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  • 201. Hii, C
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Rosén, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Quantification of the web structure in relation to process conditions during wet pressing and furnish composition2011In: / [ed] Hirn, U., 2011, , p. 2Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 202. Hii, C.
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø.W.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The effect of microfibrillated cellulose on the pressability of TMP and filler mixtures and on paper properties2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Hill, Jan
    et al.
    QualTech AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Mörseburg, Kathrin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    ATMP pulping of Norway spruce: Pulp property development and energy efficiency2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 70-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ATMP pilot refining trials on Norway spruce were conducted. The ATMP configuration consists of selective wood disintegration and targeted application of chemicals when defibration already is initiated in order to achieve energy-efficient final fibre separation and development. ATMP was compared to TMP and RTS. The TMP like character was maintained despite of differences in pre-treatment, chemicals and primary stage refining energies. The fractional composition of the pulps was, however, altered. Bauer McNett R14 fraction exhibited the largest differences followed by P200 fraction. Thus different process alternatives produced pulps with different fingerprints. The amount of the R14 fibres is important as these tend to cause surface roughness impairing printability. Regardless of strategy, the ATMP pulp properties at equal tensile index (44 Nm/g) were equal or superior to those achieved by TMP or RTS refining. The main difference was the required specific energy input, ranging from 1.71 (TMP) to 1.05 MWh/BDT (ATMP with bisulphite addition). Primary stage refining was explored from multiple trials with the same process configuration and chemistry. The higher the specific energy applied the better is the energy efficiency. Furthermore established refining theories appear inadequate in describing the differences between process alternatives with respect to energy efficiency and pulp property development.

  • 204.
    Holmberg, Pia
    et al.
    Acosense AB, Sweden.
    Bjärestrand, Annika
    RISE, Innventia.
    On-line monitoring of fiber properties: Listening in on the process in real-time2015In: Paper Conference and Trade Show (PaperCon 2015), TAPPI Press, 2015, Vol. 2, p. 859-871Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 205. Holmqvist, C.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    RISE, Innventia.
    Drainage pressure oscillations during roll forming2010In: Paper Conference and Trade Show 2010, 2010, Vol. 3, p. 2354-2389Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a roll-blade former the initial drainage is achieved by wrapping the tensioned fabrics over the roll surface. The dry line is located after the roll, and additional drainage is achieved in the blade section. This situation is referred to as partial roll forming. In order to study the dynamics of partial roll forming, pressure measurements have been made in the roll-blade former of the FEX pilot machine at Innventia in Stockholm. The measurements were performed using a fibre optic pressure measurement system. The results confirm that oscillatory flow behaviour is possible in industrial forming sections. The good agreement between the experimentally determined wavelengths of the oscillations and the theoretical analysis by Holm & Söderberg [1] strongly suggests that the oscillations are of capillary origin, and that they are controlled by a local dimensionless Weber number expressing the local balance between the momentum of the flow and the forces exerted by the fabric tension. Pressure gradients are capable of influencing the fibre web structure, and the gradients associated with the oscillations could hence be of significance to the forming process.

  • 206.
    Holmqvist, Claes
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Rosén, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In-Situ Measurements of Stock Flow Conditions in the Twin-Wire Forming Zone2018In: PaperCon 2018: Shaing the future through innovation, TAPPI , 2018, p. 59-72, article id FF5.1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we report results from in-situ investigations of the forming process performed in the roll-bladesection of a pilot machine. Direct measurements of the drainage pressure along the forming zone were obtained usinga miniature fibre-optic pressure transducer inserted into the flow through the headbox jet. High-speed imaging oftracer particles using a transmitted light setup was performed to in an attempt to obtain direct measurements of thelocal stock speed. By replacing one section of a ceramic blade with a quartz glass piece, access was also obtained tothe region on top of the blade. The combined picture that emerges from these measurements is that the pressuredistribution and the velocity field along a twin-wire forming zone is significantly more complex than usuallyassumed, and that much remains to be understood about the dynamics of twin-wire forming.

