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  • 201.
    Fisher Jr, William Paul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Melin, Jeanette
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Möller, Charlotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Metrology for climate-neutral cities2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose in this report decisive and constructive responses to critical appraisals of the Agenda 2030, the Sustainable Development Goals, and the EU taxonomy. The lack of transparency and accountability plaguing these vitally important efforts can be rectified by means of systematic implementations of the art and science of measurement modelling informed by metrological principles. The aforementioned documents’ vague and all-inclusive language fails to assign responsibilities or aid in goal achievement, but can be replaced with systems of measurements that are effectively and efficiently, meaningfully and usefully, integrated with management objectives. When measurements are welldesigned, managing goals and objectives becomes seamlessly integrated with measurement. Measuring instruments should map the domain of interest, allowing users to locate where they are relative to where they were, where they want to go, and what to do next. But for this to happen, the intention to measure in this way must be acted on. Then, incomparable ordinal ratings and scores must be replaced with qualityassured quantity values. And disconnected reporting systems must be coordinated and aligned. Most importantly, taking the trouble to create fluidly manageable measures makes it possible to identify and harness human-powered energy sources for driving sustainable change, for ramping up efforts to the global scale that must be achieved if we are to succeed in transforming our systems. Entrepreneurs and innovators need scientifically rigorous, meaningful, useful, and convenient tools if they are to succeed in imagining, designing, and deploying effective responses to the pressing challenges we face. Our recommendations are formulated in direct response to criticisms that have been directed at the Agenda 2030 and the EU Taxonomy concerning the transparency, comparability, and accountability of the proposed goals for sustainable development. Neither the goals themselves nor the urgency of the need to address them are at issue. The concern is rather with the means by which those goals may be achieved, and the effectiveness of those means. The solutions we propose in this document are complex but manageable—just as the problems we face are also complex but manageable. We have no intention of providing a panacea, or a one-size-fits-all solution. There is nothing automatic or easy about what needs to be done. This report is only a first step. We provide it in the hope of provoking more of those concerned to take a fresh look at what might be possible. We tap readily available, longstanding, well-established, proven ideas not previously brought together for close consideration. But far from expecting or even hoping that our recommendations will be taken up and followed to the letter, we instead fervently pray for playful experimentation and constructive debate. Our goal, perhaps more than anything else, is to encourage a broader scope for the imagination of possible solutions. Imaginations today seem overly bound within the constraints of assumptions that actually—and perversely—contribute to perpetuating the problems we face. We will count our efforts successful if we manage to shake some minds free from those constraints. In this spirit, we look forward to engaging soon in productive collaborations with any and all who are interested.

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  • 202.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Durgun, Özum
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Orosz, Katalin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Efficient emergency responses to vehicle collision, earthquake, snowfall, and flooding on highways and bridges: A review2020In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 51-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article analyzes factors affecting emergency response to hazardous events on highways and their bridges, with focus on man-made and natural scenarios: heavy vehicle collision with a bridge, earthquake, heavy snowfall, and flooding. For each disaster scenario, selected historical events were compiled to determine influential factors and success criteria for efficient emergency response, both related to organizational and technical measures. This study constituted a part of a resilience management process, recently developed and demonstrated within the European Union (EU)-funded H2020 project IMPROVER and can be a useful approach in aiding operators of transportation infrastructure to improve their resilience to emergency incidents.

  • 203.
    Flores-Alsina, Xavier
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Corominas, Lluis
    ICRA Catalan Institute for Water Research, Spain.
    Sweetapple, Chris
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Fu, Guangtao
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Butler, David
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Vanrolleghem, P. A.
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Gernaey, Krist V
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund Universtity, Sweden.
    Benchmarking strategies to control GHG production and emissions: Chapter 92022In: Quantification and Modelling of Fugitive Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Water Systems: A report from the IWA Task Group on GHG, IWA Publishing , 2022, p. 213-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Benchmarking has been a useful tool for unbiased comparison of control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in terms of effluent quality, operational cost and risk of suffering microbiology-related total suspended solids (TSS) separation problems. This chapter presents the status of extending the original Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2) towards including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A mathematical approach based on a set of comprehensive models that estimate all potential on-site and off-site sources of COinf2/inf, CHinf4/inf and Ninf2/infO is presented and discussed in detail. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects on increased GHG emissions when carrying out local energy optimization in the activated sludge section and/or energy recovery in the anaerobic digester. Although off-site COinf2/inf emissions may decrease in such scenarios due to either lower aeration energy requirement or higher heat and electricity production, these effects may be counterbalanced by increased Ninf2/infO emissions, especially since Ninf2/infO has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than COinf2/inf. The reported results emphasize the importance of using integrated approaches when comparing and evaluating (plant-wide) control strategies in WWTPs for more informed operational decision-making. 

  • 204.
    Florén, Britta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Flysjö, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Ekologiska produkters miljönytta2005Report (Other academic)
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  • 205.
    Flydén, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Persson, Olle
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Sällström, Jan Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    SUSPIPE Pilotprojekt 3 – Framgångsfaktorer för bättre elektromuffsvetsning2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of the SUSPIPE project. Within SUSPIPE, the water and sewage industry's manufacturers, suppliers and customers collaborate. In this sub-project, the possibilities for better products and methodology for electrofusion of large-dimension polyethylene pipes have been investigated through interviews, measurements, and simulations. When building new water and sewage pipe networks of polyethylene pipes, the network owners should demand that the work complies with “AMA Anläggning 20,” that the welders have training with an EWF certificate and that procedure testing is carried out before the construction starts. Furthermore, they should have inspectors present at the construction sites. The members of INSTA-CERT should review the certification regulations regarding requirements for ovality and indirect methods for measurements of residual internal stresses in polyethylene pipes for water and sewage. To achieve good quality joints in polyethylene pipes, rotating scraping tools, fixing tools and rounding clamps must be used. Furthermore, the trenches must be wide and long enough for fitting equipment and personnel and for adjusting the positions of the pipe ends.  

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  • 206.
    Flydén, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Sällström, Jan Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    SUSPIPE Pilotprojekt 2 – Bättre anslutningar av strukturväggsrör av plast till betongbrunnar2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of the SUSPIPE project. Within SUSPIPE the water and sewage industry's manufacturers, suppliers and customers collaborate. In this sub-project, solutions for connecting concrete manholes to structured wall pipes in plastic have been investigated. The project has also analysed conditions in the field, interviewed customers, contractors and inspectors and tried to understand the origin and cause of the perceived problems with leaking joints. Different types of joints between concrete manholes and plastic pipes have been identified. The new edition of “AMA Anläggning 20” requires seals to be used at the joints, but there is always some lag to implement new editions in procurements. To have consistent requirements for seals, supplementary wording from this report should be introduced in “AMA Anläggning” under PB, PC and PD. In this report, efforts have also been made to formulate requirements for materials and tightness testing, which customers can use in procurements or project instructions to improve the quality of their joints. However, further work will be required to link these to appropriate standards at the system level. The requirements for vulcanized rubber and, also thermoplastic elastomers in applicable standards need to be tightened, but this is a long-term process. A proposal from a previous project is adopted in this report, which is to perform relaxation tests for longer time periods. The report's proposal for requirements for verification of joint seals is based on product standards for concrete manholes and unpressurized plastic pipes, as well as a general standard for unpressurized piping systems. However, there is no standard or similar where these requirements can be set. Optionally, a voluntary labelling could be applied. Plastic pipes are marked in the Nordic countries with Nordic Poly Mark and for some other products, P-marking has been introduced through SP / RISE. Furthermore, the report states six success factors for water tight unpressurised piping systems, which include favourable contractor conditions, that accuracy in pipe laying is applied, that correct joint seals are used, that the supplier's instructions are followed, that on-site inspections are carried out and that leakage tests are carried out. 

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  • 207.
    Fornell, Rickard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Löwgren, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Karlberg, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Symbioser för en resurseffektiv bioekonomi2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    RISE har fått en förfrågan av Regeringskansliets bioekonomiutredning att sammanställa en bilaga om industriell symbios. Utifrån samtal mellan RISE och utredare har bilagan strukturerats enligt: Ett första avsnitt som diskuterar vad industriell symbios är. Denna diskussion baseras på två definitioner som dels beskriver symbios från olika perspektiv, dels beskriver utvecklingen av begreppet över tid. I avsnittet ingår också en kort diskussion kring skillnader mellan begreppen bioraffinaderi och industriell symbios. Industriell symbios är oberoende av industrisektor, fokus ligger på skapandet av värde från resurser som inte nyttjas till fullo i olika sektorer. Att koppla symbios till bioraffinaderier ger en möjlighet dels att ta ett systemperspektiv på hur bioraffinaderier kan bli mer resurseffektiva, dels att koppla symbiosaktiviteter till utvecklingen av ett fossilfritt samhälle. Ett andra avsnitt som diskuterar olika drivkrafter för skapandet av industriell symbios, både historiskt och kopplat till agendor/strategier för samhällsomställning. Vi argumenterar att det är värdefullt att koppla symbiosutveckling till större omställningsstrategier som till exempel bioekonomistrategin. Då ökar potentialen för att etableringen av industriella symbioser skapar långsiktigt värde. Ett tredje avsnitt som diskuterar hur industriell symbios skapas. I detta avsnitt beskrivs olika utgångspunkter för symbiosaktiviteter (självorganiserade, faciliterade, planerade) och värdet av facilitering lyfts. Olika typer av stöd vid utveckling, och perspektiv som är viktiga att inkludera belyses tillsammans med vikten av det mänskliga perspektivet. Mycket av det som diskuteras i avsnittet gällande att effektivisera och förenkla hur symbioser skapas kopplar till hinder och angreppspunkter inom bioekonomistrategin. En slutsats är att det bör finnas ett stort värde för utvecklingen av både industriell symbios och en resurseffektiv bioekonomi i Sverige att inkorporera industriell symbios i strategin och på så sätt vidga perspektiven på hinder och möjligheter. Ett fjärde avsnitt som kort beskriver några exempel på bioekonomikopplade symbiosaktiviteter i Sverige. Det har skett en snabb utveckling av symbiosaktiviteter under de senaste tio åren i Sverige, och idag pågår aktiviteter i stort sett i hela Sverige där industriell symbios används som begrepp.

