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  • 201.
    Baumann, Christoph
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Näslund, Mats
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Schwarz, Oliver
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Thorsen, Hans
    T2 Data AB, Sweden.
    A High Assurance Virtualization Platform for ARMv82016In: 2016 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC), 2016, 9, p. 210-214, article id 7561034Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first results from the ongoing research project HASPOC, developing a high assurance virtualization platform for the ARMv8 CPU architecture. Formal verification at machine code level guarantees information isolation between different guest systems (e.g.~OSs) running on the platform. To use the platform in networking scenarios, we allow guest systems to securely communicate with each other via platform-provided communication channels and to take exclusive control of peripherals for communication with the outside world. The isolation is shown to be formally equivalent to that of guests executing on physically separate platforms with dedicated communication channels crossing the air-gap. Common Criteria (CC) assurance methodology is applied by preparing the CC documentation required for an EAL6 evaluation of products using the platform. Besides the hypervisor, a secure boot component is included and verified to ensure system integrity.

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  • 202.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Variability management in product lines of safety critical embedded systems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The product line engineering approach is a promising concept to identify and manage reuse in a structured and efficient way and is even applied for the development of safety critical embedded systems. Managing the complexity of variability and addressing functional safety at the same time is challenging and is not yet solved. Variability management is an enabler to both establish traceability and making necessary information visible for safety engineers. We identify a set of requirements for such a method and evaluate existing variability management methods. We apply the most promising method to an industrial case and study its suitability for developing safety critical product family members. This study provides positive feedback on the potential of the model-based method PLUS in supporting the development of functional safety critical embedded systems in product lines. As a result of our analysis we suggest potential improvements for it.

  • 203.
    Baumgart, Stephan
    et al.
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Joakim
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Industrial challenges to achieve functional safety compliance in product lines2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing safety critical products demands a clear safety argumentation for each product in spite of whether it has been derived from a product line or not. The functional safety standards do not explain how to develop safety critical products in product lines, and the product line concept is lacking specific approaches to develop safety critical products. Nonetheless, product lines are well-established concepts even in companies developing safety critical products. In this paper we present the results of an exploratory study interviewing 15 practitioners from 6 different companies. We identify typical challenges and approaches from industry and discuss their suitability. The challenges and approaches brought out by this study help us to identify and enhance applicable methods from the product line engineering domain that can meet the challenges in the safety critical domain as well.

  • 204. Behboodi, Arash
    et al.
    Crombez, Pieter
    de las Heras, Jose Javier
    De Poorter, Eli
    Handziski, Vlado
    Lemic, Filip
    Moerman, Ingrid
    Van Haute, Tom
    Verhoeve, Piet
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Wirström, Niklas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Wolisz, Adam
    Evaluation of RF-based Indoor Localization Solutions for the Future Internet2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Behboodi, Arash
    et al.
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Wirström, NIclas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Lemic, Filip
    Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Wolisz, Adam
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Interference Effect on Localization Solutions: Signal Feature Perspective2015In: 2015 IEEE 81st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2015, 10, article id 7145885Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of interference on localization algorithms through the study of the interference effect on signal features that are used for localization. Particularly, the effect of interference on packet-based Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), reported by IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4 technologies, and on Time of Flight (ToF), reported by IEEE 802.15.4 technology, is studied using both theoretical discussions and experimental verifications. As for the RSSI values, using an information theoretic formulation, we distinguish three operational regimes and we show that the RSSI values, in dBm, remain unchanged in the noise-limited regime, increase almost linearly with interference power in dBm in the interference-limited regime and cannot be obtained due to packet loss in the collision regime. The maximum observable RSSI variation is dependent on the transmission rate and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). We also show that ToF is, interestingly, decreased under interference which is caused in the symbol synchronization procedure at the receiver. After providing the experimental results, we discuss how the localization algorithms are affected by interference.

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  • 206.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Generic filtering algorithms for generic global constraints2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a first phase, this talk presents an extension of the framework for classifying global constraints that was introduced in 2000. This is concretely illustrated by showing how constraints like alldifferent, cumulative, cutset, cycle, diffn, element, global cardinality, lexicographic ordering, soft alldifferent, or stretch fit into this framework. In a second phase, this talk motivates the need for generic filtering algorithms from different viewpoints. Finally it gives some preliminary hints of how such generic algorithms could be developed.

