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  • 201. Franceschini, T.
    et al.
    Lundqvist, S.-O.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bontemps, J.-D.
    Grahn, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Evans, R.
    Leban, J.-M.
    Empirical models for radial and tangential fibre width in tree rings of Norway spruce in north-western Europe2012In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, no 2, p. 219-230Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 202. Francey, S.
    et al.
    Tran, H.
    Berglin, N.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Global survey on lime kiln operation energy consumption and alternative fuel usage2011In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, no 8, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203. Francey, S.
    et al.
    Tran, H.
    Berglin, Niklas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Global survey on lime kiln operation, energy consumption and alternative fuel usage2010In: 2010 TAPPI PEERS Conference and 9th Research Forum on Recycling, 2010, Vol. 2, p. 1004-1069Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey on lime kiln operation and fuel usage was conducted through questionnaires distributed to pulp mills in nine countries in late 2008. Responses were received from 67 lime kilns at 59 pulp mills. This paper discusses the key findings from the survey with respect to kiln design parameters, operating data, control strategies, fuel types, energy consumption and operating issues; and where possible, compares them to the findings obtained from a similar survey conducted in 1991. Many improvements have been made over the past two decades to kiln design and operations, including the increased number of kilns that are equipped with product coolers and lime mud dryers, and the higher mud solids content. However, ring formation and dusting/high dust load remain the major operational issues amongst the respondents. Although few kilns have used alternative fuels to date, there is considerable industry interest in their use in the future. About two-thirds of the kilns have plans for implementing alternative fuels within the next five years.

  • 204.
    Gabrielsson, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tysén, Aron
    RISE, Innventia.
    Investigation of the dynamic liquid absorption properties of kitchen towel2014In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2014, TAPPI Press , 2014, Vol. 2, p. 1216-1239Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic absorption of liquid in kitchen towel was investigated. A new method was developed. The method measures the radial spreading of the absorbed liquid using thermography. The method allows also for a controlled compression of the sample between two smooth surfaces during the absorption process. A pressure head at the inlet is avoided in order not to have an external pressure drop driving the flow. The dynamic absorption properties of kitchen towel samples comprising conventional dry creped samples with a two-and three-ply design, and a two-ply TAD sample were evaluated. The measurements were performed with the samples being compressed to different bulk levels. The absorption rate and the speed of the absorption in different directions were determined. For the conventional samples, the liquid spreading area had an oval shape, while it was approximately circular for the TAD sample. Artifacts like embossing structures had a clear effect on liquid spreading with the shape of the liquid spreading area becoming less uniform. Sample compression had a very strong influence on the dynamic absorption behavior.

  • 205.
    Galland, Sylvain
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Prakobna, Kasinee
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Swedenk.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Holocellulose Nanofibers of High Molar Mass and Small Diameter for High-Strength Nanopaper2015In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 2427-2435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) based on bleached pulp are different from the cellulose microfibrils in the plant cell wall in terms of larger diameter, lower cellulose molar mass, and modified cellulose topochemistry. Also, CNF isolation often requires high-energy mechanical disintegration. Here, a new type of CNFs is reported based on a mild peracetic acid delignification process for spruce and aspen fibers, followed by low-energy mechanical disintegration. Resulting CNFs are characterized with respect to geometry (AFM, TEM), molar mass (SEC), and polysaccharide composition. Cellulose nanopaper films are prepared by filtration and characterized by UV-vis spectrometry for optical transparency and uniaxial tensile tests. These CNFs are unique in terms of high molar mass and cellulose-hemicellulose core-shell structure. Furthermore, the corresponding nanopaper structures exhibit exceptionally high optical transparency and the highest mechanical properties reported for comparable CNF nanopaper structures. (Graph Presented).

  • 206.
    Gallstedt, M
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hendeqvist, M S
    Ture, H
    Production, chemistry and properties of proteins2011In: Biopolymers: New Materials for Sustainable Films and Coatings, Wiley , 2011, , p. 27Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 207.
    Gamelas, José A. F.
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Pedrosa, Jorge
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Lourenco, Ana F.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Mutjo, Peré
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Gonzalez, Israel
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Singh, Gurvinder
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ferreira, Paulo J. T.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    On the morphology of cellulose nanofibrils obtained by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and mechanical treatment2015In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 72, p. 28-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphological properties of cellulose nanofibrils obtained from eucalyptus pulp fibres were assessed. Two samples were produced with the same chemical treatment (NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) oxidation), but distinct mechanical treatment intensities during homogenization. It was shown that the nanofibrils production yield increases with the mechanical energy. The effect of mechanical treatment on the yield was confirmed by laser profilometry of air-dried nanocellulose films. However, no significant differences were detected regarding the nanofibrils width as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) of air-dried films. On the other hand, differences in size were found either by laser diffraction spectroscopy or by dynamic light scattering (DLS) of the cellulose nanofibrils suspensions as a consequence of the differences in the length distribution of both samples. The nanofibrils length of the more nanofibrillated sample was calculated based on the width measured by AFM and the hydrodynamic diameter obtained by DLS. A length value of ca. 600. nm was estimated. The DLS hydrodynamic diameter, as an equivalent spherical diameter, was used to estimate the nanofibrils length assuming a cylinder with the same volume and with the diameter (width) assessed by AFM. A simple method is thus proposed to evaluate the cellulose nanofibrils length combining microscopy and light scattering methods.

