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  • 201. Maurenbrecher, P
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    RILEM TC 203-RHM: Repair mortars for historic masonry: Requirements for repointing mortars for historic masonry2012In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 1303-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a summary of functional and performance requirements for repointing mortars for historic masonry (design, execution and maintenance). Successful performance of repair and conservation of mortar in historic masonry requires more care with design and execution than with modern masonry.

  • 202.
    Mc Carthy, Richard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Is it possible to predict formwork pressure when using SCC?: A field study2014In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 73-91Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the market share of cast-in-place Self-Compacting_x000D_ Concrete (SCC) is only around 10%. Uncertainty concerning_x000D_ formwork pressure is considered to be one of the most important_x000D_ factors explaining the slow progression. During construction of a_x000D_ 400 m long, 6 m high and 0.27 m thick prison wall in northern_x000D_ Sweden, SCC alone was used. The formwork used consisted of_x000D_ steel-framed panels, instrumented with flush-mounted pressure_x000D_ sensors. Each concrete batch was tested for air content, slumpflow,_x000D_ concrete and air temperature. Besides tests on torsional_x000D_ moment or torque, L-box, and V-funnel were carried out._x000D_ Relations between concrete properties, casting rate and time_x000D_ versus formwork pressure were investigated. The results_x000D_ confirmed that structural build-up of SCC has to be taken into_x000D_ account for predicting formwork pressure. The torsional moment_x000D_ was measured at three consecutive times at each casting and the_x000D_ time-dependent development of the torsional moment was_x000D_ subsequently used as indirect input in two simple formwork_x000D_ pressure methods that have been developed recently. The_x000D_ comparison between computed and measured formwork pressure_x000D_ shows that both these methods would be possible to use for_x000D_ predicting formwork pressure generated by SCC.

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  • 203. Mc Carthy, Richard
    et al.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    The Swedish user´s view of self-compacting concrete2011In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 75-86Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Mechtcherine, Viktor
    et al.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Gram, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Krenzer, Knut
    Institut für Angewandte Bauforschung Weimar GmbH, Germany.
    Schwabe, Jörg Henry
    University of Applied Science Jena, Germany.
    Shyshko, Sergiy
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Roussel, Nicolas
    Universite Paris Est, France.
    Simulation of fresh concrete flow using Discrete Element Method (DEM): theory and applications2014In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 615-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of the development and the contemporary state of research in the field of simulating fresh concrete flow using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). First, this work originating from TC 222-SCF simulation of fresh concrete flow, covers the mathematical methodology, the identification of the model parameters and the link between the rheological properties of fresh concrete and the parameters of DEM-based models. Various examples of the estimation of model parameters and calibration of the model were demonstrated, followed by verifications by comparing the numerical results and the corresponding predictions by analytical formula and laboratory experiments. Furthermore, software used in concrete engineering and existing industrial applications of the developed particle models were described, showing the potential of DEM.

  • 205.
    Melander, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Bullerdämpande betong en effektiv ljudfälla2012In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 206.
    Melander, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    System med Rockdrain2011In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 11-Article in journal (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 207.
    Meng, Birgit
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Performance of a new anti-graffiti agent used for immovable cultural heritage objects2014In: International Journal of Architectural Heritage, ISSN 1558-3058, E-ISSN 1558-3066, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 820-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural Heritage objects are in many cases invaluable and irrecoverable, therefore their protection is a major goal. One threat arises by intentionally defacing such objects with graffiti. One possibility to face the imminent threat is the application of a surface protection in form of anti-graffiti systems (AGS). However, the knowledge about the performance and durability of AGS on substrates used for historical buildings is still fragmented. The goal of the present study was to investigate the performance of a newly developed anti-graffiti agent in comparison to a selection of commercial anti-graffiti agents on different substrates that were used for historical buildings. Four commercial anti-graffiti agents with different chemical formulations were selected and tested with the new agent on different stone and brick substrates. The results showed clearly that AGS based on dense, water-vapor impermeable coatings are not suitable to porous substrates such as sandstone, brick, or porous limestone due to their impairment of the hygric properties and the visual appearance of a substrate. The new agent could not completely reach the cleaning efficacy of the dense coatings but exhibited a much lower impact on the properties of the substrate and was therefore better compatible to historical surfaces.