  • 207. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    A New multi-resource cumulatives constraint with negative heights2002In: CP'2002, Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming, Springer-Verlag , 2002, 1, Vol. 2470, p. 63-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new cumulatives constraint which generalizes the original cumulative constraint in different ways. The two most important aspects consist in permitting multiple cumulative resources as well as negative heights for the resource consumption of the tasks. This allows modeling in an easy way new scheduling and planning problems. The introduction of negative heights has forced us to come up with new propagation algorithms and to revisit existing ones. The first propagation algorithm is derived from an idea called sweep which is extensively used in computational geometry; the second algorithm is based on a combination of sweep and constructive disjunction, while the last is a generalization of task intervals to this new context. A real-life timetabling problem originally motivated this constraint which was implemented within the SICStus finite domain solver and evaluated against different problem patterns.

  • 208.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    A New Multi-Resource cumulatives Constraint with Negative Heights2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new cumulatives constraint which generalizes the original cumulative constraint in different ways. The two most important aspects consist in permitting multiple cumulative resources as well as negative heights for the resource consumption of the tasks. This allows modeling in an easy way new scheduling and planning problems. The introduction of negative heights has forced us to come up with new propagation algorithms and to revisit existing ones. The first propagation algorithm is derived from an idea called sweep which is extensively used in computational geometry; the second algorithm is based on a combination of sweep and constructive disjunction, while the last is a generalization of task intervals to this new context. A real-life timetabling problem originally motivated this constraint which was implemented within the SICStus finite domain solver and evaluated against different problem patterns.

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  • 209.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Constructive Cardinality2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a set of necessary conditions that are useful for generating propagation algorithms for the cardinality operator as well as for over-constrained problems with preferences. Constructive disjunction as well as the entailments rules originally proposed for the cardinality operator can be seen as simple cases of these necessary conditions. In addition these necessary conditions have the advantage of providing more pruning.

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  • 210.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Revisiting the cardinality operator and introducing the cardinality-path constraint family2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents generic propagation algorithms for the cardinality-path constraint family. This is a restricted form of the cardinality operator that allows stating constraints on sliding sequences of consecutive variables. Taking advantage of these restrictions permits coming up with more efficient algorithms. Moreover the paper shows how to extend these propagation algorithms in order to partially integrate external constraints that have to hold. From an application point of view the cardinality-path constraint allows to express a huge variety of regulation constraints occurring in personnel planning problems.

  • 211.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Sweep as a generic pruning technique applied to constraint relaxation2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a new generic filtering algorithm for handling constraint relaxation within constraint programming. More precisely, we first present a generic pruning technique, which is useful for a special case of the cardinality operator where all the constraints have at least two variables in common. This method is based on a generalisation of a sweep algorithm, which handles a conjunction of constraints to the case where one just knows the minimum and maximum number of constraints that have to hold. The main benefit of this new technique comes from the fact that, even if we don't know which, and exactly how many constraints, will hold in the final solution, we can still prune the variables of those constraints right from the beginning according to the minimum and maximum number of constraints that have to hold. We then show how to extend the previous sweep algorithm in order to handle preferences among constraints. Finally, we specialise this technique to an extension of the non-overlapping rectangles constraint, where we permit controlling how many non-overlapping constraints should hold. This allows handling over-constrained placement problems and provides constraint propagation even if some non-overlapping constraints have to be relaxed.

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  • 212.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Sweep as a generic pruning technique applied to the non-overlapping rectangles constraint2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We first present a generic pruning technique, which aggregates several constraints sharing some variables. The method is derived from an idea called sweep, which is extensively used, in computational geometry. A first benefit of this technique comes from the fact that it can be applied on several families of global constraints. A second main advantage is that it does not lead to any memory consumption problem since it only requires temporary memory that can be reclaimed after each invocation of the method. We then specialise this technique to the non-overlapping rectangles constraint, describe several optimisations, and give an empirical evaluation based on six sets of test instances with different characteristics.

  • 213.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Sweep as a Generic Pruning Technique Applied to the Non-Overlapping Rectangles Constraint2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We first present a generic pruning technique which aggregates several constraints sharing some variables. The method is derived from an idea called \dfn{sweep} which is extensively used in computational geometry. A first benefit of this technique comes from the fact that it can be applied on several families of global constraints. A second main advantage is that it does not lead to any memory consumption problem since it only requires temporary memory that can be reclaimed after each invocation of the method. We then specialize this technique to the non-overlapping rectangles constraint, describe several optimizations, and give an empirical evaluation based on six sets of test instances of different pattern.