  • 208. Gamstedt, E.K.
    et al.
    Sandell, R.
    Berthold, F.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Pettersson, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Nordgren, N.
    Characterization of interfacial stress transfer ability of particulate cellulose composite materials2011In: Mechanics of materials, ISSN 0167-6636, E-ISSN 1872-7743, no 11, p. 693-704Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 209. Gebremeskel, G G
    et al.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Determination of lignin content in kraft black liquors using capillary zone electrophoresis2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Gebremeskel, Getachew Gizaw
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Determination of lignin content in kraft black liquors by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE)2013In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, no 8, p. 887-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in an alkaline glycine buffer is suggested for the quantification of lignin content in black liquors (BL). The method was first tested by an external calibration with LignoBoost lignins. Then, the lignin content in BL was determined by means of a multivariate calibration with the application of a standard normal variate filter and partial least squares approach based on five principal components. The results are in agreement with those obtained by sulfuric acid lignin precipitation combined with ultraviolet measurement of the lignin in solution. The advantage of the CZE method is its independence from the knowledge of the exact absorptivity coefficient, which is needed for direct spectrophotometric lignin determination. Moreover, interfering substances and degradation products could be recognized and excluded from lignin determination; thus, the selectivity was increased significantly.

  • 211.
    Gellerstedt, Göran L.F.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per E.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Axegård, Peter
    RISE, Innventia.
    Backlund, Birgit
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lignin recovery and lignin-based products2013In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, p. 180-210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Geng, Lihong
    et al.
    South China University of Technology, China; Stony Brook University, USA.
    Peng, Xiangfang
    South China University of Technology, China.
    Zhan, Chengbo
    Stony Brook University, USA.
    Naderi, Ali
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Sharma, Priyanka R.
    Stony Brook University, USA.
    Mao, Yimin
    University of Maryland, USA; National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Hsiao, Benjamin S.
    Stony Brook University, USA.
    Structure characterization of cellulose nanofiber hydrogel as functions of concentration and ionic strength2017In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 5417-5429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carboxylated cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), having an average width of 7 nm and thickness of 1.5 nm, were produced by TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation method. The fiber cross-sectional dimensions were determined using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques, where the rheological properties under different concentration and ionic strength were also investigated. The formation of hydrogel was evidenced by increasing the CNF concentration or ionic strength of the solvent (water), while the gel structure in ion-induced CNF hydrogels was found to be relatively inhomogeneous. The gelation behavior was closely related to the segmental aggregation of charged CNF, which could be quantitatively characterized by the correlation length (Ο) from the low-angle scattering profile and the scattering invariant (Q) in SAXS.

  • 213.
    Ghanadpour, Maryam
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carosio, Federico
    Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Phosphorylated Cellulose Nanofibrils: A Renewable Nanomaterial for the Preparation of Intrinsically Flame-Retardant Materials2015In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 16, no 10, p. 3399-3410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose from wood fibers can be modified for use in flame-retardant composites as an alternative to halogen-based compounds. For this purpose, sulfite dissolving pulp fibers have been chemically modified by phosphorylation, and the resulting material has been used to prepare cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) that have a width of approximately 3 nm. The phosphorylation was achieved using (NH4)2HPO4 in the presence of urea, and the degree of substitution by phosphorus was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, conductometric titration, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The presence of phosphate groups in the structure of CNF has been found to noticeably improve the flame retardancy of this material. The nanopaper sheets prepared from phosphorylated CNF showed self-extinguishing properties after consecutive applications of a methane flame for 3 s and did not ignite under a heat flux of 35 kW/m2, as shown by flammability and cone calorimetry measurements, respectively.

  • 214.
    Ghose, Agneta
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Environmental Aspects of Norwegian production of pulp fibres and printing paper2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 57, p. 293-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental impacts of the Norwegian pulp and paper industry, considering the production of pulp fibres and printing paper. The pulp fibres included in this study are thermo-mechanical pulp and kraft pulp fibres, which differ with respect to the energy consumption and chemicals used during production. The assessed paper grades were super-calendered paper and newsprint. The study was a cradle to gate approach, and corresponds to an attributional life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA was based on data collected from main pulp and paper producers in Norway. Importantly, aspects related to the increasing use of mineral fillers in the production of newsprints were assessed. The results showed that a reduction of more than 18% climate change impact (kg CO2 eq.) was achieved by increasing the fraction of fillers, in the newsprint furnish. Furthermore, the total climate change impact reduction depended on the applied energy mix. Assuming that the production of printing paper was based only on Norwegian energy mix, yielded a reduction of the climate change impact by more than 44% in 2011, compared to the production based on Scandinavian and European energy mix. Additionally, the input and output transport contributed to more than 20% impact in several cases. We thus concluded that the estimated environmental impacts were affected by; i) the furnish composition of a given paper quality, ii) the input and output transport and iii) the use of different primary grid energy sources.