  • 208.
    Miccoli, L.
    et al.
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Germany.
    Fontana, P.
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Germany.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    In-plane shear behaviour of earthen materials panels strengthened with polyester fabric strips2016In: Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions: Anamnesis, diagnosis, therapy, controls - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, SAHC 2016, CRC Press/Balkema , 2016, p. 1099-1105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental investigation was carried out to study the in-plane shear behaviour of earthen material panels strengthened with polyester fabric strips. Strengthened panels were developed to exploit the strength potential of earthen materials and to solve its lack of tensile strength, significantly improving not only strength but also ductility. Three earthen materials were considered: cob, earth block masonry (EBM) and rammed earth (RE). As first approach the strengthening configuration, based on different adhesive materials, was tested only for cob panels. As part of the study the results of a big testing campaign of unstrengthened panels were considered. Seven strengthened panels were tested in diagonal compression/shear.A unique reinforcement orientation was used. The results of these tests are presented in this paper, and include the load-displacement behaviours, crack patterns, failure modes. The results showed that the reinforcement was the most effective in EBM panels, with increase in strength and ductility observed. In RE and cob panels the reinforcement did not likely contribute significantly to the shear resistance, due to a lack of embedment length of the strips. Instead, in EBM it was likely that the vertical reinforcement acted in tension to restrain shear induced dilation and to restrain sliding.

  • 209.
    Miccoli, L.
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Fontana, P.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mechanical behaviour of earthen materials.: A comparison between earth block masonry, rammed earth and cob2014In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 61, p. 327-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth represents one of the oldest construction materials, which is still utilised both in developed and in developing countries. In this paper a comparison of the mechanical performance of structural elements built in three basic techniques, earth block (adobe) masonry, rammed earth and cob, is presented. In order to gain better knowledge on the structural behaviour under static loads an extensive compression and diagonal compression (shear) test campaign was performed. First compression results showed brittle mechanical behaviour in the case of earth block masonry and rammed earth elements, whereas cob exhibited a very different stress-strain pattern: cob can deform beyond the elastic range with a gradual drop in capacity. Despite its low compressive strength, cob thus presents a relatively good performance within the earthen material range as far as shear behaviour is concerned. The data here reported represents a base for a further investigation on the dynamic behaviour of the three materials considered. The study was carried out within the framework of the project NIKER funded by the European Commission dealing with improving immovable Cultural Heritage assets against the risk of earthquakes.

  • 210.
    Miccoli, L.
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Oliveira, D. V.
    University of Minho, Spain.
    Silva, R. A.
    University of Minho, Spain.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Schueremans, L.
    Catholic University of Leuven, Netherlands.
    Static behaviour of rammed earth: experimental testing and finite element modelling2015In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 3443-3456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an experimental program aiming at assessing the mechanical performance of rammed earth walls, namely under compression and shear loading. Axial compression and diagonal compression tests were carried out for this purpose, which allowed determining important mechanical parameters, such as compressive strength, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, shear strength and shear modulus. Furthermore, it allowed assessing the level of non-linear behaviour of the respective stress–strain relationships as well as the failure modes. The experimental results were then used in the calibration of numerical models (finite element method) for simulating the non-linear behaviour of rammed earth under shear loading. Both macro- and micro modelling approaches were considered for this purpose. The total strain rotating crack model was used to simulate the behaviour of the rammed earth material, while the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion was used to simulate the behaviour of interfaces between layers. In general, the numerical models achieved good agreement with the experimental results, but uncertainties related to the definition of the input parameters required to perform a sensitivity analysis. The compressive strength, the Poisson’s ratio, the tensile strength and the tensile fracture energy revealed to be the most important parameters in the analyses.

