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  • 151.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Veileder silobrann 13 tiltak og 4 advarsler2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a guideline about silo fires, based on the handbook “Silo Fires”. The guideline summarizes 13 measures and decisions needed in connection with a suspected or confirmed silo fire and 4 warnings on what to avoid.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 152.
    Petridou, Evangelie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden; NTNU, Norway.
    Johansson, Roine
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Alirani, Gertrude
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Zahariadis, Nikolaos
    Rhodes College, USA.
    Theorizing reactive policy entrepreneurship: A case study of Swedish local emergency management2024Ingår i: Policy Studies Journal, ISSN 0190-292X, E-ISSN 1541-0072, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 73-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we examine public policy change at the local level of governance in the aftermath of an extraordinary event. Using the case study of a Swedish municipality after the sweeping forest fire of 2014, we contend that policy entrepreneurship, like its market counterpart, may under certain conditions take on a wider range of behaviors that are not underpinned by the proactive quest for opportunities. Rather, a sense of urgency and necessity, professional norms, and some keen technical skills make for a different kind of entrepreneurship, which we label reactive policy entrepreneurship. © 2023 The Authors. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 153.
    Pimienta, Pierre
    et al.
    CSTB, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Lund university, Sweden.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB, France.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Huang, Shan-Shan
    University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Mróz, Katarzyna
    Cracow university of technology, Poland.
    Davie, Colin
    Newcastle university, United Kingdom.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    CERIB, France.
    Alonso, Maria Cruz
    Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Sciences (IETcc), Spain.
    Bodnarova, Lenka
    Brno university of technology, Czech Republic.
    Bosnjak, Josipa
    Universität Stuttgart (MPA), Germany.
    Dal Pont, Stefano
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Dao, Vinh
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Dauti, Dorjan
    EFECTIS FRANCE, France.
    Dehn, Frank
    Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Germany.
    Felicetti, Roberto
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Hager, Izabela
    Cracow university of technology, Poland.
    Hela, Rudolf
    Brno university of technology, Czech Republic.
    Hozjan, Tomaz
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Juknat, Michael
    MFPA Leipzig, Germany.
    Jumppanen, Ulla-Maija
    VTT, Finland.
    Kirnbauer, Johannes
    Vienna university of technology, Austria.
    Kolsek, Jerneja
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Korzen, Manfred
    BAM, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung, Germany.
    Lakhani, Hitesh
    Institut für Werkstoffe Im Bauwesen, Germany.
    Lion, Maxime
    EDF - TEGG/CEMETE, France.
    Lo Monte, Francesco
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Maluk, Cristian
    Semper, United Kingdom.
    Meftah, Fekri
    INSA Rennes, France.
    Miah, Md Jihad
    CSTB, France.
    Millard, Alain
    CEA, France.
    Mindeguia, Jean-Christophe
    University of Bordeaux, France.
    Moreau, Bérénice
    CETU, France.
    Msaad, Yahia
    CSTB, France.
    Ozawa, Mitsuo
    Gumma university, Japan.
    Pesavento, Francesco
    Universeta degli Studi Di Padova, Italy.
    Pham, Duc Toan
    CSTB, France.
    Pistol, Klaus
    Fachhochschule Potsdam, Germany.
    Rickard, Ieuan
    University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Rodrigues, Joao Paulo Correia
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Roosefid, Mohsen
    IRSN, France.
    Schneider, Martin
    Carinthia university of applied sciences, Austria.
    Sharma, Umesh Kumar
    Indian institute of technology, India.
    Sideris, Kosmas
    Democritus university of Thrace, Greece.
    Stelzner, Ludwig
    BAM, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung, Germany.
    Weber, Benedikt
    EMPA, Switzerland.
    Weise, Frank
    BAM, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -Prüfung, Germany.
    Recommendation of RILEM TC 256-SPF on fire spalling assessment during standardised fire resistance tests: complementary guidance and requirements2024Ingår i: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 57, nr 1, artikel-id 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The recommendation is based on the co-authors’ work organized by the RILEM TC 256-SPF “Spalling of concrete due to fire: testing and modelling”. It aims to provide useful information, guidance and best practices in fire spalling assessment to laboratories that perform large-scale tests based on fire resistance test standards. It provides guidance on the spalling observation techniques during testing, as well as post-test spalling quantification/assessment methods. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with the fire resistance test standards, e.g. EN 1363-1 and ISO 834-1. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to RILEM.