  • 215.
    Gimaker, M.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Östlund, M.
    Östlund, S.
    Wågberg, L.
    Influence of beating and chemical additives on residual stresses in paper2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 4, p. 445451-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Gimåker, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, Lars
    Östlund, Sören
    Shear strength development between couched paper sheets during drying2011In: / [ed] Hirn, U., 2011, , p. 3Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Gonzalez, Israel
    et al.
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Alcala, Manel
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Vilaseca, Fabiola
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Boufi, Sami
    Université de Sfax, Tunisia.
    Mutjé, Peré
    University of Girona, Spain.
    From paper to nanopaper: evolution of mechanical and physical properties2014In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 2599-2609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work the evolution of physical and mechanical properties of papers and nanopapers is studied. Handsheets made of eucalyptus fibres reinforced with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 wt% of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) content were fabricated using a Rapid Köthen-like equipment. The obtained papers and nanopapers were physical- and mechanically-characterized. The results showed a significant increase in density and a reduction of porosity in the samples during their transition from paper to nanopaper; besides, nanopapers were more transparent and smoother than normal papers. These physical changes where more evident with increasing amounts of NFC. Regarding mechanical properties, nanopapers with a 100 wt% content of NFC improved their strength and rigidity in 228 and 317 %, respectively, in comparison with normal papers. The evolution of strength and rigidity from paper to nanopaper was linear in relation to the amount of NFC, which means that the ultimate tensile strength was mainly dependant on nanofibril failure.

  • 218. Gorski, D.
    et al.
    Kure, K-A.
    Mörseburg, Kathrin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    On the relationship between improved energy efficiency in high-consistency refining, fibre and fines properties and critical paper properties2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 219. Gorski, D.
    et al.
    Mörseburg, Kathrin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Axelsson, P.
    Engstrand, P.
    Peroxide-based ATMP refining of Spruce: Energy efficiency, fibre properties and pulp quality2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, p. 47-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 220. Gorski, D.
    et al.
    Mörseburg, Kathrin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Johansson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Role of equipment configuration and process chemicals in peroxide-based ATMP refining of spruce2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, p. 233-247Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 221.
    Gorski, Dmitri
    et al.
    Norske Skog Saugbrugs, Norway.
    Mörseburg, Kathrin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Olson, James
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Luukkonen, Antti
    Andritz Inc., USA.
    Fibre and fines quality development in pilot scale high and low consistency refining of ATMP2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, p. 872-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to characterise and compare the development of fibre and fines properties in high consistency (HC) and low consistency (LC) refining of mechanical pulp. Primary refined pulp was produced using the Advanced Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (ATMP) refining process. Pulps were characterized to evaluate external and internal fibrillation, fibre shape and dimensions, surface area of fines and the proportion of split fibres. Based on the results, a different mode of fibre development was proposed for LC and HC refining. The LC refining resulted in a greater reduction in the shives content and R30 Bauer-McNett fibre fraction. The reduced R30 fraction considerably increased the middle fibre fractions; however it showed no further development in terms of surface fibrillation. While HC refining resulted in a significant reduction in fibre wall thickness associated with fibre collapse and increase in external fibrillation, LC refining mainly generated structural changes, seen in fibre straightening and increased flexibility. The HC and LC refined pulps had different property profiles compared at equal handsheet tensile index. The LC refined pulps contained less long fibres and fines but significantly more middle fraction particles. Extensive internal fibrillation of the straighter LC refined fibres appeared to have compensated for lower fines content and external fibrillation, producing well bonded sheets with good tensile strength.

  • 222.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Béland, Marie-Claude
    RISE, Innventia.
    Modelling the angle-dependent light scattering from sheets of pulp fibre fragments2004In: Nordic Pulp Paper Res.J., Vol. 19, no 3, p. 354-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Béland, Marie-Claude
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindberg, Siv M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wickholm, Kristina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    It’s a bird! It’s a plane! It’s a super multimaterial!2015In: Paper Conference and Trade Show (PaperCon 2015), TAPPI Press, 2015, Vol. 1, p. 492-504Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Matching market demands and technological solutions is not always straightforward. In this article, we report on one material, a cellulose-PLA multimaterial, which was made on a full-scale pilot paper machine and adapted to five different market applications having specialized and often conflicting demands. The material can be injection molded, 3D-printed, hot pressed, treated as a textile, used in a laminate, or converted as a paper board, giving it a wide range of possible properties depending on how it is processed.The five application areas presented here were identified as gaps in the marketplace where seemingly conflicting needs were desired: opacity and transparency; compact for transport but having an expanded size during use; stiffness and flexibility; strength and light-weight; and durability and degradability. These properties are exemplified in a number of material and product demonstrators, illustrating how tailored solutions can give products with distinctly different personalities. The material can be made flexible and given movement as graceful as the wing of a bird or be processed to be strong and light-weight enough to be used in vehicles like airplanes. By having one material that is produced on a large scale, but then processed according to specific market demands and expectations, the gap between needing scale and needing scope is bridged.