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  • 208.
    Forsemalm, Joakim
    et al.
    Radar Architecture, Sweden.
    Johansson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    The puzzle of combined evidences-Piecing knowledge together with professionals in urban development2020In: Architecture for Residential Care and Ageing Communities: Spaces for Dwelling and Healthcare, Taylor and Francis , 2020, p. 267-278Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter address the question: how do I know, as a professional architect or urban developer, that I do a good job and solve the right problems? The chapter presents a model labelled evidence-based urban development, which departs from an unconventional understanding of the concept of evidence. The model presents four kinds of evidence. The first two, scientific and professional evidence, are closer to the common understanding of evidence-based practice. To this, we add two other forms of evidence: organisational and stakeholder evidence. In the case presented in the chapter, combining information in this way framed the problem to make it possible to act upon. The point of argument in the chapter is that we need all four types of information-that is the definition of the concept of “evidence” here-to be able to make adequate decisions. In this chapter, however, we focus less on organisational and stakeholder knowledge to put light on the dynamic between scientific and professional evidence.

  • 209.
    Forsgren, Lilian
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Noyan, Ezgi
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vega, Alberto
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Boldizar, Antal
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The thermo-oxidative durability of polyethylene reinforced with wood-based fibres2020In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 181, article id 109374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aiming at better understanding the ageing behaviour of cellulose composites, the accelerated thermo-oxidative ageing of polyethylene reinforced with two types of wood-based cellulose fibres was studied. Materials were prepared by extrusion mixing of either un-stabilized or stabilized polyethylene reinforced with 5 and 20 vol % cellulose content. The materials were extruded into strips and then aged at 90°C in circulating air. The effect of accelerated ageing up to 31 days was assessed by oxidation induction time and mechanical properties in tension. The results indicated that the added cellulose fibres did not increase the degradation of the composites during this ageing. Reinforcement with 20 % cellulose fibre having a 28 % lignin content together with 0.005 % Irganox 1010 antioxidant resulted in a remarkable improvement in the resistance against accelerated thermo-oxidation, compared to the pure polyethylene with added antioxidant. The findings of increased lifetime of LDPE by addition of wood-based reinforcement is of great interest, since the durability aspect is crucial to understand and predict before usage in commercial applications and especially as structural composites.

  • 210.
    Fraboulet, I.
    et al.
    INERIS, France.
    Del-Gratta, F.
    INERIS, France.
    Andersen, J. S.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Warming-Jespersen, M. G.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Hugony, F.
    ENEA National Agency for New Technologies, Italy.
    Morreale, C.
    eINNOVHUB Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria s.r.l, Italy.
    European inter-comparison campaigns on pm and OGCS atmospheric emissions test methods from residential wood combustion using a stack simulator generating real biomass combustion gases2020In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2020, p. 812-816Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 20/20/20 target for Europe, will lead to an increased use of biomass combustion, e.g. using wood logs and wood pellets. On the other hand, the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) lies down stringent requirements on maximum levels of particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air. Domestic wood combustion emits particulate matter (PM) which are of concern to authorities and the public. Several different methods of PM measurements have historically been used to perform type testing of solid fuelled residential appliances and boilers. This method shall give repeatable results that are of a guaranteed traceable accuracy, and by this means give the consumer reliable information on the suitability of a particular appliance or boiler. One of the main methods used in Europe consists of sampling the solid fraction of aerosols using a heated filter, this method does not include the collection of the condensable fraction, OGC measurements are performed using FID method.The aim of this work carried out within the EMPIR IMPRESS2 Project was to evaluate the performances of this method by performing intercomparisons using a stack simulator generating real biomass combustion gases.

  • 211.
    Francart, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sargon Orahim, Allanmikel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    von Platten, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sharing indoor space: stakeholders’ perspectives and energy metrics2020In: Buildings and Cities, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 70-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing of indoor space can improve space and energy efficiency. The drivers and barriers to space-sharing initiatives are investigated from the perspectives of building users and building sector practitioners, based on interviews and a workshop. The role of energy performance metrics in promoting space efficiency is further analysed through a literature review. From the users’ perspective, space sharing can be understood through the interplay between tangible aspects (e.g. concrete benefits derived from sharing), organisational aspects (e.g. common decision processes and conflict resolution) and social aspects (e.g. group identity and consensus on appropriate behaviours). From the perspective of architects and property owners, shareable spaces require features such as flexibility and multifunctionality. The design of such spaces is limited by regulatory issues (e.g. building regulations poorly accommodate shared facilities) and business-related issues. One such issue is that building performance metrics normalised based on floor area do not incentivise the efficient use of space. A review of complementary metrics is provided, covering parameters such as number of users, layout, time of use, etc. Each metric serves a particular purpose; therefore, a set of complementary metrics can be used to support decisions at different phases of the building’s life cycle.

    Practice relevanceImproving space efficiency (e.g. by sharing indoor space) is a key strategy to meet simultaneously the future demand for facilities in cities and fulfil environmental objectives such as a reduction of climate change impact in the building sector. A clearer understanding of the specificities of space sharing is provided from the perspectives of building users and practitioners. This will assist practitioners to understand the needs of other stakeholders. Regulatory and business-related barriers to space-sharing initiatives are highlighted as a first step towards overcoming these barriers. Guidance is provided on complementary energy performance metrics appropriate for space efficiency. These metrics can be used to support various decisions during the different stages of a building’s life cycle.

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  • 212.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Liv
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Aktörspreferenser i design av ett stödsystem för bio-CCS2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Avskiljning och geologisk lagring av biogen koldioxid, bio-CCS, har succesivt fått en mer framskriven funktion i svensk klimatpolitik. Möjligheten att skapa kolsänkor genom bio-CCS gör att tekniken kan bidra till det svenska målet om noll nettoutsläpp av växthusgaser till 2045. Regeringen har gett Energimyndigheten i uppdrag att sjösätta ett stödsystem för bio-CCS med start 2022. Kunskapen om hur nyckelaktörer vill utforma stödsystemet är dock bristfällig. Sådan kunskap är central för att möjliggöra en proaktiv systemdesign som lockar till deltagande. Denna studie undersöker därför preferenser för systemdesign bland aktörer inom näringslivet, den nationella förvaltningen och politiken. Syftet är att identifiera dilemman och potentiella målkonflikter. Energimyndighetens uppdrag är begränsat till att utreda ett stödsystem baserat på omvända auktioner eller fasta ersättningsnivåer, vilket också utgör huvudfokus i denna rapport. Baserat på intervjuer med 40 respondenter syns konvergens kring att statligt stöd bör kanaliseras genom omvända auktioner. I jämförelse med fasta ersättningsnivåer skapar ett auktionssystem bättre förutsättningar för att vara samhällsekonomiskt effektivt och för att harmonisera med EU:s statsstödsregler. Denna studie pekar dock på flera auktionsdilemman och potentiella målkonflikter. Exempelvis måste auktionsvolymerna matchas med den tekniska potentialen bland intresserade företag, vilket är lättare sagt än gjort. Denna studie presenterar också argument för att begränsa auktionerna genom budget- snarare än volymtak och pekar på att företagens egna kostnadsuppskattningar i många fall är betydligt högre än vad som påvisats i tidigare studier. Flera potentiella målkonflikter har också identifierats vilka är beroende av hur målsättningen med det statliga stödet preciseras. En trolig politisk målsättning är att stödet ska skapa minusutsläpp för att bidra till att uppfylla svenska klimatmål. En sådan målsättning skulle kunna stå i konflikt mot stödmottagande företags ambition att engagera sig i marknader för minusutsläppskrediter. Hur stödsystemets målsättning preciseras är avgörande för möjligheterna att hitta kompletterande finansieringskällor.

  • 213.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Schenuit, Felix
    German institute for international and security affairs (SWP), Germany.
    Lundberg, Liv
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Böttcher, Miranda
    German institute for international and security affairs (SWP), Germany; Utrecht university, Germany.
    Rickels, Wilfried
    Kiel institute for the world economy, Germany.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Novel carbon dioxide removals techniques must be integrated into the European Union’s climate policies2023In: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the escalating climate crisis, the task of integrating novel carbon dioxide removals into the European Union’s climate policy is urgent and long overdue. Here, we argue that there is a window of opportunity for responding now, and put forward a solution.

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  • 214.
    Frisk Garcia, Madeleine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Malmö University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Examining property and neighborhood effects on perceived safety in urban environments: Proximity to square and heights of buildings2024In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 150, article id 105069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residents’ perceived safety is key to improving livelihoods and reducing disparities between neighborhoods in Sweden. Neighborhood interventions may be more cost-effective than individual-level interventions in addressing major societal issues such as unequal levels of safety between neighborhoods. However, most studies investigating the impact of neighborhood characteristics on perceived safety suffer from either poor data quality, too few respondents per statistical unit, large units of analysis, or a lack of longitudinally collected data. This study aims to fill this gap by combining property-specific longitudinal sociodemographic data with customer satisfaction survey data (N = 147,965) collected between 2013–2014 and 2016–2021 in Gothenburg. Using two multilevel models, we examined the relationship between perceived safety and both property-level and area-level structural characteristics, testing three hypotheses. Consistent with prior research, we find that sociodemographic and urban environmental characteristics influenced perceptions of safety. The multilevel analyses reveal that proximity to the square is associated with lower levels of perceived safety, particularly among residents living within 0–100 m of the square in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Moreover, the results show that living in taller buildings of 10–16 floors is associated with lower levels of safety. 

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  • 215.
    Fuertes Giné, Leticia
    et al.
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Public Procurement for the Circular Economy: a Comparative Study of Sweden and Spain2022In: Circular Economy and Sustainability, ISSN 2730-597X, E-ISSN 2730-5988, Vol. 2, p. 1021-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the relationship between circular economy and public procurement by regarding green procurement as an enabler for the transition from sustainable to circular public procurement. Considering the different green procurement uptakes under the common legal framework of the European Union, and particularly, the contrasting practice results of Spain and Sweden and the opposed legal configuration of their procurement Acts, a comparative law study of the exclusion of suppliers, awarding criteria and special conditions of performance’s Articles is conducted.