  • 154.
    Pimienta, Pierre
    et al.
    CSTB, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Wise, Frank
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Germany.
    Recommendation of RILEM TC 256-SPF on the method of testing concrete spalling due to fire: material screening test2023Ingår i: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 56, nr 9, artikel-id 164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The recommendation is based on the co-authors’ work organized by the RILEM TC 256-SPF “Spalling of concrete due to fire: testing and modelling”. The Committee has defined two types of screening tests for characterization of concrete propensity to fire spalling: Material screening tests and Product screening tests. Definitions of both types of tests are given in the paper. The following recommendations apply to Material screening tests. The material screening tests described in these recommendations are a set of minimum requirements to test concrete spalling propensity (for example, the minimal specimen size). This document covers the aspects of concrete characterization, specimen geometries, storage conditions, test methods and measured parameters.

  • 155.
    Porterie, Bernard
    et al.
    Aix-Marseille Université, France.
    Dizet, Nina
    Aix-Marseille Université, France.
    Pizzo, Yannick
    Aix-Marseille Université, France.
    Loraud, Jean-Claude
    Aix-Marseille Université, France.
    Boulet, Pascal
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Collin, Anthony
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Zeinali, Davood
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Université de Lorraine, France.
    de Carvalho, Eric
    Bureau Veritas Marine & Offshore, France.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Leclanché E-Mobility SA, Switzerland.
    A Simulation Tool to Quantify the Consequences of Fires on Board Ro-Ro Ships2024Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 459-499Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, fires aboard roll-on roll-off (ro-ro) ships result in costly damage to ships and their cargo and, fortunately less frequently, in tragic loss of life. On the other hand, statistical studies have shown that a large proportion of major fire accidents originated in the vehicle decks. To improve the issue of vehicle-deck fires on board ro-ro ships, a performance-based simulation tool was developed to quantify the consequences of these fires on people, ship, and cargo. This tool combines a deterministic computational fluid dynamics model to assess the fire consequences in the vehicle decks and open areas of the ship; a stochastic network model in the accommodation spaces; and a deterministic evacuation model to evaluate the consequences of fire to people on board. This article briefly presents the numerical tools used and their extension to ro-ro ships, then the results obtained for selected fire scenarios on two generic ro-ro ships, varying the location of the fire source, wind conditions, and including one accidental situation due to a loss of integrity of the insulation at the ceiling of the deck from which the fire originated and one scenario where some openings of this deck were closed. People evacuation was simulated for the accidental scenario. Fire consequences are further evaluated in terms of human survivability, in compliance with the life safety performance criteria of the International Maritime Organization, damage to the ship and cargo. A qualitative comparison with reported accident data is presented to assess the consistency of model results.

  • 156.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Technology and Innovation for Societal Resilience Through Multistakeholder Collaboration: Chapter 142022Ingår i: Technology Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development: Disaster Risk Reduction: Methods, Approaches and Practices / [ed] Professor Rajib Shaw & Professor Pradip Ray, Singapore: Springer Nature, 2022, s. 265-275Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter engages in exploring possibilities of innovation and use offuture technology arising from multistakeholder collaboration in essential societalfunctions such as public services, critical infrastructure systems and public policyarena. Multistakeholder collaboration is the key to adaptation and resilience amidstthe fast-changing twenty-first century world around us. Owing to increased interconnectednessand interdependencies of complex socio-technical systems, criticalinfrastructures and essential services, our socio-technical relationships have alsogrown more complex. On one hand, the tightly coupled systems, services and infrastructuresare highly optimized while on the other, because of their high optimizationand tightly coupled nature, these systems are often more prone to catastrophic disruptionsand crises. So, what is the way forward to effectively increase adaptation andresilience? The chapter engages in the discussion of boundary spanning activitiessuch as the essential public services where multistakeholder collaboration amongvarious actors, i.e., public, private, academia and the industry is inevitable due tocross-cutting issues, demands and challenges.With examples of successful cases andevidence from scientific literature, the chapter makes a convincing case in favour ofmultistakeholder collaboration as a powerful tool to raise societal resilience.