  • 224.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic
    RISE, Innventia.
    Eita, Mohamed
    RISE, Innventia.
    De Mayolo, Eduardo Antunez
    RISE, Innventia.
    Arwin, Hans
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, Lars Göran
    RISE, Innventia.
    Dynamics of moisture interaction with polyelectrolyte multilayers containing nanofibrillated cellulose2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 496-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings have shown that it is possible to use the Layer-by-Layer technique to create nanofibrillated cellulose / polyethyleneimine interference films whose colour change with relative humidity. This study uses different optical models to describe spectral ellipsometry measurements data of interference films and how the film properties alter in dry and humid environments. The results indicate that water condensation initially is filling the surface pores within seconds whereas relaxation of the film to adjust to the added water is a slower process that reaches a steady state after ~20 min. The maximum swelling ratio of the LbL films is almost independent of the number of layers within the film, but decreases considerably by crosslinking via heat treatment. The films show a distinct birefringence with optical axis perpendicular to the surface. Analysis of the moisture response with different optical models indicates that the films swell uniformly in the thickness direction with no separate water film on top. The results provide important understanding for the design of NFC based LbL films for visual moisture sensors and interactive security paper.

  • 225. Granstrom, J.
    et al.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Villet, M.
    Moon, J.S.
    Chatterjee, T.
    High performance encapsulation structures utilizing Russian Doll architectures2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 518, no 18, p. 5282-5287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Russian Doll encapsulation architecture utilizing pairs of free-standing barrier films and epoxy seals separated by nitrogen spacers is presented, enabling the use of low-cost epoxy to attach two or more free-standing barrier films to a substrate with improved barrier performance. The performance of various Russian Doll encapsulations was evaluated with the calcium thin film optical transmission test, showing improved performance of the Russian doll configuration relative to a non-nested barrier/spacer architecture, and demonstrating that water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) of 0.00021 g/(m 2, day) or below can be achieved with low-cost materials in this architecture. This WVTR correlates to a predicted lifetime of more than 10 years for bulk heterojunction solar cell modules fabricated and tested by Konarka Technologies (Lowell, MA, USA)..

  • 226.
    Gulbrandsen, Torea A.
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Johnsen, Ingvild A.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Øyaas, Karin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Pranovich, Andrey V.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Mikkola, Jyri Pekka T.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hoff, Bård H.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Extracting hemicelluloses from softwood and bagasse as oligosaccharides using pure water and microwave heating2015In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 117-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to identify conditions for hemicelluloses extraction in oligomeric form. Using microwave assisted hot water extraction (HWE), the effects of both retention time and temperature on hemicelluloses yields, as well as the degree of polymerization (DP) as analyzed by SEC-MALLS, were investigated using both softwood (sawmill shavings) and sugarcane bagasse. The results are discussed in the light of the unavoidable yield-DP compromise resulting from the application of batch mode operations. Nevertheless, significant differences between the two raw materials could be observed, as expected. For softwood shavings, data interpolation indicated that about 50% of the hemicelluloses could be obtained as oligomers at an average DP of 30 when extracted at 183 °C for 5 minutes. For bagasse, longer extraction times seemed optimal. After hot water extraction at 183 °C for 12 minutes, about 62% of the bagasse hemicelluloses were extracted as oligomers at an average DP of about 100.

  • 227.
    Guo, Juan
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Song, Kunlin
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yin, Yafang
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Changes of wood cell walls in response to hygro-mechanical steam treatment2015In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 115, p. 207-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of compression combined with steam treatment (CS-treatment), i.e. a hygro-mechanical steam treatment on Spruce wood were studied on a cell-structure level to understand the chemical and physical changes of the secondary cell wall occurring under such conditions. Specially, imaging FT-IR microscopy, nanoindentation and dynamic vapour absorption were used to track changes in the chemical structure, in micromechanical and hygroscopic properties. It was shown that CS-treatment resulted in different changes in morphological, chemical and physical properties of the cell wall, in comparison with those under pure steam treatment. After CS-treatment, the cellular structure displayed significant deformations, and the biopolymer components, e.g. hemicellulose and lignin, were degraded, resulting in decreased hygroscopicity and increased mechanical properties of the wood compared to both untreated and steam treated wood. Moreover, CS-treatment resulted in a higher degree of degradation especially in earlywood compared to a more uniform behaviour of wood treated only by steam.

  • 228.
    Guo, Juan
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Yin, Jiangping
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Zhang, Yonggang
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Yin, Yafang
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Effects of thermo-hygro-mechanical (THM) treatment on the viscoelasticity of in-situ lignin2017In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 455-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For producing wood products without fractures based on thermo-hygro-mechanical (THM) treatments, it is essential to understand how steaming and compression change the wood softening and cell wall components. In this paper, the effects of compression combined with steam treatment (CS) on the viscoelasticity of the in-situ lignin of Chinese fir has been investigated through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) under fully saturated conditions. Several variations were studied, such as the softening temperature (Tg) and apparent activation energy (ΔHa) of the softening process in response to CS treatment conditions (such as steam temperature and compression ratio) under separate consideration of earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW). No difference between EW and LW with respect to the viscoelasticity was noted. Tg and ΔHa of the lignin softening were nearly unaffected by the compression ratio, but were highly influenced by the steam temperature. The Tg decreased significantly with CS treatments at or above 160oC, but showed no appreciable change, compared to the native wood, at the lower steaming temperature of 140oC. ΔHa increased at higher steam temperatures, while ΔHa showed a decreasing tendency with decreasing Tg. This indicates that lignin undergoes a simultaneous depolymerization as well as a condensation during CS treatment.

