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  • 2001.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    In-situ calibration of voltage transformers on the Swedish national grid1996In: IEE Conference Publication, 1996, no 426, p. 227-239Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish voltage transformer calibration system is based on the use of a very accurate multi-ratio inductive voltage transformer rated for the full dielectric requirements on the 400 kV grid. The output voltage from the voltage transformer under test is compared to the output from the reference transformer in an automatic bridge circuit. A computer is used to read the data from the bridge and to prepare the calibration certificate. A six decade precision inductive voltage transformer, an inductive voltage divider, can be employed as a ratio matching element.

  • 2002.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    International comparison of measurement of 200 kV DC, Results obtained of SP.2008Report (Refereed)
  • 2003.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Measuring system for in-situ calibration of high voltage transformers1994In: CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements), 1994, p. 301-302Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mobile calibration system for in-situ calibration of voltage transformers is analyzed with respect to measuring uncertainty under field conditions. The total basic uncertainty is better than ±0.015% respectively ±0.3 mrad. The system has been, used to calibrate 570 capacitor voltage transformers.

  • 2004.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Metrology for high voltage direct current state-of-art and current development2011In: Joint IMEKO TC11-TC19-TC20 Int. Symp. Metrological Infrastructure, Environmental and Energy Measurement and Int. Symp. of Energy Agencies of Mediterranean Countries, IMEKO-MI 2011, 2011, p. 29-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy transmission by high voltage direct current - HVDC - is steadily increasing in the world, both at the highest power levels, but also at medium power, for example in connections of remote wind-parks to the main a.c. grid. Although principles for d.c. side measurements are known since long, support from metrology is not on par with the needs. An overview of available technologies and the challenges for metrology shows that advances are needed in determination of power losses in convertors, traceability for transmission line voltage measurement, power quality and d.c. side metering. Response to these challenges is given by seven national metrology institutes, one university and one industrial partner, in a project funded by the European Union under Article 169. The research will provide traceable calibrations and measurements in the assigned areas, and capability of measurement will extend to transmission line levels including 1000 kV d.c.

  • 2005.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Publishable JRP2012Report (Refereed)
  • 2006.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Qualification of a reference measuring systems for impulse voltage.1992Report (Refereed)
  • 2007.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Bergman, Sixten
    Consultant, Rönnvägen 1 A, 507 71 Gånghester, Sweden.
    Hoffmann, Christian
    Baur Gmbh, Austria.
    Paulus, Eberhard
    Baur Gmbh, Austria.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Traceable measurement of dielectric dissipation factor at Very Low Frequency2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Very Low Frequency (VLF) tests are often used for after-laying tests of power cables since the reactive power demand is much lower at VLF than at 50 Hz. In order to augment the usefulness of the test, it is often complemented by a measurement of dielectric dissipation factor (tan ), where the acceptance of the tested object is based on this measurement. A traceability chain for dissipation factor at high voltage and very low frequency has as yet not been recognized by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), which results in difficulties to prove the quality of the measurement. The measurement is complicated by the limited range of the current in the test object that can be resolved by available high voltage test equipment, thus limiting the possible choices of reference systems. A novel reference measuring system that can fulfil these needs has been developed at SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden in the capacity as National Measurement Institute. The traceability of the system to National Standards of Measurement is ensured by careful scientific work and analyses. This measuring system has the ability to measure dissipation factor at 0.1 Hz in the voltage range from 0.5 kV up to 50 kV with an uncertainty better than 0.004 %.