  • 157.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Stina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Harbour Battery Energy Storage Systems: Hazards and potential mitigation measures2023Ingår i: Brandposten, nr 62, s. 28-29Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) is a vital part of electrification of the shipping industry. However, there are potential risks that must be considered for BESS installation. The article presents HAZID as an earlystage hazard identification method for installation of harbour BESS. The HAZID identified critical factors such as proximity to the marine environment and safe distances between BESS containers

  • 158.
    Pushp, Mohit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Arun Chaudhari, Ojas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Vikegard, Peter
    Waters Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ghafar, Ali Nejad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Specific heat and excess heat capacity of grout with phase change materials using heat conduction microcalorimetry2023Ingår i: Construction and Building Materials, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 401, s. 132915-132915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microencapsulated phase-change-materials (PCMs) incorporated in cementitious grout can be used as a source of energy in an underground thermal energy storage system. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique to measure the latent heat or specific heat of PCM-embedded cementitious materials. However, using milligram sample sizes (as required by DSC) of a cementitious material fails to represent the actual scale of cementitious components. This is the reason why, in the present paper, non-isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry (MC) was evaluated as a tool for determining the thermal properties of PCM-embedded grout as well as pure PCM (three PCMs were used). An MC experimental protocol (using both single and 5–6 temperature cycles) was developed and used to measure latent heat and melting and crystallization temperatures, which were in good agreement with those reported for pure PCMs by the producers. In addition, the specific heats of the PCM-containing grout also agreed with measurements using the hot disk technique. Overall, the results show that the MC technique can be used as a potential standard method in determining thermal processes in complex systems, such as in PCM-embedded cementitious systems, where a large sample size is needed to represent the material.

  • 159.
    Pushp, Mohit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Vikegard, Peter
    Waters Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Wei, Xin-Feng
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ageing tests closer to real service conditions using hyper-sensitive microcalorimetry, a case study on EPDM rubber2023Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 120, artikel-id 107948Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated thermal ageing (ATA) coupled to mechanical testing is widely used to predict the lifetime of polymeric products. ATA implies that the mechanisms of ageing are the same at accelerated and service conditions, which may often not be the case. Hence, ageing closer to service conditions is of high importance, but require very sensitive tools. Therefore, a high sensitivity microcalorimetry (MC) method was applied here to assess if it can be a possible tool for lifetime/ageing prediction closer to service conditions. We chose to focus on a complex, yet commonly used, ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. Arrhenius extrapolation of the heat flow data indicated two regimes at low and high temperature, with the former having the lower activation energy. The heat flow values measured by the MC revealed contributions from processes such as the melting of the antioxidant, its consumption at low temperature and the breakdown of residual peroxide. MC tests on the EPDM indicated a very low degree of oxidation appearing above 100 °C, too low to be observed with infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), but noticeable with MC. The high sensitivity of the MC techniques enabled detection of early signs of polymer degradation/ageing and other thermally activated processes that take place at or close to service temperatures (such as those in nuclear power plants). The MC tests were combined with other techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, gas chromatography techniques, differential scanning calorimetry and FTIR to further understand the degradation mechanisms. © 2023 The Authors

  • 160.
    Quant, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mallin, Tove
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ecotoxicity Evaluation of Fire-Extinguishing Water from Large-Scale Battery and Battery Electric Vehicle Fire Tests2023Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, nr 12, s. 4821-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrified transport has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns, for example, the flammable formulations used in lithium-ion batteries. Fires in traction batteries can be difficult to extinguish because the battery cells are well protected and hard to reach. To control the fire, firefighters must prolong the application of extinguishing media. In this work, extinguishing water from three vehicles and one battery pack fire test were analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants, including particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot content. Additionally, the acute toxicity of the collected extinguishing water on three aquatic species was determined. The vehicles used in the fire tests were both conventional petrol-fueled and battery electric. For all of the tests, the analysis of the extinguishing water showed high toxicity toward the tested aquatic species. Several metals and ions were found in concentrations above the corresponding surface water guideline values. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances were detected in concentrations ranging between 200 and 1400 ng L–1. Flushing the battery increased the concentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances to 4700 ng L–1. Extinguishing water from the battery electric vehicle and the battery pack contained a higher concentration of nickel, cobalt, lithium, manganese, and fluoride compared with the water samples analyzed from the conventional vehicle.

  • 161.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Skilbred, Ellen Synnøve
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    RISE Fire Research sitt høst-webinar [RISE Fire Research’s autumn webinar]: 17 november 20232023Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner (mp4)
    film
  • 162.
    Robert, Fabienne
    et al.
    CERIB, France.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liege University, Belgium.
    Zehfuss, Jochen
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Renard, Silvio
    CERIB, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Gernay, Thomas
    Johns Hopkins University, USA.
    NATURAL FIRE TESTS ON GLT COLUMNS INCLUDING THE COOLING DOWN PHASE2023Ingår i: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023), 2023, s. 1848-1854Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the data and the results of seven fire tests performed on glue laminated timber columns in a compartment built especially for the tests and in which timber wood cribs created a so-called natural fire. These tests are part of a research programme titled “burnout resistance” to establish a new methodology to better describe performance of structural elements during the whole duration of a fire. Comparisons with similar tests made in a fire resistance furnace allow comparing charring rates observed in standard conditions and in natural fires.