  • 229.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Loading and deformation of cigarette packages2017In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on Packaging 2017: Proceedings / [ed] Martine E, 2017, p. 409-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has been undertaken to investigate the deformation properties of cigarette packages subjected to different loads. Numerical simulation enables a hypothetical package produced from a hypothetical paperboard to be tested. A finite element model was implemented in the Abaqus system in order to calculate stresses and strains in the deformed packages. The model behaves as expected up to deformations with limited damage. The calculated initial slopes of the reaction force responses were generally in good agreement with the corresponding measured slopes, although the model had a nonlinear force response that was not found in the experimental data. Incorporating cohesive behaviour into the model would allow the elements to disconnect from each other. Statistical analysis of the couplings between the initial process responses and the material properties of the paperboards revealed that only the initial yield stress parameter significantly affected the slope.

  • 230.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hale, Sarah
    NGI Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    NGI Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway; NMBU Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Activated carbon from kraft lignin: A sorbent for in situ remediation of contaminated sediments2017In: Environmental technology and innovation, ISSN 23521864, Vol. 7, p. 160-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new type of activated carbon derived from Kraft lignin, separated from black liquor in the paper pulp process, was evaluated for its use as an alternative sorbent to commercial powdered activated carbons (AC) from anthracite (ACCOAL) or coconut (ACBIO) for remediation in situ of contaminated sediments. Two types of kraft lignins (KL): (1) softwood (SKL), (2) hardwood (HKL) were first evaluated for their sorption to PAHs using assays in water with passive samplers (POMs). Results showed that without further chemical modifications the two kraft lignins tested had lower sorption coefficients than commercial ACCOAL or ACBIO and are not good sorbents for remediation. Following these initial tests a new type of AC derived from softwood (ACSKL) was produced in the lab using activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) (lignin:KOH, 1:3 by dry weight) and pyrolysis at 700 °C. Sorption properties of the new ACSKL was compared to the other ACs in water spiked with PAHs and in water with PAH-contaminated sediment. Sorption results were also compared to bioavailability measurements, using digestive fluid extraction (DFE) in vitro, a method that mimics the solubilization of contaminants that occurs in the gut of a sediment-ingesting invertebrate. ACSKL was found to have similar surface area, pore volume and sorption coefficients as ACCOAL and ACBIO and thus offers a new potential sorbent for remediation, based on a more renewable biomass-derived source than AC from coal. Sediment amendment with 1% AC-SKL reduced the bioavailability of larger PAHs on average by 54% (measured by DFE), and reduced pore water concentrations of ΣPAH by 80% (measured with passive samplers). Our results show that a new type of AC based on softwood kraft lignin, a renewable and locally produced biomass material, could be used as an alternative sorbent for sediment and water remediation provided it is produced in sufficient amount and at a competitive price compared to other traditional ACs.

  • 231.
    Gwinnutt, J.
    et al.
    International Newsletters Ltd, Germany.
    Cumming, S.
    BCC Research LLC, Germany.
    Prigneaux, J.
    EDANA, Germany.
    Stevenson, A.
    ELG Carbon Fibre, UK.
    Dils, C.
    IZM Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration, Germany.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE, Innventia.
    Slater, A.
    Lenzing Fibers Grimsby Ltd, Germany.
    Knorr, K.
    Norafin Industries GmbH, Germany.
    Jolly, M.
    Norafin Industries GmbH, Germany.
    Möbitz, C.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Lutke, C.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Hofmann, M.
    STFI Saxon Textile Research Institute, Germany.
    Käppel, D.
    Tenowo, Germany.
    How will high-performance nonwovens transform your business?2016In: Technical Textiles International, ISSN 0964-5993, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 33-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 232.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hedenqvist, M. S.
    Ture, H.
    Production, Chemistry and Properties of Proteins2011In: Biopolymers: New Materials for Sustainable Films and Coatings / [ed] Plackett David, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, p. 107-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    SIG Combibloc, Switzerland.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, Therese
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Newson, William R.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Film extrusion of Crambe abyssinica/wheat gluten blends2017In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, E-ISSN 1940-087X, Journal of Visualized Experiments, Vol. 2017, no 119, article id e54770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crambe abyssinica is a plant with potential for use in industrial (non-food) plant oil production. The side stream from this oil production is a high-protein crambe meal that has limited value, as it is not fit for food or feed use. However, it contains proteins that could potentially make it a suitable raw material for higher-value products. The purpose of this study was to find methods of making this side stream into extruded films, showing that products with a higher value can be produced. The study mainly considered the development of material compositions and methods of preparing and extruding the material. Wheat gluten was added as a supportive protein matrix material, together with glycerol as a plasticizer and urea as a denaturant. The extrudate was evaluated with respect to mechanical (tensile testing) and oxygen barrier properties, and the extrudate structure was revealed visually and by scanning electron microscopy. A denser, more homogeneous material had a lower oxygen transmission rate, higher strength, and higher extensibility. The most homogeneous films were made at an extruder die temperature of 125-130 °C. It is shown here that a film can be extruded with promising mechanical and oxygen barrier properties, the latter especially after a final compression molding step.