  • 207. Honkalampi-Hämäläinen, U.
    et al.
    Bradley, E.L.
    Castle, L.
    Severin, I.
    Dahbi, L.
    Dahlman, Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lhuguenot, J.-C.
    Andersson, M.A.
    Hakulinen, P.
    Hoornstra, D.
    Mäki-Paakkanen, J.
    Salkinoja-Salonen, M.
    Turco, L.
    Stammati, A.
    Zucco, F.
    Weber, A.
    von Wright, A.
    Safety evaluation of food contact paper and board using chemical tests and in vitro bioassays: Role of known and unknown substances2010In: Food Additives and Contaminants, ISSN 0265-203X, E-ISSN 1464-5122, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 406-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vitro toxicological tests have been proposed as an approach to complement the chemical safety assessment of food contact materials, particularly those with a complex or unknown chemical composition such as paper and board. Among the concerns raised regarding the applicability of in vitro tests are the effects of interference of the extractables on the outcome of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests applied and the role of known compounds present in chemically complex materials, such as paper and board, either as constituents or contaminants. To answer these questions, a series of experiments were performed to assess the role of natural substances (wood extracts, resin acids), some additives (diisopropylnaphthalene, phthalates, acrylamide, fluorescent whitening agents) and contaminants (2,4-diaminotoluene, benzo[a]pyrene) in the toxicological profile of paper and board. These substances were individually tested or used to spike actual paper and board extracts. The toxic concentrations of diisopropylnaphthalenes and phthalates were compared with those actually detected in paper and board extracts showing conspicuous toxicity. According to the results of the spiking experiments, the extracts did not affect the toxicity of tested chemicals nor was there any significant metabolic interference in the cases where two compounds were used in tests involving xenobiotic metabolism by the target cells. While the identified substances apparently have a role in the cytotoxicity of some of the project samples, their presence does not explain the total toxicological profile of the extracts. In conclusion, in vitro toxicological testing can have a role in the safety assessment of chemically complex materials in detecting potentially harmful activities not predictable by chemical analysis alone.

  • 208. Horvath, A.T.
    et al.
    Pelton, R.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, L.
    Effect of cross-linking fiber joints on the tensile and fracture behavior of paper2010In: Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 08885885, Vol. 49, no 14, p. 6422-6431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tensile and fracture properties of cross-linked paper were investigated at low and high relative humidity by cross-linking the joints formed between fibers. Cationic acetal dextran served as a model cross-linking agent, as it can be prepared to adsorb specifically to the fiber surface. Thus, cross-linking occurs only in the joints between fibers. The kinetics of hydrolysis was investigated to optimize the stock preparation, such that the resulting aldehyde groups react as the paper is dried. The effect of the cross-link density on the tensile and fracture properties was studied by varying the amount of acetal groups adsorbed to the pulp fibers. At low humidity, cross-linking improved the tensile and fracture properties of paper, although lower cross-link densities yielded better properties. Cross-linking was not effective at high relative humidty, as the tensile strength and stiffness were not improved. However, the fracture properties were significantly improved.

  • 209.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Electrospun lignin-based carbon fibers for energy storage application2018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT , 2018, p. 244-244Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 210.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Åkerström, Mårten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Uhlin, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Danielsson, Sverker
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Melt spun lignin-based carbon fiber from softwood kraft lignin: effect of lignin pretreatment and fiber conversion conditions2018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT , 2018, p. 157-163Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 211. Huang, H.
    et al.
    Hagman, A.
    Nygårds, M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Quasi static analysis of creasing and folding for three paperboards2014In: Mechanics of materials (Print), ISSN 0167-6636, E-ISSN 1872-7743, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 11-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Hyll, Kari
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Size and shape characterization of fines and fillers: A review2015In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 466-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many properties of fines and fillers are dependent on their size and shape. This review is on the literature on size and shape characterization of fines and fillers. It takes into account measurement techniques of particle width, length, equivalent diameter, area, and shape/morphology. The advantages and limitations of different methods are discussed. Measurement of other particles properties, e.g., optical, chemical or rheological, were not included in the review. Size and shape characterization methods can be roughly divided into gravimetric and non-gravimetric methods. Gravimetric measurements methods account for all particles in the sample, but give only indicative size and shape information. Non-gravimetric methods usually give more direct size and shape information, but only account for particles larger than the resolution of the instrument. Additionally, measuring both larger and smaller particles simultaneously is rarely possible. An implication is that current analysers fail to measure a larger share of the sample, for example fibrils, which have a high impact on product properties. Of the reviewed measurement techniques, flow microscopy had the highest potential. Based on instruments found in other application areas, possible developments for flow microscopes include multiwavelength illumination and sensors, fluorescent staining, and hydrodynamic focusing.