  • 216.
    Funk, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Lycken, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Värde- eller volymoptimering av sidobräder2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the help of the saw simulation program Saw2010, and the Swedish stem bank, a simulated sawing of 1288 logs has been performed, after which planks and boards have been quality-determined according to Nordic Wood (the Blue Book) and evaluated. After a large number of simulations on boards and planks of pine and spruce, it can be stated that value optimization gives a higher value yield than volume optimization in all three realistic price situations tested. The total value varies between price ranges and types of wood but is stably better on all runs with value optimization compared with volume optimization. The result is described as the total value increase in percent for all products in each run. A total of three runs were made in pine and three in spruce with respectively low, intermediate, and high prize level. The highest increase in value for edging with value optimization, compared with volume optimization, is found in both pine and spruce in the lowest price level, 5.1% and 5.0%, respectively. At the intermediate price level, the increase in value is 4.2% for pine and 3.3% for spruce. The highest price level gave a value increase of 3.0% for pine and 1.8% for spruce in value optimization compared with volume optimization. Simulations with changed quality parameters were also performed. One simulation was performed with a smaller permitted wane and one with larger permitted knots on the flat face compared to Nordic Wood. Also, these simulations showed clearly increased value in value optimization compared with volume optimization.

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  • 217.
    Fyhr, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Axell, Monica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Ruud, Svein
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Sandberg, Per Ingvar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Ombyggnad av befintliga bostäder till lågenergihus2009Report (Refereed)
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  • 218.
    Gabrielsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Rivningsobjekt – från kostnad till resurs: Omvärldsanalys2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Just nu är vi inne på en resa mot ett resurseffektivare samhälle, som bygger på cirkulär ekonomi. I en sådan ekonomi stannar de råvaror och tillgångar vi tar ut från naturen (tex sten och kalksten till ballast och cement, och malm till stål) i samhällets materialkretslopp och slösas inte bort genom att tex läggas på deponi. I en cirkulär ekonomi undviker vi så långt som möjligt att avfall uppstår, men när något faktiskt måste kasseras så ska det återvinnas och ännu hellre återanvändas. Mål om ökad återvinning och återanvändning finns på såväl EU-nivå som nationell nivå inom de flesta sektorer och i och med EU:s Nya Gröna Giv, så har dessa strävande fått ökad tyngd. Samtidigt måste vi minska utsläppen av gaser som spär på växthuseffekten och den globala uppvärmningen, något som också i regel gynnas av ett mer resurseffektivt samhälle. Inom byggnadssektorn uppstår stora mängder avfall varje år när byggnader och konstruktioner rivs (i Sverige minst 10 miljoner ton mineraliskt rivningsavfall varje år), men fortfarande är såväl återvinnings- som återanvändningsgraden av dessa mycket låg. Sällan beror detta på att inte tekniken finns eller att det vi vill återvinna eller återanvända inte klarar de tekniska krav som finns för möjliga användningar, utan snarare på andra faktorer, som otydligheter regelverk och riktlinjer kring hur och när alternativa material får och kan användas och att offentliga beställare inte känner till vad som är möjligt att kräva (se RE:Source-rapport Ökad resurseffektiv användning av sekundära råmaterial i konstruktioner; van Praagh, Brander och Olsson, 2020). I EU-projektet RE4 samverkade forskningsutförare, arkitekter och teknikkonsultbolag med företag inom återvinning, Prefabbetong och robotteknik, kring återvinning av rivningsavfall som ballast i olika typer av betong (www.re4.eu). Olika betongrecept togs fram där upp till 90% av ballasten i betongen ersattes med återvunnet rivningsavfall och där betongen förstås bibehöll den tekniska prestanda som Prefabföretaget behövde. Finalen i RE4 var byggandet av två demohus, ett utanför Belfast och ett i Madrid, med Prefabelement tillverkade med rivningsavfall. LCA som utfördes visade på besparingar i det totala resursutnyttjandet, men däremot påverkar återvinningen av rivningsavfall som ballast i ny betong i regel inte utsläpp av växthusgaser, eftersom det fortfarande krävs cement för att tillverka ny betong. Däremot kan såväl användande av nya naturresurser som klimatutsläpp minska genom återanvändning av hela betongdelar.

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  • 219.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andersson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.02022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project BREND investigated risk with alternative fuel vehicles inside ro-ro spaces. BREND 2.0 is a continuation and has in particular investigated two of the major risks identified in BREND, namely the risk of toxic gases from electric vehicle fires and the risk of a pressure vessel explosion for fire exposed biogas or hydrogen vehicle tanks. Simulations of electric vehicle fires inside a ro-ro space based on real input fire data has been performed. Field experiments that investigate the conditions that can lead to pressure vessel explosion were made with fire exposed biogas and hydrogen tanks. Recommendations are given about how ro-ro space fires in alternative fuel vehicles, or indeed any vehicle fire, can be managed.

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  • 220.
    Ghanim, Bashir
    et al.
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    O'Dwyer, Thomas
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Leahy, James
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Courtney, Ronan
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Pembroke, Tony
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Murnane, John
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Application of KOH modified seaweed hydrochar as a biosorbent of Vanadium from aqueous solution: Characterisations, mechanisms and regeneration capacity2020In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 8, no 5, article id 104176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium exists as a mobile and toxic trace metal in many alkaline residue leachates. Its removal and recovery not only reduces a global environmental risk but is also critical to the emergence of innovative technologies and the circular economy. In parallel, the use of treated biomass feedstock is receiving increased attention as a low cost adsorbent for toxic metals in wastewater. This study investigated the adsorption of Vanadium (V) from aqueous solution by KOH modified seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) hydrochar (HCKOH). The results showed that HCKOH is an effective V(V) adsorbent, achieving maximum uptake of 12.3 mg g-1 at solution pH 4, 60 min contact time and temperature 293 K. The kinetics followed a pseudo second order model with film diffusion controlling the overall adsorption rate. The type I adsorption isotherm was well fitted to a Langmuir model (qm = 12.3 mg g-1, R2 = 0.970, RMSE = 0.66) and a thermodynamic study indicated that the V(V) adsorption was both exothermic and spontaneous. The low enthalpy change (-10.97 kJ mol-1) indicated a weak binding of V(V) to HCKOH pointing to the possibility of V recovery. The impact of co-existing cations on V(V) uptake was negligible for Na(I) and Ga (III) but was reduced slightly for Al(III). Desorption and re-adsorption results (3 cycles) indicated that HCKOH has reusable potential to remove and recover V(V) from waste leachates. © 2020 The Author(s).

  • 221.
    Gopalakrishnan, Pavithra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Bioflex - Synergies with electrolytical hydrogen2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bioflex project investigate the compatibility of operation between a two-stage bioprocess and an electrolyser to produce Hydrogen and Methane. Process water from Nordic Sugar in Örtofta, a sugar industry is utilized in the bioreactors. AP2 investigates energy balances and upscaling of the bioprocess, technical compatibility and synergistic effects between electrolysis and the two-step bioprocess. This assignment examines how waste heat from electrolysis can be used to pre-heat process water before entering the bioprocess reactors.

    This study analyses three possible configurations of scaled up installation, with a 5MW Alkaline electrolyser and 20m3 bio-Hydrogen reactor and 100m3 bio-Methane reactor. The overall efficiency in combined operation mode and stand-alone operation of electrolyser when connection with a high temperature District Heating Network (DHN) are comparable 86-88%. However, under both these cases come with an installation of heat pump which is cost intensive. For electrolyser sizes less than 5MW, water treatment of the seasonal effluent from bioreactors is less energy efficient. Based on pilot study in AP1, the 20m3 bio-Hydrogen reactor can produce similar amount of Hydrogen as the 5MW electrolyser. The purities of these two methods are different, hence the overall dimensioning of the system would depend on demand and end user for these products.

    In the present scenario, with seasonal availability of process water for the bioprocess, the percentage of overlapping working hours of electrolyser and bioreactors varies between 25% to a maximum of 40%. Higher operating hours for bioreactor is recommended to achieve maximum efficiency and consistency of supply.

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  • 222.
    Grahn, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Detection of wood species and defects with NIR2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project the possibility to determine different wood species and detect defects on wood cross-sections on logs with hyperspectral near-infrared camera was investigated. This project was a laboratory study where cross-sections of logs were scanned at the wood and fibre analysis laboratory at RISE with near-infrared instrument. Wood samples from different origins and species, with different defects were scanned with a hyperspectral near-infrared camera. Classification models were developed to characterise and classify the different logs. Spruce and pine samples were collected from different sawmills, a group of these samples contained fungal growth. The defects within the collected logs varied and some samples contained decay fungi such as sap- and heart rot as well as non-destructive blue stain. Classifications models to distinguish between different wood species were developed, as well classification models to differentiate between healthy wood and the fungal attack were also developed.

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  • 223.
    Grahn, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Detection of wood species and defects with NIR2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project the possibility to determine different wood species and detect defects on wood cross-sections on logs with hyperspectral near-infrared camera was investigated. This project was a laboratory study where cross-sections of logs were scanned at the wood and fibre analysis laboratory at RISE with near-infrared instrument.Wood samples from different origins and species, with different defects were scanned with a hyperspectral near-infrared camera. Classification models were developed to characterise and classify the different logs.Spruce and pine samples were collected from different sawmills, a group of these samples contained fungal growth. The defects within the collected logs varied and some samples contained decay fungi such as sap- and heart rot as well as non-destructive blue stain. Classifications models to distinguish between different wood species were developed, as well classification models to differentiate between healthy wood and the fungal attack were also developed.

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  • 224.
    Granlund, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Lindh, E. Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Malou Petersson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Evaluation of Snow Removal Methods for Rooftop Photovoltaics2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avoiding snow on photovoltaic (PV) installations is motivated for two reasons: to decrease power losses from shading, or to decrease mechanical loads to avoid damage to the PV-installation and the underlying construction. We experimentally investigated the effectiveness and suitability of four different snow removal methods at our facility in the north of Sweden (Piteå, 65°N), throughout three winters. The layout of a PV installation and the underlying roof, together with meteorological conditions and snow characteristics, impact which methods are best suited for snow removal. A simple roof rake with a rectangular toolhead works well when the snowpack is compact and not too thick, whereas a roof rake with a slide works better when the snow is dry and packed. Neither the investigated passive hydrophobic surface coatings, nor the active forward bias electrical heating methods induced shedding of the accumulated snowpack in our experiments without additional intervention. At our test facility in Piteå, the roof rake with a slide was the most effective and user-friendly snow removal. Despite maximum snow loads of approximately 1 kPa, far below the modules’ rating, cell damage was observed for both snow removal groups (except for the slide roof rake group) and the control group.