  • 163.
    Robert, Fabienne
    et al.
    Cerib, France.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liège university, Belgium.
    Zehfuß, Jochen
    Technische universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Renard, Silvio
    Cerib, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Lund University, Sweden.
    Gernay, Thomas
    John Hopkins university, USA.
    NATURAL FIRE TESTS ON GLT COLUMNS INCLUDING THE COOLING DOWN PHASE2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the data and the results of seven fire tests performed on glue laminated timber columns in a compartment built especially for the tests and in which timber wood cribs created a so-called natural fire. These tests are part of a research programme titled "burnout resistance" to establish a new methodology to better describe performance of structural elements during the whole duration of a fire. Comparisons with similar tests made in a fire resistance furnace allow comparing charring rates observed in standard conditions and in natural fires. 

  • 164.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire safe bus interior materials – flame retardants and the effect on smoke production and smoke gas toxicity2023Ingår i: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands on bus interior products have increased with increasing sustainability, circularity and a reduction of harmful substances, today’s materials must be improved with regards of additives, such as flame retardants. A comprehensive study was made to evaluate the possibility to use phosphorous flame retardants (FRs) instead of the commonly used halogenated FRs compounded with ABS. The study showed that the fire performance could be improved with phosphorous FRs regarding heat release and smoke production. However, it was noted that the smoke production still was high, and that the smoke density was highest possible, i.e., no visibility through the smoke layer. Further testing of today’s bus interior materials showed that the high smoke density was achieved already after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that, in case of a fire, the visibility in the bus will be reduced and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. The bus fire regulation R118 for interior materials basically deals with burning rate and melting through a fine mesh. Critical fire parameters such as smoke production and smoke toxicity is not dealt with. The R118 regulation need to be improved with these critical parameters in order to have fire safe materials inside the bus.

  • 165.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Evaluation of smoke gas toxicity and smoke density of bus interior materials2023Ingår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 270-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials used for interior parts in buses are today fire classified according to UNECE Regulation 118, evaluating the horizontal and vertical burning rates and the melting behaviour. However, in recent accidents, the smoke has been identified as the critical parameter for deaths. An evaluation has been made of six materials used as interior parts in busses and is presented in this paper. Fire testing was conducted according to UNECE R 118 and smoke production including smoke gas toxicity was further evaluated with the smoke chamber test, EN ISO 5659-2 and EN 17084. All six tested materials fulfilled the requirements of UNECE R 118; however, most materials showed fire properties which are not desirable, such as dark smoke and melting of large burning pieces. The tests with the smoke chamber showed that all materials gave a very high smoke production, in fact a smoke density value of the highest possible for the equipment to measure. This occurred only after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that this high smoke production will, in case of fire in a bus, reduce the visibility, and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. © 2022 The Authors.

  • 166.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ukaj, Kujtim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Ad Manus Materialteknik, Sweden.
    Kompositlösningar inom sjöfarten - KOMPIS2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite solutions for marine applications - KOMPIS. Extensive research has been devoted to improving commercial shipping’s environmental footprint by focusing on lightweight constructions during the past decade. The biggest challenge to replacing steel structures with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) is ensuring fire safety at sea. Ongoing electrification and its dependence on weight reduction has further increased the demand for lightweight solutions, and in particular composite solutions that provide satisfactory fire safety. The purpose of this study was to inform regional actors concerning the feasibility of FRP composite in ship structures to respond to the growing demand for fire-safe composite materials, and as a step towards more environmentally friendly vessels. Within the project, a comprehensive literature study was conducted to find available components for a composite laminate on the market. A comprehensive list with polymers, fibres and additives was compiled. A hybrid composite laminate consisting of fenol/glass and vinylester/glass was manufactured and protected with an intumescent coating. The composite laminate was evaluated with regards to fire performance and mechanical properties. The results showed no ignition in the fire testing and good mechanical performance.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 167.
    Sandsund, Mariann
    et al.
    SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Renberg, Julie
    SINTEF Digital, Norway.
    Heat stress during and after a single simulated smoke dive in professional firefighters2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Firefighters are exposed to significant levels of heat stress during duty, and therefore fire-fighting exercises in hot environments must be regularly performed [1]. This study aimed to investigate the effect of extreme heat exposure on physiological responses during and after one simulated smoke dive.