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  • 214. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Debruyne, Romuald
    Petit, Thierry
    Reformulation of global constraints based on constraint checkers2005In: Constraints, Vol. 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with global constraints for which the set of solutions can be recognized by an extended finite automaton whose size is bounded by a polynomial in n, where n is the number of variables of the corresponding global constraint. By reducing the automaton to a conjunction of signature and transition constraints we show how to systematically obtain an automaton reformulation. Under some restrictions on the signature and transition constraints, this reformulation maintains arc-consistency. An implementation based on some constraints as well as on the metaprogramming facilities of SICStus Prolog is available. For a restricted class of automata we provide an automaton reformulation for the relaxed case, where the violation cost is the minimum number of variables to unassign in order to get back to a solution.

  • 215.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    CNRS, France.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Demassey, Sophie
    CNRS, France.
    Petit, Thierry
    CNRS, France.
    Global Constraint Catalogue: Past, Present and Future2007In: Constraints, ISSN 1383-7133, E-ISSN 1572-9354, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 21-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The catalogue of global constraints is reviewed, focusing on the graph-based description of global constraints. A number of possible enhancements are proposed as well as several research paths for the development of the area.

  • 216. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Demassey, Sophie
    Petit, Thierry
    Graph properties based filtering2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 217. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Demassey, Sophie
    Petit, Thierry
    Graph Properties Based Filtering2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a generic filtering scheme, based on the graph description of global constraints. This description is defined by a network of binary constraints and a list of elementary graph properties: each solution of the global constraint corresponds to a subgraph of the initial network, retaining only the satisfied binary constraints, and which fulfills all the graph properties. The graph-based filtering identifies the arcs of the network that belong or not to the solution subgraphs. The objective is to build, besides a catalog of global constraints, also a list of systematic filtering rules based on a limited set of graph properties. We illustrate this principle on some common graph properties and provide computational experiments of the effective filtering on the "group" constraint.

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  • 218. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Demassey, Sophie
    Poder, Emmanuel
    New Filtering for the Cumulative Constraint in the Context of Non-Overlapping Rectangles2011In: Annals of Operations Research, ISSN 0254-5330, E-ISSN 1572-9338, Vol. 1, p. 27-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes new filtering methods for the Cumulative constraint. The first method introduces bounds for the so called longest cumulative hole problem and shows how to use these bounds in the context of the Non-Overlapping constraint. The second method introduces balancing knapsack constraints which relate the total height of the tasks that end at a specific time-point with the total height of the tasks that start at the same time-point. Experiments on tight rectangle packing problems show that these methods drastically reduce both the time and the number of backtracks for finding all solutions as well as for finding the first solution. For example, we found without backtracking all solutions to 65 perfect square instances of order 22-25 and sizes ranging from 192x192 to 661x661.

  • 219. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Derrien, A.
    Schutt, A.
    Stuckey, P.
    Range-consistent forbidden regions of Allen's relations2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For all 8192 combinations of Allen's 13 relations between one task with origin oi and fixed length li and another task with origin oj and fixed length lj, we give a formula F(min(oj), max(oj), li, lj), where min(oj) and max(oj) respectively denote the earliest and the latest origin of task j, evaluating to a set of integers which are infeasible for oi for the given combination. Such forbidden regions are useful e.g. in a range-consistency maintaining propagator for an Allen constraint in finite domain constraint programming.

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  • 220.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Ecole des Mines de Nantes, France.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Douence, Rémi
    Ecole des Mines de Nantes, France.
    Simonis, Helmut
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Using finite transducers for describing and synthesising structural time-series constraints2015In: Constraints, ISSN 1383-7133, E-ISSN 1572-9354, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 22-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a large family of constraints for structural time series by means of function composition. These constraints are on aggregations of features of patterns that occur in a time series, such as the number of its peaks, or the range of its steepest ascent. The patterns and features are usually linked to physical properties of the time series generator, which are important to capture in a constraint model of the system, i.e. a conjunction of constraints that produces similar time series. We formalise the patterns using finite transducers, whose output alphabet corresponds to semantic values that precisely describe the steps for identifying the occurrences of a pattern. Based on that description, we automatically synthesise automata with accumulators, as well as constraint checkers. The description scheme not only unifies the structure of the existing 30 time-series constraints in the Global Constraint Catalogue, but also leads to over 600 new constraints, with more than 100,000 lines of synthesised code.