  • 225.
    Gulshan, Samina
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shafaghat, Hoda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Yang, Hanmin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Performance analysis and production of aromatics for ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of engineered WEEE2024In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 179, article id 106510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of engineered waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) was conducted in a two-stage reactor using HZSM-5 catalyst. The effect of the catalysis temperature and the catalyst-to-feedstock (C/F) ratio on products yield, gas and oil composition, and products characterization were investigated in this study. Results indicated that lower reforming temperature and C/F ratio favored organic fractions production. The highest yield of organic fraction was obtained at a catalysis temperature of 450 °C and at a C/F ratio of 0.15, corresponding to 28.5 and 27.4 wt %, respectively. The highest selectivity toward aromatic hydrocarbons and the lowest TAN value of the organic fraction were obtained at a catalysis temperature of 450 °C and a C/F ratio of 0.2, respectively. Most of the alkali and transition metals and 23 % of Br remained in the solid residue after the catalytic pyrolysis of low-grade electronic waste (LGEW). 

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  • 226.
    Gustavsson, Catrin
    et al.
    Södra skogsägarna, Sweden.
    Oscarsson, Dan
    Södra skogsägarna, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Swedish Institute for Standards (SIS), Sweden .
    Chapter 20. Södra Skogsägarna: The Sustainable Innovator2022In: Changing the Dynamics and Impact of Innovation Management: A Systems Approach and the ISO Standard / [ed] Joanne Hyland, Magnus Karlsson, Ingrid Kihlander, John Bessant, Mats Magnusson, Jimmi Kristiansen, World Scientific, 2022, p. 331-343Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Gustavsson, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Björnlund, Linus
    Conservator AB, Sweden.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    Conservator AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Olof
    Moistenginst AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Mats
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Sikander, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Fuktsäkra byggnader: en nulägesbeskrivning2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Boverket ser ett behov av en kunskapssammanställning kring nuläget om fuktsäkra byggnader i Sverige för att ha en så bred och korrekt förståelse som möjligt för vem branschen är, vilka regler som tillämpas, var det finns kunskapscentra och vilka utvecklingsbehov som behöver stödjas för att branschen ska kunna ta större ansvar. De utmaningar som noteras är: Byggsektorn beredskap och förmåga att möta de nya förändrade byggregler som planeras av Boverket.

    Den stora andelen fuktrelaterade fel och skador som rapporteras i olika utredningar. Kraven kopplat till fuktrelaterade innemiljöproblem är otydliga och ofta svåra att följa upp. Detta kan leda till fuktrelaterade innemiljöproblem som orsakar lidande för de individer som drabbas.Miljö och klimatfrågan ställer krav både på resurseffektivitet och minskad klimatpåverkan samt resiliens och klimatanpassning. Förändrade boendevanor och brukarvanor som ändrar på förutsättningarna i en byggnad. Fragmentering och specialisering med många aktörer med ansvar för sin del endast. Några utvecklingsområden har noterats. Områden där det behövs både forskning och utveckling av teknik, processer och samarbeten: Kvalitetssäkring av nya material, konstruktioner och produktionsmetoderKompetensutveckling och kompetensspridning.Framtagning och tillgängliggörande av kunskap, teknikutveckling. Samsyn behöver utvecklas när det gäller bl.a. uttorkning i betong och i vilken omfattning byggnader behöver skyddas mot fukt under byggproduktionen. Undersökning av utvecklingsmöjligheter behövs för att ta vara på digitaliseringens möjligheter med sensorer, digitala tvillingar, AI m.m. i samband med fuktsäkerhet. Kartläggningen skulle förstärkas med en bredare internationell utblick. Det tycks finnas en del skillnader både i arbetssätt och erfarenheter kring fuktsäkra byggnader.Förhoppningen är att kartläggning av fuktsäkra byggnader ska bidra till kunskapsspridning om bransch, aktörer, teknik, system, konstruktion, kontroller, drift och underhåll samt forskning och fortsatt utvecklingsarbete.

  • 228.
    Gutkin, Renaud
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Wirje, Anders
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Essvik, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Enebog, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson, Oscar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Safe to circulate: public report2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 229.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson Påledal, Sören
    Tekniska Verken AB, Sweden.
    Yngvesson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Measurements of Methane Emissions from a Biofertilizer Storage Tank Using Ground-Based Hyperspectral Imaging and Flux Chambers2024In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 3766-3775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open storages of organic material represent potentially large sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), an emissions source that will likely become more common as a part of societal efforts toward sustainability. Hence, monitoring and minimizing CH4 emissions from such facilities are key, but effective assessment of emissions without disturbing the flux is challenging. We demonstrate the capacity of using a novel high-resolution hyperspectral camera to perform sensitive CH4 flux assessments at such facilities, using as a test case a biofertilizer storage tank for residual material from a biogas plant. The camera and simultaneous conventional flux chamber measurements showed emissions of 6.0 ± 1.3 and 13 ± 5.7 kg of CH4 h-1, respectively. The camera measurements covered the whole tank surface of 1104 m2, and the chamber results were extrapolated from measurements over 5 m2. This corresponds to 0.7-1.4% of the total CH4 production at the biogas plant (1330 N m3 h-1 corresponding to 950 kg h-1). The camera could assess the entire tank emission in minutes without disturbing normal operations at the plant and revealed additional unknown emissions from the inlet to the tank (17 g of CH4 h-1) and during the loading of the biofertilizer into trucks (3.1 kg of CH4 h-1 during loading events). This study illustrates the importance of adequate measurement capacity to map methane fluxes and to verify that methane emission mitigation efforts are effective. Given the high methane emissions observed, it is important to reduce methane emissions from open storage of organic material, for example by improved digestion in the biogas reactor, precooling of sludge before storage, or building gastight storage tanks with sealed covers. We conclude that hyperspectral, ground-based remote sensing is a promising approach for greenhouse gas monitoring and mitigation. © 2024 The Authors. 

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  • 230.
    Hafez, H.
    et al.
    University of Northumbria, UK.
    Kurda, R.
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Garcia-Segura, T.
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain.
    Cheung, W. M.
    University of Northumbria, UK.
    Nagaratnam, B.
    University of Northumbria, UK.
    A whole life cycle performance-based ECOnomic and ECOlogical assessment framework (ECO2) for concrete sustainability2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 292, article id 126060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is the primary building material worldwide with a substantial impact on the built environment sustainability. Hence, it is necessary to assess concrete's combined functionality, economic and environmental impact. In this paper, two concrete sustainability assessment frameworks, MARS-SC and CONCRETop, were studied. Building on the identified gaps, a new framework, ECO2 was developed. ECO2 is a multi-criteria decision analysis framework that accounts for carbon sequestration of concrete, impact allocation of raw materials, and the impact from the use and end-of-life phases. Hence, it could be used to optimize the proportions of a concrete mix based on a user-defined sustainability objective. A case study concluded that, due to the whole life cycle scope, the environmental impact calculated through ECO2 is 20% higher than that by MARS-SC and CONCRETop. In case of reinforced concrete, where service life requirements are different, the ranking of the alternatives according to ECO2 will significantly change comparatively.

  • 231.
    Hagentoft, C-E
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Stochastic simulation of rain intrusion through small defects due to water rivulet overpressure. Introducing a driving rain leakage potential2021In: 'Journal of Physics: Conference Series , IOP Publishing Ltd , 2021, Vol. 2069, no 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need of upgrading the old building stock with respect to the thermal insulation of the building envelope and specifically the façades. There are several systems on the market, and some are quite new and innovative. To bring down the cost some of the systems many are based on prefabricated moisture tight insulated units. This means that in case there is moisture tight barrier on the interior side, two moisture tight barriers surround the wall structure. The leakage of driving rain into the structure then represents a major threat to the durability of these systems. This paper investigates the pressure build up in water rivulets running down a façade acting together with the wind pressure. A driving rain leakage potential is introduced. Using real weather data years and Monte Carlo Simulations, the mean and standard deviation of the annual leakage through small hole is estimated. The examples show that the leakage can reach a level 0-0.5 liter/year for a hole with a diameter of 1-2 mm, and 0.5-3 liter/year for a diameter of 3-4 mm.

  • 232.
    Hallquist, Lukas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Alguren, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Kalkylverktyg – Hållbarhetseffekter av Ljus som tjänst2022Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom projektet Hinder och drivkrafter för cirkulär belysning som RISE har genomfört med projektparterna Brighteco, Chalmers industriteknik, Castellum, Tierpsbyggen och LED Lease, finansierat med hjälp av Energimyndigheten, har RISE tagit fram ett kalkylverktyg för att beräkna hållbarhetseffekter av affärsmodellen ljus som tjänst.

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  • 233.
    Hallquist, Lukas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Johnsson, Filip
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rootzén, Johan
    IVL, Sweden.
    Finansiering av omställning till klimatneutralt betongbyggande2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt Betonginitiativets färdplan ska det finnas klimatneutral betong på den svenska marknaden från och med år 2030 och ambitionen är att all betong som används i Sverige år 2045 ska vara klimatneutral. Betongens klimatpåverkan kommer till stor del från processrelaterade utsläpp från cementproduktionen, som i Sverige domineras av en aktör. Det finns i dag klimatförbättrad betong på marknaden som minskar koldioxidutsläppen med hjälp av alternativa bindemedel. För att nå klimatneutral betong som baseras på cement krävs däremot stora investeringar i klimatminskande åtgärder i cementproduktionen. Denna rapport är en del av arbetet inom UDI-projektet BETCRETE 2.0 (VINNOVA) i vilken RISE tillsammans med Chalmers och IVL har undersökt vilka hinder och möjligheter som finns för att säkra de nödvändiga investeringar som behövs för att uppnå cement- och betongindustrins färdplanernas mål om klimatneutral betong. Syfte med arbetet har varit att identifiera möjligheter och utmaningar för cement- och betongindustrin att finansiera omställningen till klimatneutralitet, samt att facilitera dialog mellan aktörer inom industrin för att öka förståelsen för industrins behov och utmaning att uppnå bred finansieringssamverkan Finansiering för klimatneutral cement och betong är i huvudsak kopplat till behovet av finansiering av koldioxidavskiljning från cementtillverkningen där den avskilda koldioxiden lagras (CCS) eller i vissa fall kan användas i långlivade produkter (CCU). För cement i Sverige handlar det i dagsläget om möjligheten att investera i CCS vid Cementas fabrik i Slite på Gotland (”Slite CCS”), en investering som beräknas uppgå till 10 miljarder kronor, samt en ökning av driftskostnaderna till nästan det dubbla. Våra resultat och rekommendationer De viktigaste hindren för att kunna uppnå färdplanernas mål som har identifierats i denna studie är: • Osäkerheter kring förutsättningarna att förverkliga planerna på CCS vid cementfabriken i Slite, kopplat till miljötillstånd, elinfrastruktur, val av CCS-teknik, och lagringsmöjligheter för koldioxid. • Osäkerhet om det kommer finnas avsättning för betydligt dyrare klimatneutral cement Dessa hinder bedöms vara de viktigaste att hantera då de bidrar till att öka risken för finansiärer av investering i klimatneutral cement. Vi föreslår att hindren hanteras genom att 1) minska osäkerheten kopplade till utfall av miljötillståndsprocesser, 2) stärka efterfrågan för klimatneutral cement, 3) dela på finansieringsrisken mellan flera aktörer, och 4) förbereda en långsiktig färdplan som främjar cirkularitet. Mer specifikt ger vi följande förslag för att minska de finansieringsrelaterade hinder som finns för att nå målen om klimatneutral betong.