    Methods: Nineteen professional male firefighters (43 ± 8 years, 84 ± 7 kg) wearing protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus with a total weight of 108 ± 7 kg participated. They performed a 15-min simulated smoke dive in a two-floor heat chamber (HEAT) at ambient temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 272 °C, followed by 5-min up and down stair walking outside the heat chamber. Heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi) and skin temperatures (Tsk) were registered continuously during the test.

    Results: Tgi increased significantly from start (37.5 ± 0.3 °C) to the peak of HEAT (38.4 ± 0.4 °C) and continued to increase after the heat exposure and stair walking (39.6 ± 0.5 °C). The HR also increased significantly from start (92 ± 14 bpm) to the peak of HEAT (185 ± 13 bpm) and further increased after the heat exposure and stair walking to a maximum of 190 ± 13 bpm.

    Conclusion: A 20-min firefighter smoke dive in hot environments induced high physiological strain on the firefighters, and Tgi and HR continued to increase after the heat exposure. This must be considered during live fire events when repeated smoke dives are required.

  • 168.
    Sanfeliu Meliá, Cristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Snersrud, Dag Olav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ståle Ertesvåg, Ivar
    NTNU, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sarp Arsava, Kemal
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    FRIC webinar: Smoldering2022Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 169.
    Sanfeliu Meliá, Cristina
    et al.
    NTNU, Norway.
    Stølen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Garberg Olsø, Brynhild
    NTNU, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Energy production and storage in buildings. Fire safety challenges with Photovoltaics and Li-on battery systems.2024Ingår i: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Nordic Fire & Safety Days, 2024, s. 14-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 170.
    Sarp Arsava, Kemal
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Skilbred, Ellen Synnøve
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    FRIC webinar: High-Pressure Water Mist Applications for Façade Fires2023Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 171.
    Sauer, Nathaniel G.
    et al.
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    Sarp Arsava, Kemal
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Rangwala, Ali S.
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    Burning capability of the flame refluxer under the influence of waves2023Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, artikel-id 103901Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental oil spills pose a significant hazard to marine ecosystems. In-situ burning is an effectively employed means of cleanup and containment due to its low cost and speed for removing large volumes of oil. Previous studies have demonstrated that new Flame Refluxer™ (FR) technology can improve the burning rate of crude oil spilled on water. This study examines the FR-enhanced burning behavior of crude oil spilled on water under the influence of waves. The wave tank platform at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory was used for these experiments. A grid-type FR was examined with no waves and under the impingement of two different waves. Thermocouple data was used to evaluate thermal penetration rates and in-depth temperature gradients, as well as a distinct foaming behavior. It is observed that waves lowered fuel temperatures, reduced thermal penetration rates, and increased heat loss to the water sublayer. It was concluded that wave steepness is proportional to the increase in heat loss to the water and inversely proportional to the thermal penetration rate.

  • 172.
    Sjögren, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Zhiyuan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kompositer för en hållbar sjöfart2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förstudien ”Kompositer för en hållbar sjöfart” genomfördes som ett svar på lättviktsindustrins vilja att kartlägga de stötestenar som fortfarande hindrar fler och större tillämpningar av kompositmaterial inom sjöfarten. Allt sedan den första generationens Visby-korvetter sjösattes under tidigt 2000-tal har industrin visat att det går att tillverka stora fartyg i komposit med goda hållfasthets- och sjöegenskaper med låga underhållskrav. Trots detta så är potentialen i moderna lättviktsmaterial för sjöfarten underutnyttjad. I huvudsak kan stötestenarna delas upp i tre områden: brandegenskaper, kompetens och ekonomi. Därtill kan läggas osäkerhet vid drift i kalla klimat (isegenskaper) och återvinningsfrågor, som hinder för mer utbrett nyttjande av kompositer. Inom ramen för studien genomfördes isberäkningar för att visa på nya metoder att optimera kompositskrov och en tidigare förstudies resultat kompletterades med brandprover för nya brandskydd på begäran från industrin. Samtidigt visar förstudiens resultat att kompositer har en given plats i framtidens sjöfart på flera och nya sätt. Med framväxten av elektriska drivlinor är, precis som för flyg- och bilindustri, lättvikt en förutsättning för att kunna gå från ett bränsle med hög energidensitet till ett med lägre. Lättvikt är en möjliggörare för en eldriven flotta. Eldrift och fossilfria energibärare innebär också direkta innovationsmöjligheter kopplade till materialval. Strukturella batterier, bärplansteknik, termiskt och elektriskt ledande lättviktsmaterial är områden vi ser växa fram i kölvattnet av eldriftens framfart.