  • 213.
    Hyll, Kari
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Flow imaging characterisation of morphological changes of chemical pulp due to refining2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 411-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the refining process on the morphological changes of a chemical softwood pulp was investigated. The Voith LR40 industrial-like laboratory low consistency refiner was used, where the pulp was refined with five refining segments with differences in bar widths, groove widths, and cutting angles. The refined pulp was characterized with a fibre analyser with a spatial resolution of approximately 4 μm/pixel and a wide size range. The fines fraction of the refined pulp was also characterized with an imaging flow cytometer with a spatial resolution of 0.33 μm/pixel and a narrower size range. The fibre analyser measurements showed that the mean length, width, and aspect ratio of the fines decreased monotonically with accumulated refining energy. The imaging flow cytometer with its higher spatial resolution showed little change in fines morphology with accumulated refining energy. The morphology of the fines was more dependent on the applied specific refining energy than the design of the refining segment. However, a segment with much finer grooves and bars, initially designed for hardwood, gave significantly less fibre shortening, fines generation, external fibrillation, kink, and fines that were more fibrillar, compared to the other segments.Grant: The authors of this work would like to thank Prof. Lars Mattsson, Thomas Grahn, and Eva Ålander for fruitful discussions. The discussions with Lorentzen & Wettre were of great assistance. The financial support of the Swedish Energy Agency and the Önnesjöstiftelsen to the PhD project, and of the Fibre and Stock Design research programme to this evaluation study is gratefully acknowledged.

  • 214.
    Hyll, Kari
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. King's College London, UK.
    Farahani, Farnaz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Comparison of optical instruments for fines and filler characterisation2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 97-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laser diffractometer and three image-based instruments with spatial resolutions between 0.33 and 10 µm/pixel were compared through measurements on calibration spheres and fine fractions comprising pulp fines of various types, neat PCC filler, and a mixture of fines and fillers. The laser diffractometer was highly sensitive to the keyed in refractive index of the samples, which was calculated based on volume-based mixing rules. A high-resolution flow cytometer and a high-resolution fibre analyser were found to be complimentary for measurements on neat fines and fines/filler mixtures, and superior to the laser diffractometer. When measuring on fillers, the laser diffractometer performed as well as the high-resolution flow cytometer, which was capable of resolving single filler particles. The sizes of the calibration spheres were overestimated by the image-based instruments, and the measurement uncertainty was high. The uncertainty was mainly attributed to the unrestricted particle motion, and the low accuracy to the dissimilar optical properties of the calibration material, compared to fines. Thus, calibration materials with shape and optical properties more similar to fines should be developed.

  • 215.
    Hyll, Kari
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mattsson, L.
    A method for measurement of the directional emittance of paper in the infrared wavelength range2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 5, p. 958-967Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 216.
    Hyll, Kari
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Analysis of the plastic and elastic energy during the deformation and rupture of a paper sample using thermography2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 2, p. 329-334Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 217. Ibarra, D.
    et al.
    Köpcke, V.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jääskeläinen, A.-S.
    Ek, M.
    Combination of alkaline and enzymatic treatments as a process for upgrading sisal paper-grade pulp to dissolving-grade pulp2010In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, no 19, p. 7416-7423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sequence of treatments consisting of an initial xylanase treatment followed by cold alkaline extraction and a final endoglucanase treatment was investigated as a process for upgrading non-wood paper-grade pulps to dissolving-grade pulps for viscose production. Fivecommercial dried bleached non-wood soda/AQ paper pulps, from flax, hemp, sisal, abaca, and jute, were studied for this purpose. Commercial dried bleached eucalyptus dissolving pulp was used as reference sample. Sisal pulp showed the highest improvement in Fock’s reactivity, reaching levels nearly as high or even higher than that of eucalyptus dissolving pulp (65%), and a low hemicellulose content (3-4%) when was subjected to this sequence of treatments. The viscosity, however, decreased considerably. A uniform and narrow molecular weight distribution was observed by size exclusion chromatography. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Raman microspectroscopy revealed that the cellulose structure consisted of cellulose I.