  • 221.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    École des Mines de Nantes, France.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Flener, Pierre
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lorca, Xavier
    École des Mines de Nantes, France.
    Pearson, Justin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Petit, Thierry
    École des Mines de Nantes, France; Worcester Polytechnic Institute, US.
    Prud'homme, Charles
    École des Mines de Nantes, France.
    A Modelling Pearl with Sortedness Constraints2015In: GCAI 2015. Global Conference on Artificial Intelligence / [ed] Georg Gottlob, Geoff Sutcliffe, Andrei Voronkov, 2015, 9, Vol. 36, p. 27-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some constraint programming solvers and constraint modelling languages feature the Sort(L,P,S) constraint, which holds if S is a nondecreasing rearrangement of the list L, the permutation being made explicit by the optional list P. However, such sortedness constraints do not seem to be used much in practice. We argue that reasons for this neglect are that it is impossible to require the underlying sort to be stable, so that Sort cannot be guaranteed to be a total-function constraint, and that L cannot contain tuples of variables, some of which form the key for the sort. To overcome these limitations, we introduce the StableKeysort constraint, decompose it using existing constraints, and propose a propagator. This new constraint enables a powerful modelling idiom, which we illustrate by elegant and scalable models of two problems that are otherwise hard to encode as constraint programs.

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  • 222.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    CNRS, France.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Flener, Pierre
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pearson, Justin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    On Matrices, Automata, and Double Counting2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M, with the same constraint defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint gcc on each column of M. We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the gcc constraints from the automaton A. The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We evaluate the impact of our methods on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.

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  • 223.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    CNRS, France.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Flener, Pierre
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pearson, Justin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    On matrices, automata, and double counting in constraint programming2013In: Constraints, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 108-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Matrix models are ubiquitous for constraint problems. Many such problems have a matrix of variables M , with the same constraint C defined by a finite-state automaton A on each row of M and a global cardinality constraint "gcc" on each column of M . We give two methods for deriving, by double counting, necessary conditions on the cardinality variables of the "gcc" constraints from the automaton A . The first method yields linear necessary conditions and simple arithmetic constraints. The second method introduces the cardinality automaton, which abstracts the overall behaviour of all the row automata and can be encoded by a set of linear constraints. We also provide a domain consistency filtering algorithm for the conjunction of lexicographic ordering constraints between adjacent rows of M and (possibly different) automaton constraints on the rows. We evaluate the impact of our methods in terms of runtime and search effort on a large set of nurse rostering problem instances.

  • 224.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    CNRS, France.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Flener, Pierre
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pearson, Justin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    On the reification of global constraints2013In: Constraints, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a simple idea for deriving reified global constraints in a systematic way. It is based on the observation that most global constraints can be reformulated as a conjunction of total function constraints together with a constraint that can be easily reified.

  • 225. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Flener, Pierre
    Pearson, Justin
    On the Reification of Global Constraints2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a simple idea for deriving reified global constraints in a systematic way. It is based on the observation that most global constraints can be reformulated as a conjunction of pure functional dependency constraints together with a constraint that can be easily reified. We first show how the core constraints of the Global Constraint Catalogue can be reified and we then identify several reification categories that apply to at least 82% of the constraints in the Global Constraint Catalogue.

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  • 226.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    CNRS INRIA, France.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Flener, Pierre
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rodríguez, María Andreína Francisco
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pearson, Justin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Linking Prefixes and Suffixes for Constraints Encoded Using Automata with Accumulators2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consider a constraint on a sequence of variables functionally determining a result variable that is unchanged under reversal of the sequence. Most such constraints have a compact encoding via an automaton augmented with accumulators, but it is unknown how to maintain domain consistency efficiently for most of them. Using such an automaton for such a constraint, we derive an implied constraint between the result variables for a sequence, a prefix thereof, and the corresponding suffix. We show the usefulness of this implied constraint in constraint solving, both by local search and by propagation-based systematic search.

  • 227. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Martin, Julien
    Compiling business rules in a geometric constraint over k-dimensional objects and shapes2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that real-life applications rarely admit a constraint model expressed purely in terms of a few global constraints. Usually, the global constraints capture a relaxed form of the problem, but needs additional side-constraints to capture the full problem. Handling such side-constraints inside the global constraints, as opposed to in conjunction with it, improves propagation. Historically, this has been done by extending the global constraints with a host of specific options, each connected to a specific filtering method. Being able to express and filter side-constraints in a more uniform and systematic way would seem a more elegant and manageable solution. This report presents such a mechanism for the global non-overlapping constraint "geost", which handles the location in space of k-dimensional objects. Side-constraints are expressed as rules written in a language based on arithmetic and first-order logic, which should hold among the objects. We explain in detail the way the rules are compiled into a form that is accessed by the constraint's sweep-based filtering algorithm. In a first step, the rules are rewritten to Quantifier-Free Presburger Arithmetic (QFPA) formulas. Secondly, such formulas are transformed to generators of k-dimensional forbidden sets. Thirdly, the generators are transformed to procedures answering queries about candidate coordinate points for a given object. Such queries are at the heart of the filtering algorithm. The business rules allow to express a great variety of packing and placement constraints, while admitting effective filtering of the domain variables of the k-dimensional object, without the need to use spatial data structures. The constraint was used to directly encode the packing knowledge of a major car manufacturer, and was evaluated on several benchmarks.

