Change search
Refine search result
2345 201 - 244 of 244
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 201.
    Röding, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Functional regression-based fluid permeability prediction in monodisperse sphere packings from isotropic two-point correlation functions2017In: Computational materials science, ISSN 0927-0256, E-ISSN 1879-0801, Vol. 134, p. 126-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study fluid permeability in random sphere packings consisting of impermeable monodisperse hard spheres. Several different pseudo-potential models are used to obtain varying degrees of microstructural heterogeneity. Systematically varying solid volume fraction and degree of heterogeneity, virtual screening of more than 10,000 material structures is performed, simulating fluid flow using a lattice Boltzmann framework and computing the permeability. We develop a well-performing functional regression model for permeability prediction based on using isotropic two-point correlation functions as microstructural descriptors. The performance is good over a large range of solid volume fractions and degrees of heterogeneity, and to our knowledge this is the first attempt at using two-point correlation functions as functional predictors in a nonparametric statistics/machine learning context for permeability prediction.

  • 202.
    Röös, Elin
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Mie, Axel
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wivstad, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Johansson, Birgitta E.O.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wallenbeck, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hoffmann, Ruben
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulf
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Watson, Christine A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Scotland’s Rural College, UK.
    Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review2018In: Agronomy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 1774-0746, E-ISSN 1773-0155, Vol. 38, no 2, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects. Here, we review risks and opportunities related to a broad range of sustainability domains associated with increasing yields in organic agriculture in the Northern European context. We identify increased N input, weed, disease and pest control, improved livestock feeding, breeding for higher yields and reduced losses as the main measures for yield increases. We review the implications of their implementation for biodiversity, greenhouse gas emissions, nutrient losses, soil fertility, animal health and welfare, human nutrition and health and farm profitability. Our findings from this first-of-its-kind integrated analysis reveal which strategies for increasing yields are unlikely to produce negative side-effects and therefore should be a high priority, and which strategies need to be implemented with great attention to trade-offs. For example, increased N inputs in cropping carry many risks and few opportunities, whereas there are many risk-free opportunities for improved pest control through the management of ecosystem services. For most yield increasing strategies, both risks and opportunities arise, and the actual effect depends on management including active mitigation of side-effects. Our review shows that, to be a driving force for increased food system sustainability, organic agriculture may need to reconsider certain fundamental principles. Novel plant nutrient sources, including increased nutrient recycling in society, and in some cases mineral nitrogen fertilisers from renewable sources, and truly alternative animal production systems may need to be developed and accepted.

  • 203.
    Sala, Serenella
    et al.
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Assumpcio, Anton
    IRTA Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology, Spain.
    McLaren, Sarah J.
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Notarnicola, Bruno
    University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Saouter, Erwan
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    In quest of reducing the environmental impacts of food production and consumption2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, p. 387-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food supply chains are increasingly associated with environmental and socio-economic impacts. An increasing global population, an evolution in consumers’ needs, and changes in consumption models pose serious challenges to the overall sustainability of food production and consumption. Life cycle thinking (LCT) and assessment (LCA) are key elements in identifying more sustainable solutions for global food challenges. In defining solutions to major global challenges, it is fundamentally important to avoid burden shifting amongst supply chain stages and amongst typologies of impacts, and LCA should, therefore, be regarded as a reference method for the assessment of agri-food supply chains. Hence, this special volume has been prepared to present the role of life cycle thinking and life cycle assessment in: i) the identification of hotspots of impacts along food supply chains with a focus on major global challenges; ii) food supply chain optimisation (e.g. productivity increase, food loss reduction, etc.) that delivers sustainable solutions; and iii) assessment of future scenarios arising from both technological improvements and behavioural changes, and under different environmental conditions (e.g. climate change). This special volume consists of a collection of papers from a conference organized within the last Universal Exposition (EXPO2015) “LCA for Feeding the planet and energy for life” in Milan (Italy) in 2015 as well as other contributions that were submitted in the year after the conference that addressed the same key challenges presented at the conference. The papers in the special volume address some of the key challenges for optimizing food-related supply chains by using LCA as a reference method for environmental impact assessment. Beyond specific methodological improvements to better tailor LCA studies to food systems, there is a clear need for the LCA community to “think outside the box”, exploring complementarity with other methods and domains. The concepts and the case studies presented in this special volume demonstrate how cross-fertilization among difference science domains (such as environmental, technological, social and economic ones) may be key elements of a sustainable “today and tomorrow” for feeding the planet.

  • 204.
    Salomon, Eva
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Spörndly, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Markstabiliserande material för att hindra trampskador på hårt belastade betesytor2017In: Vallkonferens 2017. Konferensrapport. 7–8 feb, Uppsala. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Institutionen för växtproduktionsekologi. Rapport 22. / [ed] Nilsdotter-Linde, N. & Bernes, G. (reds.)., Uppsala: Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Institutionen för växtproduktionsekologi , 2017, p. 52-55Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En utvärdering av olika markstabiliserande material visade att den armerade mattan knappt påverkades alls av kotrafik under fyra betessäsonger och tre vintrar däremellan. Om mattan håller isju år blir den lika prisvärd som bark eller krossad sten. Barkbädden höll under rådande förhållanden inte mer än två år, men kan vara ett prisvärt material om man har egen tillgång på bark och lägger på ny bark då bädden uppvisar tendens att kollapsa. Det kan innebära att man får lägga på bark mer än en gång under varje betessäsong. Det krossade stenmaterialet hade efter två betessäsonger liknande antal gropar (framräknat med ett s.k. gropindex) som försöksleden med matta samt det där inga åtgärder vidtogs (kontrollen). Att inte göra någon åtgärd alls har fungerat vid rotationsbete där vegetationen haft möjlighet att återetablera sig. Samtidigt var det tydligt att en yta blev trampskadad då korna passerade den under en regnig period i augusti.

  • 205.
    Samborska, Kinga
    et al.
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Marzec, Agata
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Kowalska, Jolanta
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Piotrowski, Dariusz
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Lenart, Andrzej
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Kowalska, Hanna
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    The effect of adding berry fruit juice concentrates and by-product extract to sugar solution on osmotic dehydration and sensory properties of apples2019In: Journal of food science and technology, ISSN 0022-1155, E-ISSN 0975-8402, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 1927-1938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Osmotic dehydration (OD) of apples caused a reduction of normalized water content (NWC) and an increase of normalized solids gain (NSG), independently of the kind of osmotic solution. The use of 22°Brix osmotic solutions with the addition of fruit concentrates or bilberry extract resulted in only slight reduction in the NWC in the samples, i.e. by about 15 and 20%, respectively after 6 and 24 h, against a value up to 80% in case of 65°Brix use. Similarly, larger NSG was achieved at higher solution concentrations, but the differences were smaller. In the case of the use of 80% bilberry press cake extract the NSG was very low but NWC was relatively high. Such a low concentration of slightly concentrated fruit juices is not effective for dehydration of apples, but it may be sufficient to enrich the fruit with the desired colorants. This higher concentration of osmotic solution and a larger addition, especially of the concentrate of chokeberry juice, significantly affected the color changes of dehydrated apples. The apple dehydrated in mixture of 65°Brix sucrose and 15% chokeberry juice concentrate solution exhibited the highest sensory parameters. The addition of berry fruit juices and extract was able to improve the apple sensory quality after 24 h OD in comparison with sucrose solution. Ethanol extract was a good osmotic agent, but not accepted due to taste and overall quality. However, the addition of the extract can be successfully used in conjunction with a sugar solution. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 206.
    Schuster, Erich
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wallin, P.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Klose, F. P.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gold, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ström, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Correlating network structure with functional properties of capillary alginate gels for muscle fiber formation2017In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 72, p. 210-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capillary alginate gels have the potential to be used as scaffold for the growth of muscle cells for cultured meat owing to the formation of aligned skeletal muscle cells along the length of self-assembled micro-capillaries within the calcium alginate gel. The functional properties (mechanical and permeability) of the gels were determined and correlated to the nano-lengthscale of the gel network using small-angle X-ray scattering. Calcium ions were let to diffuse into the alginate solution in order to obtain spontaneously formed capillaries. We show that the resulting calcium alginate network is isotropic in the plane perpendicular to the inflow of cross linking ions while anisotropic in the parallel plane. The structural anisotropicity is reflected in the mechanical properties (measured via uniaxial stress relaxation) of the gel, where a larger force is required to compress the gel in the isotropic plane than in the anisotropic plane. The findings suggest that the network is layered, or composed of “sheets” with denser regions of alginate, sheets that are weakly attached to each other, similar to the structure of bacterial cellulose. Such structure would further explain the increased permeability of labeled dextran (as determined using fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching) that we observed in the alginate gels used in this study, as compared to internally set calcium alginate gel.