  • 211.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Drougkas, Anastasios
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    In-plane behaviour of rammed earth under cyclic loading: Experimental testing and finite element modelling2016In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 125, p. 144-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to numerically simulate the in-plane behaviour of rammed earth walls under cyclic shear-compression tests. The experimental testing allowed obtaining the maximum horizontal loads, the displacement capacity and the level of non-linear behaviour of the respective load-displacement relationships as well as the failure modes. The calibration of the numerical model (finite element method) was carried out based on the experimental results. Within this framework, a micro-modelling approach was considered. The behaviour of the rammed earth material was simulated using a total strain rotating crack model. A Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was used to reproduce the behaviour of the interfaces between the layers. Although the numerical results achieved a satisfactory agreement with the experimental results a sensitivity analysis of the parameters involved was performed. The sensitivity analysis aimed at determining which parameters of the model have a significant impact in the model's results. As expected the sensitivity analysis pointed out that the sliding failure occurrence is mainly influenced by two parameters of the interface elements: the interface tensile strength fit and the friction angle φ. Moreover the cohesion c and the layers thickness showed a limited effect on the shear behaviour. It should be noted that the results mentioned above are related to the cases where a significant level of vertical compressive stress σ is employed.

  • 212.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Fontana, Patrick
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Johansson, Gabriel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Numerical modelling of UHPC and TRC sandwich elements for building envelopes2015In: IABSE Conference 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges, IABSE , 2015, p. 195-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a modelling approach is presented to reproduce the mechanical behaviour of sandwich panels via finite element analysis. Two types of panels were investigated in this scope of work. The first sandwich element was a textile reinforced concrete (TRC) panel with cellular lightweight concrete insulation and the second configuration was an ultra-high performances concrete (UHPC) panel with aerated autoclaved concrete insulation. The goal was to obtain a reliable numerical strategy that represents a reasonable compromise in terms of sufficient accuracy of the element characteristics and the computational costs. The results show the possibility of describing the composite action in a full sandwich panel. The achieved modelling approach will later be used for the optimization of TRC and UHPC panels in terms of minimizing the thickness, identifying the number and location of connectors, as well as evaluating varying anchorage systems.

  • 213.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Fontana, Patrick
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Klinge, Andrea
    Roswag Architekten GvA mbH, Germany.
    Cederqvist, Christer
    Aercrete Technology AB, Sweden.
    Kreft, Oliver
    Xella Technology and Research, Germany.
    Qvaeschning, Dirk
    Dyckerhoff GmbH, Germany.
    Sjöström, Christer
    Svenska Aerogel AB, Sweden.
    Composite UHPC-AAC/CLC facade elements with modified interior plaster for new buildings and refurbishment. Materials and production technology2015In: Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, ISSN 2213-302X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 91-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The awareness of the environmental impact of the building sector is increasing. Steel reinforced concrete is the most commonly used construction material, though with a high-embodied energy and carbon footprint. Large environmental gains may arise if an alternative to steel reinforced concrete is developed. In this context, ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) materials are shown to be promising alternatives with advantages such as lower embodied energy and reduced environmental impact. Predictions suggest that UHPC composite elements for building envelopes could have other benefits such as an increased service life, optimised use of building area due to thinner elements and minimised maintenance due to the absence of reinforcement or use of non-corrosive reinforcing materials such as carbon fibres. In the framework of the H-HOUSE project funded by the European Commission, composite elements are developed. The aim is to create facade panels combining an autoclaved aerated concrete or cellular lightweight concrete insulation layer with an external UHPC supporting layer. To enhance occupant comfort and health, hygroscopic materials that are capable to buffer indoor air humidity shall be applied to the inside of such elements. Indoor air humidity levels are expected to be more stable, which shall subsequently improve the indoor climate and minimise potential decay to the construction.

  • 214.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Garofano, Angelo
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Fontana, Patrick
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Experimental testing and finite element modelling of earth block masonry2015In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 104, p. 80-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current paper focuses on the determination of reliable numerical models of earth block masonry wallettes under different loading conditions. Uniaxial compression and diagonal compression tests were performed. Experimental behaviour was modelled with a non-linear model able to describe the cracking behaviour. The simplified approach based on macro-modelling shows a satisfactory accuracy and low computational costs. The results reproducing the uniaxial compression are in good correspondence with the post-elastic behaviour observed in the experimental campaign. The micro-modelling approach adopted to reproduce the shear behaviour, even with high computational cost, represents a suitable tool to predict the masonry collapse mechanism.