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  • 228. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Petit, Thierry
    Deriving filtering algorithms from constraint checkers2004In: Proceedings of Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming – CP 2004, 10th International Conference, Springer , 2004, 1, Vol. 3258, p. 16p. 107-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with global constraints for which the set of solutions can be recognized by an extended finite automaton whose size is bounded by a polynomial in n, where n is the number of variables of the corresponding global constraint. By reformulating the automaton as a conjunction of signature and transition constraints we show how to systematically obtain a filtering algorithm. Under some restrictions on the signature and transition constraints this filtering algorithm achieves arc-consistency. An implementation based on some constraints as well as on the metaprogramming facilities of SICStus Prolog is available. For a restricted class of automata we provide a filtering algorithm for the relaxed case, where the violation cost is the minimum number of variables to unassign in order to get back to a solution.

  • 229. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Petit, Thierry
    Deriving Filtering Algorithms from Constraint Checkers2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with global constraints for which the set of solutions can be recognized by an extended finite automaton whose size is bounded by a polynomial in $n$, where $n$ is the number of variables of the corresponding global constraint. By reformulating the automaton as a conjunction of signature and transition constraints we show how to systematically obtain a filtering algorithm. Under some restrictions on the signature and transition constraints this filtering algorithm achieves arc-consistency. An implementation based on some constraints as well as on the metaprogramming facilities of SICStus Prolog is available. For a restricted class of automata we provide a filtering algorithm for the relaxed case, where the violation cost is the minimum number of variables to unassign in order to get back to a solution.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 230. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Petit, Thierry
    Régin, Jean-Charles
    An O(n log n) Bound Consistency Algorithm for the Conjunction of an alldifferent and an Inequality between a Sum of Variables and a Constant, and its Generalization2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an O(n log n) bound-consistency filtering algorithm for the conjunction alldifferent(V0,V1,…,Vn−1)∧ f(V0)⌖f(V1)⌖…⌖f(Vn−1) ≤ cst, (V0,V1,…,Vn−1,cst ∊ N+), where (N,⌖) is a commutative group, f is a unary function, and both ⌖ and f are monotone increasing. This complexity is equal to the complexity of the bound-consistency algorithm of the alldifferent constraint.

  • 231. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Poder, Emmanuel
    New filtering for the cumulative constraint in the context of non-overlapping rectangles2008In: CPAIOR 2008, Springer , 2008, 1, Vol. 5015, p. 21-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes new filtering methods for the cumulative constraint. The first method introduces bounds for the so called longest cumulative hole problem and shows how to use these bounds in the context of the non-overlapping constraint. The second method introduces balancing knapsack constraints which relate the total height of the tasks that end at a specific time-point with the total height of the tasks that start at the same time-point. Experiments on tight rectangle packing problems show that these methods drastically reduce both the time and the number of backtracks for finding all solutions as well as for finding the first solution. For example, we found without backtracking all solutions to 66 perfect square instances of order 23-25 and sizes ranging from 332 times 332 to 661 times 661.

  • 232.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Poder, Emmanuel
    Sadek, Rida
    Truchet, Charlotte
    A Generic Geometrical Constraint Kernel in Space and Time for Handling Polymorphic k-Dimensional Objects2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a geometrical constraint kernel for handling the location in space and time of polymorphic k-dimensional objects subject to various geometrical and time constraints. The constraint kernel is generic in the sense that one of its parameters is a set of constraints on subsets of the objects. These constraints are handled globally by the kernel. We first illustrate how to model several placement problems with the constraint kernel. We then explain how new constraints can be introduced and plugged into the kernel. Based on these interfaces, we develop a generic k-dimensional lexicographic sweep algorithm for filtering the attributes of an object (i.e., its shape and the coordinates of its origin as well as its start, duration and end in time) according to all constraints where the object occurs. Experiments involving up to hundreds of thousands of objects and 1 million integer variables are provided in 2, 3 and 4 dimensions, both for simple shapes (i.e., rectangles, parallelepipeds) and for more complex shapes.