  • 2008.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Hällström, J
    Dedeoglu, S
    Houtzager, E
    lucas, W
    Merev, A
    Weber, C
    Design of a wideband HVDC reference divider2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 207-208p. 207-208Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2009.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Hällström, Jari
    VTT-MIKES, Finland.
    Evaluation of step response of transient recorders for lightning impulse2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High voltage equipment will be subjected to several types of electrical stress during operation. A battery of factory tests is defined to ensure that the equipment will perform satisfactorily in service. One of the crucial tests is to apply a simulated lighting impulse as standardised to a double-exponential impulse with at front time of 1.2 µs (± 30 %) and a time to half value of 50 µs (± 20 %). Although this wave-shape only approximates natural lightning, there is a solid body of experience within industry, proving that reliability of equipment in service is adequately proven by the standard waveform. It is however crucial for consistency of results that the both voltage level and wave-shape are correctly measured. This paper discusses the requirements and performance of the recording instruments used, leaving the properties of high voltage impulse dividers outside the discussion. The requirements for the recording instrument – transient recorder – are given in IEC 61083-1. The standard provides requirements for, and/or tests to verify, that the recorder has moderately fast response, fast settling time, high resolution, linearity under dynamic conditions, high accuracy and reasonably low internal noise. This is partly in contrast to major trends in transient recorder development, where fast sampling and fast step response are prioritized ahead of high accuracy and fast settling without creeping response. We have therefore evaluated several commercially available recorders in order to find one with respectively flat and reasonably fast step response. In this campaign, a proprietary step generator based on the use of a mercury reed relay has been used. Evaluation of this device is submitted to ISH 2017. It has been found that the measured flatness of the step response directly after the step is a good first indicator of the performance of the transient recorder. This is identified in IEC 61083-1 clauses 1.5.2 and 1.5.3, as a requirement on stability of the recorded step from 0.5 T1min to T2max. For lightning impulse this means from 0.42 µs to 60 µs. For approved transient recorders the requirement is to be within 1 %. For reference transient recorders, a limit of not more than 0.5 % should be applied. Further proof of the accuracy of the transient recorder can be achieved by convolution of an ideal waveform with the recorded step response and analysing the resulting curve with lightning impulse parameter software. A third possibility is to make direct calibration of the transient recorder, using a calculable impulse calibrator. Several state-of-art transient recorders have been evaluated and the results show that only a few are suited for measurement of lightning impulse. Also, the variation of the performance between the ranges and channels of one instruments are significantly large. Both direct assessment of step response as well as result of convolution with a theoretical 0.84/50 µs impulse will be reported. The agreement with results obtained with a calculable impulse calibrator will be illustrated.

  • 2010.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hällström, J
    Impulse dividers for dummies2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2011.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Larsson, A
    Verfication of AC measuring system linearity1998In: Conference proceedings, ERA Technology, 1998, , p. 2/2.1-10Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2012.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Marx, R.
    Schon, K.
    Suomalainen, E. -P
    Hallstrom, J.
    Intercomparison of AC peak voltage measurement1999In: IEE Conference Publication, 1999, no 467, p. 1.9.S1-1.12.S1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An intercomparison on the measurement of high voltage peak value has been carried out between the National Metrology Institutes of Sweden and Germany in 1995 and between Finland and Sweden in 1996. The results show a very satisfactory agreement between the participants. It seems that part of the discrepancies found may be due to the loose definition of peak voltage in IEC 60060-1.

  • 2013.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Meisner, J
    Svensson, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Enabling DC-Side Metering in HVDC Stations2014In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 370-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HVDC power transmission is now being considered not only for point-to-point interties, but also as true grids where several operators may tie into the grid, each having its own economic sphere. In this new situation, it is important that transmitted energy be distinguished from losses incurred in the converter stations, to enable a fair distribution of costs for grid operation. To this end, a metrology infrastructure is needed where high-current and high-voltage transducers must be possible to calibrate traceably, and where dc electricity meters can be calibrated and approved. A research project is currently working with these questions in a concerted European research effort, funded by the European Commission. The present publication highlights important aspects of this work.

  • 2014.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Nilsson, H.
    A Constant Voltage Source Based on a Mercury Battery1993In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 365-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A constant voltage source based on a stable mercury battery has been developed at SP (Swedish National Testing and Research Institute). By using as active current compensation technique, the inherent high stability of a mercury battery can be retained up to a load current of several milliamperes.