  • 215.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Oliveira, Daniel V.
    ISISE University of Minho, Portugal.
    Silva, Rui A.
    ISISE University of Minho, Portugal.
    Muller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Schueremans, Luc
    Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Static behaviour of rammed earth: Experimental testing and finite element modelling2014In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 3443-3456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an experimental program aiming at assessing the mechanical performance of rammed earth walls, namely under compression and shear loading. Axial compression and diagonal compression tests were carried out for this purpose, which allowed determining important mechanical parameters, such as compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, shear strength and shear modulus. Furthermore, it allowed assessing the level of non-linear behaviour of the respective stress-strain relationships as well as the failure modes. The experimental results were then used in the calibration of numerical models (finite element method) for simulating the non-linear behaviour of rammed earth under shear loading. Both macro- and micro modelling approaches were considered for this purpose. The total strain rotating crack model was used to simulate the behaviour of the rammed earth material, while the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was used to simulate the behaviour of interfaces between layers. In general, the numerical models achieved good agreement with the experimental results, but uncertainties related to the definition of the input parameters required to perform a sensitivity analysis. The compressive strength, the Poisson's ratio, the tensile strength and the tensile fracture energy revealed to be the most important parameters in the analyses

  • 216.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Internationella och nationella kommittéer om ASR i betong2014In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 11-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundgren, Monica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Cement med tillsatsmaterial och risken för ASR i betong2014In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 5-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 218.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Fontana, Patrick
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Development of a lime based grout for cracks repair in earthen constructions2016In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 110, p. 323-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents the results from the development of a grouting material based on hydrated lime with addition of pozzolana, which is referred to as hydraulic lime, suitable for the repair of cracks in a variety of earthen building techniques. The goal was to develop a material also compatible with earthen structures exposed to dynamic loads. The grouting mortar was designed to be adaptable in strength properties and at the same time to have sufficient robustness for preparation and use on the construction site. Results showed a satisfactory performance of the grout concerning fresh and hardened mortar properties as well as injectability.

  • 219.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Selander, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Nytt Ramprogram på CBI - Beständighet och hydratation2013In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 3-4, 13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    von Weschpfennig, Dieter
    Anti-Graffiti-Systeme auf Mauerwerk im Bereich der Bundesfernstraßen2011In: Bautechnik, ISSN 0932-8351, Vol. 88, no 7, p. 443–450-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Chozas, Valle
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Larraza, Inigo
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    da Silva, Nelson
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Reactive powder concrete for facade elements: A sustainable approach2016In: Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, ISSN 2213-302X, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 53-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is a fairly novel material with extraordinary strength and durability properties. Due to these properties, it is increasingly being utilized for external fa¸cade cladding thus enabling a considerable reduction in the thickness of concrete elements. Commercial RPC formulations on the market are usually expensive and less sustainable due to high cement clinker contents. In this study, improved RPC formulations with higher amounts of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) were developed. The formulations were combined with different types of reinforcements ranging from steel fibres to fibre textile grids primarily to enhance the ductility and tensile strength of the composite material. The results showed that even with clinker replacement levels of up to ca. 40% of the total binder amount, a satisfactory mechanical performance of the RPC mixes could still be achieved. A fairly steep strength gain rendered heat treatment unnecessary. The materials displayed good flow properties and a reasonably short initial setting time. The incorporation of carbon textile fibre grids proved to be highly effective in improving the post cracking behaviour of the RPC. The results validated a more sustainable approach for RPC applied to thin fa¸cade elements. 