  • 233. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Rampon, Jean-Xavier
    Global Constraint Catalog2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a catalog of global constraints where each constraint is explicitly described in terms of graph properties and/or automata. When available, it also presents some typical usage as well as some pointers to existing filtering algorithms.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 234. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Rampon, Jean-Xavier
    Global Constraint Catalog, 2nd Edition2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a catalogue of global constraints where each constraint is explicitly described in terms of graph properties and/or automata and/or first order logical formulae with arithmetic. When available, it also presents some typical usage as well as some pointers to existing filtering algorithms.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 235. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Rampon, Jean-Xavier
    Global Constraint Catalog, 2nd Edition (revision a)2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a catalogue of global constraints where each constraint is explicitly described in terms of graph properties and/or automata and/or first order logical formulae with arithmetic. When available, it also presents some typical usage as well as some pointers to existing filtering algorithms.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 236. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Rampon, Jean-Xavier
    Truchet, Charlotte
    Graph invariants as necessary conditions for global constraints2005In: CP'2005, Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming, LNCS, Vol. 3709, p. 92-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a database of about 200 graph invariants for deriving systematically necessary conditions from the graph properties based representation of global constraints. This scheme is based on invariants on the graph characteristics used in the description of a global constraint. A SICStus Prolog implementation based on arithmetic and logical constraints as well as on indexicals is available.

  • 237. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Rampon, Jean-Xavier
    Truchet, Charlotte
    Graph Invariants as Necessary Conditions for Global Constraints2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a database of about 200 graph invariants for deriving systematically necessary conditions from the graph properties based representation of global constraints. This scheme is based on invariants on the graph characteristics used in the description of a global constraint. A SICStus Prolog implementation based on arithmetic and logical constraints as well as on indexicals is available.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 238. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Thiel, Sven
    Cost-Filtering Algorithms for the two Sides of the Sum of Weights of Distinct Values Constraint2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces the sum of weights of distinct values constraint, which can be seen as a generalization of the number of distinct values as well as of the alldifferent, and the relaxed alldifferent constraints. This constraint holds if a cost variable is equal to the sum of the weights associated to the distinct values taken by a given set of variables. For the first aspect, which is related to domination, we present four filtering algorithms. Two of them lead to perfect pruning when each domain variable consists of one set of consecutive values, while the two others take advantage of holes in the domains. For the second aspect, which is connected to maximum matching in a bipartite graph, we provide a complete filtering algorithm for the general case. Finally we introduce several generic deduction rules, which link both aspects of the constraint. These rules can be applied to other optimization constraints such as the minimum weight alldifferent constraint or the global cardinality constraint with costs. They also allow taking into account external constraints for getting enhanced bounds for the cost variable. In practice, the sum of weights of distinct values constraint occurs in assignment problems where using a resource once or several times costs the same. It also captures domination problems where one has to select a set of vertices in order to control every vertex of a graph.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 239. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Thiel, Sven
    Sweep synchronisation as a global propagation mechanism2006In: Computers & Operations Research, Vol. 3, p. 2835-2851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new generic filtering algorithm that simultaneously considers n conjunctions of constraints as well as those constraints mentioning some variables Y_k of the pairs (X,Y_k) (1 <= k <= n) occurring in these conjunctions. The main benefit of this new technique comes from the fact that, for adjusting the bounds of a variable X according to n conjunctions, we do not perform n sweeps in an independent way but rather synchronize them. We then specialize this technique to the non-overlapping rectangles constraint where we consider the case where several rectangles of height one have the same X coordinate for their origin as well as the same length. For this specific constraint we come up with an incremental bipartite matching algorithm which is triggered while we sweep over the time axis. We illustrate the usefulness of this new pruning method on a timetabling problem, where each task can’t be interrupted and requires the simultaneous availability of n distinct persons. Each person has his own periods of unavailability and can only perform one task at a time.

  • 240.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Thiel, Sven
    Sweep synchronization as a global propagation mechanism2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new generic filtering algorithm that simultaneously considers n conjunctions of constraints as well as those constraints mentioning some variables Yk of the pairs X,Yk (1<=k<=n) occurring in these conjunctions. The main benefit of this new technique comes from the fact that, for adjusting the bounds of a variable X according to n conjunctions, we do not perform n sweeps in an independent way but rather synchronize them. We then specialize this technique to the non-overlapping rectangles constraint where we consider the case where several rectangles of height one have the same X coordinate for their origin as well as the same length. For this specific constraint we come up with an incremental bipartite matching algorithm which is triggered while we sweep over the time axis. We illustrate the usefulness of this new pruning method on a timetabling problem, where each task can not be interrupted and requires the simultaneous availability of n distinct persons. Each person has his own periods of unavailability and can only perform one task at a time.