  • 2015.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Nordlund, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Characterisationat low voltage of two reference lightning impulse dividers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An effort is pursued by several European National Measurement Institutes to lower the uncertainties in calibration of UHV measuring systems for lighting impulse. To this end, several reference dividers are investigated as regards their accuracy both for amplitude and for time parameters. At SP - RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, a 500 kV resistive reference divider has been in use since 2000. Additionally an 800 kV resistive divider is investigated as a possible reference divider for UHV lightning impulse measuring systems. The best uncertainty for the 500 kV reference measuring system is 1 % for voltage amplitude and 3 % for time parameters. The present work aims at lowering these uncertainties by means of better characterisation and evaluation of the possibilities to apply corrections for known errors. The scale factor and dynamic behaviour of a resistive divider can be conveniently determined at low voltage and frequency. Further experiments such as linearity tests and augmented by scientific work is needed to ascertain the performance at high voltage. Step response plays a major role in the characterisation of dividers, and in this work much effort has gone into gathering step responses and evaluating them for various circuit layouts to characterise the variation of the step response due to circuit dimensions and diverse proximity effects. The step applied to the divider is generated by a mercury wetted relay based step generator with an output voltage of 200 V. The step rise-time is a few ns, and thus appreciably faster than the response of the divider. Apart from inspection of the step response itself, evaluation of measurement errors is performed by convolving an ideal curve with the step response of the divider, including its transmission cable. The convolved signal is evaluated with impulse evaluation software and the parameters compared to the ideal input. The difference is a measure of the errors introduced by the divider. This procedure follows IEC 60060-2: 2010.

  • 2016.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Nordlund, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Meisner, Johann
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB, Germany.
    Passon, Stephan
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB, Germany.
    Hällström, Jari
    VTT-MIKES, Finland.
    Lehtonen, Tapio
    VTT-MIKES, Finland.
    Characterization of a fast step generator2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lighting impulse measurements are made as a matter of routine in high voltage testing of high-voltage electrical equipment. The test is often decisive for acceptance of the equipment under test, and consequently proper and precise calibration of the measuring system is needed. The present work centres on the need to quantify the errors of reference measuring systems for lightning impulse. Scale factor determination at low frequency (or DC) is the starting point for this determination. The extrapolation from this frequency domain to the domain where microsecond pulses must be faithfully captured requires application either of methods in the frequency domain or in the time domain. Radio frequency measurements are only well defined for coaxial structures and at impedances in the range of 50 O or thereabouts, making them difficult to apply to the large structures of high-voltage measuring systems. The converse method in the time domain is to apply a Dirac impulse to the system and calculate the response to an assumed input signal by convolution. A true Dirac pulse is not readily available and in practice the applied pulse is a step voltage, which is then derived with respect to time and convolved with the applied signal to obtain the response of the measuring system. The step generator used for this purpose should have very fast front without oscillations. The intent is to achieve a close approximation of an ideal step function, which when derived with respect to time, yields the impulse response of a tested system. A necessary prerequisite is that the step is much steeper than the lightning impulse, and is flat after the step on times much longer than the impulse. The ideal switch element in such a step generator should have infinite resistance and zero capacitance in the off-state, very fast switching to on-state and very low resistance in on-state. The mercury wetted reed switch has often been used for this purpose since it has good characteristics in all these respects. Few, if any, electronic components exhibit competitive advantages compared to the reed switch. The relative lack of parasitic effects means that it is close to being an ideal device. Based on earlier experiences by the authors, a new design has been developed with focus on electrical screening and coaxial design in order to realise a step generator that works into a high impedance instrument. Considerable work has been performed to characterise the new device with regard to steepness of step and most importantly, to voltage stability after the step. The most demanding part of this work has been to separate the performance of the switch from that of the oscilloscope. Findings indicate that the step rise-time is less than 0.5 ns, and settling to within 0.5 % within 10 ns.

  • 2017.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Pogliano, U.
    Hällström, J.
    Wright, P.
    Lucas, W.
    Merev, A.
    Rietveld, G.
    Kurrat, M.
    Rickmann, J.
    Metrology for high voltage direct current2010In: CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements), 2010, p. 669-670Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HVDC energy transmission is crucial for a successful uptake of renewable energy sources in the grid. A research program is described, intended to provide metrology support for the needs of HVDC energy transmission. This program will provide improvements for the present HVDC metrology infrastructure: accurate measurement of HVDC, determination of losses in HVDC systems, on-site power quality measurements at HVDC substations, and DC metering. It is a combined effort of 7 European national metrology institutes, one university and one industrial partner. © 2010 IEEE.