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  • 234.
    Hallquist, Lukas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sallén, Josefina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Leivas, Matilda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Förstudie Cirkulär Gatubelysning2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I Sverige finns det ungefär 2,5 miljoner ljuspunkter på statliga vägar och kommunala gator. Den huvudsakliga funktionen är att förbättra synförhållandena i trafiken, men den syftar även till att öka komfort, motverka brottslighet, samt skapa trivsel. I den här förstudien har RISE, tillsammans med 8 aktörer från gatubelysningssektorn, utforskat hur värdekedjan kan leverera de värden som offentlig belysning bidrar till med färre resurser och mindre negativ påverkan på människa och miljö än vad som görs i dag. Förstudien har utvärderat cirkularitet utifrån tre dimensioner i) att använda armaturer och dess komponenter länge, ii) att använda gatubelysningens resurser ändamålsenligt, och iii) att återcirkulera uttjänt material och att använda återcirkulerat material. En huvudsaklig slutsats är att begreppet cirkulär förmodligen är för brett för att användas i sin helhet, och att begreppet med fördel bör brytas ner till mindre beståndsdelar, för att enklare ta steg åt rätt riktning. Det underlättar för offentlig upphandling att ställa krav för förbättrad cirkularitet genom att bryta ner begreppet till mindre mål och strategier för att minska resursflödet, främst av jungfruligt material men även totalt. Detta för att det inte är tydligt i dag vad sektorn bör fokusera på. Utöver cirkulära krav på armaturerna har offentliga aktörer en viktig roll i gatubelysningens resursanvändning och påverkan på människor och biologisk mångfald genom deras beslut om var och hur mycket belysning som ska finnas, hur ofta och hur starkt den ska lysa. Två identifierade utmaningar är i) att integrerade komponenter i LED-armaturer försvårar reparation och möjlighet till återbruk, och ii) att det är svårt att sia vilka förändringar som kan komma att ske på 25 år. På ett kvarts århundrade finns mycket tid för teknologisk utveckling, ändrade krav på armaturer, eller ny lagstiftning som begränsar möjligheten att använda armaturer baserade på dagens design. På aggregerad nivå finns den största klimatbesparingspotentialen att hämta från att byta ut de kvarstående armaturerna med gammal teknik till energieffektiv LED. Detta bör kompletteras med nattsänkning och närvarostyrd belysning där det är möjligt. Andra viktiga faktorer är att försöka minska behovet av jungfruligt material, både genom att minska antalet armaturer som behövs för att möta det behov som finns, och att använda återvunnet material i högre grad. Det finns flera lagar som är viktiga för värdekedjans aktörer att följa och ta vara på, särskilt den förslagna Ekodesignförordningen och det antagna hållbarhetsrapporteringsdirektivet Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive. Förstudien har slutligen identifierat följande forskningsbehov för att öka förutsättningarna att minska gatubelysningens resursbehov: • Kartlägga vilka av de gamla armaturerna som kan nedmonteras • Kartlägga var närvarostyrd belysning kan ha störst effekt • Genomföra studie för att skapa förståelse för slitage och livslängd av armaturhus och komponenter • Genomföra studie för hur modulära armaturer bör designas så att nyttorna överväger nackdelarna • Utvärdera möjliga format för funktionsupphandling

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  • 235.
    Hamon, Camille
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Abdollahi, Elnaz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Dahl, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Räftegård, Oskar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Sector coupling of district heating with the electricity system: profitability and operations (SeCoHeat)2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating systems can play key roles in the energy transition. The transition to a production mix based on renewable intermittent generation will create a larger need for ancillary services including frequency-regulation services. District heating systems typically participate in the wholesale electricity market (the so-called day-ahead market) today but do not, in general, participate in ancillary service markets. Previous studies have shown that it is technically possible to participate in these markets and that district heating systems have a role to play in these markets in the future. This requires investigating how further integration of district heating systems with the electrical grids and markets will impact operation and planning of these units. In addition, while it may be beneficial on a system level for district heating systems to participate in ancillary service markets, district heating system owners and operators will only do so if there are economic incentives to do so. The SeCoHeat project has therefore explored topics related to the profitability for individual district heating systems to participate in other electricity markets than just the day-ahead market, such as ancillary service markets. Studying sector coupling between the heat and electricity systems requires a thorough understanding of both sectors. This project has contributed to this by bringing together experts from both sides which has led to fruitful knowledge exchanges. Furthermore, some deliverables from the SeCoHeat project have been especially written to provide introduction about the heat sector to experts from the electricity sector, and vice versa. This includes an overview of the electricity markets in which district heating systems can participate, the technical requirements to participate in these markets and explanations about how profitability of participating in these markets can be computed. This also includes explanations about how the flexibility on the heat side can be sourced and provided to the electricity system and what limits this flexibility. Another important contribution of this project is the development of a Python-based open model for scheduling district system units on an hourly basis to minimize heat and electricity production costs while maximising revenues from several electricity markets. This model has been used in this project to evaluate the additional profits of participating in ancillary service markets. The results show that substantial additional profits can be made by doing so, both in historical years and in scenarios for future years. This report is a guide to the separate deliverables produced within this project. It offers an overview of the goals, methods and results from the project. The interested reader is referred to detailed descriptions in the corresponding deliverables. The SeCoHeat project was funded by Göteborg Energi AB:s stiftelse för forskning och utveckling. The work has been performed by RISE with the support of reference group members from Göteborg Energi, Vattenfall, Svenska kraftnät, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Chalmers and Profu.

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  • 236.
    Hanquist, Caroline
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Davidsson, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Laboratory tests in borehole KFM01A, KFM08A, KFM11A, KFR102A and KFR104: Uniaxial compression and indirect tensile strength tests of intact rock2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The density and mechanical properties were determined on water saturated specimens from boreholesKFM01A, KFM08A, KFM11A, KFR102A and KFR104 in the Forsmark site investigation area. Therock types in the selected sections were amphibolite (102017) and metavolcanic rock (103076). Somespecimens had a more or less foliated rock structure. The cores were sampled from a depth rangingbetween 196–901 m.The specimens were water saturated using tap water and all subsequent measurements wereconducted at this moisture condition. The density was determined on 30 specimens. The testingended with 20 indirect tensile tests yielding the indirect tensile strength and 10 uniaxial compressiontests including the post-peak response yielded the Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and the uniaxialcompressive strength.Some variation of rock material along the short cores could be seen, which is reflected in themeasured data. The density at a water saturated condition was 2892–3067 kg/m3 for amphibolite, and2697–2763 kg/m3 for metavolcanic rock.The indirect tensile tests were conducted such that every specimen with visible foliation was testedwith the diametrical compression across the foliation planes, with higher values for the indirecttensile strength on the specimens. The strength variation in the amphibolite was large. The indirecttensile strength was 10.8–21.4 MPa for amphibolite and 16.9–20.7 MPa for metavolcanic rock. Twoof the amphibolite specimens had a deviating lower strength, indirect tensile strength 5.7 MParespectively 5.8 MPa, with a ductile failure. Those specimens had a high content of mica.The Young’s modulus obtained from the uniaxial compression tests was 88.6–114.5 GPa foramphibolite and 68.2–89.1 GPa for metavolcanic rock and the Poisson’s ratio was 0.339–0.386 foramphibolite and 0.236–0.313 for metavolcanic rock. The peak values of the axial compressive stresswere in the range 213.1–333.7 MPa for amphibolite and 104.1–283.1 MPa for metavolcanic rock.One of the amphibolite specimens had a deviating lower strength and a ductile failure with Young’smodulus 41.2 GPa, Poisson’s ratio 0.500 and peak axial compressive stress of 44.5 MPa. Thatspecimen had a high content of mica. 

  • 237.
    Harfeldt-Berg, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. Lund University, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Ericsson, Karin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The Importance of Individual Actor Characteristics and Contextual Aspects for Promoting Industrial Symbiosis Networks2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 4927-4927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors that affect and influence industrial symbiosis (IS) collaborations have been researched extensively in the literature, where they are mostly reported at a network level or for IS in general, and lack the individual actor’s perspective. This review article contributes to and expands knowledge of influencing factors and their effect on the individual actor. In a systematic review, guided by the PRISMA 2020 guidelines, this study reviews 53 scientific papers examining planned or existing IS networks. It examines literature from 1 January 2000 to 28 March 2022, and it identifies drivers, barriers, and enablers influencing actors to participate in IS. It explores whether and how the perception and impact of these factors differs depending on the characteristics of individual actors and their specific context. The main findings of this study reveal that an actor’s specific characteristics and the network’s context have a significant impact on decision making and how actors both perceive and are affected by factors influencing collaboration. Furthermore, an additional novel contribution to this field of research is that the study identifies three underlying and recurring considerations that actors appear to find critical, namely, perceived business opportunities/risks, regulatory and political setting, and potential inequalities in the network. The results show that an actor’s take on these critical considerations determines whether the actor is willing to engage in IS.