  • 207.
    Shen, Zhiqiang
    et al.
    University of Connecticut, USA.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. University College London, Australia.
    Kröger, Martin
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Li, Ying
    University of Connecticut, USA .
    Carbon nanotube length governs the viscoelasticity and permeability of buckypaper2017In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 115Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Skjöldebrand, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Computerized process control in industrial cooking operations1996In: Computerized Control Systems in the Food Industry, CRC Press , 1996, p. 473-489Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We are visiting a small town somewhere in Europe [1, 2]. Both households and small companies are located in the town. One of the small companies is called “Local food.” It produces fresh bread and bread-based convenience foods. About 400 different items are produced. Most of the products are distributed to nearby households. The products are filled French rolls, crepes, pies, quiche Lorraine, and pizza. New products occasionally are developed. Customers can buy food via TV in their homes. The products are delivered immediately after preparation, within 1 to 2 hours. If a customer has special wishes concerning the filling, quality, and the size of the product, the customer can specify this via the TV screen. The order goes directly into the production computer that controls the processes. The raw materials are based on frozen dough and different fillings such as prawns, minced meat, shellfish, rice, cod, clams, champignons, other mushrooms, vegetables, chicken, meat, and boiled egg. 

  • 209.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Krewer, Christoffer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Scholten, Jesper
    Blonk Consultants, The Netherlands.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Seafood Life Cycle Inventory database : Methodology and Principles and Data Quality Guidelines2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing awareness about the important role of food, in particular animal-based foods including seafood, for global environmental impacts has led to a need of producers as well as retailers to communicate environmental impacts of raw materials and products through the food chain. This is demonstrated by new requirements to document the environmental footprints of products, e.g. by certification schemes and policies. The EU policy for sustainable development with its "single market for green products" is one example, aiming for documenting the environmental footprint of products on the EU market according to the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) method. The goal is to enable consumers, retailers, producer, regulators and policy makers to make conscious choices and establish drivers for reducing environmental impacts throughout product supply chains.

    To be able to live up to these new requirements, representative data of high quality is needed, something which has largely been missing for seafood products. To make high-quality, representative data on the resource use and environmental impacts caused by seafood products (including biomass used directly or indirectly for feed) available, the Norwegian seafood industry initiated a pilot project. The project defined a recommended method and structure for data collection and used this method to collect available data for a number of pilot cases. The method for data collection is presented in this document and can, together with the pilot data sets made available through the project, be used by the industry as a basis for a broader data collection to create an expanded seafood LCI database.

  • 210.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Flysjö, Anna
    Arla Foods amba, Denmark.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Witthöft, Cornelia
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Protein quality as functional unit – A methodological framework for inclusion in life cycle assessment of food2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 2, p. 470-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to develop more sustainable food systems, there is a need to find methods that simultaneously consider environmental impacts and nutritional benefits. The purpose of this study was to develop a functional unit to be used in LCA of foods that builds on the nutritional value of food products. We used the content and quality of proteins as a basis, and included dietary context as part of our method, since the nutritional value of a nutrient depends on the total dietary intake. Our method uses the digestible intake of the nine essential amino acids in the product and relates these values to the equivalent total dietary intake of the same amino acids. We also employed simpler functional units such as “gram (g) protein” and “g digestible protein.” We quantified the functional units for three dietary contexts and applied it on LCA results for bread, chicken fillet, minced pork, minced beef, milk and pea soup. The results showed that the relative differences between products changed when using a protein-based functional unit, with the largest change occurring when going from mass as the functional unit to g protein. By introducing protein digestibility, the systematic under-valuation of the animal products was partly avoided with little additional effort. The most advanced functional unit affected the results compared to the mass-based functional unit most, but required significantly more data. The impact of dietary context was smaller than expected; hence, it might be possible to simplify the inclusion of dietary context by using aggregated descriptions of diets. The method presented is valuable for adding an important aspect of nutrition (protein quality and content) to the LCA results of single products, but there is a large scope for development.

  • 211.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Dietary-dependent nutrient quality indexes as a complementary functional unit in LCA: A feasible option?2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 211, p. 620-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although food production is a main driver of environmental pressure and resource use globally, food delivers critical nutrition to humans. In life cycle assessment (LCA) of foods, the dominant functional unit is mass, despite the ISO requirement that the LCA unit should reflect the actual function. Studies have used various dietary quality scores in environmental assessments of foods, but the consideration of the dietary context is largely missing. The main function, i.e., nutrient supply, is complex since the nutritional value of a food item depends on its dietary context. Moreover, overall nutritional value is a combination of multiple nutrients. The aim was to combine scientific knowledge from the fields of nutrition and LCA to generate a basis for further research. The long-term aim was to help develop methods to support sustainability-based planning and decision making by food chain stakeholders. The proposed functional unit expresses the nutrient content of individual foods in relation to the nutritional supply of the complete diet, to create a single score reflecting the nutrient quality in a given dietary context. The nutrient quality index developed was evaluated by analyzing how relationships in global warming potential (GWP) between single products differed when using as functional unit either the mass of the food product, a nutrient quality index not considering the dietary context (the Nutrient Rich Foods Index 9.3, NRF9.3) and the new dietary dependent nutrient quality index (NQI) proposed. Two dietary scenarios were explored, an average Swedish diet and a typical unhealthy diet. The products considered were: bread, apples, tomatoes, milk, hard cheese, spread and chicken fillets. The results, calculated using bread as the reference, indicated that in both dietary contexts apples, tomatoes, and hard cheese had lower NQIadjusted GWPs compared to when GWPs were calculated using mass as the functional unit. Milk's NQI-adjusted and mass-calculated GWPs differed little, while the chicken fillet GWPs were the same in the unhealthy diet and performed better in the average diet. The NRF9.3-adjusted GWPs differed from the NQI-adjusted ones for all analysed foods. The main conclusions were: 1) considering nutritional value in the LCA of foods improves our understanding of how the environmental impacts and nutritional functions of food are related; 2) the environmental performance of different products varies with dietary context; and 3) application of the NQI could help industry, authorities, and consumers improve products and diets.

  • 212.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Underlag till Färdplan för en väsentligt mer hållbar livsmedelskedja2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att skapa ett underlag för mer operativa, eller konkreta, hållbarhetsmål för aktörerna i livsmedelskedjan. Dessa mål ska i möjligaste mån vara kopplade till kvantifieringar av en hållbar nivå för resursförbrukning och miljöpåverkan globalt.

    Rapporten beskriver en process som startar med att identifiera de relevanta hållbarhetsaspekterna för livsmedelsystemet och baserat på litteratur kvantifiera dessa på global nivå, nedbrutet till en globalt hållbar nivå per capita. Som ett komplement till det globala användes också nationella källor för de miljömål som är av mer regional karaktär. Livsmedelssektorns hållbarhetsprestanda är en kombination av konsumtionsmönster och hur effektiva och hållbara produktionssystemen är. Då rapporten syftade till att ge underlag för konkreta mål för alla aktörer i systemet skapades två typer av mål, en typ som berör konsumtionsmönster och en typ som berör produktionskedjornas hållbarhetsprestanda. För att de totala hållbarhetsmålen ska nås måste både konsumtionen och produktionen förändras, och med hjälp av dessa två mål kan båda aspekterna hanteras i samma ramverk. Om produktionssystemen inte förbättrar sin hållbarhetsprestanda krävs större förändringar i konsumtionen och vice versa.