  • 222.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ziegert, C
    Eigenschaften industrieller lehmbauprodukte für den mauerwerksbau und verhalten von lehmsteinmauerwerk2012In: Masonry, ISSN 1432-3427, E-ISSN 1437-1022, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Properties of industrially produced earthen building products for masonry and behaviour of earth block masonry. The contribution gives an overview of the properties of industrially produced earthen building products for masonry. In the meantime the quality of the industrial production of this group of building materials reached a level similar to that of other products for construction. Earth plasters exist as plasters for universal, one or multi layer applications or as lower, upper or finish plasters. Earth blocks are provided in different sizes and with different perforations. The mechanical properties of different earth block types are signified by compressive strength of up to 11 N/mm2 but are typically in a range between 2 and 5 N/mm2. A critical point is the correlation of the strength of earthen materials with their moisture content. Results from earth blocks showed that in a relative humidity window between 40 and 70 % rh the compressive strength of earth blocks is fairly constant. Masonry made from earth block and earth mortar exhibited compressive strength and elastic modules similar to masonry made with aerated autoclaved concrete blocks. The shear strength of earth block masonry, however, is fairly low, due to the weak bond between earth block and earth mortar.

  • 223. Nykänen, I.
    et al.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Luodes, N.
    Implementation and application of the quality system for natural stones used in buildings. Extended abstract.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 224.
    Nyman, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    ASR- St: Görans gymnasium2014In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 225.
    Nyman, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Avisningsmedel för gator och vägar2009In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 226.
    Nyman, Bertil
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Johansson, Lars
    Sprickor i golv2010In: CBI nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 227.
    Ollandezos, Pavlos
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ny provningsmetod för impregnering av betong2011In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 228. Pascal, Suer
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Reproducing ten years of road ageing: accelerated carbonation and leaching of EAF steel slag2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 18, p. 5110-5118Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 229. Paulsson-Tralla, Jonatan
    et al.
    Kalinowski, Mariusz
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Alkalisilikaproblem för betong i Sverige: ett växande problem som inte bör negligeras2013In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 7, p. 49-52Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Petersson, PE
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Luping, T
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Using the slab test for detecting internal damage of concrete subjected to freezing and thawing.1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 231.
    Petersson, PE
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Utgenannt, P
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Parameters influencing the results when testing the scaling resistance of concrete. Accepted for publication1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 232.
    Petersson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Luping, Tang
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Internal Frost Damage of HPC Subjected to the Slab Test2004In: Proceedings of international conference on durability of high-performance concrete and final workshop of CONlife, AEDIFICATIO Publishers , 2004, , p. 207-217Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 233.
    Plos, Mario
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shu, Jiangpeng
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    A multi-level structural assessment strategy for analysis of RC bridge deck slabs2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 1559-1566Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-level structural assessment strategy for evaluation of response and load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete bridges deck slabs are presented [1]. The strategy is based on the principle of successively improved analysis methods in structural assessment. It provides a structured approach to the use of simplified as well as advanced non-linear finite element analysis methods. The proposed methods were used for analysis of previously tested slabs subjected to bending and shear type of failures. As expected, the advanced methods gave an improved understanding of the structural response and were capable of demonstrating higher, yet conservative, predictions of the load-carrying capacity. The proposed strategy clearly provides the engineering community a framework for using successively improved structural analysis methods for enhanced assessment in a straightforward manner.

  • 234.
    Roussel, Nicolas
    et al.
    University of Paris-Est, France.
    Gram, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Cremonesi, Massimiliano
    Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy.
    Ferrara, Liberato
    Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy.
    Krenzer, Knut
    IAB Weimar GmbH, Germany.
    Mechtcherine, Viktor
    TU Dresden, Germany.
    Shyshko, Sergiy
    TU Dresden, Germany.
    Skocec, Jan
    Heidelberg Cement Technology Center GmbH, Germany.
    Spangenberg, Jon
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Svec, Oldrich
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Nyholm Thrane, Lars
    Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Vasilic, Ksenija
    BAM Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing, Germany.
    Numerical simulations of concrete flow: A benchmark comparison2016In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 79, p. 265-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First, we define in this paper two benchmark flows readily usable by anyone calibrating a numerical tool for concrete flow prediction. Such benchmark flows shall allow anyone to check the validity of their computational tools no matter the numerical methods and parameters they choose. Second, we compare numerical predictions of the concrete sample final shape for these two benchmark flows obtained by various research teams around the world using various numerical techniques. Our results show that all numerical techniques compared here give very similar results suggesting that numerical simulations of concrete filling ability when neglecting any potential components segregation have reached a technology readiness level bringing them closer to industrial practice.