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  • 173.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Systematisk diskrepans avskogsbrandsrisk baserat påtidsupplösning: Uppskattning av effekter samt förslag tillkorrigering2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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    rapport
  • 174.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    External fire plumes from mass timber compartment fires—Comparison to test methods for regulatory compliance of façades2023Ingår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, s. 433-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-flashover fires inherently lead to external fire plumes, constituting a hazard for rapid fire spread over façades. As multi-storey mass timber buildings with internal visible timber surfaces become more common, there are concerns that such buildings would produce larger external plumes and hazards (assuming all other parameters equal). The literature reveals only indications of this, and how the actual exposure relates to different test methods for assessment is unknown. Here we utilise a series of full-scale mass timber compartment tests to quantify the exposure to the external façade. An incombustible external façade is instrumented with gauges at positions corresponding to reference data from several different assessment methods. The results show that there is an increase in plume duration, height, and temperatures when increasing the areas of exposed timber, but that this increase is less for normal- to large-opening compartments, than was previously seen in small-opening compartments. Also, normal variations in external wind speed have a larger influence on plume heights than the effect of doubling exposed timber surfaces. Test methods used for regulatory compliance differ significantly not only in exposure but also in pass/fail criteria. The proposed European large exposure method and the BS8414 method exhibit exposures on par with the severe end of what could be expected from mass timber compartments, whereas methods like SP Fire 105 and Lepir II produce significantly less severe plumes. However, the safety level is always a combination of exposure and assessment criteria. This data can help justify assessment criteria from a performance perspective. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 175.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Otxoterena Af Drake, Paul
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ignition of natural fuels from strikes between steel and rocks2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The ignition of natural fuels by sparks from strikes between metals and hard rock is far from understood and the ignition potential of sparks from rock strikes during heavy machinery operations is disputed in the scientific literature. This study utilises a spectrally resolved technique to study the temperature evolution of metal sparks from rock strikes. The study shows that initial temperature after collision can easily reach 1500 °C and this temperature can increase additionally by several hundred degrees as rapid oxidation processes are initiated, often leading to further disintegration of the fragment. The average temperature of fragments from such collisions is here measured to 1400 – 2000 °C and the combination of temperature, size and exothermic processes makes them viable for forest litter igniting. However, ignition on forest lands is always an unlikely, although possible outcome of heavy machinery operations and should be considered in risk assessment of the activity.

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  • 176.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Granström, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    A phenology-driven fire danger index for northern grasslands2023Ingår i: International journal of wildland fire, ISSN 1049-8001, E-ISSN 1448-5516Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Directly after snowmelt, northern grasslands typically have highly flammable fuel-beds consisting of 100% grass litter. With green-up, the addition of high-moisture foliage leads to progressively decreasing fire hazard.

    Aims: Our aim was to create a fire-danger index for northern grasslands that incorporated grass phenology.

    Methods: We made use of 25 years of Swedish wildfire data and 56 experimental fires conducted during one full fire-season, merged with established models for moisture content and flame spread rates. Refined data on equilibrium moisture content of grass litter were obtained through laboratory tests.

    Key results: The RING (Rate of spread In Northern Grasslands) model uses cumulative air temperature as a proxy for growing season progression. Three independent functions account for impact of wind, moisture content and the damping effect of live grass, respectively. The latter results in exponentially decaying rate of spread (ROS) with the progressing season. Following the field experiments, green grass proportion as low as 10–20% (live/dead dry-mass) resulted in model-ROS so reduced that the grassland fire season could effectively be considered over.

    Conclusions: The model, calculated from standard meteorological data only, matches the experimental results and separately performed validation tests, as well as wildfire dispatch data.

    Implications: RING has been used in Sweden since 2021 and is likely applicable to other northern regions as well.

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  • 177.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Granström, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Human activity and demographics drive the fire regime in a highly developed European boreal region2023Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 136, s. 103743-103743, artikel-id 103743Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organization of successful wildfire prevention and suppression require detailed information on ignition causes, size distributions and relations to weather. From a large and highly detailed dataset of Swedish wildfire incidents (n = 124 000) we assess temporal, geographical and human-related patterns over a 25-year-period (1996–2020). We find strong positive correlations between population density and wildfire occurrence, primarily caused by a wide spectrum of human activities. However, fires >10 ha mostly occurred in sparsely populated regions and were more often ignited by lightning or heavy machinery. Further, large fires had a history of long response times and insufficient mop-up, in turn intimately linked to low population density. We detect no trend over the 25-year-period in either fire weather, number of ignitions or burned area, but a dramatic decline in wildfire caused by children's play as well as by springtime burning of dead grass, a traditional fire use in rural areas. Our results indicate that irrespective of climate change, societal changes such as rural depopulation and cultural shifts are imminently important for the future fire regime in this intensely managed part of the boreal, and may warrant more attention worldwide.

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  • 178.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Granström, Anders
    SLU, Sweden.
    Skogsbränder och gräsbränder i Sverige: Trender och mönster under senare decennier2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 179.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Granström, Anders
    SLU, Sweden.
    Jansson, Anna
    SMHI, Sweden.
    Böhlin, Johan
    SMHI, Sweden.
    En ny modell för gräsbrandsfara i Sverige2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Risken för antändning och snabb spridning av vegetationsbränder i skogsmark och i gräsmarkerskiljer sig markant. Gräsbränder sprider sig i dött fjolårsgräs, tidigt på våren, innan årets färskagräs hunnit växa till och dessa bränder kan spridas snabbt efter bara några timmars torrt väder.Risken klingar snabbt av med inväxten av färskt gräs för att i stort sett upphöra till sommaren.Skogsbränder har inte samma säsongsberoende av bränslet utan styrs mer av vädret. Därför skerde typiskt under sommaren och kräver oftast flera dagars torrt väder. Dessa skillnader gör attolika riskbedömningssystem måste användas för dessa två karakteristiska typer avvegetationsbränder.Här presenteras en ny modell för gräsbrandsfara som använder potentiell spridningshastighet iobetat, oklippt gräs som indikator på risk. Algoritmen tar väderhistoriken (snötäcke, relativluftfuktighet, vindhastighet, temperatur och solinstrålning) samt progressionen av årsgräsetsinväxt i beaktning. Modellen bygger på en modell för beräkning av fuktkvot i gräs utvecklad iNordamerika samt en modell för hur fuktkvoten och vindhastigheten inverkar påspridningshastigheten. Effekten av årsgräsets inväxt under svenska förhållanden beräknasgenom 25 års insats- och väder-data i tio regioner och en anpassning till tidigare utfördatestbränningar från snösmältning till gräsbrandssäsongens slut. Modellen kan uppdateras varjetimme, i linje med det uppdaterade brandrisksystemet i Sverige.Förslag till hur indelning i risknivåer ska utformas med avseende på riskindikatorn presenterasoch modellen sätts i bruk till våren 2021. 

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    Rapport
  • 180.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sokoti, Hasan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Pyrolysis and thermal properties of wood and high-density polyethylene2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sample tests were conducted to obtain thermal and kinematic parameters for wood and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) that were used in a series of intermediate scale tunnel fire tests with and without water-based fire suppressions systems. The thermal properties were measured using Transient Plane Source (TPS) and Transient Line Source (TLS). The pyrolysis kinetics parameters were tested based on Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Different methods were used to obtain pyrolysis kinetics parameters. Different oxygen concentrations exposed to samples were tested and the results showed its significant influence in the charring process.

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  • 181.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Vermina Plathner, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Granström, Anders
    SLU, Sweden.
    Hur stora är växthusgasutsläppen vid naturvårdsbränning?2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    How large are the global warming emissions from prescribed fires in the European boreal? This report addresses emissions of greenhouse gases during prescribed fires, which are done in Sweden for increased biodiversity. Focus is on CO2-emissions during the combustion. There are large instantaneous emissions to the atmosphere. However, the CO2-debt, i.e. the difference in atmospheric CO2 if the burning is conducted or not, decreases rapidly in the years following the burn as carbon is stored in soil and growing plants. The emissions from prescribed burning on protected land can be assessed using field observations of fuel loads, fuel consumption during the fire and post fire plant/litter accretion. The net change in atmospheric CO2 is thereafter calculated from these data sets for different time since fire. Instantaneous emissions are estimated, for a characteristic fuel type, at 14.4 tonnes CO2 per hectare. After only ten years 78 % of this is again fixed in the vegetation on the forest floor, and litter. The same number 20 years post fire is 90 % and at 50 years, 98 %.

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  • 182.
    Skilbred, Ellen Synnøve
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brann til jul2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire for Christmas The topic of this study is the fire safety related to use of candles in Christmas decorations and is funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and the Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK).