    De mål som sätts för försäljning/tillhandahållning till konsument i rapporten är avsedda att användas av aktörer som säljer eller på annat sätt har möjlighet att påverka konsumtionsmönster, som exempelvis handel, food service och den offentliga måltidssektorn. Dessa mål ger en bild av faktisk slutkonsumtion. De mål som sätts för produktionen, alltså produktionens värdekedjor, är avsedda att användas av aktörer som producerar livsmedel, alltså lantbruk och livsmedelsindustri.

    Det var inte möjligt att sätta kvantitativa mål för alla relevanta hållbarhetsaspekter, för vissa aspekter finns inga vetenskapliga uppskattningar av den hållbara nivån för påverkan. Brist på metodik och data är ett annat allvarligt hinder för att sätta operativa mål. I rapporten har dessa kunskapsluckor identifierats och alternativa mål har föreslagits för att alla aspekter ska kunna hanteras konkret. Med alternativa mål menas mål som kan bygga på indirekta mått på hållbarhet som exempelvis energibesparingsmål istället för ett mål om hur stor den totala energianvändningen kan vara, då detta inte finns kvantifierat.

  • 213.
    Sriviriyakul, Thana
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Bogren, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Schaller, Vincent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Blomgren, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Ahrentorp, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Grüttner, Cordula
    micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Germany.
    Zeng, Lunjie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Nanorheological studies of xanthan/water solutions using magnetic nanoparticles2019In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, E-ISSN 1873-4766, Vol. 473, p. 268-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show results of nanorheological studies of different concentrations of xanthan (non-Newtonian fluid) in water using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) together with the AC susceptibility (ACS) vs frequency method. For comparison we also show the ACS response for different concentrations of glycerol in water (Newtonian fluid). The ACS response is measured, and the data is modelled using dynamic magnetic models and different viscoelastic models. We study the ACS response (in-phase and out-of-phase ACS components) at different concentrations of xanthan in water (up to 1 wt% xanthan) and with a constant concentration of MNPs. We use MNP systems that show Brownian relaxation (sensitive to changes in the environmental properties around the MNPs). ACS measurements are performed using the DynoMag system. The Brownian relaxation of the MNP system peak is shifting down in frequency and the ACS response is broadening and decreases due to changes in the viscoelastic properties around the MNPs in the xanthan solution. The viscosity and the storage moduli are determined at each excitation frequency and compared with traditional macroscopic small amplitude oscillatory shear rheological measurements. The results from the traditional rheological and nanorheological measurements correlate well at higher xanthan concentration.

  • 214.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Waqas, Mohamad Qazi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Holmberg, F
    Animato Konstruktions AB, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kotze, Richard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ekberg, O.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    A Device that Models Human Swallowing2019In: Dysphagia (New York. Print), ISSN 0179-051X, E-ISSN 1432-0460, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 615-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pharynx is critical for correct swallowing, facilitating the transport of both air and food transport in a highly coordinated manner, and aberrant co-ordination causes swallowing disorders (dysphagia). In this work, an in vitro model of swallowing was designed to investigate the role of rheology in swallowing and for use as a pre-clinical tool for simulation of different routes to dysphagia. The model is based on the geometry of the human pharynx. Manometry is used for pressure measurements and ultrasonic analysis is performed to analyze the flow profiles and determine shear rate in the bolus, the latter being vital information largely missing in literature. In the fully automated model, bolus injection, epiglottis/nasopharynx movement, and ultrasound transducer positioning can be controlled. Simulation of closing of the airways and nasal cavity is modulated by the software, as is a clamping valve that simulates the upper esophageal sphincter. The actions can be timed and valves opened to different degrees, resembling pathologic swallowing conditions. To validate measurements of the velocity profile and manometry, continuous and bolus flow was performed. The respective velocity profiles demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the flow characterization necessary for determining bolus flow. A maximum bolus shear rate of 80 s−1 was noted for syrup-consistency fluids. Similarly, the manometry data acquired compared very well with clinical studies.

  • 215.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Hjorth, Therese
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Huseinovic, Ena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Climate impact from diet in relation to background and sociodemographic characteristics in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme2019In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:The objective of this study was to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics in a population-based cohort in northern Sweden.Design:A cross-sectional study within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Dietary data from a 64-item food frequency questionnaire collected during 1996-2016 were used. Energy-adjusted greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) for all participants, expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents/day and 4184 kJ (1000 kcal), were estimated using data from life cycle analyses. Differences in background and sociodemographic characteristics were examined between participants with low and high GHGE from diet, respectively. The variables evaluated were age, BMI, physical activity, marital status, level of education, smoking, and residence.Setting:Västerbotten county in northern Sweden.Participants:In total, 46 893 women and 45 766 men aged 29-65 years.Results:Differences in GHGE from diet were found across the majority of examined variables. The strongest associations were found between GHGE from diet and age, BMI, education, and residence (all P < 0·001), with the highest GHGE from diet found among women and men who were younger, had a higher BMI, higher educational level, and lived in urban areas.Conclusions:This study is one of the first to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics. The results show that climate impact from diet is associated with age, BMI, residence and educational level amongst men and women in Västerbotten, Sweden. These results define potential target populations where public health interventions addressing a move towards more climate-friendly food choices and reduced climate impact from diet could be most effective. 

  • 216.
    Svanberg, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Malmberg, Kajsa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gustinelli, Graziele
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Persson, Ingela
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Brive, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Wassén, Sophia
    Effect of anthocyanins on lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage in value-added emulsions with bilberry seed oil, anthocyanins and cold set whey protein hydrogels2019In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 272, p. 273-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work was to explore the storage properties of a structured oil-in-water emulsion containing both water- and fat-soluble bioactive compounds from bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). Bilberry seed oil (BSO) was dispersed in a continuous aqueous phase of anthocyanins (AC) and whey protein isolate. The microstructure was evaluated using light microscopy and the effect of anthocyanins on lipid oxidation and microbial growth was investigated. The results showed that it was possible to generate a stable emulsion structure that resisted phase separation during 25 weeks of storage. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry measurements of the fatty acids in the BSO during storage showed that AC had a protective effect against lipid oxidation. The AC did not have an antimicrobial effect against the investigated strains Zygosaccharomyces bailii (ATCC 42476) and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 6275 (M68)).

  • 217.
    Svanberg, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wassén, Sophia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gustinelli, Graziele
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Design of microcapsules with bilberry seed oil, cold-set whey protein hydrogels and anthocyanins: Effect of pH and formulation on structure formation kinetics and resulting microstructure during purification processing and storage2019In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 280, p. 146-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Encapsulation of polar and non-polar bioactive compounds from bilberries was achieved by designing microcapsules with bilberry seed oil (BSO) distributed in an aqueous phase of anthocyanins (AC) stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI). Non-thermal emulsification method (o/w/o) was developed and the effect of pH (3 or 4.5), concentration of WPI (8.4–10.8% w/w), addition of AC (72–216 ppm) and emulsifier on the structure-forming kinetics, resulting microstructure during storage and after centrifugation and washing was investigated. Agglomeration of BSO was observed in all microcapsules at pH 4.5 due to slow gelling process and in samples at pH 3 at low concentrations of WPI (≤8.4%). Capsules with pH 3 (9.6–10.8% WPI) had weak structures but as the gelling process was faster, it generated an even distribution of BSO droplets. All samples at pH 4.5 and samples with WPI concentration ≥10.8% at pH 3 exhibited intact structures after centrifugation and washing.

