Effect2012In: Fire Risk Management, ISSN 1757-1324, no Dec-Jan, p. 36-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 249.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Tunnel fire safety: editorial2018In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 97, p. 85-86Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 250.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Nyman, Hans
    Water-based fire suppression systems found to be effective in model scale tunnel tests2014In: Brandposten, no 50, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
234567 201 - 250 of 329
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