  • 235. Schlegel, M C
    et al.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Spatially resolved investigation of complex multi-phase systems using μxRF, SEM-EDX and high resolution SyXRD2013In: Cement & Concrete Composites, ISSN 0958-9465, E-ISSN 1873-393X, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 241-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatially resolved analysis of complex multi-phase systems can be validated through different analytical methods. This study compares investigations by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis and high resolution X-ray diffraction. The studied sulfate attacked cement paste containing fly ashes consists of different interacting crystalline and amorphous phases. The complementary methods revealed in detail changes in phase composition due to the chemical attack. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed and suggestions are given for combining them with additional methods to maximize the information content.

  • 236.
    Schlegel, M. C.
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Germany.
    Stroh, J.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Meng, B.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Panne, U.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany; Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Germany.
    Emmerling, F.
    Helmholtz-Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Germany.
    Pathway of a damaging mechanism-Analyzing chloride attack by synchrotron based X-ray diffraction2015In: Solid State Sciences, ISSN 1293-2558, E-ISSN 1873-3085, Vol. 44, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typically, the changes of the phase compositions due to the chemical attack are studied in-situ only by chemical analysis or microscopy. In this study, the chloride transport and binding in the cement matrix in different cementitious materials was analyzed by synchrotron based X-ray diffraction (SyXRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Sample materials consisting of cement paste were embedded in high concentrated sodium chloride solution over different time spans. Afterwards, the phase and chemical compositions were determined. The high spatial resolution and the information about the chloride distribution offer a detailed view of chloride binding in the cement matrix and allow the conclusions about the degradation mechanisms. The results are discussed related to the influence of different supplementary cementitious materials on the damaging mechanism. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.

  • 237.
    Schlegel, Moritz Caspar
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mueller, U.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Panne, Ulrich
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany; Humboldt University zu Berlin, Germany.
    Emmerling, Franziska
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Spatially resolved investigation of complex multi-phase systems using μxRF, SEM-EDX and high resolution SyXRD2013In: Cement & Concrete Composites, ISSN 0958-9465, E-ISSN 1873-393X, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 241-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatially resolved analysis of complex multi-phase systems can be validated through different analytical methods. This study compares investigations by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis and high resolution X-ray diffraction. The studied sulfate attacked cement paste containing fly ashes consists of different interacting crystalline and amorphous phases. The complementary methods revealed in detail changes in phase composition due to the chemical attack. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed and suggestions are given for combining them with additional methods to maximize the information content.

  • 238.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    100-miljonersprojektet I-STONE om natursten nu färdigt.2009In: CBI nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 239.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Aggregates in Europe2003In: Proceeding of Int symposium IMBS 2003, 2003, , p. 35-50Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Bergmaterialcentrum: nu Innovationscentrum för berg och stenteknik2011In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 11-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 241.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Brunfärgade graniter.: Mysteriets lösning?2009In: Sten, ISSN 0346-1866, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    En ny möjlighet för nordisk skiffer att CE-märkas2010In: STEN, ISSN 0346-1866, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 43-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 243.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Expertsystem tar fram tålig marmorplatta för utevägg2011In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 18-20Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Grå-gröna systemlösningar för hållbara städer2013In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 245.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Hydraulisk spräckning av berg: nytt EU-projekt med svensk dominans2012In: Svensk Bergs- & Brukstidning, ISSN 0039-6435, no 5-6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 246.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Naturstens tekniska egenskapers betydelse för olika användningsområden: Slutrapport2011Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 247.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Obligatorisk CE-märkning av natursten2012In: STEN, ISSN 0346-1866, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 74-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 248.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Om stenfasader i Expertguiden specialavsnitt om renovering av fasader2012In: Fastighetsförvaltaren, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 249.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Physical properties and durability of fresh and impregnated ...2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 250.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Physical properties and durability of fresh and impregnated Jämtland limestone2000Conference paper (Other academic)
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