  • 218.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    et al.
    SIME Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Historic changes in length distributions of three Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Evidence of growth retardation2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 16, p. 6089-6102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how combinations of fishing effort and selectivity affect productivity is central to fisheries research. We investigate the roles of fishing regulation in comparison with ecosystem status for Baltic Sea cod stock productivity, growth performance, and population stability. This case study is interesting because three cod populations with different exploitation patterns and stock status are located in three adjacent but partially, ecologically different areas. In assessing stock status, growth, and productivity, we use survey information and rather basic stock parameters without relying on age readings. Because there is an urgent interest of better understanding of the current development of the Eastern Baltic cod stock, we argue that our approach represents partly a novel way of interpreting monitoring information together with catch data in a simplified yet more informative way. Our study reports how the Eastern and Western Baltic cod have gone toward more truncated size structures between 1991 and 2016, in particular for the Eastern Baltic cod, whereas the Öresund cod show no trend. We suggest that selective fishing may disrupt fish population dynamic stability and that lower natural productivity might amplify the effects of selective fishing. In support of earlier findings on a density-dependent growth of Eastern Baltic cod, management is advised to acknowledge that sustainable exploitation levels for Eastern Baltic cod are much more limited than perceived in regular assessments. Of more general importance, our results emphasize the need to embrace a more realistic view on what ecosystems can produce regarding tractable fish biomass to facilitate a more ecosystem-based fisheries management.

  • 219.
    Tamm, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nytt innovativt koncept för småskalig produktion och distribution av flytande biogas2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The biogas market is facing changes, with gas driven vehicles gradually shifting to electrical drivelines, while new markets are emerging in the areas of industry, heavy road transports and shipping. Those new markets may require huge amounts of biomethane in both compressed and liquid form in the future. Liquid biomethane, even called LBM, bio-LNG or LBG (Liquefied BioGas), can directly replace today's LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) applications.

    Today's facilities for the production of LBG use large-scale conventional technology for the liquefaction, with a capacity of over 10 tpd and high capital costs. A significant part of the high costs is due to the requirement of an extra polishing step after biogas upgrading to remove residual carbon dioxide prior to liquefaction. A new technique using an absorption bed of wood ashes seems to be promising for the polishing of smaller volumes and thus enabling small-scale LBG production (Isaksson, et al., 2018). The technology is called ash filter and is developed at RISE in collaboration with SLU. In a previous study (Isaksson, et al., 2018), small systems with 1−2 GWh/a where ash filters are used for upgrading and polishing, as well as large systems of 30 GWh/a where ash filters are used for polishing only have been evaluated.

    The present study focuses on producing LBG from a partial flow of upgraded biogas on larger Swedish biogas plants, where the starting point is that the plant's full capacity cannot be utilized for the production of compressed gas alone. It is thus assumed that there is unused capacity for the production of upgraded biogas that can be further processed to LBG. Processing is done using an ash filter and subsequent drying of the gas, and then liquefying the gas in StirLNG-4 machines. Systems with a liquefaction capacity of 5, 15 and 25 GWh/a, respectively, have been reviewed. The production cost for polishing and liquefaction is just over 4 SEK/kg for the 5 GWh/a system, and about 3 SEK/kg for the larger systems.

    The analyzed system also included the LBG distribution. Based on the previous study (Isaksson, et al., 2018), a distribution system has been chosen based on insulated ISO containers permanently mounted on semi-trailers. The calculations show that this system has lower total costs than today's systems with stationary LNG storage and road tankers. In the studied system, ISO containers of different sizes are used for both local storage and transport to customers. Transport distances between 50 and 250 km have been assessed. At short distances, a large part of the distribution costs is due to the customer’s local LBG storage. At larger distances, the actual transport costs become dominant, and it gets increasingly interesting to use large containers.

    In total, the cost of production (polishing and liquefaction) and distribution is between 3.5 and 5.5 SEK/kg, depending on the production capacity, distance and container size, which can be compared to the current price of vehicle gas of about 16 SEK/kg (CircleK, 2019). The total cost of raw gas production, upgrading and refueling is about 12.5 SEK/kg (Vestman, Liljemark, & Svensson, 2014). The marginal cost of using unused capacity should therefore be lower than that. Depending on the actual marginal costs, this means that small-scale LBG production from a partial flow of upgraded biogas may be profitable.

  • 220.
    Thadavathi, Yogesh
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wassén, Sophia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kadar, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    In-line rheological and microstroctural characterization of high moisture content protein vegetable mixtures in single screw extrusion2019In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 245, p. 112-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase the utilization of side-streams from the food industry more investigations of multiple protein systems could be beneficial, complementary to the extensive studies available on single sourced protein isolates. Here, high moisture content protein-rich side streams were investigated in single screw extrusion. Vegetable protein mixtures comprising potato protein, oat protein and wheat bran were considered. Potato starch and potato fibers were used as structuring agents. Microstructurally, all compositions were dominated by protein aggregates. The structural agents enhanced the interconnected starch phase and/or additionally introduced fiber aggregates, with little apparent influence on the protein aggregates size and distribution. The moisture content was found to exert a dominant influence on the shear viscosity of the compositions. In addition, a saturation behavior of the power law parameters over 45% moisture content was apparent in the presence of the structural agents. An improved knowledge of industrial side-streams processability could increase their use in novel food products and exploited to create products with improved nutritional profiles.

  • 221.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Landquist, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ekosystemtjänster på mjölkgårdar: Förekomst, indikatorer och åtgärder2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekosystemtjänster definieras som de nyttigheter som människor erhåller från eko-systemen. Syftet med denna studie är att ge Arla ett kunskapsunderlag för att de i sitt fortsatta hållbarhetsarbete ska kunna synliggöra mjölkbondens roll som förvaltare av ekosystemtjänster. Målen är att beskriva hur mjölkgårdar bidrar till viktiga ekosystem-tjänster, identifiera lämpliga indikatorer för dessa och föreslå och diskutera konkreta åtgärder för att stärka ekosystemtjänster. Mjölkgårdar med betande djur, stor andel flerårig klövergräsvall, småbiotoper och betesmarker är viktiga för många av jordbrukets ekosystemtjänster som exempelvis pollinering, kolinlagring, markbördighet och estetiska och kulturella värden. Mjölkgårdar har därför ett gynnsamt utgångsläge jämfört med till exempel renodlade växtodlingsgårdar. Att vårda och restaurera naturbetesmarker är särskilt angeläget eftersom de är artrika, en del av vårt kulturarv och viktiga för pollinerande insekter. Arlabönder är viktiga för deras fortsatta hävd eftersom drygt 15 procent (och kanske nära 20 procent) av Sveriges betesmarker finns på Arlagårdar. Det finns goda möjligheter att ta fram indikatorer utifrån lättillgängliga uppgifter från gården och statistik. I rapporten har vi listat ett stort antal åtgärder som enskilda mjölkgårdar kan göra för att stärka ekosystemtjänster. För att anpassa dessa till lokala förhållanden som råder på gården kan individuella skötselplaner utformas.

  • 222.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wesström, Therese
    South Pole Group, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management of two Swedish golf courses2017In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 21, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turf management on golf courses entails frequent maintenance activities, such as mowing, irrigation and fertilisation, and relies on purchased inputs for optimal performance and aesthetic quality. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, this study evaluated energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from management of two Swedish golf courses, divided into green, tee, fairway and rough, and identified options for improved management. Energy use and GHG emissions per unit area were highest for greens, followed by tees, fairways and roughs. However, when considering the entire golf course, both energy use and GHG emissions were mainly related to fairway and rough maintenance due to their larger area. Emissions of GHG for the two golf courses were 1.0 and 1.6 Mg CO2e ha−1 year−1 as an area-weighted average, while the energy use was 14 and 19 GJ ha−1 year−1. Mowing was the most energy-consuming activity, contributing 21 and 27% of the primary energy use for the two golf courses. In addition, irrigation and manufacturing of mineral fertiliser and machinery resulted in considerable energy use. Mowing and emissions associated with fertilisation (manufacturing of N fertiliser and soil emissions of N2O occurring after application) contributed most to GHG emissions. Including the estimated mean annual soil C sequestration rate for fairway and rough in the assessment considerably reduced the carbon footprint for fairway and turned the rough into a sink for GHG. Emissions of N2O from decomposition of grass clippings may be a potential hotspot for GHG emissions, but the high spatial and temporal variability of values reported in the literature makes it difficult to estimate these emissions for specific management regimes. Lowering the application rate of N mineral fertiliser, particularly on fairways, should be a high priority for golf courses trying to reduce their carbon footprint. However, measures must be adapted to the prevailing conditions at the specific golf course and the requirements set by golfers.