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  • 238.
    Harfeldt-Berg, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. Lund University, Sweden.
    Harfeldt-Berg, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Connecting organizational context to environmental sustainability initiatives and industrial symbiosis: Empirical results and case analysis2023In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 40, p. 210-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis can move us closer to a circular economy and enable efficient and sustainable use of resources. Its potential has however been far from realized, and to increase our understanding of why that is, we investigate drivers, barriers, and outcomes associated with both broadly defined environmental sustainability initiatives and industrial symbiosis from an organizational context perspective. A mixed-methods approach is used, combining statistical analysis of survey material with an embedded case study at an industrial symbiosis network in Sotenäs, Sweden. The position of the customer order decoupling point (CODP), a critical aspect of supply chains that separates forecast-based operations from those tied to specific orders, enables comparisons between organizations with primarily forecast-driven operations from those with primarily order-driven operations. We find that the CODP plays an important role in organizations' commitments to sustainability initiatives in general, as organizations with different CODP positions experience different levels of benefits from such initiatives. We did not find that the CODP position had the same impact for industrial symbiosis initiatives. Our results indicate that both industrial symbiosis, a very specific type of sustainability initiative and collaboration, and environmental sustainability initiatives in a broad sense, are associated with multiple, positive business outcomes. However, case study participants also described that their industrial symbiosis participation was time consuming and associated with an added administrative burden. This could be a reason why such collaborations are not more prevalent, despite the potential of bringing about several positive business outcomes. Finally, our findings indicate that industrial symbiosis may bring business-related benefits to firms regardless of their CODP position, but then in order to understand why such networks are not more prevalent, we recommend that future research investigates ways of quantifying and distributing burdens and rewards associated with industrial symbiosis collaboration. © 2023 The Authors

  • 239.
    Harris, S.
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Martin, M.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Diener, Derek
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Circularity for circularity's sake?: Scoping review of assessment methods for environmental performance in the circular economy.2021In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 26, p. 172-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Circular Economy (CE) concept is receiving increasing global attention and has captivated many disciplines, from sustainability through to business and economics. There is currently a strong drive by companies, academics and governments alike to implement the CE. Numerous “circularity indicators” have emerged that measure material flow or recirculated value of a system (e.g. product or nation). However, if its implementation is to improve environmental performance of society, the action must be based on scientific evidence and quantification or it may risk driving “circularity for circularity's sake”. This paper, therefore, aims to review the recent circular economy literature that focuses on assessing the environmental implications of circularity of products and services. To do this we divide the system levels into micro (product level), meso (industrial estate/symbiosis) and macro (national or city level). A scoping literature review explores the assessment methods and indicators at each level. The results suggest that few studies compare circularity indicators with environmental performance or link the circularity indicators between society levels (e.g. the micro and macro-levels). However, adequate tools exist at each level (e.g. life cycle assessment (LCA) at the micro-level and multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis at the macro-level) to provide the ability to adequately assess and track the CE performance if placed within a suitable framework. The challenge to connect the micro and macro-levels remains. This would help understand the link between changes at the micro-level at the macro-level, and the environmental consequences. At the meso-level, industrial symbiosis continues to grow in potential, but there is a need for further research on the assessment of its contribution to environmental improvement. In addition, there is limited understanding of the use phase. For example, national monitoring programmes do not have indicators on stocks of materials or the extent of the circular economy processes (such as the reuse economy, maintenance and spare parts) which already contribute to the CE. The societal needs/functions framework offers a promising meso-level link to bridge the micro and macro-levels for assessment, monitoring and setting thresholds. © 2020 The Authors

  • 240.
    Hasholt, Marianne Tange
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Frid, Katja
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Spörel, Frank
    Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute, Germany.
    Lahdensivu, Jukka
    Tampere University, Finland.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Müller, Matthias
    Faheem, Abdul
    Sleiman, Sara Al Haj
    Centrale Nantes, France.
    Jacobsen, Stefan
    NTNU, Norway.
    Nordic Concrete Research workshop: “Accelerated freeze-thaw testing of concrete”, Lyngby, 20th April 20222022In: Nordic Concrete Research, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 113-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     A one-day Nordic Concrete Research workshop on “Accelerated freeze-thaw testing of concrete” attracted approx. 30 participants. The workshop included presentations on various aspects, such as observed frost damage in the field and the importance of the temperature curve during testing as well as other interactions with the surroundings of the concrete. The workshop also included examples of recent research, which can improve our knowledge about the frost damage mechanism and therefore provide input to improving the standardised test methods. The present paper is a summary of the nine presentations and the discussion arising from the presentations.

  • 241.
    Hasselqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Strömberg, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Exploring Renewable Energy Futures through Household Energy Resilience2022In: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, Association for Computing Machinery , 2022, article id 333Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A transition to renewable energy increases the risks of disruptions when electricity supply does not meet demand. HCI has explored how digital technologies can mitigate such problems in households through support for reducing or shifting electricity use. However, faster transitions may be possible if some disturbances can be acceptable and households are supported in adapting to them. In this paper, we present a study of 21 Swedish households and their experiences of and ideas on how to manage disruptions in electricity supply. We call this perspective household energy resilience and identify three strategies for resilience: (1) response diversity, i.e., diversity in ways of carrying out normally electricity-dependent practices, (2) creating opportunities to develop resilience, and (3) building community energy resilience. Furthermore, we suggest how HCI can support these strategies, both by providing tools to increase resilience and by carefully designing technology and services to be more resilient in themselves. © 2022 Owner/Author.

  • 242.
    Hasselqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Strömberg, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Household energy resilience: Shifting perspectives to reveal opportunities for renewable energy futures in affluent contexts2022In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 88, article id 102498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy resilience is an important focus for energy policy and research, since the energy system is increasingly facing challenges such as power shortages, e.g. due to increased renewable energy production, and risks of power outages caused by extreme weathers. Typically, energy resilience in these contexts focuses on infrastructure and securing supply of electricity despite disturbances. This paper contributes a complementary perspective on resilience, which takes households as a starting point for investigating resilience. Building on understandings of resilience from several disciplines, we suggest a definition of household energy resilience that can be used to explore how households can ensure a good life in a future with variable availability of electricity. Furthermore, we draw on current ideas of future domestic energy use in energy affluent contexts (backup energy sources, energy efficiency, flexibility, and energy sufficiency) to create a framework for exploring household energy resilience. We find a potential for diversity within and between the different ideas, that is not always present in mainstream visions of future energy use. With the perspective of household energy resilience, we wish to challenge the perception of electricity demand as non-negotiable and to reveal opportunities for supporting households in becoming more resilient in an uncertain future. © 2022 The Authors

  • 243.
    Haugen, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Forskningsöversikt - Temporära åtgärder inom stadsutveckling: former och utvärderingsaspekter2021Report (Other academic)
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    Forskningsöversikt - Temporära åtgärder inom stadsutveckling: former och utvärderingsaspekter
  • 244.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Cavenius, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Social Return on Investment (SROI) inom stadsplanering och byggd miljö: Forskningsöversikt inom projektet SIGURD2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna forskningsöversikt, genomförd inom det Vinnovafinansierade projektet "SIGURD", syftar till att ge en sammantagen bild av litteraturen kring metoden Social Return on Investment (SROI) med särskilt fokus på dess potential för tillämpning inom fältet stadsplanering och byggd miljö. SROI synliggör den bredare samhällsnyttan, socialt och miljömässigt, som interventioner/investeringar genererar utöver den ekonomiska vinsten. Ansatsen innebär analys av värden inom samtliga hållbarhetsdimensioner, och svarar upp mot ett växande intresse och tydligare krav på sådana bedömningar i planeringsunderlag.

    SROI har över tid fått en stark position inom hållbarhetsbedömning. Metode n är dock fortfarande förhållandevis ny och har inte använts inom stadsplanering och byggd miljö i någon större utsträckning, i synnerhet inte inom kommunala planprocesser. SROI-analyser resulterar i en estimering av förhållandet mellan investeringar och det värde som dessa genererar - såväl ekonomiskt, miljömässigt och socialt. Metoden innebär konvertering av socialt och miljömässigt värde till ekonomiskt värde genom monetarisering baserad på finansiella

    proxies. Framtagande av indikatorer, data och värderingar av effekter för analysen är ofta tidskrävande och kräver ett robust underlag, men också ett stort mått av kreativitet och utforskande. De mest använda värderingstekniker som har identifierats i denna forskningsövesikt är bl.a. kostnads- och intäktsbaserad värdering, betalnings- och risk-/kompensationsvilja, spenderingsmönster och premiumvärde, bekvämlighetsvärde, välbefinnandevärdering samt nyttoförflyttning. Vidare bör man enligt SROI-metoden även beakta den eventuella yttre påverkan som kan finnas på resultaten och beräkningarna över tid.

    SROI har påtagliga fördelar. Metoden är i viss mån standardiserad med avseende på analysprocess och grundläggande principer. En väl genomförd SROI-analys genererar ett trovärdigt beslutsunderlag som kan understödja effektiva beslut. Ekonomiska, sociala och miljömässiga värden kan tydligt jämföras mot varandra eftersom de två senare konverteras till finansiella enheter. Immateriella värden görs mätbara genom användning av relevanta indikatorer. Vidare har intressentperspektivet central betydelse som utgångspunkt för SROI-analysen, något som innebär en väsentlig potential för stärkt medborgainflytande.

    SROI har också påtagliga nackdelar. Metoden är resurskrävande i flera avseenden, inte minst vad gäller tidsåtgång och kompetens. Monetarisering kan också innebära påtagliga svårigheter kring bl.a. tillgång till relevant data av god kvalitet. Vidare kan inte alla sociala värden konverteras till finansiella enheter med bibehållen metodologisk och teo retisk kvalitet. En central kritik mot SROI kretsar kring den reduktionistiska ansatsen, d.v.s. att komplexa, kvalitativa aspekter förenklas på ett sätt som kan anses orimligt.

    SROI-analyser inom stadsplanering och byggd miljö kan bidra till stärkt medborgarinflytande och en mer holistisk analys av samhällsnytta, samt skapa transparens och legitimitet kring projekten. Det är dock också en krävande metod. SROI har ännu inte använts i någon större utsträckning inom kontexten planering och byggd miljö. Det finns ett behov att vidareutveckla metoden inom detta fält, exempelvis gällande möjligheten att skapa databaser med standardiserade indikatorer och proxydata. Ett antal fallstudier, främst med ursprung från praktisk verksamhet men i några få fall även från forskningssfären, har dock kunnat identifieras.