  • 2018.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Wang, Feng
    Le Tuan, Ahn
    Bertling-Tjernberg, Lina
    A New Approach for Benefit Evaluation of Multiterminal VSC-HVDC Using A Proposed Mixed AC/DC Optimal Power Flow2013In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an extended optimal power-flow (OPF) model incorporating a detailed model of a voltage-source converter-based–multiterminal high-voltage direct current system (VSC–MTDC) is proposed, hereafter referred to as the mixed ac/dc OPF (M-OPF) model. A cost-benefit analysis approach using the M-OPF model as the calculation engine is proposed to determine the preferred VSC-MTDC alternative to be installed in an existing ac transmission system. In this approach, the operational benefits of VSC–MTDC systems are evaluated against their investment costs to derive the benefit-to-cost ratios (BCR) which reflect the cost-effectiveness of the alternatives. A case study has been carried out using a modified Nordic 32-bus system. The results of the study show that VSC–MTDC systems might lead to a reduction in total operation cost, and the reduction of the total system transmission loss depends to a large extent on the VSC–MTDC configuration. The results from sensitivity analyses show that if the VSC loss could be reduced to a third of the original level, the total benefit from the system would be increased by about 70%. A suggestion for the placement and configuration of a VSC–MTDC system is made based on calculated BCRs.

  • 2019.
    Bergman, Johanna
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Johansson, Isabella
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rassmus-Gröhn, Kirsten
    Lund University, Sweden.
    An exploratory study on how internet of things developing companies handle user experience requirements2018In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., 2018, p. 20-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and motivation] Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming common throughout everyday lives. However, the interaction is often different from when using e.g. computers and other smart devices. Furthermore, an IoT device is often dependent on several other systems, heavily impacting the user experience (UX). Finally, the domain is changing rapidly and is driven by technological innovation. [Question/problem] In this qualitative study, we explore how companies elicit UX requirements in the context of IoT. A key part of contemporary IoT development is also data-driven approaches. Thus, these are also considered in the study. [Principal idea/results] There is a knowledge gap around data-driven methodologies, there are examples of companies that collect large amount of data but do not always know how to utilize it. Furthermore, many of the companies struggle to handle the larger system context, where their products and the UX they control are only one part of the complete IoT ecosystem. [Contribution] We provide qualitative empirical data from IoT developing companies. Based on our findings, we identify challenges for the companies and areas for future work.

  • 2020.
    Bergman, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Environmental impacts of alternative antifouling methods and use patterns of leisure boat owners2019In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 725-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Leisure boaters in the Baltic Sea apply more copper as antifoulant than needed and permitted. Initiatives have been started to identify efficient means making boat owners comply with regulations through changed consumer behavior. We compare the environmental impacts of conventional and alternative antifouling methods, using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Methods: Two non-toxic methods were compared with biocide paint. To study the influence of boat owner use patterns, paint and brush washer scenarios (e.g., different paints, amounts, and maintenance) were created based on current use and recommendations. The functional unit was an average Swedish leisure boat kept fouling free for 1 year and impact categories studied were freshwater eco-toxicity and greenhouse gas emissions. Production of paints, fuel, electricity, and material used in the non-toxic methods was included. Sensitivity analysis was performed regarding the characterization method for toxicity, the fuel consumption data, and the copper release data. Results and discussion: The non-toxic methods, hull cover and brush washer, performed best, but a trade-off was identified when the brush washer was located further away from the home port, when additional transportation increased greenhouse gas emissions. The resources needed for the non-toxic methods (production of materials and electricity used) cause considerably lower toxic emissions than paint. In the paint scenarios, using less paint and cleaning the boat over a washing pad with water treatment reduces aquatic emissions significantly. Fuel-related emissions were consistently lower than paint-related emissions. In the best-performing paint scenario, fuel- and paint-related emissions represented 26 and 67% of total emissions, respectively. Conclusions: The non-toxic methods hull cover and brush washers lead to lower emissions, especially when brush washers were located close to the home port. Lacking such infrastructure, “painting less” is a way to reduce emissions, by using lower amounts of paint and painting less frequently. More widespread use of these antifouling strategies would considerably reduce copper emissions from leisure boating to the Baltic Sea. We suggest that support to marinas for investments in brush washers and washing pads should be further developed to enable boat owners to choose more sustainable antifouling methods and that information campaigns on the combined economic, health, and ecosystem impacts of antifouling are especially designed for boaters, marinas, market actors, and policy makers for a change to take place towards more sustainable practices.