  • 218.
    Idström, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Gentile, Luigi
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Gubitosi, Marta
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Olsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Stenqvist, Björn
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Lund, Mikael
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Karl Erik
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wernersson, E.
    Tetrabutylammonium acetate as a solvent for cellulose2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 219.
    Idström, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Gentile, Luigi
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gubitosi, Marta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Stenqvist, Björn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lund, Mikael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Karl Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wernersson, E
    Tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide  as a solvent for cellulose2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Idström, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Gentile, Luigi
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gubitosi, Marta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Stenqvist, Björn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lund, Mikael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Karl Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Wernersson, E.
    Tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide  as a solvent for cellulose2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Idström, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Gentile, Luigi
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gubitosi, Marta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Stenqvist, Björn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lund, Mikael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Karl Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Wernersson, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dissolution of cellulose in tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide2016In: The 7th Workshop on cellulose, regenerated cellulose and cellulose derivatives, 2016, p. 15-18, article id 1Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissolution of cellulose in tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAAc)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied combining experimental and simulation techniques. It was found that the dissolution limit at 40 °C corresponded to a molar ratio close to one acetate per cellulose anhydroglucose units. MD simulations suggested that the acetate ions bind to cellulose by dual hydrogen bonds. This effectively turns cellulose into a polyelectrolyte, attracting the bulky tetrabutylammonium (TBA+ ) counter ions, which prevent close contact between chains in the dissolved state. This hypothesis was tested by 1 Hand 13C-NMR spectroscopy, which confirmed that acetate forms hydrogen bonds to cellulose, and by diffusion NMR spectroscopy, which demonstrated a strong dynamic correlation between bound acetate and tetrabutylammonium in near-quantitative agreement with simulation. The present results suggest that offering hydrogen bonding to the acetate ions is the main driving force for dissolving cellulose and that the TBA+ counter ions form a diffuse layer around the acetate-decorated cellulose chains.

  • 222.
    Idström, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Gentile, Luigi
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gubitosi, Marta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Stenqvist, Björn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lund, Mikael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergquist, Karl-Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Bialik, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    On the dissolution of cellulose in tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide: a frustrated solvent2017In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 3645-3657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have found that the dissolution of cellulose in the binary mixed solvent tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide follows a previously overlooked near-stoichiometric relationship such that one dissolved acetate ion is able to dissolve an amount of cellulose corresponding to about one glucose residue. The structure and dynamics of the resulting cellulose solutions were investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques as well as molecular dynamics simulation. This yielded a detailed picture of the dissolution mechanism in which acetate ions form hydrogen bonds to cellulose and causes a diffuse solvation sheath of bulky tetrabutylammonium counterions to form. In turn, this leads to a steric repulsion that helps to keep the cellulose chains apart. Structural similarities to previously investigated cellulose solutions in aqueous tetrabutylammonium hydroxide were revealed by SAXS measurement. To what extent this corresponds to similarities in dissolution mechanism is discussed.

  • 223.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    How accurately can we determine the pulp carbohydrate composition?: comparison of results and reproducibility of different methods for carbohydrate analysis2005In: Chromatography in pulping and papermaking: Cost Action E41 : analytical tools with applications for wood and pulping chemistry, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 224.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    MALDI mass spectrometry as a tool for hemicellulose characterisation2005In: Spectrometric techniques used for the analysis of carbohydrates, lignin and extractives: COST Action E41 : analytical tools with applications for wood and pulping chemistry., 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 225.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lignin and hemicellulose characterization for the biorefinery2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 226.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lignin properties for the biorefinery, and their analytical challenges2015In: NWBC 2015: The 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference, Espoo: VTT , 2015, p. 203-204Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of official standardised methods for lignin has meant that the results from analysis of lignin properties are largely dependent on which method or laboratory that is used. Therefore, relevant and harmonised analytical methods are essential to allow producers of biorefinery products to prepare specifications for their products and to improve the possibilities for systematic development of process and product. The current status of the most important methods for lignin characterisation has been evaluated together with method development or method adaption in order to meet the requirements for high-value lignin products.

  • 227.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Chedid, Fadia
    RISE, Innventia.
    Molecular mass distribution of lignin from black liquor: methods comparison2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 228.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Absolute molar mass of lignins by size exclusion chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy2000In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Characterization of the Molar Masses of Hemicelluloses from Wood and Pulps Employing Size Exclusion Chromatography and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry2001In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 894-905Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Persson, E.
    Simultaneous determination or uronic acid and neutral monosaccharide structural elements in wood and pulp2001In: 11th International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, 2001, Vol. 1, p. 207-210Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 231.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Klockare, Lisa
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Björklund Jansson, Marianne
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Quantification of different fibres in recycled pulp using NIR analysis2006In: Paper recycling technology, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 232.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Distribution of Uronic Acids in Xylans from Various Species of Soft- and Hardwood As Determined by MALDI Mass Spectrometry2001In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 979-990Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 233.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Lundqvist, Jon
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Stålbrand, Henrik
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Tjerneld, Folke
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Characterization of water-soluble hemicelluloses from spruce and aspen employing SEC/MALDI mass spectroscopy2002In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 337, no 8, p. 711-717Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 234.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Palm, Magnus
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Zacchi, Guido
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Isolation and characterization of water-soluble hemicelluloses from flax shive2003In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 338, no 18, p. 1869-1876Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 235. Jamialahmadi, A.
    et al.
    Trost, Thomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A proposed tool to determine dynamic load distribution between corrugated boxes2011In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, no 6, p. 317-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the dynamic analysis of the interaction of corrugated boxes in transport using a pressure-mapping system. The dynamic contact forces on the contact area between boxes in both vertical and horizontal directions were measured, and the position of the instantaneous centre of force was traced, from which the pitch motion of boxes relative to each other was studied. The level-crossing diagrams of the contact forces show a Rayleigh distribution for the vertical contact and a Gaussian distribution for the horizontal contacts. The contact force and acceleration power spectral density from accelerometers and pressure-mapping system were compared. The results show that a pressure-mapping system is an interesting tool for the analysis of the dynamic performance of systems of corrugated boxes under different stacking and loading conditions.

  • 236. Jansson, M.
    et al.
    Danielsson, S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Saadatmand, S.
    Edlund, U.
    Albertsson, A.-C.
    Upgrading of wood pre-hydrolysis liquor for renewable barrier design: A techno-economic consideration2014In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 2045-2062Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 237.
    Jansson, M.B.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, F.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Reimann, A.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ljungquist, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Schweinebarth, H.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Boklund, M.
    Extraction of bioactive chemicals in spruce wood residues2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Jansson, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Berglin, Niklas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olm, Leelo
    RISE, Innventia.
    Second generation ethanol through alkaline fractionation of pine and aspen wood2010In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 44, no 1-3, p. 47-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-treatment studies on pine and aspen wood with alkaline fractionation were performed, the experimental results obtained being used as input for assessing the conversion of an existing pulp mill to ethanol and lignin production. By the LignoBoost process, the extracted lignin could be used in the lime kiln to replace fuel oil, while the lignin not needed in the lime kiln could be sold as a by-product. In addition to fuel applications, lignin could be used in a wide range of bio-based product applications, which would increase the value of the extracted lignin and increase the total revenues. A WinGEMS model was used to calculate mass and energy balances, and the results were used for an economic evaluation of the concept. The assessment indicated that the proposed alkaline concept would have reasonable production costs from both pine and aspen wood, comparable with the bioethanol produced from grain in Northern Europe today, i.e. about 0.45 ε/L ethanol (∌5 SEK/L). The production rate of a typical mill producing 1000 tonnes of pulp per day before conversion would be in the order of 140 000 m 3 of ethanol per year, as depending on the raw wood material. The corresponding lignin production would range from 25 000 to 63 000 tonnes per year. The use of alkaline delignification to produce a substrate with low lignin content for the enzymatic hydrolysis builds entirely on known and well-proven technology, yet it needs to be further developed. The process chain from enzymatic hydrolysis to ethanol is very similar to that used today for grain ethanol. Altogether, the technical risk should therefore be low.