  • 223.
    Tlusty, Michael
    et al.
    University of Massachusetts, US.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Bailey, Megan
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Béné, Christophe
    International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Colombia.
    Bush, Simon
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Newton, Richard
    University of Stirling, UK.
    Asche, Frank
    University of Florida, US.
    Little, David
    University of Stirling, UK.
    Troell, Max
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Reframing the sustainable seafood narrative2019In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 59, article id 101991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant sustainable seafood narrative is one where developed world markets catalyze practice improvements by fisheries and aquaculture producers that enhance ocean health. The narrow framing of seafood sustainability in terms of aquaculture or fisheries management and ocean health has contributed to the omission of these important food production systems from the discussion on global food system sustainability. This omission is problematic. Seafood makes critical contributions to food and nutrition security, particularly in low income countries, and is often a more sustainable and nutrient rich source of animal sourced-food than terrestrial meat production. We argue that to maximize the positive contributions that seafood can make to sustainable food systems, the conventional narratives that prioritize seafood's role in promoting ‘ocean health’ need to be reframed and cover a broader set of environmental and social dimensions of sustainability. The focus of the narrative also needs to move from a producer-centric to a ‘whole chain’ perspective that includes greater inclusion of the later stages with a focus on food waste, by-product utilization and consumption. Moreover, seafood should not be treated as a single aggregated item in sustainability assessments. Rather, it should be recognized as a highly diverse set of foods, with variable environmental impacts, edible yield rates and nutritional profiles. Clarifying discussions around seafood will help to deepen the integration of fisheries and aquaculture into the global agenda on sustainable food production, trade and consumption, and assist governments, private sector actors, NGOs and academics alike in identifying where improvements can be made.

  • 224.
    Tlusty, Micheal
    et al.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Newton, Richard
    Stirling University, UK.
    Little, Dave
    Stirling University, UK.
    Fry, Jillian
    John Hopkins University, USA.
    Love, Dave
    John Hopkins University, USA.
    Cao, Ling
    Stanford University, USA.
    Commentary: Comparing efficiency in aquatic and terrestrial animal production systems2018In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9318, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 128001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is receiving increased attention from a variety of stakeholders. This is largely due to its current role in the global food system of supplying more than half of the seafood consumed, and also because the industry continues to steadily expand (UN Food and Agriculture Organization 2018). A recent article in Environmental Research Letters, 'Feed conversion efficiency in aquaculture: Do we measure it correctly?', by Fry et al (2018a) found that measuring feed conversion efficiency of selected aquatic and terrestrial farmed animals using protein and calorie retention resulted in species comparisons (least to most efficient) and overlap among species dissimilar from comparisons based on widely used weight-based feed conversion ratio (FCR) values. The study prompted spirited discussions among researchers, industry representatives, and others. A group assembled to write a standard rebuttal, but during this process, decided it was best to engage the study's original authors to join the discourse. Through this collaboration, we provide the resultant additional context relevant to the study in order to advance conversations and research on the use of efficiency measures in aquatic and terrestrial animal production systems.

  • 225.
    Tomic, Nikola
    et al.
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Djekic, Ilija
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Zambon, Alessandro
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Spilimbergo, Sara
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Bourdoux, Simeon
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Holtz, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Hofland, Gerard
    FeyeCon Carbon Dioxide Technologies, Netherlands.
    Sut, Stafania
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Dall'Acqua, Stefano
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Smigic, Nada
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Udovicki, Bozidar
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Rajkovic, Andreja
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Challenging chemical and quality changes of supercritical Co 2 dried apple during long-term storage2019In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 110, p. 132-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze the stability of sensory properties and secondary metabolites in supercritical-CO 2 (scCO 2 ) dried ‘Elstar’ apple cuts/snacks during twelve months of storage at ‘room’ temperature. Air-drying and freeze-drying were used as reference methods. ScCO 2 -dried apple packed in aluminum-polyethylene bags under nitrogen gas retained a high sensory and nutritional quality, and acceptance level until the end of the observed period. The overall acceptance scores of these apples after 6 and 12 months of storage remained in the range of neutral consumer attitude “neither like nor dislike”. Packaging under nitrogen gas preserved the content of flavonols (≥0.14 g/kg), dihydrochalcones (≥0.10 g/kg), hydroxycinnamic acids (≥0.18 g/kg), triterpenes (≥5.72 g/kg), and proanthocyanidins (≥0.08 g/kg) in dried apple irrespective of the drying method applied. The comparison with the conventional drying processes demonstrated that scCO 2 -drying represents a promising alternative technology for the production of dried apple snacks. The study was assisted by the evaluation of consumer attitudes towards dried fruit and drying technologies. Freeze-drying, air-drying and scCO 2 -drying were recognized by the tested consumers as trustful drying-processes, with expressed interests in buying scCO 2 -dried products if the technology was scientifically proven as excellent in preserving nutrients, color and taste of food products.

  • 226.
    Vaneeckhaute, Celine
    et al.
    Université Laval, Canada.
    Styles, David
    Bangor University, UK.
    Prade, Thomas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Adams, Paul
    Bath University, UK.
    Thelin, Gunnar
    Ekobalans, Sweden.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gunnarsson, Inga
    Lund University, Sweden.
    D'Hertefeldt, Tina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Closing nutrient loops through decentralized anaerobic digestion of organic residues in agricultural regions: A multi-dimensional sustainability assessment2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 136, p. 110-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decentralized anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure and organic residues is a possible strategy to improve carbon and nutrient cycling within agricultural regions, meanwhile generating renewable energy. To date, there has been limited adoption of decentralized AD technology in industrialized countries owing to low profitability for plant operators. There remains a need to demonstrate the wider sustainability of small-scale, decentralized AD in order to justify policy support for such a strategy. This study applies a multi-dimensional assessment of the environmental, economic and social sustainability of two scenarios of decentralized, farm-scale AD of pig slurry and organic residues in Southern Sweden. The environmental dimension was assessed by means of an expanded boundary life cycle assessment, in which trade-offs between fertilizer replacement, soil organic carbon accumulation, digestate/manure storage and application, transport and soil emissions were evaluated. The economic dimension was assessed through modelling of the net present value and internal rate of return. Finally, the social dimension was assessed by means of a stakeholder perception inquiry among key stakeholders in the field. It was concluded that the overall environmental balance of decentralized AD was favorable, while also the net present value could be positive. Fertilizer replacement, soil organic carbon and digestate storage effects were identified as important factors that should be accounted for in future life cycle assessments. A key issue for interviewed stakeholders was product quality assurance. Wider application of multi-dimensional sustainability assessment, capturing important nutrient cycling effects, could provide an evidence base for policy to support sustainable deployment of decentralized AD.

  • 227.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Sweden ; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Höglund, Evelina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Malin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Protein enriched foods and healthy ageing Effects of protein fortification on muffin characteristics2017In: Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, ISSN 1722-6996, E-ISSN 2035-4606, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 16-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sarcopenia is a common problem among elderly. To maintain muscle mass, strength and function adequate dietary protein intake is of importance. The aim is to enable the development of high-quality fortified foods to improve protein status in elderly. Current study aimed to investigate how sensory and physical characteristics of a popular snack in the form of muffins change when increasing protein content. A reference muffin was compared to muffins fortified with soy flour, almond flour or whey protein, respectively. A focus group evaluated the sensory properties. Physical properties included colour measurement, water activity, weight and heights. All fortifiers affected the muffins differently, sensory as well as physical characteristics, showing the complexity of adding different fortifiers to muffins.