  • 2021.
    Bergman, Linda
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    HSC simulations of coal based DR in ULCORED2009In: Revue de métallurgie (Imprimé), ISSN 0035-1563, E-ISSN 1156-3141, Vol. 106, no 10, p. 422-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ULCORED coal based concept is simulated based on the production of syngas using existing coal gasification technology. The shifter gives the option to produce CO2-lean H2 from coal/biomass for in plant use. Large CO2 emissions arise on site from the use of natural gas in heating ovens and from the use of electricity in EAF melting. In the case of these coal based systems, production of "excess gas" to be used as fuel gas in various processes will reduce the CO2 emission for the total site.

  • 2022.
    Bergman, Penny
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana
    Loyola University Andalusia, Spain.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Auditory-induced emotion mediates perceptual categorization of everyday sounds2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, no OCT, article id 1565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that emotion categorization plays an important role in perception and categorization in the visual domain. In the present paper, we investigated the role of auditory-induced emotions for auditory perception. We further investigated whether the emotional responses mediate other perceptual judgments of sounds. In an experiment, participants either rated general dissimilarities between sounds or dissimilarities of specific aspects of sounds. The results showed that the general perceptual salience map could be explained by both the emotional responses to, and perceptual aspects of, the sounds. Importantly, the perceptual aspects were mediated by emotional responses. Together these results show that emotions are an integral part of auditory perception that is used as the intuitive basis for categorizing everyday sounds.

  • 2023.
    Bergman, Sixten
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    New reference measurement system for calibration of VLF high voltage2010In: CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements), 2010, p. 682-683Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reference measuring system for 200 kV at very low frequency (0.1 Hz, VLF) has been developed and verified. The reference system will make it possible to perform traceable calibration of VLF test systems used for after-laying-tests of extruded power cables. © 2010 IEEE.

  • 2024.
    Bergman, Sixten
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    New reference measurement system for calibration of VLF high voltage2011In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 2422-2426, article id 5746641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reference measuring system for 200 kV from very low frequencies (0.1 Hz, VLF) up to 50 Hz based on traditional high-voltage components, such as compressed gas capacitors, has been developed and verified. The verification of the measuring system has been performed by two experimental methods, one directly measuring the scale factor and one using measurements over the frequency and voltage range of the components of the measuring system. The frequency dependence of the measuring system proved to be one of the dominating uncertainties and was extensively researched. Proper correction for known errors and estimation of uncertainty contributions proved that traceable measurement of VLF voltage can be made with an uncertainty of less than 0.038% up to a voltage of 200 kV. This measurement service has been notified to be included in SP entries for Bureau International des Poids et Mesures key comparison database and can serve an important need for the cable industry. © 2006 IEEE.

  • 2025. Bergman, Östen
    et al.
    Jermer, Jöran
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Glued laminated poles - Progress report after 30 years' testing2010In: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, 2010, , p. 11Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2026.
    Bergquist, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Ljungberg, Jan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    The power of gifts: Organizing social relationships in open source communities2001In: Information Systems Journal, ISSN 1350-1917, E-ISSN 1365-2575, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 305-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In writings on the open source software development model, it is often argued that it is successful as a result of the gift economy that embraces activities in online communities. However, the theoretical foundations for this argument are seldom discussed and empirically tested. Starting with the 'classic' theories of gift giving, we discuss how they need to be developed in order to explain giftgiving practices in digital domains. In this paper, we argue that the gift economy is important, not only because it creates openness, but also because it organizes relationships between people in a certain way. Open source software development relies on gift giving as a way of getting new ideas and prototypes out into circulation. This also implies that the giver gets power from giving away. This power is used as a way of guaranteeing the quality of the code. We relate this practice to how gifts, in the form of new scientific knowledge, are given to the research community, and how this is done through peer review processes.

  • 2027.
    Bergquist, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Ljungberg, Jan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Lundh-Snis, U.
    Practising peer review in organizations: A qualifier for knowledge dissemination and legitimization2001In: JIT. Journal of information technology (Print), ISSN 0268-3962, E-ISSN 1466-4437, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key issue in many organizations is how to disseminate information in an effective way and, more importantly, how to make use of this information in order to create new knowledge. One way of addressing this problem is to focus on how information is socially transformed into knowledge. This includes how knowledge is handled in practice and how the knowledge produced is qualified as being something worth knowing and acting upon. Two well-established practices for doing this are the refereeing system and the peer review process. These are used in scientific communities as a means of validating and legitimating knowledge, for example by reviewing journal papers before publishing or project proposals before granting funds, etc. This paper argues that peer review is a useful concept when looking at knowledge creation and legitimization in organizations. The social meaning of peer review is to legitimize new knowledge by organizationally sanctioning it and thereby creating a platform for collective sense making. This paper uses an example from a field study in a pharmaceutical company in order to illustrate this argument. The study took place in a quality support department where the quality of health care products and processes was assessed. The organization had a need for fast and reliable updating of information that could influence how the production process of pharmaceuticals should be carried out. In order to cope with these problems the department established an ‘evaluation loop’, which shared several characteristics with the peer review process.

  • 2028.
    Bergquist, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Mörck, M.
    From fever to flu: The rhetoric of reporting Asia in a Swedish business magazine1999In: AI & Society: The Journal of Human-Centred Systems and Machine Intelligence, ISSN 0951-5666, E-ISSN 1435-5655, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 235-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper some aspects of the stereotyping of China and Japan are explored by using a sample of articles from a Swedish business magazine. The main objective is to show how stereotypes are adapted to capture new developments in economy and technology. During the years of high hopes for the largest Asian economies, stereotypes proved to be far from timeless and unchanging. Also a large number of metaphors were used to express perceived similarities between East and West, further undermining tradi-tional Western understanding of Asia as inert and eternally different. The recent decline of Japan put an end to this, creating a return to a vocabulary of cultural characterisations and explanations.

  • 2029.
    Bergquist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Project team 1 under tekniska kommittén CEN/TC312. Slutrapport1998Report (Refereed)
  • 2030.
    Bergquist, Per
    SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Provning av solvärmda tappvarmvattensystem: en målstudie1992Report (Refereed)
  • 2031.
    Bergquist, Per
    et al.
    SP – Sveriges Provnings- och Forskningsinstitut.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Minnesanteckningar från möte ISO TC 180, 19931994Report (Refereed)
  • 2032.
    Bergquist, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Carlsson, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Liedquist, Leif
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Europeisk och internationell standardisering inom solvärmeteknikområdet - en sammanställning för 19971998Report (Refereed)
  • 2033. Bergstedt, L
    et al.
    Persson, K
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Printed Glass for Anodic Bonding - A Packaging Concept for MEMS System On a Chip2002In: Advancing Microelectronics, Vol. 29, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2034.
    Bergstedt, S
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Erlöv, L
    Lingnert, H
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Olsson, P
    Forskning och utveckling inom området livsmedelsförpackningar i USA och Japan 1988. En reserapport.1989Report (Refereed)
  • 2035.
    Bergsten, Lasse
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    EMC requirements for type approval of marine electronics. Nordtest project 1157-94.1994Report (Refereed)
  • 2036.
    Bergsten, Lasse
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    EMC-requirements on vehicle electronics. Nordtest project 828-89.1991Report (Refereed)
  • 2037.
    Bergsten, Lasse
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik.
    Guldbrandsen, Per
    Larsen, Are
    EMC requirements for marine electronics. Nordtest project 1157-94.1996Report (Refereed)
  • 2038.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Disordered Fermi liquid in epitaxial graphene from quantum transport measurements2011In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 107, no 16, p. 166602-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2039.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    A quantum standard for sampled electrical measurements-Main goals and first results of the EMRP project Q-WAVE2014In: 29th Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2014, 2014, , p. 522-523p. 522-523Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Josephson voltage standards are well established for use at dc and low-frequency ac voltages. The increasing demand i) to provide traceability for arbitrary waveforms, ii) to extend the range of use to higher frequencies, and iii) to improve the accuracy is being addressed in the project Q-WAVE, which is jointly funded by the European Union and the participating countries within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). Here, sampling measurements and procedures using binary-divided 1 V and 10 V arrays are investigated. In addition, a quantum-based analogue-to-digital converter for direct measurements of arbitrary waveforms is under development. It will contain several Josephson arrays in series biased by a pulse drive based on opto-electronics, in order to increase the output voltage.