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  • 234.
    Hagman, Anton
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Short compression testing of multi-ply paperboard, influence from shear strength2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 123-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the through-thickness shear strength profiles on the short span compression test was examined. This was done both with experiments and finite element simulations on five industrial produced paperboards. It was concluded that the short span compression test is governed by in-plane stiffness and through thickness delamination. The delamination damage was in turn dependent on the local transverse shear strength and in-plane stiffness gradients. Furthermore, it was concluded that the pre-delamination mechanisms were elastic. Finally it was possible to alter the results from the test by altering the shear strength of the paperboard; this should be done uniformly over the entire middle ply of the board if an increased SCT value was what was sought after.

  • 235.
    Hagman, Anton
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Thermographical Analysis of Paper During Tensile Testing and Comparison to Digital Image Correlation2017In: Experimental mechanics, ISSN 0014-4851, E-ISSN 1741-2765, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 325-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal response in paper has been studied by thermography. It was observed that an inhomogeneous deformation pattern arose in the paper samples during tensile testing. In the plastic regime a pattern of warmer streaks could be observed in the samples. On the same samples digital image correlation (DIC) was used to study local strain fields. It was concluded that the heat patterns observed by thermography coincided with the deformation patterns observed by DIC. Because of its fibrous network structure, paper has an inhomogeneous micro-structure, which is called formation. It could be shown that the formation was the cause of the inhomogeneous deformations in paper. Finite element simulations was used to show how papers with different degrees of heterogeneity would deform. Creped papers, where the strain at break has been increased, were analysed. For these paper it was seen that an overlaid compaction of the paper was created during the creping process. During tensile testing this was recovered as the paper network structure was strained.

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  • 236. Haldenwang, R.
    et al.
    Sutherland, A.P.N.
    Fester, V.G.
    Holm, R.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Chhabra, R.P.
    Sludge pipe flow pressure drop prediction using composite power-law friction factor-Reynolds number correlations based on different non-Newtonian Reynolds numbers2012In: Water S.A., ISSN 0378-4738, E-ISSN 1816-7950, no 4, p. 615-622Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 237.
    Halonen, Helena
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mercerized cellulose biocomposites: A study of influence of mercerization on cellulose supramolecular structure, water retention value and tensile properties2013In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, no 1, p. 57-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the effect of the mercerization degree on the water retention value (WRV) and tensile properties of compression molded sulphite dissolving pulp was evaluated. The pulp was treated with 9, 10, or 11 % aqueous NaOH solution for 1 h before compression molding. To study the time dependence of mercerization the pulp was treated with 12 wt% aqueous NaOH for 1, 6 or 48 h. The cellulose I and II contents of the biocomposites were determined by solid state cross polarization/magic angle spinning carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C NMR) spectroscopy. By spectral fitting of the C6 and C1 region the cellulose I and II content, respectively, could be determined. Mercerization decreased the total crystallinity (sum of cellulose I and cellulose II content) and it was not possible to convert all cellulose I to cellulose II in the NaOH range investigated. Neither increased the conversion significantly with 12 wt% NaOH at longer treatment times. The slowdown of the cellulose I conversion was suggested as being the result from the formation of cellulose II as a consequence of coalescence of anti-parallel surfaces of neighboring fibrils (Blackwell et al. in Tappi 61:71-72, 1978; Revol and Goring in J Appl Polym Sci 26:1275-1282, 1981; Okano and Sarko in J Appl Polym Sci 30:325-332, 1985). Compression molding of the partially mercerized dissolving pulps yielded biocomposites with tensile properties that could be correlated to the decrease in cellulose I content in the pulps. Mercerization introduces cellulose II and disordered cellulose and lowered the total crystallinity reflected as higher water sensitivity (higher WRV values) and poorer stiffness of the mercerized biocomposites.

  • 238.
    Hammar, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sandberg, C.
    Sundström, L.
    The effect of process conditions on pulp quality development in low consistency refining of mechanical pulp - TMP2010In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 377-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High consistency (HC) defibration followed by secondary stage low consistency refining (LC) is an energy efficient process in mechanical pulping that has been explored for some time. In this study the effects of temperature, pH, specific edge load and specific energy on pulp quality have been investigated for LC refining using a mobile LC refiner rig placed after a primary stage HC refiner In the Braviken Paper mill. The trials showed that the specific energy consumption in production of mechanical pulp can be reduced with at least 15% with preserved pulp properties. High temperature, pH over 7 and low specific edge load were advantageous both for tensile index development and for preserving the fibre length of the pulp. The development of other pulp properties such as shives content and light scattering coefficient, as a function of freeness, were comparable for the second stage LC- and HC-refining.

  • 239.
    Hartzen, Ann-Sofie Margareta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Siv M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    The material expression of new pulp-fibre reinforced composites in relation to other material categories2016In: Proceedings - D and E 2016: 10th International Conference on Design and Emotion - Celebration and Contemplation, 2016, p. 191-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To help bridge the gap between the science lab and commercial production there is a need for a better understanding of how new bio-based materials are perceived by users. The aim of the studies in this paper was to identify the material expression, sensorial properties and semantic dimensions of a group of pulp-fibre reinforced composites that are still in the research phase and how these relate to other, better-known materials already on the market. The studies involved 21 different materials, divided into different material groups such as metals, solid woods, wood fibre materials, plastic and fibre-reinforced composites in which the pulp-fibre reinforced composites were included. The materials were evaluated for meaning in a product semantic study and for sensory perception in a sensorial study. The results of the semantic study gave two underlining dimensions explaining most of the variations between the materials, Quality and Naturalness. These dimensions also had strong correlations to some of the sensorial properties. The results indicate that the pulp-fibre reinforced composites were not perceived as having high quality or expressing naturalness. They were hard to distinguish from the plastics in the study. The implications for further research and material development are discussed.