  • 239.
    Jetsu, Petri
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Pöhler, Tiina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Barraud, Vincent
    Soprema, France.
    Seppänen, Rauni
    Holmen, Sweden.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lecourt, Michael
    FCBA, France.
    Wood-based thermal insulation materials2016In: Proceedings of the 14th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp, 2016, Vol. 2, p. 341-345Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A research project has been undertaken with the aim of developing wood-based cellulosic thermal insulation panel material manufactured by foam forming with high performance and to explore the possibilities of creating a new bio-based cellulosic in-situ spray-on thermal insulation foam to replace traditional spray-on plastics insulation foams. Insulation boards were manufactured from 100% softwood and a mixture of softwood and microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). The foaming surfactant used was sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The materials made of softwood and MFC mixtures were made by layering. The thermal conductivity behaviour of the boards was investigated. It has been demonstrated that by using foam forming technology, nanofibrillated cellulose and softwood kraft pulp, it was possible to create high bulk fibre networks with good thermal insulation properties that simultaneously had outstanding high air flow resistivity in relation to the total density of the material. The results obtained were affected by board density. Air flow decreased with board bulk density, due to higher tortuosity of fibrous structure. Air flow resistance increased with layering strategy, with MFC layer enhancing the performance of boards to limit air going across the board.

  • 240.
    Jiao, Fei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Naderi, Ali
    BillerudKorsnäs, Sweden.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Schlueter, Joshua
    University of Kentucky, USA.
    Shahi, Maryam
    University of Kentucky, USA.
    Sundström, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Brill, Joseph
    BillerudKorsnäs, Sweden.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ionic thermoelectric paper2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, p. 16883-16888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic thermoelectric materials, for example, polyelectrolytes such as polystyrene sulfonate sodium (PSSNa),constitute a new class of materials which are attracting interest because of their large Seebeck coefficientand the possibility that they could be used in ionic thermoelectric SCs (ITESCs) and field effect transistors.However, pure polyelectrolyte membranes are not robust or flexible. In this paper, the preparation of ionicthermoelectric paper using a simple, scalable and cost-effective method is described. After a compositewas fabricated with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), the resulting NFC–PSSNa paper is flexible andmechanically robust, which is desirable if it is to be used in roll-to-roll processes. The robust NFC–PSSNa thermoelectric paper combines high ionic conductivity (9 mS cm1), high ionic Seebeckcoefficient (8.4 mV K1) and low thermal conductivity (0.75 W m1 K1) at 100% relative humidity,resulting in overall figure-of-merit of 0.025 at room temperature which is slightly better than that for thePSSNa alone. Fabricating a composite with cellulose enables flexibility and robustness and this is anadvance which will enable future scaling up the manufacturing of ITESCs, but also enables its use fornew applications for conformable thermoelectric devices and flexible electronics.

  • 241. Joffre, T.
    et al.
    Miettinen, A.
    Berthold, F.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gamstedt, E.K.
    X-ray micro-computed tomography investigation of fibre length degradation during the processing steps of short-fibre composites2014In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 105, p. 127-133Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Johansson, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hill, J.
    Gorski, D.
    Axelsson, P.
    Improvement of energy efficiency in TMP refining by selective wood disintegration and targeted application of chemicals2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, p. 31-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 243. Johnson, J.
    et al.
    Andersson, C.
    Lestelius, M.
    Järnström, L.
    Rättö, P.
    Blohm, Erik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Some properties of flexographic printing plates and aspects of print quality2009In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 371-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects on print quality when the properties of the flexographic printing plate were changed in a systematic and controlled way. An attempt was made to identify plate parameters that govern good print quality. Coated paperboard was printed in a laboratory printing press using different plates, and print density and dot gain were determined. Essential parameters including mechanical, chemical, and morphological properties of the plate that led to good print quality were identified. The properties of the plates were characterised by means of profilometry, ESCA, contact angle measurements, durometer, and image analysis. The methods used to create printing plates with controlled material properties gave useful information about the ageing and wear of printing plates. The results showed that it was possible to systematically control the properties of the plate by changing the pre-press conditions. Application pressures and dot area influenced print quality. Small-scale roughness and long-scale roughness of the plate governed good print quality with respect to print density and dot gain It appeared that these printing plate properties affect the amount of ink transferred.