  • 228.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Norman, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Forsberg, Sarah
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Fredrik
    Geoloc AB, Sweden.
    Josell, Åsa
    Atria Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Prim, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berg, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Eat’em or not?: insects as a culinary delicacy2017In: PROCEEDINGSICCAS 2017 Exploring Future Foodscapes Copenhagen, 2017, p. 100-106, article id #39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The world´s population is increasing and thus the pressure on the earth´s resources. To ensure food supply and sustainability, food habits in western societies have to change. By reducing the ecological footprint of food consumption, e.g., decrease meat consumption, significant contribution to global sustainability can be achieved. Advantages concerning nutrition and sustainability have been found by inclusion of insects in the diet. Insects as food has a large potential, and the “culinary way” seems to be an effective way to reach consumer acceptance for insect based food products. The aim was to examine consumer acceptance and neophobia related to the use of insects as ingredients in food

  • 229.
    Westerholm, M.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    del Pilar Castillo, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Chan Andersson, A.
    Sundets Biogas, Sweden.
    Jahre Nilsen, P.
    Cambi Group, Norway.
    Schnürer, A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Effects of thermal hydrolytic pre-treatment on biogas process efficiency and microbial community structure in industrial- and laboratory-scale digesters2019In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 95, p. 150-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the impact of thermal hydrolysis process (THP) pre-treatment on anaerobic co-digestion of wastewater sludge and household waste and assessed whether THP was vital to achieve higher process capacity. Performance data were collected for both industrial- and laboratory-scale digesters and response in microbial community structure was evaluated by Illumina sequencing. Implementation of THP at the industrial-scale plant increased methane yield by 15% and enhanced substrate degradability. Possibility to extend the sludge retention time due to a higher solid content of the substrate, sanitisation of the digestate and improved fertiliser quality of the digestate were other industrial-scale benefits of THP installation. Continuously-fed laboratory-scale digesters were fed THP-treated or untreated substrate at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5 g volatile solid (VS)/L/day, a feeding rate necessary at the corresponding industrial-scale plant to meet the estimated population increase within the municipality. The results indicated that the plant could have increased the capacity with unimpaired stability independently of THP installation, even though the retention time was significantly shortened during operation with untreated substrate. Microbial community analyses revealed increased contribution of the Clostridia class after THP installation in industrial-scale digesters and positive correlation between Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes and methane yield in all digesters. Differentiated profiles in laboratory-scale digesters indicated that a temperature increase from 37 to 42 °C in association with THP installation and altered substrate composition were strong determining factors shaping the microbial community. Overall, these findings can assist industrial-scale plants in choosing management strategies aimed at improving the efficiency of anaerobic digestion processes.

  • 230.
    Widen, Heléne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Alenljung, Susanne
    SCA Hygiene Products AB, Sweden.
    Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla
    SCA Hygiene Products AB, Sweden.
    Hall, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sensory Characterization of Odors in Used DisposableAbsorbent Incontinence Products2017In: Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing (WOCN), ISSN 1071-5754, E-ISSN 1528-3976, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 277-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the odors of used incontinence products by descriptive analysis and to define attributes to be used in the analysis. A further objective was to investigate to what extent the odor profiles of used incontinence products differed from each other and, if possible, to group these profiles into classes.

    SUBJECTS AND SETTING

    Used incontinence products were collected from 14 residents with urinary incontinence living in geriatric nursing homes in the Gothenburg area, Sweden.

    METHODS

    Pieces were cut from the wet area of used incontinence products. They were placed in glass bottles and kept frozen until odor analysis was completed. A trained panel consisting of 8 judges experienced in this area of investigation defined terminology for odor attributes. The intensities of these attributes in the used products were determined by descriptive odor analysis. Data were analyzed both by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey post hoc test and by principal component analysis and cluster analysis.

    RESULTS

    An odor wheel, with 10 descriptive attributes, was developed. The total odor intensity, and the intensities of the attributes, varied considerably between different, used incontinence products. The typical odors varied from "sweetish" to "urinal," "ammonia," and "smoked." Cluster analysis showed that the used products, based on the quantitative odor data, could be divided into 5 odor classes with different profiles.

    CONCLUSIONS

    The used products varied considerably in odor character and intensity. Findings suggest that odors in used absorptive products are caused by different types of compounds that may vary in concentration.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

     

  • 231.
    Williamson, Nathan H.
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. University College London, Australia.
    Liu, Huabing
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand; Limecho Technology Limited Company, China.
    Galvosas, Patrick
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Miklavcic, Stanley J.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Nydén, Magnus
    University of South Australia, Australia; University College London, Australia.
    The pseudo 2-D relaxation model for obtaining T1-T2 relationships from 1-D T1 and T2 measurements of fluid in porous media2018In: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, ISSN 1387-1811, E-ISSN 1873-3093, Vol. 269, p. 191-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NMR spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times and their inter-relation possess information on fluid behaviour in porous media. To elicit this information we utilize the pseudo 2-D relaxation model (P2DRM), which deduces the T1-T2 functional relationship from independent 1-D T1 and T2 measurements. Through model simulations we show empirically that the P2DRM accurately estimates T1-T2 relationships even when the marginal distributions of the true joint T1-T2 distribution are unknown or cannot be modeled. Estimates of the T1:. T2 ratio for fluid interacting with pore surfaces remain robust when the P2DRM is applied to simulations of rapidly acquired data. Therefore, the P2DRM can be useful in situations where experimental time is limited.

  • 232.
    Williamson, Nathan H.
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. University College London, Australia.
    Miklavcic, Stanley J.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Nydén, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. University of South Australia, Australia.
    Scaling exponent and dispersity of polymers in solution by diffusion NMR2017In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 493, p. 393-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular mass distribution measurements by pulsed gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSE NMR) spectroscopy currently require prior knowledge of scaling parameters to convert from polymer self-diffusion coefficient to molecular mass. Reversing the problem, we utilize the scaling relation as prior knowledge to uncover the scaling exponent from within the PGSE data. Thus, the scaling exponent—a measure of polymer conformation and solvent quality—and the dispersity (Mw/Mn) are obtainable from one simple PGSE experiment. The method utilizes constraints and parametric distribution models in a two-step fitting routine involving first the mass-weighted signal and second the number-weighted signal. The method is developed using lognormal and gamma distribution models and tested on experimental PGSE attenuation of the terminal methylene signal and on the sum of all methylene signals of polyethylene glycol in D2O. Scaling exponent and dispersity estimates agree with known values in the majority of instances, leading to the potential application of the method to polymers for which characterization is not possible with alternative techniques.

  • 233.
    Willén, Agnes
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Junestedt, C.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pell, M.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jönsson, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sewage sludge as fertiliser - Environmental assessment of storage and land application options2017In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 75, no 5, p. 1034-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge (SS) contains beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter, and therefore application of SS on agricultural land helps close nutrient loops. However, spreading operations are restricted to certain seasons and hence the SS needs to be stored. Storage and land application of SS are both potential sources of greenhouse gases and ammonia, leading to global warming, acidification and eutrophication. Covering the stored SS, treating it with urea and choosing the correct time for land application all have the potential to reduce emissions from the system. Using life cycle assessment (LCA), this study compares storage and land application options of SS in terms of global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential, eutrophication potential and primary energy use. The system with covered storage has the lowest impact of all categories. Systems with autumn application are preferable to spring application for all impact categories but, when nitrate leaching is considered, spring application is preferable in terms of eutrophication and primary energy use and, for some SS treatments, GWP. Ammonia addition reduces nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions during storage, but increases these emissions after land application. Storage duration has a large impact on GWP, while amount of chemical nitrogen fertiliser substituted has a large impact on primary energy use.

  • 234.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    FODERDATABAS: DELUPPDRAG 6-UPPDATERADE KLIMATAVTRYCK AV FODERMEDE2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    RISE har på uppdrag av Jordbruksverket tagit fram rekommendationer kring klimat-avtryck för ett urval av foderråvaror. Klimatavtryck för foderråvaror och foderbland-ningar är insatsvaror som står för en betydande andel av det sammanlagda klimat-avtrycket i animalieproduktionen. Siffrorna är viktiga indata vid beräkning av en hel

    gårds klimatavtryck som görs i rådgivningen "Klimatkollen" med hjälp av klimat-beräkningsdelen i beräkningsprogrammet Vera. RISE har genomfört litteraturstudie som kompletterats med beräkningar för några råvaror utifrån tillgänglig statistik.

    Uppdraget är ett av sex deluppdrag finansierat med medel från EU:s landsbygdsprogram 2014

    –2020 inom ramen för Jordbruksverkets projekt Minskad klimatpåverkan och förnybar energi (journalnummer 2015–776).