    Hållbarhetsanalysen i utvärdering och bedömning av projekt inom stadsplanering och byggd miljö behöver förbättras. SROI har en potential att fylla en sådan funktion, i synnerhet om metoden vidareutvecklas och anpassas för detta fält. Samtidigt finns det uppenbara svårigheter kring metodens tillämpning som kan begränsa användbarheten. En imperfekt metod för analys av de dolda sociala och miljömässiga värdena är dock bety dligt bättre än frånvaro av beslutsunderlag kring dessa aspekter. SROI bidrar till att stärka och underbygga medvetenhet och fokus på de grundläggande hållbarhetsfrågorna.

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  • 245.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Cavenius, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Social Return on Investment (SROI) inom stadsplanering och byggd miljö: Forskningsöversikt inom projektet SIGURD2020Report (Other academic)
  • 246.
    Haugen, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Gil Sola, Ana
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Normkritiska perspektiv: Tillämpningar inom samtida svensk samhällsplanering: Kunskapsöversikt2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar en kunskapsöversikt som syftar till att summera huvuddragen i de tillämpningar av normkritiska perspektiv som gjorts inom svensk samhällsplanering under det senaste decenniet. Översikten beskriver ett urval av totalt 57 normkritiska initiativ med avseende på typ av åtgärd/insats, problemformulering och målgrupp, teoretisk/begreppslig inramning, tillvägagångssätt och metoder, geografisk kontext, samt resultat. Arbetet har utförts i samarbete mellan RISE, Göteborgs universitet och Urban Futures med finansiering av, och i dialog med, Vinnova (2020-05091). Målgruppen är dels myndighetens personal, dels dess intressenter/avnämare. Normkritiska perspektiv är föremål för växande intresse inom flera områden, däribland forskning, näringsliv, politik och offentlig verksamhet. Normkritik bidrar med analys och problematisering kring hur vissa sociala normer kan ha exkluderande effekter och begränsa bland annat människors tillgänglighet till staden och dess resurser. Kunskapsöversikten avgränsas till åtgärder som kan kopplas till de i lagstiftningen definierade diskrimineringsgrunderna och de grupper som omfattas av dessa. Resultaten baseras på litteratur- och dokumentsökningar, och omfattar ett strategiskt urval av exempel på projekt och initiativ bedrivna av en mångfald av aktörer (t ex kommuner, forskningsorganisationer, konsultföretag, kulturinstitutioner). Vissa av exemplen är ännu pågående initiativ. Vid urvalet har bl a variation bland de inkluderande exemplen eftersträvats. Explicit normkritiskt teoretisk anknytning har inte varit ett urvalskrav, men däremot att sådana perspektiv ska gå att utläsa av innehållet i övrigt. De exempel på tillämpningar som ingår i urvalet har analyserats med hjälp av en matris som fångar studiens centrala frågeställningar, för att därigenom identifiera mönster i materialet. Kunskapsöversikten innehåller exempel på tillämpningar inom diskrimineringsgrunderna kön, könsöverskridande identitet eller uttryck, etnisk tillhörighet, funktionsnedsättning (där vi väljer att istället använda begreppet ”funktionsvariation”), sexuell läggning samt ålder. När det gäller diskrimineringsgrunden religion eller annan trosuppfattning kunde inga relevanta exempel identifieras. Dessutom finns ett antal exempel på initiativ som är relevanta för samtliga diskrimineringsgrunder snarare än inriktade på vissa grupper. Ett antal teman för innehållet i exemplen har identifierats: utformning av allmän plats, kunskapshöjning (inriktad mot tjänstepersoner, politiker och/eller allmänhet), framtagande/vidareutveckling av arbetsprocess/metod, ny rutin/tjänst inom befintlig verksamhet, kartläggning av verksamhet, attitydpåverkan av allmänhet, förbättrad samverkan mellan aktörer samt spridning av information kring projekt. Utifrån studiens resultat dras slutsatsen att det tycks finns ”vita fläckar” när det gäller fokuserade grupper bland de normkritiska tillämpningar som genomförts inom samhällsplanering, även om studien inte gör anspråk på att bygga på ett representativt urval av projekt. Vi ser även en risk att lärdomar, verktyg etc. som utvecklas inom olika projekt inte integreras i gängse arbets- och beslutsprocesser. Detta bl a då långsiktig implementering är svår och att ämnet sällan diskuteras i analyserade rapporter. Vi menar slutligen att finansiärer, såsom Vinnova, har en viktig roll att spela när det gäller att bidra till att både bredda och fördjupa dagens normkritiska arbete inom samhällsplaneringen.

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  • 247.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhou, Ming
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Faisal, Abrar
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhrman, Olov
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Finelli, Valeria
    Università di Torino, Italy.
    Signorile, Matteo
    Università di Torino, Italy.
    Crocellà, Valentina
    Università di Torino, Italy.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Controlling diffusion resistance, selectivity and deactivation of ZSM-5 catalysts by crystal thickness and defects2022In: Journal of Catalysis, ISSN 0021-9517, E-ISSN 1090-2694, Vol. 410, p. 320-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic investigation of two sets of defect free and defective ZSM-5 crystals with controlled thickness (T) between 30 and 400 nm and of their performances in methanol conversion was reported for the first time in the present work. The defect free ZSM-5 crystals with a thickness of 35 nm are by far the smallest ever reported and displayed superior activity, stability and selectivity to slower diffusing compounds, which resulted in high yield of e.g. gasoline and the 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene isomer with high octane number, as compared to the other studied catalysts. Almost only products forming in the zeolite pores were detected and consequently, the external surface must be nearly inactive. Strong correlations between T and deactivation rate were observed. Thick crystals deactivated much faster than thin crystals, probably due to formation of carbon species in the zeolite pores, which results in pronounced percolation effects and faster deactivation of the former. At comparable thickness, crystals with defects deactivated much faster than defect free crystals, due to formation of additional small molecular coke species in the former. Strong correlations between T and selectivity were also observed and assigned to control of diffusion resistance by crystal thickness. © 2022 The Authors

  • 248.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Krom i krossad återvunnen betong2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For environmental reasons there is a demand to use less amounts of natural stone and gravel as aggregate, which leads to an increasing use of recycled materials, for example construction demolition waste (CDW), when new civil engineering structures and buildings are constructed. Cement and concrete contain a certain amount of soluble hexavalent chromium which may cause health problems and can be leached to the environment and influence it negatively. From a concrete structure the leaching is minimal, but when the concrete is crushed and the specific surface increase, leaching also increases and may reach levels where it may influence the environment.

    This report gives an overview and background to:

    ·       existence of chromium in CDW and particularly the hexavalent chromium,  

    ·       requirements as regard chromium on CDW for different applications or as landfill and

    ·       what happens with the chromium when the CDW is incorporated in new concrete or asphalt.

    Chromium is generally present in the earth surface in the non-toxic form of three valent chromium. When cement is produced, a part of this chromium is converted into hexavalent chromium, which is toxic and very soluble in water. It may cause contact allergies. Because of this EU limited the amount of hexavalent chromium in cement put on the market to 2 ppm in 2013. The same limitation was introduced in Sweden already in the 1980's. In old concrete, which is often the type of concrete that will be demolished, crushed and used for recycling, cement with much higher hexavalent chromium content may have been used.

    Through a EU decision and regulations from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency the leaching amount of dangerous substances, for example soluble chromium is limited in materials which shall be put into landfill. Generally, two values are needed, the initial leaching value which describes the concentration of the compound in the leaching water initially, and an accumulated leaching value which is supposed to describe the total amount of chromium that will be leached from the material. The Agency has also published a handbook on the use of recycled materials in civil engineering structures, where limiting values on total amount and leached amounts are given for two applications; for general use (non-bound) in for instance road structures and when used to cover landfills. In this case there is also a demand on total amount of chromium, in addition to the two leaching values.

    When using CDW as aggregate in new concrete and in asphalt there are now limiting values as regards chromium.

    The test methods used, element analysis, shake tests (bulktests) and percolations tests, are briefly described. Results from tests on CDW with these methods reported in the literature are given. Normally, the values on leaching lie around the limit value for inert landfill, sometimes they are higher and sometimes lower.

    A description of a couple of long-time field tests where the leaching has been measured on road structures with CDW are included.

    The results indicate that : 

    • crushed new uncarbonated concrete normally has values of initial and accumulated leaching which are lower than the limiting values for inert landfill and for civil engineering structures,
    • carbonation of Portland cement concrete gives increases the amount of leached chromium,

    §  crushed concrete, even a carbonated one, fabricated with a cement with maximum soluble chromium = 2 ppm generally exhibit test values for initial and accumulated leaching which are below the limiting values for inert landfill and for civil engineering structures,

     

    §  slag in the concrete binds the chromium and makes it more insoluble, both in new and carbonated concrete and  

    • for old concrete, where high chromium cements have probably been used, special measures may be necessary in order to fulfil the requirements for inert landfill and for civil engineering structures.

    Examples of special measures:

    • A good sorting of the CDW at the demolition site. The CDW shall preferable come from only concrete and stone. Bricks, gypsym etc. gives higher leaching values.
    • Good knowledge about the original demolished structure gives a possibility to be freed from testing.
    • To use a wet process to sort the demolished material. Some of the soluble chromium will then be leached already at this stage. This leads to a higher probability to pass the requirement on initial leaching on the resulting material. The process water will then contain soluble chrome and must be taken care of in end environmentally friendly way and.   

    §  To let the CDW carbonate and the wash it and take care of the wash water in end environmentally friendly way. This will lower the initial leaching value, which is the most problematic requirement to fulfil.   

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  • 249.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Nedbrytning hos betong med slagg och flygaska efter fyra vintersäsonger vid RV402020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta projekt kartläggs de förändringar i provkroppar av betong med tillsats av främst slagg och flygaska som har uppkommit efter fyra vintersäsongers exponering vid RV40 i Borås. Dessa förändringar jämförs med resultat från laboratorieprovningar på provkroppar härdade på olika sätt i laboratoriet av samma betongblandningar utförda eller påbörjade inom de första 91 dygnen från gjutning. Vissa andra egenskaper har också studerats i avsikt att kasta ljus på den yttre eller inre nedbrytning som skett i fält.

    De provkroppar som undersökts tillverkades inom BBT-projektet 2013:22 "Saltfrost-provningsmetodens tillämplighet på betong innehållande slagg, flygaska och kalkstensfiller" vilket redovisats i [1]. Det främsta syftet med det projektet var att undersöka om salt-frostprovningsmetoden i SS 137244 [2] ("slab method" i CEN TS 12390-9 [3]) ger resultat som motsvarar den nedbrytning som erhålls vid verklig salt-frostexponering för blandningar med tillsatsmaterial som slagg och flygaska, eller om modifieringar av metoden krävs.

    I detta projekt har samtliga provkroppar (fyra per vardera av de 14 blandningarna) som fältexponerats vägts och mätts. Dynamisk E-modul beräknad utifrån uppmätt egenfrekvens och ultraljud har också registrerats på dessa. Tre av de fyra provkropparna har därefter återförts till RV40 för framtida undersökningar, medan en provkropp per blandning har undersökts närmare vad gäller karbonatiseringsdjup, kloridinträngning, förekomst av mikrosprickor, förändringar i ytan samt fördelning av vissa grundämnen i provkropparna. Resultaten har jämförts med de laboratorieresultat som erhölls inom BBT-projektet 2013:22 och med fältresultat efter fyra år från ett annat projekt med liknande inriktning [4].

    Mätresultaten visar att fyra års exponering i en miljö med saltning inte är tillräcklig tid för att kunna utläsa en betongs motstånd mot salt-frostavflagning genom att registrera ändring i massa eller volym hos provkroppar. Under de första åren i en fuktig miljö sker en fortskridande hydratisering som binder ytterligare vatten kemiskt, och ökar provkroppens densitet. Detta gäller i synnerhet för betongblandningar med flygaska och viss mån även betong med slagg som har en långsammare reaktionshastighet och strukturutveckling initialt än vad en ren portlandcementbetong har. Det är inte förrän efter åtminstone ett års exponering, då hydratiseringen och hållfasthetsutvecklingen avstannat helt eller nästan, som förändringar i vikt eller massa kan börja relateras till yttre nedbrytning. Efter fyra års exponering av provkropparna har det heller inte skett någon klart märkbar förändring av den exponerade ytan, inte ens hos de betongblandningar som inte innehåller tillsatt luft.

    De fortgående reaktionerna påverkar även den uppmätta egenfrekvensen och transmissionstiden, som återspeglar förändringar i dynamisk E-modul och den inre nedbrytningen. När det gäller den inre nedbrytningen mätt genom registrering av egenfrekvens (RDMFF) fås dock betydligt mer utslagsgivande resultat efter fyra år i fält än vad registrering av massa och volym ger. Provkroppar från två blandningar uppvisar en betydande minskning, ner till c:a 60 % av ursprunglig E-modul: en med 20% flygaska utan luftporbildare (A20FU) och en med 35% slagg och luftporbildare (R35S). A20FU uppvisade också stark avflagning då betongblandningarna provades enligt SS 137244 [2], medan R35S då inte visade några tecken på nedbrytning. Ett par andra blandningar, en med 20 % slagg utan luftporbildare och en med 65 % slagg med luftporbildare visade en klar tendens till inre nedbrytning både i fältförsöket och vid salt-frostprovningen. För vissa blandningar uppvisar en av de fyra provkropparna betydande nedbrytning mätt med egenfrekvens efter fyra år, men inte de övriga tre, alla med minst 20 % flygaska eller slagg. Av dessa var det bara en som visade tendens till nedbrytning vid den initiala salt-frostprovningen.

    Mätning av inre nedbrytning gjordes dels med registrering av egenfrekvens dels med registrering av transmissionstid (UPTT), och resultaten korrelerar ganska väl med varandra, med ett par undantag. När det gäller den blandning (R35S), som vid egenfrekvensmätningen uppvisade stor nedbrytning, så återspeglas inte det i UPTT-värdena. Mätvärdet för R65S med UPTT indikerar en större nedbrytning än mätvärdet med egenfrekvens.

    Den mikroskopiska undersökning visade att i provet utan luftporbildare som visade stor inre nedbrytning (A20FU) var sprickfrekvensen hög, och sprickorna som utgick från kanten av ballastkornen vek av ut i cementpastan och hade en betydande längd (40-50 mm) och bredd. I vissa fall har det bildats en luftspalt mellan ballastkorn och cementpasta. I övriga prover förekom det fina mikrosprickor, främst vid kanten av ballastkornen, som inte bedömdes påverka betongens egenskaper nämnvärt.

    I proverna med slagg och luftporbildare som också uppvisar en klart märkbar inre nedbrytning (R35S och R65S), noteras också en ganska hög sprickfrekvens. Men mer slående är att de har en genomgående dålig fördelning av luftporerna, vilka tenderar att ansamlas runt ballastkorn. Detta är troligtvis en avgörande faktor för det dåliga motståndet mot inre nedbrytning. Detta skulle kunna bero på ett olämpligt val av luftporbildare för den aktuella bindemedelssammansättningen (CEM I 52,5 R och 35 respektive 65 % slagg). Provet med CEM I 42,5N-SR3 LA/MH och 35% slagg (A35S) uppvisar inte samma inre nedbrytning. Denna har dock inte analyserats med mikroskopi. Generellt konstaterades i [1] att luftporbildare inte har samma positiva inverkan på frostresistensen när större mängder slagg ingår som i blandningar utan slagg. I blandningar med flygaska är de däremot av stor vikt för frostbeständigheten.

    I proverna med flygaska noterades vid den mikroskopiska analysen reaktionsprodukter, troligtvis ettringit, i luftporerna vilket kan ha bidragit till en sämre frostbeständigheten genom att luftporernas funktion försämras. Detta kan påverka både den inre frostbeständigheten och salt-frostavflagningen. Ettringit som bildas när betongen har hårdnat kan också ge upphov till skador p.g.a. svällning vid försenad ettringitbildning, se till exempel avsnitt 2.7.2 i [5].

    Kloridprofiler från den sågade överytan och inåt i fältprovkropparna togs fram med två olika metoder. På några provkroppar användes titrering och på några användes μ-XRF. Titreringen gjordes ner till 25 mm djup, medan μ-XRF gav profilen ner till 60 mm djup.

    När flygaska används fås en större kloridinträngning efter 4–5 års exponering vid RV40 i skiktet ner till ca 20 mm djup, och ju högre andel flygaska desto längre in från ytan återfinns den punkt där halten klorid är som störst. Däremot blir kloridhalten lägre längre in i provkroppen med flygaska än utan.

    Med slagg i blandningen minskar kloridinträngningen. I detta projekt är motståndet mot kloridinträngning när ett CEM I 52,5 R ("R-cement") används som störst med 35 % slagg och när ett CEM I 42,5 N SR3/LA/MH ("A-cement") används med 20 % slagg. I blandningen med R-cement och 65% slagg (R65S) har en betydligt större kloridinträngning och fluktuerande kloridprofil uppmätts än i blandningen med 35 % slagg (R35S). Detta kan bero på den mycket ojämna och dåliga luftporfördelningen i denna provkropp, med ansamling av luftporer vid ballastkorn, vilket kan öka permeabiliteten för klorider.

    En viktig frågeställning i BBT-projektet 2013:22 [1] var att kartlägga karbonatiseringens inverkan på salt-frostbeständigheten och eventuellt modifiera den använda salt-frostprovningsmetoden så att denna inverkan beaktades. I det projektet accelererades karbonatiseringen därför dels genom att utsätta provytan för 1 % CO2 en vecka innan frysprovningen startades, och dels genom att låta provytan exponeras för 65% RF och normal laboratorieluft under tre månader innan frysprovningen. Genom mätning av karbonatiseringsdjupet på fältproverna konstaterades att för att simulera 4-5 års naturlig karbonatisering i vägmiljö, med resultat på säker sida, borde provkropparna sågas vid c:a 60 dygn och därefter utsättas för 1 % CO2. Att utsätta provkropparna för koldioxid vi 21 dygns ålder ger större karbonatiseringsdjup än efter 4 -5 års fältexponering. Dock måste man ha i åtanke att 4–5 år är en kort tid i förhållande till en betongkonstruktions livslängd som kan vara upp till 120 år eller längre. Vilken koldioxidexponering som bäst motsvarar karbonatiseringen på lång sikt, och i vilken mån det är relevant för frostbeständigheten kommer att framgå av framtida undersökningar av de fältexponerade provkropparna.

    Karbonatiseringsdjupet ökade ju högre andel av portlandcementklinkern som ersattes med flygaska eller slagg, proportionellt sett mest med flygaska. Det mer finkorniga R-cementet gav något mindre karbonatiseringsdjup A-cementet. Tillsättning av luftporbildare ger något högre karbonatiseringsdjup än utan.

    Angreppet på en betongyta vid en trafikerad väg består inte bara av temperatur-variationer och exponering för klorider. Där ingår också omväxlande perioder med vatten i form av regn, spolning eller skvätt från vägbana och torra perioder vilket kan leda till urlakning av lättlösliga ämnen i betongytan.

    Halten av alkalierna natrium och kalium är starkt reducerad i ytskiktet, och en gradient har uppstått i provkroppen. Det natrium som tillförs genom saltning ersätter inte de alkalier som fanns i cementet från början och som lakats ut i de yttersta millimetrarna.

    Någon urlakning av kalcium verkar däremot inte ha uppstått efter 4–5 års exponering.

    I blandningarna med flygaska visas tecken på urlakning av aluminium (Al), och i blandningarna med 65 % slagg har magnesium (Mg) urlakats. Samtidigt har i dessa blandningar svavel urlakats, vilket tyder på att det är sulfater innehållande Al och Mg som urlakats.

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  • 250.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Redistribution of chlorides in concrete specimens occurring during storage2021In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 54, no 3, article id 105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been observed that storage of specimens with chloride gradients before determining the chloride profile can lead to changes in the shape of the chloride profile. An experimental study to quantify the influence of the duration of the storage period and the storage temperature has been carried out. It comprised three storage periods (7, 28 and 91 days) and two storage temperatures (+ 5 °C and + 20 °C). The specimens had previously been immersed in a 15% NaCl solution for 56 days and were sealed in plastics during storage. The results show that a temperature of + 5 °C diminishes the rate of redistribution considerably, compared to a storage carried out at + 20 °C, and the longer the storage period is, the more redistribution will take place. It is also shown that it is of importance to assure that the sealing of the specimens during storage is capable of maintaining the relative humidity at the surface, so that local redistribution of chlorides close to the surface will not take place. © 2021, The Author(s).

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