  • 241.
    Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Thiel, Sven
    Sweep Synchronization as a Global Propagation Mechanism2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new generic filtering algorithm that simultaneously considers n conjunctions of constraints as well as those constraints mentioning some variables Yk of the pairs X,Yk (1<=k<=n) occurring in these conjunctions. The main benefit of this new technique comes from the fact that, for adjusting the bounds of a variable X according to n conjunctions, we do not perform n sweeps in an independent way but rather synchronize them. We then specializes this technique to the non-overlapping rectangles constraint where we consider the case where several rectangles of height one have the same X coordinate for their origin as well as the same length. For this specific constraint we come up with an incremental bipartite matching algorithm which is triggered while we sweep over the time axis. We illustrate the usefulness of this new pruning method on a timetabling problem, where each task can’t be interrupted and requires the simultaneous availability of n distinct persons. Each person has its own periods of unavailability and can only perform one task at a time.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 242. Beldiceanu, Nicolas
    et al.
    Poder, Emmanuel
    Sadek, Rida
    Carlsson, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Truchet, Charlotte
    A Generic Geometrical Constraint Kernel in Space and Time for Handling Polymorphic k-Dimensional Objects2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report introduces a geometrical constraint kernel for handling the location in space and time of polymorphic k-dimensional objects subject to various geometrical and time constraints. The constraint kernel is generic in the sense that one of its parameters is a set of constraints on subsets of the objects. These constraints are handled globally by the kernel. We first illustrate how to model several placement problems with the constraint kernel. We then explain how new constraints can be introduced and plugged into the kernel. Based on these interfaces, we develop a generic k-dimensional lexicographic sweep algorithm for filtering the attributes of an object (i.e., its shape and the coordinates of its origin as well as its start, duration and end in time) according to all constraints where the object occurs. Experiments involving up to hundreds of thousands of objects and 1 million integer variables are provided in 2, 3 and 4 dimensions, both for simple shapes (i.e., rectangles, parallelepipeds) and for more complex shapes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 243. Belenguer, J. S.
    et al.
    Lundén, M
    Laaksolahti, Jarmo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Computer Systems Laboratory.
    Sundström, Petra
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Immaterial materials: designing with radio2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 244. Belk, Marios
    et al.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Germanakos, Panagiotis
    Samaras, George
    Modeling users on the World Wide Web based on cognitive factors, navigation behavior and clustering techniques2013In: Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 86, p. 2995-3012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on modeling users’ cognitive styles based on a set of Web usage mining techniques on user navigation patterns and clickstream data. Main aim is to investigate whether specific clustering techniques can group users of particular cognitive style using measures obtained from psychometric tests and content navigation behavior. Three navigation metrics are proposed and utilized to find identifiable groups of users that have similar navigation patterns in relation to their cognitive style. The proposed work has been evaluated with two user studies which entail a psychometric-based survey for extracting the users’ cognitive styles, combined with a real usage scenario of users navigating in a controlled Web 2.0 environment. A total of 106 participants of age between 17 and 25 participated in the study providing interesting insights with respect to cognitive styles and navigation behavior of users. Studies like the reported one can be useful for modeling users and assist adaptive Web 2.0 environments to organize and present information and functionalities in an adaptive format to diverse user groups.

  • 245. Belkin, Nicholas J
    et al.
    Clarke, Charles L A
    Gao, Ning
    Kamps, Jaap
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Report on the SIGIR Workshop on “entertain me” : Supporting Complex Search Tasks2011In: SIGIR Forum, Vol. 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers with a complex information need typically slice-and-dice their problem into several queries and subqueries, and laboriously combine the answers post hoc to solve their tasks. Consider planning a social event at the last day of SIGIR, in the unknown city of Beijing, factoring in distances, timing, and preferences on budget, cuisine, and entertainment. A system supporting the entire search episode should “know” a lot, either from profiles or implicit information, or from explicit information in the query or from feedback. This may lead to the (interactive) construction of a complexly structured query, but sometimes the most obvious query for a complex need is dead simple: entertain me. Rather than returning ten-blue-lines in response to a 2.4-word query, the desired system should support searchers during their whole task or search episode, by iteratively constructing a complex query or search strategy, by exploring the result-space at every stage, and by combining the partial answers into a coherent whole. The workshop brought together a varied group of researchers covering both user and system centered approaches, who worked together on the problem and potential solutions. There was a strong feeling that we made substantial progress. First, there was general optimism on the wealth of contextual information that can be derived from context or natural interactions without the need for obstrusive explicit feedback. Second, the task of “contextual suggestions”—matching specific types of results against rich profiles—was identified as a manageable first step, and concrete plans for such as track were discussed in the aftermath of the workshop. Third, the identified dimensions of variation—such as the level of engagement, or user versus system initiative—give clear suggestions of the types of input a searcher is willing or able to give and the type of response expected from a system.

  • 246.
    Belloni, Nicolas
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. IDI.
    Holmquist, Lars Erik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS. IDI.
    Tholander, Jakob
    Mobile Life Centre.
    See you on the subway: exploring mobile social software2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project explores the social possibilities of mobile technology in transitional spaces such as public transport. Based on a cultural probes study of Stockholm subway commuters, we designed a location-based friend finder that displays only people in the same train as the user. We aim at reaching a critical mass of users and therefore decided to make the system compatible with as many phones as possible, thus it was designed as a simple web application. An initial informal study pointed out consequences of certain design decisions on the user experience and highlighted social tensions created by presence awareness.

  • 247.
    Ben Abdesslem, Fehmi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Lindgren, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Cacheability of YouTube Videos in Cellular Networks2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Video traffic now represents a growing proportion of the traffic on cellular networks, causing capacity problems for operators and increased delays for users. Studies have shown that deploying caches at the network level reduces the delay for the end-user and the overall traffic volume for the telecom operator. In this paper, we analyse a large nationwide dataset of real-life video requests sent by mobile users to a popular video streaming website. This analysis is the first to rely on such a large dataset, and sheds light on the optimal cacheability of video content with caches distributed in the cellular network, and how efficient some existing cache replacement algorithms are at reducing the number of requests sent to the video provider. We show that depending on the cache size and algorithm parameters, up to 20.33% of the requests can be served by a local cache.

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    fulltext
  • 248.
    Ben Abdesslem, Fehmi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Lindgren, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Demo: Mobile Opportunistic System for Experience Sharing (MOSES) in Indoor Exhibitions2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information-Centric Networking (ICN) is an alternative architecture for computer networks, where the communication is focused on the data being transferred instead of the communicating hosts. This paper describes a demo of an experience sharing application for mobile phones built on an ICN platform designed for devices with intermittent connectivity. In particular, we detail how this application will be showcased in an indoor exhibition where experience is shared with media content that is geo-tagged using Bluetooth beacons and spread opportunistically to other users. 

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 249.
    Ben Abdesslem, Fehmi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Lindgren, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Large Scale Characterisation of YouTube Requests in a Cellular Network2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic from wireless and mobile devices is expected to soon exceed traffic from fixed devices. Understanding the behaviour of users on mobile devices is important in order to improve the offered services and the provision of the underlying network. Globally, more than 60% of consumer Internet traffic is estimated to be video traffic, and the most popular video website, YouTube, estimates that mobile access makes up nearly 40% of the global watch time. This paper presents the first work to study the characteristics of YouTube user requests on a nationwide cellular network. This study is based on the analysis of a large dataset generated by 3 million users and collected by a major telecom operator. We show for instance that 20% of the users generate 78% of the requests, and that over 80% of the requests target only 20% of the distinct videos accessed during the data collection period. Our results provide a comprehensive insight into the way people use YouTube on mobile devices, and show a very high potential for video cacheability on the cellular network.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 250.
    Ben Abdesslem, Fehmi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Lindgren, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    The Pursuit of 'Appiness: Exploring Android Market Download Behaviour in a Nationwide Cellular Network2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile devices are now part of our everyday lives, and the emergence of online application marketplaces allow a rapid spread of new mobile applications to a large user base. Such user-installed mobile applications constitute a large part of our daily interaction with the devices. With more than one million available applications, Android Market, the online catalog for Android devices allows users to choose and download a large selection of disparate applications. Analysing and characterising the application marketplace download patterns provides a better insight on the needs and behaviour of users In this paper, we explore a large dataset collected by a major European telecom operator to study the downloads of Android applications on a nationwide scale. Our findings include that more than 43% of the application data downloaded is for games, and that a set of only 10 GB of applications is responsible for 88% of the 45 TB downloaded in total by all the users. 

2345678 201 - 250 of 2028
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