  • 235.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pénicaud, Caroline
    University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sustainability checklist in support of the design of food processing2018In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, E-ISSN 1614-2373, Vol. 16, p. 110-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To source food ingredients produced by best practice, reducing food loss in the processing line and implementation of new technologies are some examples of changes in the management in the food and drink sector that may offer advantages from a sustainability perspective. There are several tools and methods for evaluating sustainability for a food processing technology but often specific methodological knowledge is essential and many companies may not be able to carry out such a study due to time constraints and lack of data. The aim of this paper is to provide a tool with the format of a qualitative sustainability checklist, based on existing Life Cycle Assessment theory. The checklist is devoted to the design and adaptation of processing in the food industry to clarify the potential hot spots in new process design and is focused on environmental sustainability, although other aspects were conferred as well to demonstrate its potential. To identify the potential of this kind of checklist, it was tested by four food companies. The participant feedback was in general positive. The companies highlighted the benefits of creating awareness of sustainability issues within the company and providing a good overview without data collection. From a scientific point of view, the approach can help to overcome several challenges in sustainability assessment in the agri-food sector, especially some modeling issues and spatio-temporal resolution. © 2018 The Authors

  • 236.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gogou, Eleni
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Taoukis, Petros
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Effect of microwave assisted blanching on the ascorbic acid oxidase inactivation and vitamin C degradation in frozen mangoes2018In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 48, p. 248-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of microwave assisted and conventional water blanching of mango (Mangifera indica) under two different blanching scenarios, High Temperature Short Time (HTST) and Low Temperature Long Time (LTLT) on ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) inactivation and on vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid & dehydroascorbic acid) retention were comparatively studied. The impact of alternative blanching processes and subsequent frozen storage on enzymatic inactivation and vitamin C was kinetically modelled. Both water and microwave HTST as well as LTLT microwave treatments of mango pieces showed high degree of AAO inactivation. An approximately 30% residual AAO activity was observed and was described through a first order fractional conversion model. Microwave assisted blanching led to higher retention of total vitamin C in both LTLT and HTST treatments. In LTLT water blanching, vitamin C loss was mainly caused by mass transfer phenomena rather than temperature degradation, while after HTST treatments the decrease of total vitamin C content seemed to be mainly related to thermal degradation than due to the leakage of the nutrients in the blanching medium. Further inactivation of the thermostable fraction of AAO and degradation of total vitamin C were observed after frozen storage for 130 days at −18.63 ± 0.48 °C.

  • 237.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Huen, Julien
    TTZ-BILB, Germany.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Jha, Piyush K.
    ONIRIS, France.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    ONIRIS, France.
    Shrestha, Marie
    TTZ-BILB, Germany.
    Evaluation of microwave assisted freezing (MAF) impact on meat and fish matrices2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 176-181Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several preservation methods have been investigated, developed and exploited over the last years but freezing still remains one of the most popular among them which offers fresh-like characteristics on the food matrix after long period of storage. The freezing process of food matrices is affected by their dominant constituent which is water. The final quality of the frozen product depends on the phase transition or the crystallization process of changing water into ice. The size of the ice crystals is critical for the final quality of the frozen food. In the present study a novel more advanced experimental setup was designed and developed for the application of microwave radiation during freezing. The influence of microwave assisted freezing (MAF) on meat and fish matrices under different conditions was investigated and promising results regarding the microstructure of the frozen samples were acquired.

  • 238.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Valdramidis, Vasilis
    University of Malta, Malta.
    Impact of heating operations on the microbial ecology of foods2017In: Quantitative Microbiology in Food Processing: Modeling the Microbial Ecology / [ed] Anderson de Souza Sant'Ana, John Wiley & Sons, 2017, p. 117-141Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several drawbacks of heat processes as their application may also lead to nutritional and quality deterioration of the food product. The chapter presents basic information regarding the heating processes and unit operations and covers the impact of these operations on food-borne microorganisms. It describes the main cooking methods, such as grilling, broiling, and roasting. Quantitative methodologies are the main tools to describe the impact of a process as well as the storage conditions post-processing on the food stability. In order to assess the efficacy of a specific processing technology, the estimation of the time to achieve a certain number of log reductions can be applied. The most common process in the food industry is the thermal process. The chapter reviews a number of different thermal processes and outlines critical issues in relation to their efficacy and to their impact on the microbial inactivation

  • 239.
    Xue, Li
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Liu, Gang
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Parfitt, Julian
    Anthesis Group, UK.
    Liu, Xiaojie
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Van Herpen, Erica
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    O'Connor, Clementine
    World Resources Institute, USA.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Cheng, Shengkui
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Missing Food, Missing Data?: A Critical Review of Global Food Losses and Food Waste Data2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 12, p. 6618-6633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food losses and food waste (FLW) have become a global concern in recent years and emerge as a priority in the global and national political agenda (e.g., with Target 12.3 in the new United Nations Sustainable Development Goals). A good understanding of the availability and quality of global FLW data is a prerequisite for tracking progress on reduction targets, analyzing environmental impacts, and exploring mitigation strategies for FLW. There has been a growing body of literature on FLW quantification in the past years; however, significant challenges remain, such as data inconsistency and a narrow temporal, geographical, and food supply chain coverage. In this paper, we examined 202 publications which reported FLW data for 84 countries and 52 individual years from 1933 to 2014. We found that most existing publications are conducted for a few industrialized countries (e.g., the United Kingdom and the United States), and over half of them are based only on secondary data, which signals high uncertainties in the existing global FLW database. Despite these uncertainties, existing data indicate that per-capita food waste in the household increases with an increase of per-capita GDP. We believe that more consistent, in-depth, and primary-data-based studies, especially for emerging economies, are badly needed to better inform relevant policy on FLW reduction and environmental impacts mitigation.

  • 240.
    Xue, Li
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Prass, Neele
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Gollnow, Sebastian
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Scherhaufer, Silvia
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Cheng, Shengkui
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Liu, Gang
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Efficiency and Carbon Footprint of the German Meat Supply Chain2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 5133-5142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meat production and consumption contribute significantly to environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These emissions can be reduced via various strategies ranging from production efficiency improvement to process optimization, food waste reduction, trade pattern change, and diet structure change. On the basis of a material flow analysis approach, we mapped the dry matter mass and energy balance of the meat (including beef, pork, and poultry) supply chain in Germany and discussed the emission reduction potential of different mitigation strategies in an integrated and mass-balance consistent framework. Our results reaffirmed the low energy conversion efficiency of the meat supply chain (among which beef was the least efficient) and the high GHG emissions at the meat production stage. While diet structure change (either reducing the meat consumption or substituting meat by edible offal) showed the highest emissions reduction potential, eliminating meat waste in retailing and consumption and byproducts generation in slaughtering and processing were found to have profound effect on emissions reduction as well. The rendering of meat byproducts and waste treatment were modeled in detail, adding up to a net environmental benefit of about 5% of the entire supply chain GHG emissions. The combined effects based on assumed high levels of changes of important mitigation strategies, in a rank order considering the level of difficulty of implementation, showed that the total emission could be reduced by 43% comparing to the current level, implying a tremendous opportunity for sustainably feeding the planet by 2050.

  • 241.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Svensk konsumtion av sjömat - en växande mångfald2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska sjömatsmarknaden har kartlagts i syfte att identifiera och kvantifiera de vanligaste arterna av fisk och skaldjur, eller "sjömat", som säljs och konsumeras i Sverige. Offentlig statistik kring volym av import, export och produktion i fiske och vattenbruk för 2015 har utgjort grunden för analysen och kombinerats till att ge en översiktsbild av vad som säljs och konsumeras i Sverige. Merparten företag i fiskbranschen kontaktades och har levererat både kvantitativa och kvalitativa uppgifter.