  • 244. Johnson, J.
    et al.
    Lestelius, M.
    Blohm, Erik
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Räättö, Peter
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Järnström, L.
    The interaction between water and liner and newsprint in flexographic CI-printing press2008In: Proceedings of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts: TAGA, 2008, p. 267-284Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printing with water-borne ink in a multicolor printing press subjects the substrate to water, because the water-borne ink contains water. The water in the ink can influence the surface properties, e.g. the roughness and compressibility, and can lead to dimensional changes. On the other hand, water derived from the ink can enhance or reduce some aspects of the final print quality depending on the properties of the substrate. In the present study, the manner in which the print quality of unsized paper substrates was influenced by pre-treatment with water and surfactant solution in flexographic printing was investigated. The experiment was designed to imitate the effects of multicolor printing using water-borne ink, since the water derived from the ink in an early printing unit influences the mechanical, dimensional and wettability properties of the paper and can thus influence the print quality in a later printing unit. This paper complements a previous paper, which showed a reduction of print mottle on a white top liner (with a low water absorptivity and wettability) when water and surfactant solution were applied just before the ink. The substrates investigated in the present paper were standard newsprint and a white top testliner, with high water absorptivity and wettability. The printing trials were performed in a central impression flexographic printing press using two of the six printing units. The first unit was used to apply water and a mixture of water and a surfactant and a second unit was used to transfer water-borne ink. The effects of water and surfactant pre-treatment were evaluated by measuring the print quality and the substrate properties. The pre-treatment by water and surfactant solution showed no effect on print mottle in the case of newsprint or testliner.

  • 245.
    Jour, Pia
    et al.
    AkzoNobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Gutke, Katarina
    Akzo Nobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals, Sweden.
    ECF bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp: simulation of a mill with a high degree of closure2017In: International pulp bleaching conference / [ed] Colodette J L, Gomes F J B, Suprema Grafica e Editora , 2017, p. 106-110Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of non-process elements (NPEs) in wood significantly affects the level of metals in the pulp in the bleach plant and contributes to the risk of forming precipitates. The possible degree of closure is often limited by calcium oxalate formation, mainly around the D0-stage, which can be prevented by increasing the temperature and/or decreasing the pH in this stage. This paper presents the effect of a decreased pH in the D0-stage when bleaching a eucalyptus kraft pulp as well as the influence it has on environmental parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX). The increased AOX measured when applying a low pH in the D0-stage was shown to be easily decomposed under process conditions. To be able to predict the effect on both the recovery cycle and the bleach plant itself as a consequence of increased closure of the bleach plant, a full mill simulation model (WinGEMS) was used based on a theoretical mill using the best available technology (BAT) in combination with data produced in laboratory trials. The model pulp mill was exclusively equipped with wash presses. According to the simulations, the effluent volume could be significantly decreased from 20.7 t/air dry tonne (ADt) pulp to 8.7 t/ADt in a D(EOP)DP sequence. Using a wood raw material with a calcium content of 520 mg/kg dry solids, no formation of calcium oxalate was predicted. However, for a wood raw material with a higher content, 800 mg/kg, calcium oxalate formation was likely to occur. By decreasing the final pH in the D0-stage from 3.0 to 2.5, formation of calcium oxalate could be avoided. At the effluent volume of 8.7 t/ADt, no fresh water was used in the bleach plant except for the water used for dilution of chemicals.

  • 246.
    Jour, Pia
    et al.
    Akzo Nobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Gutke, Katarina
    Akzo Nobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals, Sweden.
    Wallinder, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Decreased water usage in a softwood ECF bleaching sequence: full mill simulations2017In: TAPPI PEERS, November 5-8, 2017, Norfolk, Virginia, USA, TAPPI Press, 2017, p. 1681-1688Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 247.
    Jour, Pia
    et al.
    Akzo Nobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Gutke, Katarina
    Akzo Nobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals, Sweden.
    Walllinder, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Decreased water usage in a softwood ECF bleaching sequence: full mill simulations2018In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 353-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleach plant with a D0(EOP)D1(EP)D2 sequence was studied with the aim of identifying options for significantly decreasing (fresh) water usage in the bleach plant and decreasing the effluent volume. A base-case simulation model for a softwood kraft market pulp mill was made based on a reference model representing the best available techniques as well as data produced in an extensive  laboratory pulp bleaching study. This model was used to evaluate increased closure within the bleach plant and the recirculation of bleach plant effluent to the brownstock system and their effects on both the bleach plant and the recovery cycle. The results indicate that it is possible to reduce the fresh water consumption from 15 metric tons/a.d. metric ton in the base case to about 2 metric tons/a.d. metric ton, without increasing the carryover of chemical  oxygen demand (COD) to the pulp machine. Nonprocess elements in wood contribute to the levels of metals found in the bleach plant and thus to the risk of  precipitates such as calcium oxalate, barium sulfate, and calcium carbonate. The risk of precipitates forming is a key factor determining the possible degree of closure. In addition, chloride concentration in the black liquor is another important factor that is affected by recirculating bleach plant filtrate to the brownstock washer and by the grade of the sodium hydroxide used in the mill.

  • 248.
    Järnström, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad university, Sweden.
    Javed, Asif
    Karlstad university, Sweden.
    Ulllsten, Henrik
    Karlstad university, Sweden.
    Rättö, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Lignin-containing coatings for packaging materials2017In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2017, p. 263-270Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 249.
    Kaldeus, Tahani
    et al.
    Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Boujemaoui, Assya
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    One-pot preparation of bi-functional cellulose nanofibrils2018In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we present a route to obtain bi-functional cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) by a one-pot approach using an already established functionalisation route, carboxymethylation, to which a subsequent functionalisation step, allylation or alkynation, has been added in the same reaction pot, eliminating the need of solvent exchange procedures. The total charge of the fibres and the total surface charge of the nanofibrils were determined by conductometric and polyelectrolyte titration, respectively. Furthermore, the allyl and alkyne functionalised cellulose were reacted with methyl 3-mercaptopropionate and azide-functionalised disperse red, respectively, to estimate the degree of functionalisation. The samples were further assessed by XPS and FT-IR. Physical characteristics were evaluated by CP/MAS 13C-NMR, XRD, AFM and DLS. This new approach of obtaining bi-functionalised CNF allows for a facile and rapid functionalisation of CNF where chemical handles can easily be attached and used for further modification of the fibrils. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  • 250.
    Kalogiannis, Konstantinos G.
    et al.
    Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Greece.
    Stefanidis, Stylianos D.
    Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Greece; University of Western Macedonia, Greece.
    Michailof, Chrysoula M.
    Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Greece.
    Lappas, Angelos A.
    Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Greece.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Pyrolysis of lignin with 2DGC quantification of lignin oil: Effect of lignin type, process temperature and ZSM-5 in situ upgrading2015In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 115, p. 410-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of various types of lignin and their influence on the yield and the quality of the produced lignin oil were studied. Lignins originated from a mixture of pine and spruce wood (softwood), a mixture of birch and aspen wood (hardwood) and Eucalyptus Urograndis. High degree of deoxygenation of the bio-oil and maximum yield of value-added chemicals were the main targets of this work. 2DGC-ToFMS analysis was used for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of the lignin oils. Softwood lignin was found to be the most attractive feedstock and high yields of a mixture of phenolic compounds were detected in all cases. High char production was also evident for all types of lignins accounting for almost 50% of the original feedstock. The use of a commercial ZSM-5 catalyst was extremely beneficial for the process, enhancing deoxygenation at higher oil yields compared to thermal pyrolysis. Depending on the nature of the lignin, guaiacyl or syringyl groups were dominant in the oils and it was found that process optimization, involving lignin, catalyst selection and temperature could significantly improve the process efficiency.

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