  • 240. Heggset, Ellinor B
    et al.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Øyaas, Karin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Novel pretreatment pathways for dissolution of lignocellulosic biomass based on ionic liquid and low temperature alkaline treatment2016In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 93, p. 194-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pretreatment, fractionation and hydrolysis remains costly and challenging process steps in biochemical conversion of softwoods. Here, ionic liquid pretreatment using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM-OAc) at high temperature (100 °C, 6 h) and alkali based (NaOH/urea) pretreatment at sub-zero temperature (−18 °C, 24 h) were compared and combined in studies of Norway Spruce biomass deconstruction. Both treatments significantly improved the enzymatic digestibility of the biomass. EMIM-OAc gave higher glucan than mannan digestibility, indicating a more pronounced effect on the cellulose polymer than on the hemicellulose polymer. In contrast, low temperature alkali pretreatment using NaOH or NaOH + urea gave a more pronounced effect on mannan than on glucan digestibility. By combining the two methods the total monosugar yield after enzymatic hydrolysis was improved by 20–50% as compared to using ionic liquid or alkali based pretreatment alone. Lignin dissolution was low for both methods under the conditions studied.

  • 241. Hii, C
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Rosén, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Quantification of the web structure in relation to process conditions during wet pressing and furnish composition2011In: / [ed] Hirn, U., 2011, , p. 2Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 242. Hii, C.
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø.W.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The effect of microfibrillated cellulose on the pressability of TMP and filler mixtures and on paper properties2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Hii, Collin
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Gregersen, Øyvind Weiby
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The effect of MFC on the pressability and paper properties of TMP and GCC based sheets2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 388-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different qualities of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) were blended with thermomechanical pulp (TMP) and ground calcium carbonate (GCC) filler. The addition of MFC reduced the drainage of the pulp suspension but improved strength properties. Wet pressing experiments showed that optimal use of MFC and filler could enhance the strength and optical properties without reducing the solids content after wet pressing. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed that MFC adsorbed onto and contributed to the bonding of the filler particles and fibres. The MFC binds the filler-MFC-fines aggregates to the fibre network and partially filled the pore network. As a result, MFC addition increased the air resistance and internal bonding of the sheet.

  • 244.
    Hii, Collin
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Gregersen, Øyvind Weiby
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The effect of Newsprint furnish composition and sheet structure on wet pressing efficiency2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 790-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dewatering ability and wet sheet structure after pressing was studied using a dynamic wet pressing simulator in combination with electron microscopy and image analysis. Deinked pulp (DIP) that contains 5% ash dewaters more easily than thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) when pressed with single roll pulse. The in-plane moisture flow (crushing) in DIP samples started at higher peak pressure and higher solids content compared to TMP samples. The TMP sample showed higher springback after wet pressing compared to DIP samples. When both TMP and DIP samples were designed to have a higher amount of small pores at the dewatering side surface layers, the samples with coarser TMP pulp could achieve similar dryness as DIP samples when pressed with higher nip pressure. In addition, the DIP samples with higher number of small pores in the outermost 10 μm thick surface layer in the dewatering side resulted in lower dryness after pressing with a single roll pulse. The effect of filler distribution in paper z-direction on dryness and sheet structure after wet pressing using an 8 milliseconds roll pulse was also studied. In this study the distribution of filler does not affect the maximum achievable dryness (41%) after wet pressing when the total amount of filler in the sheets remains constant, 13.5%. In addition, the samples with more filler in the dewatering layer dewater more easily and yield the maximum achievable dryness (40%) after wet pressing at lower nip pressure (2.5 MPa) when compared to samples made from TMP (36% at 4.4 MPa) and DIP pulps (40% at 4.9 MPa).

  • 245.
    Hii, Collin
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Gregersen, Øyvind Weiby
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The web structure in relation to the furnish composition and shoe press pulse profiles during wet pressing2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 798-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows that wet-pressing TMP and DIP with a shoe press pulse may yield similar after-press solids, provided that an adequate shoe pulse length with similar pressure profile is applied. A wet web with more porous structure in the sheet dewatering (felt) layer seems to contribute to the increased dewatering during wet pressing. In addition, a shoe press pulse with high peak pressure at the end yields higher solids content after wet-pressing and higher bulk compared to a pulse with a peak pressure in the beginning. The increased dewatering during wet-pressing implies a reduction of steam consumption in the dryer.