  • 2040.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Comparison between GaAs and graphene QHR standards for resistance realisation at SP2016In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), 2016, article id 7540514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first precision QHR measurements at SP using a graphene chip. We compare the results of a resistance calibration using GaAs based chips with the results using a graphene chip. The results agree within a few parts in 109 for calibrations of 100 Ω and 10 kΩ resistors. Consistency checks indicate that the uncertainty is lower with the graphene chip, and the noise level is slightly lower. The measurements with the graphene chip were performed exclusively at 4.2 K, which simplifies the calibration procedure considerably compared with GaAs chips.

  • 2041.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    He, Hans
    Chalmers University of Techology, Sweden.
    Comparing GaAs and graphene QHR standards for resistance realisation at SP2016In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements 2016 (CPEM 2016), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2042.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Rydler, Karl Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Realization of Absolute Phase and AC Resistance of Current Shunts by Ratio Measurements2019In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 2041-2046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a simplified method for realizing absolute phase and ac resistance for current shunts using only impedance ratio measurements. The method is based on three geometrically identical current shunts with different resistances, but with the same inductance, capacitance, and ac-dc resistance change of resistance at ac compared to dc). We demonstrate how the inductance, capacitance, and ac resistance can be calculated from the complex impedance ratio measurements, therefore realizing absolute current shunt impedance. The method gives competitive uncertainties of around 200 μΩ/Ω for amplitude and 400 μrad for phase at 1 MHz in the 1-Ω range.

  • 2043.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Realisation of Absolute Phase and Ac Resistance of Current Shunts by Ratio Measurements2018In: CPEM 2018 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a method for realising absolute phase and ac resistance for current shunts using only impedance ratio measurements. The method is based on three geometrically identical current shunts with different resistances, but with the same inductance, capacitance and ac resistance (change of resistance at ac compared to dc), We demonstrate how the inductance, capacitance and ac resistance can be calculated from the complex impedance ratio measurements, thereby realising absolute current shunt impedance. This method simplifies the procedure of current shunt calibration, since the same impedance ratio setup which is used to compare a shunt to a reference shunt, is used to realise the impedance of the starting reference shunt.

  • 2044.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Gunnarsson, Ove
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    A precision current source using Δ-Σ modulation.2011In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 2341-2346Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2045.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Josephson waveform generation using multilevel Δ-Σ Modulation2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 172-173Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2046.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Determining voltage dependence of the phase response in voltage dividers2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 282-283Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2047. Bergstrand, A.
    et al.
    Svanberg, C.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nyden, M.
    Aggregation behavior and size of lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli O55:B52006In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 42261-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic light scattering, steady-state fluorescence, NMR diffusometry and cryo-TEM have been used to gain more insight into the aggregation behaviour of LPS from Escherichia coli O55:B5. Knowledge of this behaviour of the amphiphilic LPS molecule is in many cases of importance for the design of experiments and interpretation of results when using LPS in solution. The aim of this work was to study the aggregation and determine the aggregate size of E. coli O55:B5. The mean hydrodynamic radius of the LPS aggregates was determined by NMR diffusometry and dynamic light scattering to 14 and 26 nm, respectively. The cryo-TEM technique revealed predominately spherical aggregates of 9-19 nm. We wish to report 10 ?g/ml as the aggregation start for LPS E. coli O55:B5 in PBS buffer, pH 7.2. We suggest that the aggregation is a continuous process that starts at 10 ?g/ml and proceeds up to 300 ?g/ml. © 2006.

  • 2048.
    Bergstrand, Anna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Databas för material inom Rolling Stock2015In: Brandposten, no 52, p. 17-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2049.
    Bergstrand, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Storesund, Karolina
    Brandprovning och certifiering för material och produkter som används inom sjöfarts- och offshoreindustrin2015In: Brandposten, no 52, p. 7-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2050. Bergstrand, F.
    et al.
    Landgren, Jonas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Using live video for information sharing in emergency response work2009In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 6, no 3-4, p. 295-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a design-oriented study focusing on emergency response work. Traditionally, Information Technology (IT) for emergency response work has included en route navigation advice, resource management, hazard material databases, property information repositories and situation reporting using sketching functionality. Now, a new class of IT has become available, namely mobile live video capabilities. This paper presents initial findings from a study on how mobile live video capabilities can improve information sharing and situation awareness in emergency response work.

38394041424344 2001 - 2050 of 20919
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