    Biodiversiteten i den svenska sjömatsimporten visade sig vara hög och omfatta ett hundratal arter eller artgrupper. Volym och viktigaste ursprungsländer presenteras för dessa. Svensk konsumtion av sjömat domineras inte oväntat av lax, torsk och sill. Mer överraskande var att en kategori bestående av oidentifierade torskfiskar, bl a från tropiska vatten, hamnar så högt som på plats 13. Av varje kategori av sjömat (torskfisk, laxfisk, plattfisk, räka, krabba, musslor, tonfisk) redovisas en del ospecifikt tillhörande "Övrigt". Längre ner på listan hamnar nya importerade, odlade arter som guldsparid, havsabborre, men även fiskade arter som nilabborre, tandnoting och ett antal arter av tonfisk, varav flera är kraftigt överfiskade. Exempelvis konsumerades fyra ton av den akut hotade blåfenade tonfisken i Sverige. De här arterna har etablerat sig på den svenska sjömatsmarknaden på senare år. Runt 15 ton ål konsumeras per år i Sverige, både från svenskt fiske och från import, och även den är akut hotad.

    Den totala svenska sjömatskonsumtionen för 2015 är 109 000 ton filé och skaldjur utan skal, vilket motsvarar 11 kg per person eller runt 25 kg hel fisk per person. Av detta är 60 % vildfångat och 40 % odlat. Cirka en fjärdedel av den totala volymen är certifierad av antingen MSC eller ASC. Närmare 75 % av det vi äter är importerat, medan svenskt fiske står för drygt 20 % och svenskt vattenbruk står för runt 6 %. På grund av osäkerheter i rapporteringen av import och export så är dock dessa siffror något osäkra. Den totala konsumtionen har mellan 2011 och 2015 ökat. Kartläggningen har gett nya insikter om diversiteten i den svenska sjömatskonsumtionen och fördelningen mellan arter, trots de osäkerheter som finns.

    Sjömat har en stor potential som både hälsosam och hållbart producerad mat, och Livsmedelsverket rekommenderar att vi äter fisk och skaldjur 2-3 gånger per vecka. För stora grupper betyder detta att de bör äta mer sjömat. Det har dock stor betydelse vilken typ av sjömat man väljer att äta både för hälsa och miljö. Därför är det viktigt med bra kunskap om vad som konsumeras och var och hur det har producerats.

    Genomgången har gett insyn i vad statistiken kan användas till och vilka osäkerheter som finns. Rapporten ger även en rad förslag på hur statistiken skulle kunna förbättras, både genom att ställa krav på att nuvarande rutiner för datainsamling om handel och konsumtion av sjömat i större utsträckning följs och genom att mer långsiktigt arbeta för att förbättra dessa rutiner.

  • 242.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Eigaard, Ole
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Hognes, Erik
    Asplan Viak, Norway.
    Jafarzadeh, Sepideh
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Adding perspectives to: “Global trends in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion in marine fisheries from 1950 - 2016"2019In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 107, article id 103488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contribution in this issue, Greer et al. (2019), models carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion in global fisheries. This is done based on a method using data on fishing effort, presenting results for two sectors: small-scale and industrial fisheries. The selection of these sectors is not motivated in relation to studying fuel use, and it is well-documented that other factors more accurately predict fuel use of fisheries and would constitute a more useful basis for defining sub-sectors, when the goal of the study is to investigate fuel use. Weakly grounded assumptions made in the translation of fishing effort into carbon dioxide emissions (e.g. the engine run time per fishing day for each sector) systematically bias results towards overestimating fuel use of “industrial” vessels, underestimating that of “small-scale”. A sensitivity analysis should have been a minimum requirement for publication. To illustrate how the approach used by Greer et al. (2019) systematically misrepresents the fuel use and emissions of the two sectors, the model is applied to Australian and New Zealand rock lobster trap fisheries and compared to observed fuel use. It is demonstrated how the approach underestimates emissions of small-scale fisheries, while overestimating emissions of industrial fisheries. As global fisheries are dominated by industrial fisheries, the aggregate emission estimate is likely considerably overestimated. Effort-based approaches can be valuable to model fuel use of fisheries in data-poor situations, but should be seen as complementary to estimates based on direct data, which they can also help to validate. Whenever used, they should be based on transparent, science-based data and assumptions.

  • 243.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Groen, Evelyne A.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bokkers, Eddie A. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Karlsen, Kine M.
    Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, Norway.
    de Boer, Imke J. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Assessing broad life cycle impacts of daily onboard decision-making, annual strategic planning, and fisheries management in a northeast Atlantic trawl fishery2018In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 1357-1367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Capture fisheries are the only industrial-scale harvesting of a wild resource for food. Temporal variability in environmental performance of fisheries has only recently begun to be explored, but only between years, not within a year. Our aim was to better understand the causes of temporal variability within and between years and to identify improvement options through management at a company level and in fisheries management. Methods: We analyzed the variability in broad environmental impacts of a demersal freeze trawler targeting cod, haddock, saithe, and shrimp, mainly in the Norwegian Sea and in the Barents Sea. The analysis was based on daily data for fishing activities between 2011 and 2014 and the functional unit was a kilo of landing from one fishing trip. We used biological indicators in a novel hierarchic approach, depending on data availability, to quantify biotic impacts. Landings were categorized as target (having defined target reference points) or bycatch species (classified as threatened or as data-limited). Indicators for target and bycatch impacts were quantified for each fishing trip, as was the seafloor area swept. Results and discussion: No significant difference in fuel use was found between years, but variability was considerable within a year, i.e., between fishing trips. Trips targeting shrimp were more fuel intensive than those targeting fish, due to a lower catch rate. Steaming to and from port was less important for fuel efficiency than steaming between fishing locations. A tradeoff was identified between biotic and abiotic impacts. Landings classified as main target species generally followed the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) framework, and proportions of threatened species were low, while proportions of data-limited bycatch were larger. This improved considerably when reference points were defined for saithe in 2014. Conclusions: The variability between fishing trips shows that there is room for improvement through management. Fuel use per landing was strongly influenced by target species, fishing pattern, and fisheries management. Increased awareness about the importance of onboard decision-making can lead to improved performance. This approach could serve to document performance over time helping fishing companies to better understand the effect of their daily and more long-term decision-making on the environmental performance of their products. Recommendations: Fishing companies should document their resource use and production on a detailed level. Fuel use should be monitored as part of the management system. Managing authorities should ensure that sufficient data is available to evaluate the sustainability of exploitation levels of all harvested species.

  • 244.
    Zurek, Monika
    et al.
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Hebinck, Aniek
    University of Oxford, UK; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Leip, Adrian
    European Commission, Italy.
    Vervoort, Joost
    University of Oxford, UK; Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Kuiper, Marijke
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Garrone, Maria
    KU Leuven University, Belgium.
    Havlík, Petr
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Heckelei, Thomas
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ingram, John
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Kuijsten, Anneleen
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Shutes, Lindsay
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Geleijnse, Johanna
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Terluin, Ida
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    van't Veer, Pieter
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Wijnands, Jo
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Zimmermann, Andrea
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy.
    Achterbosch, Thom
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Assessing sustainable food and nutrition security of the EU food system-an integrated approach2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 4271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steering the EU food system towards a sustainability transformation requires a vast and actionable knowledge base available to a range of public and private actors. Few have captured this complexity by assessing food systems from a multi-dimensional and multi-level perspective, which would include (1) nutrition and diet, environmental and economic outcomes together with social equity dimensions and (2) system interactions across country, EU and global scales. This paper addresses this gap in food systems research and science communication by providing an integrated analytical approach and new ways to communicate this complexity outside science. Based on a transdisciplinary science approach with continuous stakeholder input, the EU Horizon2020 project 'Metrics, Models and Foresight for European SUStainable Food And Nutrition Security' (SUSFANS) developed a five-step process: Creating a participatory space; designing a conceptual framework of the EU food system; developing food system performance metrics; designing a modelling toolbox and developing a visualization tool. The Sustainable Food and Nutrition-Visualizer, designed to communicate complex policy change-impacts and trade-off questions, enables an informed debate about trade-offs associated with options for change among food system actors as well as in the policy making arena. The discussion highlights points for further research related to indicator development, reach of assessment models, participatory processes and obstacles in science communication. © 2018 by the authors.

2345 201 - 244 of 244
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.35.9