  • 246.
    Holmberg, Pia
    et al.
    Acosense AB, Sweden.
    Bjärestrand, Annika
    RISE, Innventia.
    On-line monitoring of fiber properties: Listening in on the process in real-time2015In: Paper Conference and Trade Show (PaperCon 2015), TAPPI Press, 2015, Vol. 2, p. 859-871Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 247. Holmqvist, C.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    RISE, Innventia.
    Drainage pressure oscillations during roll forming2010In: Paper Conference and Trade Show 2010, 2010, Vol. 3, p. 2354-2389Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a roll-blade former the initial drainage is achieved by wrapping the tensioned fabrics over the roll surface. The dry line is located after the roll, and additional drainage is achieved in the blade section. This situation is referred to as partial roll forming. In order to study the dynamics of partial roll forming, pressure measurements have been made in the roll-blade former of the FEX pilot machine at Innventia in Stockholm. The measurements were performed using a fibre optic pressure measurement system. The results confirm that oscillatory flow behaviour is possible in industrial forming sections. The good agreement between the experimentally determined wavelengths of the oscillations and the theoretical analysis by Holm & Söderberg [1] strongly suggests that the oscillations are of capillary origin, and that they are controlled by a local dimensionless Weber number expressing the local balance between the momentum of the flow and the forces exerted by the fabric tension. Pressure gradients are capable of influencing the fibre web structure, and the gradients associated with the oscillations could hence be of significance to the forming process.

  • 248.
    Hong, Zhou
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fries, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Andersson Gull, Bengt
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Wu, Harry X.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Measuring stiffness using acoustic tool for Scots pine breeding selection2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 363-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stiffness (modulus of elasticity, MOE) of conifer trees is the most important trait for structural wood products. Finding a fast, reliable and non-destructive way to measure MOE is a priority for screening large progeny trials in tree breeding programmes. For Scots pine, time-of-flight (TOF) velocity measured on standing trees accounted for 47% of the variation to the benchmark SilviScan-based clearwood MOE (MOEs), under the assumption of constant wood density. If wood density was included, 59% of the variation was accounted for. The TOF stiffness measurements on standing trees were, however, more related to the clearwood MOEs in the outerwood, and the prediction was the most reliable at breast height compared to the stem base and the top section. Microfibril angle (MFA) had higher correlation with acoustic velocity (VEL) of standing trees than wood density, and among the early, transition and latewood density, the latewood density had the highest correlation with stiffness measurements on standing trees. VEL measured at breast height in combination with wood density was the most reliable predictor of MOE of standing trees for selection and breeding in Scots pine.

  • 249. Honkalampi-Hämäläinen, U.
    et al.
    Bradley, E.L.
    Castle, L.
    Severin, I.
    Dahbi, L.
    Dahlman, Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lhuguenot, J.-C.
    Andersson, M.A.
    Hakulinen, P.
    Hoornstra, D.
    Mäki-Paakkanen, J.
    Salkinoja-Salonen, M.
    Turco, L.
    Stammati, A.
    Zucco, F.
    Weber, A.
    von Wright, A.
    Safety evaluation of food contact paper and board using chemical tests and in vitro bioassays: Role of known and unknown substances2010In: Food Additives and Contaminants, ISSN 0265-203X, E-ISSN 1464-5122, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 406-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vitro toxicological tests have been proposed as an approach to complement the chemical safety assessment of food contact materials, particularly those with a complex or unknown chemical composition such as paper and board. Among the concerns raised regarding the applicability of in vitro tests are the effects of interference of the extractables on the outcome of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests applied and the role of known compounds present in chemically complex materials, such as paper and board, either as constituents or contaminants. To answer these questions, a series of experiments were performed to assess the role of natural substances (wood extracts, resin acids), some additives (diisopropylnaphthalene, phthalates, acrylamide, fluorescent whitening agents) and contaminants (2,4-diaminotoluene, benzo[a]pyrene) in the toxicological profile of paper and board. These substances were individually tested or used to spike actual paper and board extracts. The toxic concentrations of diisopropylnaphthalenes and phthalates were compared with those actually detected in paper and board extracts showing conspicuous toxicity. According to the results of the spiking experiments, the extracts did not affect the toxicity of tested chemicals nor was there any significant metabolic interference in the cases where two compounds were used in tests involving xenobiotic metabolism by the target cells. While the identified substances apparently have a role in the cytotoxicity of some of the project samples, their presence does not explain the total toxicological profile of the extracts. In conclusion, in vitro toxicological testing can have a role in the safety assessment of chemically complex materials in detecting potentially harmful activities not predictable by chemical analysis alone.

  • 250. Horvath, A.T.
    et al.
    Pelton, R.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, L.
    Effect of cross-linking fiber joints on the tensile and fracture behavior of paper2010In: Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 08885885, Vol. 49, no 14, p. 6422-6431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tensile and fracture properties of cross-linked paper were investigated at low and high relative humidity by cross-linking the joints formed between fibers. Cationic acetal dextran served as a model cross-linking agent, as it can be prepared to adsorb specifically to the fiber surface. Thus, cross-linking occurs only in the joints between fibers. The kinetics of hydrolysis was investigated to optimize the stock preparation, such that the resulting aldehyde groups react as the paper is dried. The effect of the cross-link density on the tensile and fracture properties was studied by varying the amount of acetal groups adsorbed to the pulp fibers. At low humidity, cross-linking improved the tensile and fracture properties of paper, although lower cross-link densities yielded better properties. Cross-linking was not effective at high relative humidty, as the tensile strength and stiffness were not improved. However, the fracture properties were significantly improved.

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  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf