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  • 201.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Kalinowski, Mariusz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sehati, Parisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Järphag, Thomas
    NCC Building, Sweden.
    Storm, Oskar
    Saint-Gobain Building Glass Polska, Poland.
    Axelsson Thun, Anders
    Skanska Sverige, Sweden.
    Häll, Jörgen
    Glascentrum, Sweden.
    Korrosion av planglas inom byggbranschen kopplat till betong2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett förekommande problem under byggprocessen är betongrinning. Innebörden av betongrinning är att vatten varit i kontakt med färsk betong och därefter påverkat glasytor till fasader/balkonger/fönster. Påverkan på glaset kan vara fysisk och ibland även kemisk. Resultatet blir droppfläckar, rinnmärken och utfällningar som försämrar glasets ljusgenomsläpplighet och estetiska intryck. Så länge påverkan enbart är fysisk är denna skada relativt lätt att ta bort antingen med hjälp av mekanisk polering eller genom att torka glaset med utspädd syra. Ofta fortskrider dock processen till ett kemiskt angrepp på glaset, vilket är permanent och inte går att avlägsna helt med ovan nämnda metoder. Kemiska reaktioner har då skapat etsningar i glasytan som på sikt blir i storleksordningen mikrometer djupa.

    I denna förstudie har vi försökt simulera betongrinningsangrepp dels under kontrollerade förhållanden i laboratoriemiljö och dels i utomhusmiljö. Försöksvariablerna var två olika betongvarianter samt glas med respektive utan ett på marknaden befintligt glasskyddande medel. Resultatet av försöken har analyserats genom okulär bedömning, mikroanalys med svepelektronmikroskop och energidispersiv röntgenspektroskopi samt yttopografimätningar med optisk profilometer. Testerna resulterade i utfällningar på glasytan innehållande ämnena svavel, kalium och kalcium, vilka bedöms härstamma från betongen. Efter inomhusförsöken, som pågick i fyra månader, gick utfällningarna att tvätta bort med saltsyralösning, och inga djupgående, permanenta korrosionsskador syntes på glaset. Utomhusförsöken utsträcktes till elva månader, varpå bestående skador kunde konstateras på glasytorna efter att utfällningarna tvättats bort. Djupet på skadorna uppmättes som mest till cirka en halv mikrometer. Varken sänkning av pH i betongen eller skyddsbehandling av glaset bidrog till att hindra uppkomst av fläckighet eller etsningar på glaset. I diskussioner med industrirepresentanter konstaterades att betongrinning är ett ganska vanligt problem, som är oberoende av geografi. Tidigare försök med behandling av både betong och glas varit verkningslösa. I majoriteten av fall handlar problemen om inglasade balkonger alternativt glasräcken i kombination med balkongplatta i betong. Det man vet fungerar är att använda en korrekt konstruktion som hindrar vattnet från att droppa ned på glaset. Regelbunden rengöring av glasen hjälper också och kommer förmodligen hamna som ett underhållskrav mot kunder.

  • 202.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Kozlowski, Marcin
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Kinsella, David
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Haller, Kristian
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sara
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Osby Glas AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Kent
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Kvalitetshöjning av planglas: Icke-förstörande provning av glasets hållfasthet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållfastheten och därmed kvaliteten på planglas varierar kraftigt beroende på förekomsten sprickor i glasets yta. Sprickorna fungerar som brottanvisningar vilket medför att man måste räkna med stora säkerhetsfaktorer då glas belastas i olika byggnadskonstruktioner. Trä som konstruktionsmaterial har en liknande problematik där man utvecklat virkessortering för att kvalitetsklassning. I den här förstudien har vi undersökt om det går att kvalitetsklassa planglas med hjälp av en oförstörande provningsmetod baserad på icke-linjärt ultraljud. Tre olika kantbearbetningar (A) dragen, (B) obehandlad och (C) polerad kant undersöktes i 4-punktsböjprovning med tre olika belastningshastigheter (0.6, 2 och 5mm/min) och kontinuerlig mätning av skadevärde med icke-linjärt ultraljud. Hållfastheten för de olika kantbearbetningar följer trenden (C) polerad > (A) dragen > (B) obehandlad  med avtagande hållfasthet. Som förväntat gav provningarna ett ökande skadevärde med en ökande last. Provningarna visade även att hållfastheten var lägre för lägre belastningshastigheter. Skadevärdet ökade mest för obehandlad kant vilket tyder på att det fanns en stor spricktillväxt medan lägst ökning gav polerad kant. Vi har även undersökt obehandlade brutna kanter med optiskt profilometri och i ljusmikroskop. Med ljusmikroskopi kunde vi linjärt korrelera kantskadans tjocklek till tjockleken på glaset. Luftsidan på planglas undersöktes med optisk profilometri och man fann tydliga skillnader i ytornas karakteristik. Skillnaderna är inte synliga för blotta ögat men de skulle kunna ge upphov till andra skillnader såsom t ex fuktkänslighet, mekanisk skärbarhet och hållfasthet. Sammanfattningsvis så finns det god potential för kvalitetsklassning av planglas men det kommer att behövas fler tester i ett större forskningsprojekt för att ta detta till marknaden. Marknadspotentialen är enorm med 80 miljoner ton planglas i marknadsbehov.

  • 203.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Fransson, Anna-Lena
    GFAB Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Tomas
    GFAB Lindberg & Co AB, Sweden.
    Spontangranulering av härdade glas: En litteraturstudie och en genomlysning av problemet inom glasbranschen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Härdat glas har många fördelar i flera avseenden bl a sprickmönstret, hållfastheten och ett överkomligt pris. Akilleshälen för termiskt härdat glas är spontangranulering som är ovanligt men som trots allt förekommer. Syftet med den här förstudien var att genomlysa hur vanligt förekommande det är genom enkäter till företag inom duschväggsbranschen samt göra en litteraturstudie med syftet att undersöka vilka metoder det finns att råda bot på problemet. Enkäterna visade att branschen inte direkt ser det som ett problem men endast en relativt liten andel för statistik på hur vanligt förekommande spontangranulering är. Litteraturstudien visade på en splittrad bransch varav en del förespråkar den standardiserade HST-metoden (heat soak test) medan andra kritiserar den. Oavsett har man lagt ner mest arbete på HST-metoden och det är den som fått störst genomslag, men den används inte i hela branschen. Metoden har sina brister men just nu pågår arbete med att uppdatera den befintliga standarden vilket kommer att göra den mer tillförlitlig. HST-metoden har dock fortfarande nackdelarna att den är relativt dyr och minskar härdningsgraden något. För alternativa metoder krävs tydliga satsningar som dock är osannolika eftersom problemet anses vara litet. De alternativ som identifierats som mest intressanta är metoder som ger ytterligare fördelar såsom t ex hållfasthetssortering av planglas eller att man utvecklar en glassammansättning som lämpar sig för termisk härdning av glas.

  • 204.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Kinetics of chemical strengthening and trends in effective diffusion coefficients2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali cation exchange has received significant attention with respect to introducing compressive stress in the glass surface, a process frequently called chemical strengthening. Besides mechanical properties may also other properties such as optical, electrical and chemical properties be modified using ion exchange of various monovalent ions. The mobility of monovalent ions varies and the relations of structural and effective diffusion coefficients may help to understand how to improve the ion exchange kinetics of soda lime silicates. We discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by their correlations to physico-chemical properties. The most significant correlations were found to be the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that electron localization and the rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

  • 205.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Ion-exchange Strengthening of Soda Lime Silicate Glasses2017In: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 4, no 13Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monovalent cations enable efficient ion exchange processes due to their high mobility in silicate glasses. Numerous properties can be modified in this way, e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical or chemical performance. In particular, alkali cation exchange has received significant attention, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stress into the surface region of a glass, which increases mechanical durability. However, most of the present applications rely on specifically tailored matrix compositions in which the cation mobility is enhanced. This largely excludes the major area of soda lime silicates (SLS) such as are commodity in almost all large-scale applications of glasses. Basic understanding of the relations between structural parameters and the effective diffusion coefficients may help to improve ion-exchanged SLS glass products, on the one hand in terms of obtainable strength and on the other in terms of cost. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by drawing relations to physico-chemical properties. Correlations of effective diffusion coefficients were found for the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that localization and rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

  • 206.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gregard, Greger
    Chromogenics, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per
    Ray Space, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Linköpings university, Sweden.
    Askling, Anders
    Nässjö Kommun, Sweden.
    Möjligheter för multifunktionella fönster i flerbostadshus: Teknik, visualisering och prototyper2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här förstudien fokuserade på visualisering och prototyptillverkning av dynamiskt fönster och luftrengörande fönster. Detta är viktigt för spridning av kunskap om nya smarta fönster, dels för företag som har intresse för ny teknologi men även för spridning av information till allmänheten. Resultatet av förstudien är en VR-visualisering av Chromogenics dynamiska fönster Converlight® samt en prototyp för luftrengörande fönster. Det senare är ett nytt koncept för smarta fönster där luftreningen drivs av solljus och som även kan kombineras med ett termokromt skikt som ger ett dynamiskt fönster som styrs av temperatur. Med dynamiskt fönster menas att det kan variera i ljusgenomsläpplighet och därmed även energitillförsel till byggnader och det kan användas för att skapa ett bättre inomhusklimat. Rengöringen av inomhusluften är ytterligare en del i att skapa ett bättre inomhusklimat. VR-visualiseringen och prototypen för luftrengörande fönster är viktiga för att skapa en förståelse för innebörden av teknologin och på så vis inducera en snabbare kommersialisering av teknologierna. Projektet är ett exempel på en god samverkan mellan två VINNVÄXT initiativ, Smart Housing Småland och Visual Sweden, där man nyttjat varandras nyckelkompetenser på ett kompletterande sätt.

  • 207.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Eriksson, Jerry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    “Transparent Intelligence” for Sustainable Development2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparent materials are essential in everyone’s life. They enable daylight to reach the interior of buildings, thereby contributing to both our physical and mental well-being; they are the primary component for communication via optical fibers and a key component in electronic devices such as protective cover and/or dielectric material; and they enable clean energy production through solar panels or algae reactors by acting as protective and light transmitting barriers. Adding functions to transparent materials in an intelligent way creates further opportunities to use and enhance the beneficial impacts of transparency. The concept Transparent Intelligence covers transparent materials and products with integral intelligent functions – passive, active or interactive. By using Transparent Intelligence it is possible to embrace many of the societal challenges that we are facing today. The concept can be divided into five broad industrial sectors: Built Environment, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Solar Energy, Mobility, and Materials. A perspective on how Transparent Intelligence can improve the sustainable development of our world will be presented, using examples of electrochromic windows for energy-efficient buildings, photocatalytic coatings for improved indoor air quality, transparent conductive coatings for antennas, bandpass filters for mobile phone indoor coverage, UV down-converting components for efficient solar energy, hygienic surfaces for infection mitigation on electronic devices, printed electronics for sustainable glass packaging, and IR-reflecting coatings for fire safety.

  • 208.
    Karlsson, Therese M.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Influence of thermooxidative degradation on the in situ fate of polyethylene in temperate coastal waters2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 135, p. 187-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyethylene is a commonly used polymer in plastic products and is often found as marine litter. Nevertheless there is limited knowledge about what happens to the material when it ends up in the sea. Polyethylene films were therefore thermally oxidised to four different levels of degradation. The films were then placed in stainless-steel cages in the sea off the Swedish west coast for 12 summer weeks. Subsamples were analysed with respect to biofouling, degradation and buoyancy. All levels showed a continued oxidation in the field. The pre-degraded films started fragmenting and the non-degraded films showed a decrease in tensile strain. All levels showed increased biofouling with higher presence of filamentous algae and bryozoans on pre-degraded materials. The density (kg·m−3) of the films was seen to increase slightly, and the apparent density for the pre-degraded films (density of the films with biofilm) showed a strong increase, which resulted in sinking.

  • 209.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Bergek, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ulmanen, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Statens roll för klimatomställning i processindustrin: Utmaningar och möjligheter för socioteknisk omställning i svensk industri för framställning av järn- och stål, cement, raffinaderiprodukter och kemikalier2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har takten och ambitionsnivån i klimatarbetet höjts vilket bland annat resulterat i det internationella Parisavtalet och ett nationellt klimatmål - om att Sverige senast år 2045 inte ska ha några nettoutsläpp av växthusgaser till atmosfären, för att därefter uppnå negativa utsläpp. För att nå dessa ambitiösa mål krävs omfattande samhällsförändringar inom alla sektorer inte minst industrin som i Sverige står för drygt 30% av växthusgasutsläpp. Framställning av järn- och stål,

    cement, raffinaderiprodukter och kemikalier orsakar den största delen av dessa utsläpp. Under de senaste decennierna har olika åtgärder genomförts för att minska dessa utsläpp, men med undantag för pappers- och massaindustrin är växthusgas-utsläpp i stort sett på samma nivå som 1990. För att nå målen krävs en helt annan utveckling än vad som skett de senaste decennierna - mycket kraftiga utsläppsminskningar måste ske på mycket kort tid.

    Regeringen har givit Energimyndigheten i Uppdrag att genomföra innovationsfrämjande insatser för att minska process-industrins utsläpp av växthusgaser (N2016/06369/IFK). Inom ramen för detta regeringsuppdrag har forskningsinstitutet RISE, Chalmers och Jönköpings Internationella Handelshögskola fått ett uppdrag som syftar till att ta fram ett kunskaps-underlag om hur staten och andra aktörer kan stimulera en omställning mot kraftigt minskade växthusgasutsläpp inom svensk processindustri. Resultatet av detta uppdrag presenteras i denna rapport och de mest centrala slutsatserna presenteras i denna sammanfattning.

    Rapporten är avgränsad till analyser av de processindustrier som står för störst andel fossila växthusgasutsläpp i Sverige:

    järn- och stålindustrin (i denna rapport benämnd stålindustrin), cementindustrin, raffinaderiindustrin och kemiindustrin. För varje industri analyseras några exempel på tekniska alternativ (i denna rapport kallade omställningsalternativ) som kan leda till en omställning i form av sänkta processutsläpp av fossila växthusgaser. Effektivare användning av material samt högre grad av cirkulära flöden, så som ökad återvinning och ökad återanvändning, kan bidra till att sänka utsläppen. För att ge underlag för en bredare reflektion kring denna typ av alternativ inkluderas även några exempel på detta i analyserna.

    Analyserna i denna rapport utgår från ett sociotekniskt systemperspektiv på omställningar av industrier. Det innebär att teknisk förändring ses i ett större sammanhang, där tekniska system, aktörsstrukturer och institutioner utvecklas tillsammans i en iterativ process som kännetecknas av lärande och experimenterande men också betydande trögheter. Statens roll i sådana omställningsprocesser kan dels vara att stimulera teknisk utveckling i linje med samhällets långsiktiga mål (t.ex. hållbar utveckling), dels att låsa upp eller fasa ut etablerade strukturer för att ge plats för nya, mer önskvärda tekniker.

  • 210.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Guo, Siping
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandén, Björn A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Handling financial resource mobilisation in technological innovation systems - The case of chinese wind power2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, p. 3872-3882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To mitigate climate change, a rapid and large-scale expansion of sustainable innovations such as renewable energy technologies is crucial. China's track record of wind power development shows both speed and scale that can provide valuable knowledge of how to stimulate and maintain transformation of energy systems. The growth was made possible partly by ample access to financial capital. However, the rapid growth also led to growing pains and made the industry face increasing financial constraints. While these constraints partly relate to structures and trends that are external to the wind power innovation system, they were also a consequence of the particular path taken in Chinese wind power development. The case demonstrates that if a full-fledged industry is to be developed and sustained, a balanced growth is required and all innovation system functions need due attention, sooner or later. Conceptually, the article contributes by further exploring how mobilisation of financial resources affect and is affected by overall system dynamics.

  • 211.
    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Svedin, Christer
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Modelling Industrial Symbiosis of BiogasProduction and Industrial WastewaterTreatment Plants – A Review2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present-day treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents can be significantly improvedby incorporating biogas production in the context of industrial symbiosis. In this work anew industrial symbiosis concept is presented, the focus being on modelling it in view ofprocess optimization, design improvement and adoption by the pulp and paper industry.The concept consists of a first stage in which pulp and paper mills effluents are treatedby high-rate anaerobic digestion in external circulation sludge bed (ECSB) reactors toproduce biogas. In the second stage the removal of organic matter contained in thedigestate stream occurs through aerobic activated sludge treatment, aiming to achievemaximum sludge production with minimum aeration requirements. This sludge shouldin the case study then be co-digested with fish-waste silage to yield methane for energyproduction, nutrients-rich reject water that can be recycled to the activated sludgetreatment for optimum microbial activities and, production of nutrient rich soilamendment. The overall research aim is to develop a mathematical model that describesthe relevant process units and the dynamics of the different processes involving organicmatter removal, biogas production and nutrients release. The review overall finds thatan integrated model is required to simulate this concept and should include recentdevelopments in activated sludge, anaerobic digestion and physico-chemical modelling.

  • 212.
    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund University, Sweden.
    Lindblom, E.
    Lund University, Sweden; Stockholm Vatten Och Avfall, Sweden.
    Flores-Alsina, X.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Tait, S.
    University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Anderson, S.
    Stockholm Vatten Och Avfall, Sweden.
    Saagi, R.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Batstone, D. J.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gernaey, K. V.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Jeppsson, U.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Plant-wide model-based analysis of iron dosage strategies for chemical phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment systems2019In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 155, p. 12-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stringent phosphorus discharge standards (i.e. 0.15–0.3 g P.m −3 ) in the Baltic area will compel wastewater treatment practice to augment enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) with chemical precipitation using metal salts. This study examines control of iron chemical dosing for phosphorus removal under dynamic loading conditions to optimize operational aspects of a membrane biological reactor (MBR) pilot plant. An upgraded version of the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) with an improved physico-chemical framework (PCF) is used to develop a plant-wide model for the pilot plant. The PCF consists of an equilibrium approach describing ion speciation and pairing, kinetic minerals precipitation (such as hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) and FePO 4 ) as well as adsorption and co-precipitation. Model performance is assessed against data sets from the pilot plant, evaluating the capability to describe water and sludge lines across the treatment process under steady-state operation. Simulated phosphorus differed as little as 5–10% (relative) from measured phosphorus, indicating that the model was representative of reality. The study also shows that environmental factors such as pH, as well operating conditions such as Fe/P molar ratios (1, 1.5 and 2), influence the concentration of dissolved phosphate in the effluent. The time constant of simultaneous precipitation in the calibrated model, due to a step change decrease/increase in FeSO 4 dosage, was found to be roughly 5 days, indicating a slow dynamic response due to a multi-step process involving dissolution, oxidation, precipitation, aging, adsorption and co-precipitation. The persistence effect of accumulated iron-precipitates (HFO particulates) in the activated sludge seemed important for phosphorus removal, and therefore solids retention time plays a crucial role according to the model. The aerobic tank was deemed to be the most suitable dosing location for FeSO 4 addition, due to high dissolved oxygen levels and good mixing conditions. Finally, dynamic model-based analyses show the benefits of using automatic control when dosing chemicals. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 213.
    Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    VIVAB Vatten och Miljö i Väst, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    VIVAB Vatten och Miljö i Väst, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lunds university, Sweden.
    New insights on process performance and stability for anaerobic co-digestion through modelling and population analysis2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) allows for underutilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), e.g. food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper focuses on the implementation of codigestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment and OFMSW through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process and an increase of the biomethane production of 20 to 40% with 50% OFMSW and it has an impact on the microbial community. The methanogenic activity increases and changes towards acetate degradation while the community without co-substrate remains unaffected. The modelling results show that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in digester performance due to varying inhibition. Modelling can be successfully used for designing feed strategies and experimental set-ups for anaerobic co-digestion.

  • 214.
    Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sludge and Organic FoodWaste — Performance, Inhibition, and Impact on theMicrobial Community2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion allows for under-utilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), i.e., food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper investigates the co-digestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment plants and OFMSW, through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling, and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process, and an increase of the biomethane production by 20% to 40%, when codigesting mixed sludge with OFMSW at a ratio of 1:1, based on the volatile solids (VS) content. The introduction of OFMSW also has an impact on the microbial community. With 50% co-substrate and constant loading conditions (1 kg VS/m3/d) the methanogenic activity increases and adapts towards acetate degradation, while the community in the reference reactor, without a co-substrate, remains unaffected. An elevated load (2 kg VS/m3/d) increases the methanogenic activity in both reactors, but the composition of the methanogenic population remains constant for the reference reactor. The modelling shows that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads, and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in the digester performance, due to varying inhibition. The paper demonstrates how modelling can be used for designing feed strategies and experimental setups for anaerobic co-digestion.

  • 215.
    Knowles, Brandin
    et al.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Bates, Oliver
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    This changes sustainable HCI2018In: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than a decade into Sustainable HCI (SHCI) research, the community is still struggling to converge on a shared understanding of sustainability and HCI's role in addressing it. We think this is largely a positive sign, reflective of maturity; yet, lacking a clear set of aims and metrics for sustainability continues to be the community's impediment to progressing, hence we seek to articulate a vision around which the community can productively coalesce. Drawing from recent SHCI publications, we identify commonalities that might form the basis of a shared understanding, and we show that this understanding closely aligns with the authoritative conception of a path to a sustainable future proffered by Naomi Klein in her book This Changes Everything. We elaborate a set of contributions that SHCI is already making that can be unified under Klein's narrative, and compare these categories of work to those found in past surveys of the field as evidence of substantive progress in SHCI.

  • 216.
    Kovacs, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hemlin, Olleper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Jon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Larsson, David
    Femenias, Paula
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thuvander, Liane
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fahlen, Elsa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Solceller som solavskärmning: Forskning, utveckling och demonstration2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the implementation, results, discussion and conclusions of the project "Solar Shading in an Overall Perspective - From Energy Efficiency to Energy Production and from Product to Architecture". From 2015 to 2018, companies from the solar shading and solar PV industries, together with architects, researchers, contractors and property managers, have explored the area in order to increase interest, knowledge and acceptance for solar shading in various important target groups. A strong focus has been on the combination of solar cells and solar shadings in a product named electricity generating solar shading. Among the results is a literature summary and an experience feedback from eight installations, as well as a database of examples from about 70 solar-shading installations, most of which are built up of solar cells. A development effort in collaboration between solar shading- and solar PV companies has resulted in several new products that were evaluated in the project and now being demonstrated at RISE's office in Borås.

  • 217.
    Kovacs, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hemlin, Olleper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Regelmässiga förutsättningar för takrenoveringar och solcellsinstallationer – en litteratursammanställning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents a two-piece literature summary summarizing incentives and regulatory barriers to the renovation of multi-family houses, as well as general regulations, policies and other conditions for installations of solar cell installations. For developers and suppliers with interest in roof renovation with solar cells, the report aims to provide a picture of the conditions for such actions. The overall picture is that there is a rapid positive development of incentives and regulations specifically for solar cells. Additionally, regulations for energy efficiency and environmental certification can motivate property owners to carry out such combined approach.

    This report complements the project report for project "Environmental Roofing - Solar Energy Redevelopment" (Energy Agency Project Number: 41857-1) and is available via E2B2's website - http://www.e2b2.se/.

  • 218.
    Kraft, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Eriksson Brändels, Alexander
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    McCarthy, Richard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Certification, Certification.
    Litteraturstudie - Ökad användning av SKB för minskning av arbetsskador från vibrationer2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thepurpose of this study is to highlight the possibility of a better workingenvironment through an increased use of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Suchconcrete is denser and more durable, has higher compressive strength and abetter filling capacity. The main advantage of SCC is that it doesn’t requirevibration for proper compaction and therefore is better to work with. Despiteinitial higher cost to order, it becomes cheaper in a life cycle analysis. Ofall industries, the construction industry has the highest number of workersaffected by vibrations. According to statistics 2016, vibration damage totaled 36% of all approved occupational diseases. The resulting damage can rarely becured and often leads to reduced working capacity and to severe life-longproblems. A study showed that exposure increase of vibrations of just 1 m/s2increases the risk of white fingers (9%), Raynaud’s phenomenon (6.9%),neurosensory injury (7.4%) and carpal tunnel syndrome (2.9%). Most of thevarious activities with elements of vibration on the construction site, such assawing, grinding, screwing with machine etc., are difficult to replace withvibration-free methods. But for concrete casting, it is now possible to almostcompletely exclude vibrations by using SCC. The increased knowledge of theimportance of a healthy workplace for the economic performance of constructioncompanies has played a key role for work environment work. One study comparedthe benefits of accident prevention initiatives with the costs of the same. Itwas revealed that the benefit surpasses the costs with the relationship 3:1. Improvementsfor a healthier workplace can be achieved by: New innovations, both mechanicaland material innovations, making work easier. Studies using modern portablesensors from which information can play an important role in the possibility ofreducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Encouragingworkers to use wearable sensors that can alert when ergonomically dangerousmovements are carried out. Changing of an often reluctant culture at theworkplace. Better risk assessment at the design stage. Better planning inproject design in the early stages using new digital tools such as BIM. Betterinformation about risks and safety in order to affect the safety behaviour ofworkers. We recommend a larger working environment study that will show how apositive workplace development with SCC is possible and how much can be savedin this way. Here, medical expertise must be involved to increase reliability.In addition, there is a desire in medical research, on the working environmentand on vibration-related injuries, to fill in the gaps in previous researchthat remain, such as how cold weather and individual risk factors, such assmoking, affect the risk of vibration-related work injuries.  Improved working environment is the mainreason for increased use of SCC. Increased use should provide a moresustainable society.

  • 219.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Brick, Karolina
    Riksbyggen, Sweden.
    Rönneblad, Anders
    Cementa, Sweden.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Larsson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kriterier för resurssnålt byggande i praktiken: Slutrapport från forskningsprogrammet E2B2 – energieffektivtbyggande och boende2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet omfattar uppföljning av ställda kriterier för låg klimatpåverkan från betong vid upphandlingav betongstomme för brf. Viva i Göteborg. Kriterierna följdes upp dels genom att LCA studien somgenomförts under programskedet uppdaterades med data för den färdigupphandlade byggnaden ochdels genom att interljuva ett urval av aktörer för att få en inblick över hur branschen ser på de ställdakraven. Arbetet innehåller även en avslutande del angående känsligheten i beräkningarna samtosäkerheter och hur de kan behandlas.Byggnaderna som är tänkta att stå i 100 år kommer utsättas för klimatförändringar. Därförgenomfördes parallellt med LCA studien också energisimuleringar för att se hur den termiskakomforten och uppvärmningsbehovet förändras över tiden.Resultaten av LCA-uppföljningen och de ställda kriterierna visar att kraven uppfylldes för både denprefabricerade betongen och den platsgjutna betongen. Att jämföra den totala klimatpåverkan mellanprogramskedet och upphandlad byggnad visar sig inte vara möjligt då konstruktionen har förändratsalltför mycket, bland annat har den uppvärmda ytan ökat med ca 50% samtidigt som mer material haranvänts för de prefabricerade väggarna och bjälklagen. En känslighetsanalys har istället genomförtssom visar att den upphandlade konstruktionen har 30% lägre klimatpåverkan per BOA jämfört motom den byggts med traditionell betong. Hade de ursprungliga konstruktionsdetaljerna frånprogramskedet använts för väggar och bjälklag hade klimatpåverkan istället varit ca 40% lägre.Vid framtida kravställning bör man därför ta hänsyn även till konstruktionerna, betongkvaliteternaoch dess materialmängder och inte bara ställa krav på betongrecepten som i det här fallet.Klimatsimuleringarna visar att det troligen finns ett stort mörkertal med lågenergilägenheter som harförhöjd temperatur inomhus sommartid redan vid dagens klimat

  • 220.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Al-ayish, Nadia
    Brick, Karolina
    Riksbyggen, Sweden.
    Rönneblad, Anders
    Cementa, Sweden.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Larsson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Resurssnålt byggande: så ställs kraven för minstamöjliga klimatpåverkan: Resultatblad från forskningsprogrammet E2B2 –energieffektivt byggande och boende2018In: Energimyndigheten E2B2Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 221.
    Källander, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Effects of heat treatment of small clearwood samples on equilibrium moisture content and deformation2007In: COST Action E53 The First Conference: Quality Control for Wood and Wood Products, Warsaw University of Life Sciences , 2007, , p. 63-68Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 222.
    Kärrman, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Anderzen, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    von Bahr, Bo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berg, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Översikt över återvinning av fosfor och kväve från avlopp i nio utvalda länder2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increased focus on nutrients recycling specifically in Europe over the last years. This paper gives an overview of the situation in nine countries regarding status, policies and future perspectives in the area of phosphorus and nitrogen recycling from wastewater and sewage sludge. The study includes the situation in Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Netherlands, Great Britain, Norway, Finland and Canada. The information was received through interviews with national coordinators complemented with information from literature and other sources. The following topics were included:

    - Main management of sewage sludge and phosphorus extraction today

    - Expected future management of sewage sludge and phosphorus extraction, 5-10 years ahead

    - Experiences of nitrogen extraction from sewage

    - Experiences of source separated sewage systems

    - National targets, regulations and financial instruments to promote nutrients recycling from sewage

    - Ongoing research, development and innovation activities

    From the compilation of the results the countries were categorized in three groups 1)

    The Legislation group, 2) the Investigation group, and 3) the Limit group. The categorization was based on the current management of sewage sludge in combination with ambitions and future perspectives.

    The legislation group includes Germany and Switzerland where the latter is the only country with a prohibition of spreading sewage sludge in agriculture, implemented 2006. Germany is a frontrunner with a newly implemented legislation. Spreading of sewage sludge is today rare in Germany since limits are getting more and more strict over time. Incineration is a common method in both Switzerland and Germany and both countries are in the frontline regarding the introduction of phosphorus extraction from the ashes.

    Six countries still use considerable amounts sewage sludge on agriculture, where four countries; Great Britain, Denmark, Norway and Canada has no plans in changing this (the Limit group). The Netherlands is also part of the Limit group but is different since they do not spread any sewage sludge on agriculture due to tough limits.

    The investigation group contain Finland and Sweden. They are spreading relatively large amounts of sewage sludge but has also an ambition to start extract and recycle phosphorus. This is done with support of a policy in Finland and in with a governmental investigation in Sweden with aim at formulating new regulations.

    A general observation is that the current handling of sewage sludge in each country is more dependent on local conditions than a more scientific evaluation of different opportunities. The explanations can rather be found in the structure of the agriculture (the access of manure or the access of agricultural land convenient for spreading sewage sludge), traditions and attitude to incineration, possibilities of alternative use of sludge (cover of mines and landfills), debate of sewage sludge or other reasons.

  • 223.
    Kårekull, Oscar
    et al.
    Fläkt Woods, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Noise and indoor air quality: HVAC noise characteristics2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential buildings have an influence on the residents´ well-being. The characteristics of HVAC noise have been investigated as to recommend typical spectra for the design of a listening test using sound recordings. An HVAC system layout is developed to represent a system in a residential building where variations of the noise spectrum are possible without the use of unrealistic conditions. From a spectrum shape perspective the main parameter of the system is the balance between noise originated from the heat recovery unit and the duct component related noise. The receiving room spectrum is here mainly modified by the use of different silencers close to the heat recovery unit and the balance between the pressure loss of the air terminal device and a nearby damper. Modifications of the heat recovery unit total airflow and the inflow properties to the air terminal device are also investigated. Variations at both low and high frequencies are possible, at a constant total A-weighted sound pressure level, using these system properties.

  • 224.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Swedish Technical Benchmarking of TallTimber Buildings2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wood in the construction of multi-storey buildings has increased since the middle of the 1990’s and is still expected to grow in the future. 1994 the Swedish building rules changed. From material based, the rules became functional based. Before this year, the use of wood in houses with more than two storeys were prohibited for fire safety reasons. Now that wooden multi-storey buildings have been built for almost a quarter of a century, this report presents and explains the current technical requirements that multi-storey residential buildings must achieve:

    - Safety in case of fire, - Safe and comfortable structure, -Healthy indoor climate and frugal heating,

    Good acoustic. Environmental aspects and construction praxis are also shortly developed. Even thought, the list of requirements does not pretend to be exhaustively studied hereby. The choice is also related to the timber structures specificities. Five reference projects from 6 to 8 floors and built between 2006 and 2015 are presented briefly and used as examples along the report. Different wood building systems and technical solutions were used and illustrate the architectural and technical variability in the timber building industry as well as the evolution of the building regulations. The appendices to this report contain further information, drawings and pictures of these reference buildings. This report aims to bring some knowledge and practical ideas to people planning, designing or producing taller timber buildings in Sweden. It should be mention that the second part on safety in case of fire and the fifth part on acoustic require that the reader has some basic knowledge on this technical fields.

  • 225.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linderholt, A.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Dynamical properties of a large glulam truss for a tall timber building2018In: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing a tall timber building, the accelerations due to wind loads are in many cases decisive. The parameters governing the dynamic behaviour of the building are the structure's stiffness, damping and mass together with the loads. The first two parameters are not well-known during the serviceability limit state of timber structures generally and of timber connections specifically. In this study, dynamical properties of a large glulam truss, a part of the vertical and horizontal structural system in a residential six-storey timber building, are estimated from measurements made in the manufacturing plant. The timber members of the truss are joined with slotted-in steel plates and dowels. Forced vibrational test data are used to extract the dynamical properties. Finite element (FE) models, supported by the experimental results, were developed and simulations, to study the influence of the connection stiffnesses on the total behaviour, were performed. The vibration test results of measurements made on separate structural parts give valuable input to model timber structures and better possibilities to simulate the dynamic behaviour of tall timber buildings as well as the load distribution in wooden structures in the serviceability limit state.

  • 226.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Test-analyses comparisons of a stabilizing glulam truss for a tall building2019In: 2nd International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics – from Material Properties to Timber Structures. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, June 17-19, 2019, Växjö, Sweden, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Boork, Magdalena
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Barriers, driving forces and non-energy benefits for battery storage in photovoltaic (PV) systems in modern agriculture2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 18, article id 3568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Battery storage has been highlighted as one way to increase the share of renewables in energy systems. The use of local battery storage is also beneficial when reducing power variations in the grid, thereby contributing to more robust and cost-effective energy systems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits (NEB) for investments in battery storage in photovoltaic systems (PV) in the context of farmers with PV systems in Sweden. The study is based on a questionnaire about barriers, driving forces and NEB for investment in battery storage connected to PV. The questionnaire was sent to farmers in Sweden who already have photovoltaics installed and about 100 persons answered, a response rate of 59%. The major barriers found are related to the technical and economic risks of investing in battery storage. One of the main conclusions is that the highest-ranked driver, i.e., to use a larger part of the produced electricity oneself, turns out to be the highest priority for the grid-owner seeking to reduce the need for extensive investments in the grid. The primary NEBs found were the possibility of becoming independent from grid electricity. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 228.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Thorbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Byggae - Method for quality assurance of energy efficient buildings2017In: International Journal of Energy Production and Management, ISSN 2056-3272, E-ISSN 2056-3280, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies for energy efficiency requirements in buildings have become more stringent according to EU2020 goals. Despite policy regulations, requirements for energy efficiency are not met in many new buildings. Some of the reasons for this energy performance gap are related to the building process. The aim with this paper is to describe a purposed method for quality assurance of sustainable buildings according to energy efficiency. The proposed method is called ByggaE, where 'Bygga' is the Swedish word for 'build' and E is the first letter in 'energy efficient'. It is a tool intended to lower the energy performance gap related to the building process by guiding the client and providers through the process to fulfill goals. The essence of ByggaE is the formulation of requirements by the client and the working process of identifying, handling and following up critical constructions and key issues. This working process involves all participants in the building project by using appropriate quality guidelines and checklists for documentation, communication and verification. ByggaE is a step forward ensuring that the building fulfills the defined functions and that conscious decisions are taken when goals have to be changed during the building project. The next steps are to ensure the usefulness of the method in practice by more testing and to spread knowledge about the method.

  • 229.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Santandrea, Fabio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Stripple, Håkan
    IVL, Sweden.
    Consideration of uncertainties in LCA for infrastructure using probabilistic methods2019In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 711-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction and usage of transport infrastructure are major causes of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. The effects of resource consumption and pollutant emissions are often quantified through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models. All decisions made in infrastructure projects during the whole life cycle are afflicted by uncertainty, e.g. physical properties of materials or amount of pollutants emitted by certain processes. The pervasive role of uncertainty is reflected in LCA models, which therefore should consider uncertainty from various sources and provide a sound quantification of their effects. The aim of the work presented in this paper is to give an overview of different sources of uncertainty in LCA of infrastructure projects and to describe systematic methods to evaluate their influence on the results. The possibility of including uncertainty in a LCA-tool for infrastructure is presented, studying the sensitivity of the model output to the input parameters and two alternative approaches for propagation of uncertainty using two case studies. It is shown that, besides the influence of uncertainty in emission factors, other inputs such as material amounts and service life could contribute significantly to the variability of model output and has to be considered if reliable results are sought. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s).

  • 230.
    Larsson, Krister
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Digital verktygslåda för god ljudmiljö i stationssamhällen2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Densification around railway stations and near infrastructure can lead to benefits from the climate and resource efficiency point of view. Living near infrastructure nodes can reduce car dependency and enable more sustainable travel. At the same time, noise from rail traffic causes annoyance and negative health effects for residents, and densification can therefore lead to an increase in the number of people exposed to noise, with increased social costs as a result.

    The purpose of the project is to facilitate the implementation of noise measures in the infrastructure at railway stations, thereby enabling climate smart and sustainable densification in public transport-related locations, as well as efficient use of resources at the source. The goal is to compile a digital toolbox with methodology and sample collection for demonstration of technical noise-reducing measures in railway infrastructure.

    The digital toolbox contains auralization of different track-close noise measures for different train types, which can be used as a complement to traditional noise predictions to create a more realistic experience of the sound environment. The auralizations are based on recordings of train passages in station-close locations, which have been corrected with calculated insertion losses for the various measures.

    In addition, the socio-economic costs of noise and the corresponding benefits for a noise measure are calculated using updated valuation models based on WHO's latest recommendations. The results are compared with the current official Swedish valuation model ASEK.

    The project uses co-creation to develop the tool where design and content are prioritized at a workshop together with the intended target group. The tool is openly available and an executable version for PC can be downloaded via https://sourceforge.net/projects/ljudmiljo-i-stationssamhallen/. The source code is openly accessible via https://github.com/larssonkrister/Stationsnara/.

  • 231.
    Lennartsson, Maria
    et al.
    City of Stockholm, Sweden.
    McConville, Jennifer
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hagman, Marinette
    Northwestern Skånes Water and Wastewater Municipal Company, Sweden.
    Kjerstadius, Hamse
    Northwestern Skånes Water and Wastewater Municipal Company, Sweden.
    Investments in innovative urban sanitation - Decision-making processes in Sweden2019In: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, E-ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 588-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies decision-making processes in relation to the implementation of innovative source-separating wastewater systems in the development area of Helsingborg called H+, and the non-implementation of the same in Stockholm Royal Seaport. Two analytical perspectives were used to identify critical organisational functions, drivers for change and the anchoring of these decisions within policy: (i) a sustainability transitions framework, and (ii) a policy trickle-down study assessing policy-concept uptake by stakeholders. Critical functions supporting implementation of source-separating systems in H+ were: common vision, leadership, cross-sectoral cooperation, and an innovative approach both within the utility and in the city administration in Helsingborg. In Stockholm, with regard to source-separating wastewater systems, there was a lack of common vision and of cross-sectoral cooperation and leadership. This was also evident in the lack of uptake by stakeholders of the policies for source separation. In Helsingborg, the main drivers for source-separating wastewater systems are increased biogas generation and improved potential for nutrient recycling. In Stockholm, these drivers have not been enough to create change, but the potential for increased heat recovery from greywater at source may be the additional driver necessary for future implementation of source-separating wastewater systems. Comparison of the stalled source-separation policy in Stockholm with a successfully implemented policy in a related field found a key criteria to be the presence of inspired individuals in positions where they had the mandate as well as the ability to create a common vision for change.

  • 232.
    Limbach, René
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Scannell, Garth
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Mathew, Renny
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    The effect of TiO2 on the structure of Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glasses and its implications for thermal and mechanical properties2017In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 471, no C, p. 6-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titania represents an important compound for property modifications in the widespread family of soda lime silicate glasses. In particular, such titania-containing glasses offer interesting optical and mechanical properties, for example, for substituting lead-bearing consumer glasses. Here, we provide a systematic study of the effect of TiO2 on the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties for three series of quaternary Na2O–CaO–TiO2–SiO2 glasses with TiO2 concentrations up to 12 mol% and variable Na2O, CaO, and SiO2 contents. Structural analyses by Raman and magic-angle spinning 29Si NMR spectroscopy reveal the presence of predominantly four-fold coordinated Ti[4] atoms in glasses of low and moderate TiO2 concentrations, where Si–O–Si bonds are replaced by Si–O–Ti[4] bonds that form a network of interconnected TiO4 and SiO4 tetrahedra, with a majority of the non-bridging oxygen ions likely being located at the SiO4 tetrahedra. At higher TiO2 contents, TiO5 polyhedra are also formed. Incorporation of TiO2 strongly affects the titanosilicate network connectivity, especially when its addition is accompanied by a decrease of the CaO content. However, except for the thermal expansion coefficient, these silicate-network modifications seem to have no impact on the thermal and mechanical stability. Instead, the compositional dependence of the thermal and mechanical properties on the TiO2 content stems from its effect on the network energy and packing efficiency.

  • 233.
    Lindahl, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Värmepumpar i fjärrvärmesystem2017In: Kyla&Värme, no 1, p. 44-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 234.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Borgqvist, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Certified energy consultant for increasednumber of retail grocery stores with low energy use, safe operation and low environmental impact2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 376-384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the framework for a proposed certification for energy consultants targeting the grocery sector, i.e. supermarkets. Thecertificationshould cover necessary knowledge and requirements, with the overall aim of increasing energy efficiency and reducing related costs for the store at the system level. Within the retail sector, supermarkets are the most energy-intensive buildings. Buildings intended for food sector applications need to be of a special design, with requirements that differ from other premises. Half of the electricity used is employed to keep food cold. However, energy efficiency can be improved through efficient equipment and increased knowledge, sometimes by 30-50% or more. This paper presents different skills and requirements needed by a certified energy consultant, CEC, working with energy efficiency in supermarket, from the retailer's perspective. Thus, the specifications can be used to further develop the certification area; energy consulting for supermarkets and good practice approaches targeting this area.

  • 235.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. University of Borås, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fahlén, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Axell, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Fransson, Niklas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thermal comfort in the supermarketenvironment – multiple enquiry methods and simultaneous measurements of the thermal environment2017In: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 82, p. 426-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the supermarket environment three factors must be considered: food (food quality), personnel (working conditions), and customers.The customers do not remain in this environment very long but are of particular interest since they constitute the supermarket’s commercial basis. However, there are no recommendations on the indoor environment based on this category. This study compares the perceived indoor thermal environment with simultaneous objective measurements of the thermal environment and includes multiple enquiry methods. These methods have been used for this specific environment in order to understand how customers perceive, evaluate, and prefer variations in the thermal environment.

    Measurements were performed in summer and winter in front of twelve display cabinets, over 1100 questionnaires have been received.To provide recommendations, this study presents measured and perceived comfort in supermarkets, information which can be used for prescribing suitable thermal environments for customers.

  • 236.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rolfsman, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Swartz, H.
    Energy agreements regarding grocery stores for a sustainable society - Lessons learned2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 152-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we aim to shed light on waste heat from commercial refrigeration, which is common but unnecessary. Excess heat is the heat which is not recovered, although it is possible to do so. We include heating for existing buildings: grocery stores as stand-alone, or within another building. VariousSwedish perspectives of the parties involved, tenant and landlord, are discussed. Theoretically and technically, it is not difficult to distributeexcess energy from a tenant to another receiver, which in turn uses the energy. However, to meet energy goals regarding energy consumption for heating buildings requires new and efficient approaches. The technique is already known and availableon the market. We suggest that availableenergy and heat recovery projects, contracts and agreements maysignificantly enhance the possibility of creating viable energy efficiency projects, and include excess heat. Results include lessons learned from the parties.

  • 237.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sundström, Malin
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Consumer perception and behavior in the retail foodscape – A study of chilled groceries2018In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 40, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the retail grocery business, new competitors such as pure e-commerce players are growing fast, and, in order to compete, ‘brick and mortar’ stores such as supermarkets need to become more professional at providing excellent customer service, and to use the physical servicescape as the main competitive advantages. However, supermarkets also face a challenge to offer consumers high quality products while at the same time providing a pleasant and functional servicescape. Products like groceries often need to be stored in cabinets due to strict regulations and in order to maintain correct temperatures. Some of these cabinets have doors which make them more energy-efficient (Evans et al., 2007 ;  Faramarzi et al., 2002), reduces costs, and contributes to grocery quality, but it can also affect the perceived servicescape, and risk a negative impact on sales (Waide, 2014; Kauffeld, 2015). For example, moisture from the atmosphere that condenses on the inside of the door glass (Fricke and Bansal, 2015) may make the cabinets less transparent, and doors can obstruct consumers from passing by. Thus, having chilled groceries in cabinets with doors can be both beneficial and problematic. However, no studies have been conducted on how open (no doors) or closed (with doors) cabinets for chilled groceries impact consumer perception and behavior. Hence, the purpose of the study is to contribute to an understanding of how consumers behave and what they perceive when shopping chilled groceries from cabinets with doors and without doors in the supermarket.

    Based on a qualitative research approach, combining in-store observations and focus group interviews, and focusing on Bitner's (1992) three environmental variables in the servicescape, i.e. (1) ambient condition, (2) space and functions, and (3) signs, symbols and artifacts, the study investigates the question: do open or closed cabinets for chilled groceries in the supermarket impact consumer perception and behavior, and if so, how?

    Our results indicate that consumers’ behavior and perceptions of the foodscape differ when there are doors or no doors on the cabinets. The paper thereby contributes to servicescape research by focusing on a particular part of supermarkets – the foodscape for chilled groceries–and by enhancing the understanding of environmental variables in the servicescape. The results further show how doors lead to different forms of approach or avoidance behavior in terms of accessibility and that consumers’ vision, olfaction and tactility all influence consumers’ perceptions of freshness and cleanliness in relation to doors or no doors. Our results also have practical implications for retailers who are designing new stores or considering changes in existing store layouts.

  • 238.
    Linden, Hanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    LCM development: focusing on the LC promoters and their organizational problem-solving2019In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 297-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Life cycle management (LCM) implies a specific sustainability perspective which extends environmental management along the product life cycle, with the aim of decreasing negative environmental impact throughout the product chain. Research has identified that the adoption of LCM in the industry depends upon its situational adaptation to the organizational context. Even so, little is known about the specifics of this adaptation. With this paper, our aim is to add knowledge on LCM adoption and adaptation. Methods: A systematic analysis of empirical material on life cycle (LC) activity in six multinational corporations (MNCs) is conducted, by applying a secondary analysis of qualitative data (Heaton 2008). In order to study instances of LCM adoption and adaptation, we focus on the acts and situations of LC promoters. The identified instances are analyzed through the lens of situated problem-solving (Kuhn and Jackson 2008). Results and discussion: Sixty-seven instances of LC promotion were identified and analyzed, resulting in the identification of eight categories of problem-situations typically encountered by LC promoters. The identified problem-situations represent different situations when the organizational appropriateness of the LC approach is at stake and to which responses tailored to the organization are put forward by a LC promoter. The results bring to the fore the ubiquity of organizational and creative problem-solving, highlighting the role of LC promoters as change agents for LCM adoption, and depict the development of LCM as an emergent practice, rather than an implementation process. Conclusions: This paper provides a first systematic analysis of LC promoters enacting a variety of responses to organizationally challenging LC situations, thus detailing the adaptation necessary for embedding LCM in the industry. Findings show that the development of LCM to a great extent is about the promotion of a LC approach, and that LC promoters need organizational knowing, in addition to LC knowing, to make the LC approach relevant to management and business.

  • 239.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    A simulation based study of low frequency transient sound radiation from floors - A concrete vs. a hybrid floor2017In: 24th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timber is a renewable and human friendly construction material and thereby a potential solution to achieve life cycle sustainable buildings. However, it is clear that impact sound and vibrations wit hin the low frequency range still are challenges for wooden joist floors. Another challenge is the, mostly, larger building heights of wooden or hybrid floors compared to the heights of concrete floors. Using timber as the structural joist floor material could imply fewer stories due to maximum allowed building heights, which renders in less income in a building project. Accurate simulations of impact sound may decrease the need for prototypes; thus saving money and time in the timber building industry. Here, a hybrid joist floor consisting of wood, sand and steel is compared to a concrete floor in terms of radiated impact sound into a rectangular cavity. The hybrid floor is designed such that its mass distribution and globa l stiffness are close to the same properties of the concrete floor. Finite element models are used for simulations of the radiated transient sound induced by impact forces having the characteristics of human walking. The simulations indicate that similar surface mass and bending stiffness of a floor intersection give similar impact sound transmission properties around the first bending mode, while it is not necessary so at higher frequencies.

  • 240.
    Lindgård, Jan
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Grelk, Bent
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Wigum, Børge Johannes
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Appelquist, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Holt, Erika E.
    VTT, Finland.
    Ferreira, Miguel
    RILEM, Finland.
    Leivo, Markku
    VTT, Finland.
    Nordic Europe2017In: Alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete: a world review / [ed] Ian Sims, Alan B. Poole, Taylor & Francis, 2017, p. 277-320Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 241.
    Lindqvist, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Tufvesson, Linda
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Khalil, Sammar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Prade, Thomas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bio-based production systems: Why environmental assessment needs to include supporting systems2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 17, article id 4678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a bio-based economy is expected to deliver substantial environmental and economic benefits. However, bio-based production systems still come with significant environmental challenges, and there is a need for assessment methods that are adapted for the specific characteristics of these systems. In this review, we investigated how the environmental aspects of bio-based production systems differ from those of non-renewable systems, what requirements these differences impose when assessing their sustainability, and to what extent mainstream assessment methods fulfil these requirements. One unique characteristic of bio-based production is the need to maintain the regenerative capacity of the system. The necessary conditions for maintaining regenerative capacity are often provided through direct or indirect interactions between the production system and surrounding "supporting" systems. Thus, in the environmental assessment, impact categories affected in both the primary production system and the supporting systems need to be included, and impact models tailored to the specific context of the study should be used. Development in this direction requires efforts to broaden the system boundaries of conventional environmental assessments, to increase the level of spatial and temporal differentiation, and to improve our understanding of how local uniqueness and temporal dynamics affect the performance of the investigated system.

  • 242.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Balksten, Kristin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Fredrich, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Blast furnace slag in historical mortars of Bergslagen, Sweden.2019In: / [ed] J.I.A. Álvarez, J.M. Fernández, I. Navarro, A. Duran, R. Sirera, Paris: Rilem publications, 2019, p. 83-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Lindström, Camilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Appelquist, Karin
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Sjöqvist, Lovise
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Kvantifiering av mikrostrukturer och dess inverkan på sprickbildning i berg2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new methodology based on monitoring of crack propagation during small-scale mechanical tests on sawn rock prisms under tension has been developed. The methodology includes a combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scale levels. Material testing is performed through a tensile stage. Crack monitoring is performed by means of Digital Image Correlation and Acoustic Emission. After the test, microcrack and fracture patterns are studied and quantified in thin-sections using fluorescent light under a petrographic microscope.

    By using Digital Image Correlation it is possible to follow crack propagation in relation to the microstructure on the surface of the specimen in a detailed way, whereas Acoustic Emission offers real-time measurement of the crack activity within the specimen. By combining these techniques, it is possible to relate the Acoustic Emission signal characteristics to different phases of the cracking process, such as crack initiation, propagation and bridging of microcracks into macrocracks as well as the creation and localization of the final fracture. After the tensile stage test, crack patterns and the final fractures are studied in detail using polarizing and fluorescence microscopy, establishing the relationship of these. The methodology is practiced to increase the knowledge of critical parameters affecting cracking processes in rock materials and to show how this is related to the material's microstructure as well as mesostructure.

  • 244.
    Lisa, Bolin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Norrblom, Hans-Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea.
    Hållbarhetsanalys av cirkulära möbelflöden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport belyser på vilket sätt den miljömässiga, sociala och ekonomiska hållbarheten för offentliga möbler ändras när man går från linjära till mer cirkulära affärsmodeller. Analyserna utgår ifrån fallstudier av en trästol med stoppad sits, en stol med metallben och stoppad sits, en kontorsstol samt ett möblemangbestående av skrivbord och stol. De miljömässiga effekterna av att sälja dessa produkter i en cirkulär affärsmodell har beräknats med hjälp av livscykelanalys (LCA). Resultaten diskuteras även i förhållande till cirkulära affärsmodellers inverkan på sociala aspekter och ekonomisk hållbarhet.

    Studien visar att miljönyttan med cirkulära affärsmodeller varierar med produkt men också med typ av miljöpåverkan som studeras. Livscykelanalysberäkningar på produkter som studerats inom projektet visar till exempel på minskningar av klimatpåverkan med runt 20-40% när en möbel tillhandahålls med en cirkulär affärsmodell istället för en traditionell linjär. Samtidigt minskade behovet av ingående materialresurser (trä, stål mm) med runt 50%. Utöver livscykelanalyser bör miljöbedömningen av en cirkulär affärsmodell också särskilt beakta användingen av toxiska ämnen. För att kunna arbeta praktiskt med dessa frågor är dokumentation och spårbarhet för möbler och material en viktigt fråga.  

    En cirkulär affärsmodell ger inte med automatik en lägre total miljöpåverkan. Det som spelar störst roll är affärsmodellens förmåga att öka den faktiska livslängden på produkten. Det är också viktigt att möbler fortsatt designas för att materialen ska kunna återvinnas när möbeln inte längre är i bruk, oavsett om de är gjorda för återbruk eller ej. Ökade transporter och lagerhållning som konsekvens av cirkulära affärskoncept har i våra fallstudier liten inverkan på miljöprestandan.   

    Uppskattningsvis finns en potential till besparing om ca 45 000 ton koldioxidekvivalenter årligen – om alla kontorsmöbler som produceras i Sverige i stället skulle säljas enligt cirkulär modell. Detta motsvarar ungefär nytillverkning av 450 000 kontorsstolar (NEPD-467-327-EN, 2016). Det finns dock mycket lite statistik över hur möbler används och när de de facto slängs vilket gör det svårt att säga något om faktiska miljöförbättringar i större skala.

    Hållbarhet är inte bara miljö, utan även ekonomiska och sociala aspekter, såsom livscykelkostnad för kunden eller påverkan på arbetsmiljö och arbetstillfällen. Om cirkulära affärsmodeller blir mer eller mindre ekonomiskt hållbara beror på det aktuella fallet och ur vems perspektiv ekonomin utvärderas. Viktigt att tänka på när man utvärderar cirkulära affärsmodeller är att ta ett livscykelperspektiv på kostnaderna, t.ex. att en kund inte bara beaktar inköpspris utan alla kostnader att införskaffa, inneha, hantera och avyttra sina möbler. Dessa kostnader kommer att påverka om affärsmodellen är lönsam eller inte för de olika aktörerna. Här saknas dock ofta data när det gäller indirekta kostnader och hanteringskostnader.

    Det är troligt att de största miljöeffekterna av cirkulära affärsmodeller kommer av ändrade beteenden kring möbler och möbelköp på sikt - såsom nya kundgrupper för möbler med lång livslängd - samt inspirationseffekt till andra branscher hur cirkulära affärsmodeller kan genomföras i praktiken.

    För att beräkna eller bedöma hållbarheteffekter krävs en mängd data och metodmässiga val. För att miljö- och hållbarhetsanalyser ska kunna användas mer utbrett i möbelbranschen inom tex marknadskommunikation, upphandling eller som underlag för styrmedel, behöver branschen komma överens om gemensamma riktlinjer för hur man ska beräkna och kommunicera effekterna av cirkularitet.  

  • 245.
    Lo Cascio, Ermanno
    et al.
    Università degli Studi di Genova, Italy.
    Puig von Friesen, Marc
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Schenone, Corrado
    Università degli Studi di Genova, Italy.
    Optimal retrofitting of natural gas pressure reduction stations for energy recovery2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 153, p. 387-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a structured retrofitting approach (SRA) to the near-optimal design of natural gas (NG) pressure reduction stations (PRSs) is presented. The SRA is designed by considering the waste energy recovery, system integration opportunities and long-term-based objectives to successfully address the entire PRS retrofitting process. The SRA is developed in four phases: pre-retrofit activities, preliminary and executive project design, implementation and commissioning and post-retrofit activities. For design optimization during the preliminary and executive project design phase, a novel mathematical model was developed based on the minimization of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The optimization model consists of a non-smooth constrained problem that has been solved by means of different solution methods and has been tested for different thermal peak loads, fuel purchase costs, and natural gas flow rates. Variations of the thermal design conditions from 2900 kW to 1300 kW for a constant annual heat demand, fluctuations of the percentage increase of the NG cost by 80-100-120-140%, and reductions of the NG user demand of 30% and 60% were considered. The results highlighted that the proposed optimization technique in PRS retrofitting identifies the best system configuration and turbo expander technology.

  • 246.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden; , KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Järlskog, Ida
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Wet Dust Sampler—a Sampling Method for Road Dust Quantification and Analyses2019In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 230, no 8, article id 180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern countries, the climate, and consequently the use of studded tyres and winter traction sanding, causes accumulation of road dust over winter and spring, resulting in high PM10 concentrations during springtime dusting events. To quantify the dust at the road surface, a method—the wet dust sampler (WDS)—was developed allowing repeatable sampling also under wet and snowy conditions. The principle of operation is flushing high-pressurised water over a defined surface area and transferring the dust laden water into a container for further analyses. The WDS has been used for some time and is presented in detail to the international scientific community as reported by Jonsson et al. (2008) and Gustafsson et al. (2019), and in this paper, the latest version is presented together with an evaluation of its performance. To evaluate the WDS, the ejected water amount was measured, as well as water losses in different parts of the sampling system, together with indicative dust measurement using turbidity as a proxy for dust concentration. The results show that the WDS, when accounting for all losses, have a predictable and repeatable water performance, with no impact on performance based on the variety of asphalt surface types included in this study, given undamaged surfaces. The largest loss was found to be water retained on the surface, and the dust measurements imply that this might not have as large impact on the sampled dust as could be expected. A theoretical particle mass balance shows small particle losses, while field measurements show higher losses. Several tests are suggested to validate and improve on the mass balances. Finally, the WDS is found to perform well and is able to contribute to further knowledge regarding road dust implications for air pollution.

  • 247.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden; KTH Royal Instiute of Technology, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    VTI, Sweden.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    VTI, Sweden; KTH Royal Instiute of Technology, Sweden; University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Calibration of the Swedish studded tyre abrasion wear prediction model with implication for the NORTRIP road dust emission model2019In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimentally based prediction model of road abrasion wear due to studded tyres is available in Sweden and has been found to work well. However, it has not been validated since 2007, and since then road surfaces and tyre design have developed, and the question has arisen regarding the model’s current validity. The abrasion wear model is used in the NORTRIP emission model (NOn-exhaust Road Traffic Induced Particle emission modelling), and the effect of a recalibrated abrasion wear model on the emission model is shown. In this paper, the abrasion wear model is compared to full-scale field measurements at several recently constructed roads in Sweden to investigate its validity, while also proposing changes to allow for continued use. It is concluded that the model overestimates the wear and an update is suggested. In addition, the impact on NORTRIP emission predictions is briefly investigated. There were also indications that NORTRIP is affected by the abrasion model overestimating the contribution of pavement wear to the particle emissions.

  • 248.
    Lundberg, Louise
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Atongka Tchoffor, Placid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Pallarès, David
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thunman, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Impacts of Bed Material Activation and Fuel Moisture Content on the Gasification Rate of Biomass Char in a Fluidized Bed2019In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 58, no 12, p. 4802-4809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of certain bed materials has been found to increase the steam gasification rate of biomass char. The present work investigates how this phenomenon is influenced by different parameters (e.g., temperature, fuel type, and fuel moisture content), using a laboratory-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Silica sand, fresh olivine, and activated olivine were employed as bed materials, and three biomass fuels (wood chips, wood pellets, and forest residue pellets) were considered. Switching the bed material from silica sand to activated olivine resulted in a significant increase in the char gasification rate for all three fuels, with further increases noted as the fuel particle size was decreased. The observed effect was strongest (up to 4-fold) during the initial conversion phase (char gasification degrees < 20%) when the temperature was relatively low (≤ 800 °C). The moisture content of the wood chips (0-40%) had no significant effect on the char gasification rate.

  • 249.
    Lundgren, Monica
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Exposure experiments in sulfate containing solution, including exposure at low temperature2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes results of an investigation on the sulfate resistance of dual blended binder of mortar and concrete specimens over a period of 1 year. The focus is on showing the importance of the chemistry of the components when discussing sulfate resistance and the relation of that to the hydrate phase assemblage. Moreover the importance of the test method for evaluations is pointed out.

  • 250.
    Lundgren, Monica
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    State-of-the-Art Report on: Material Type, Requirements and Durability aspects of Sprayed Concrete in Tunnels2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report summarizes a state-of-the-art for sprayed concrete applied for ground support in tunnel environments, in Sweden and several European countries, with focus on the components, the mix design and the guidelines and specifications. It focuses also on the addition of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), where the use, the common practice and the long-term experience vary from country to country. The report presents numerous examples of applications in Sweden and seven other European countries. It also gives an overview about the possible exposure risks and summarizes the relevant durability issues. Along with specifications in international standards and guidelines it also reviews the national requirements in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Austria, France, Germany and Switzerland.

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