    Photos of decorations with candles placed near combustible materials are flourishing in social media, especially around Christmas time. This project studies the fire hazards related to such decorations and groups of tealights. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the fire hazard of different types of Christmas decorations, as well as small-scale experiments with measurement of temperature development in groups of tealights. The experiments were documented with images and video, infrared (IR) camera, and temperature measurements. Some photos are shown in this report, while other image and video material are presented in social media. By showing examples of what can go wrong, and showing simple measures people can take, we hope to increase the awareness of how to avoid fire for Christmas.

    The results from the study are summarized in the following four points to remember, and eight measures people can do at home.

    Remember this to avoid fire for Christmas: • Not everything you see in commercials and social media is safe. • Many candles placed close together can be a fire hazard. • Unforeseen things can happen, a cat can walk by and make the candle tip over, a child can pull the tablecloth, or there can be a draft from a window. • Not all candle holders are stable.

    What can you do to avoid fire for Christmas: • Think about fire safety when decorating for Christmas, do not copy uncritically from others. • Avoid lighting candles near combustible materials. This includes advent decorations and Christmas trees. • Replace candles with LEDs. • Replace combustible decorations with for example stone, glass, or ceramics. • Do not leave burning candles unattended. • Remember to test and change batteries in smoke detectors. • Follow the safety instructions written on the candle packaging. • Keep minimum 10 cm (or the producers recommended distance) between tealights. • Choose stable candle holders.

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    film CaseETelysgruppe Stearin Plastkopp PlastSmeltet SrearinRenner 45 sek
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    Brann_Til_Jul_CaseF_Telysgruppe_ParafinMetallkopp
  • 183.
    Skilbred, Ellen Synnøve
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Stenstad, Vidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire safety in semi-automatic parking facilities2023Ingår i: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023, s. 201-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates fire safety in semi-automatic parking facilities (garages). A semi-automatic parking facility is a parking facility where larger or smaller areas have a system for automatic car stacking or close parking of cars on the same level. The paper is based on a project initiated to increase the knowledge about semi-automatic parking facilities and fire safety in these facilities. Information about semi-automatic parking facilities in Norway and abroad was collected through surveys, interviews, and literature studies.

  • 184.
    Skilbred, Ellen Synnøve
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brannsikkerhet i semiautomatiske parkeringsanlegg2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire safety in semi-automatic parking facilities

    The main goal of this study is to contribute to increased safety in semi-automatic parking facilities. Semi-automatic parking facilities are parking facilities with a system for automatic stacking of cars, but in contrast to fully automatic parking facilities, these are not closed, compact, and unavailable for the public. The study is financed by The Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK). A fire simulation was conducted to compare fire spread in a semi-automatic parking facility to fire spread in an ordinary parking facility. The results indicate that the spread of fire from the car that was first ignited to another car happens approximately equally fast in the two scenarios. Thereafter, the fire spread faster in the semi-automatic parking facility compared to the ordinary parking facility. Although these results should only be considered as indicative, they do show that decreasing the distance between rows of cars can lead to a much faster fire spread. The simulation also shows that the size of a fire in a relatively closed-off parking facility is not necessarily controlled by the number of cars but by the access to air. Hence, the number of openings and properties of ventilation systems in such facilities are important factors to consider when assessing fire safety. A study of regulations and experiences with semi-automatic parking facilities in Norway and other countries as well as aspects that increase risks in semi-automatic parking facilities was conducted. No specific fire-related experiences were discovered, but this is not surprising when considering that fires in parking facilities are relatively rare and there are relatively few semiautomatic parking facilities. In addition, these types of facilities are relatively new. The study found regulations for fully automatic parking facilities in Norway, but semiautomatic parking facilities are not covered by the same regulations. The current regulations do not ensure that the authorities are informed when automatic car-stacking systems are installed in existing parking facilities that are open to the public. There are no regulations ensuring that a fire safety assessment is conducted when an automatic car-stacking system is installed in an existing building regulated for parking that is accessible to the public. It is our opinion that there is a need for a new assessment of fire safety when a system for car stacking is established in an existing parking facility.

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  • 185.
    Snersrud, Dag Olav
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Østnor, Asbjørn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Feiing av ildsteder2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweeping of fireplaces The aim of the study is to obtain a data and knowledge base to provide an overview of how sweeping of fireplaces should be regulated, as well as mapping how chimney and fire place sweeping is regulated in other European countries, above all the Nordic and Baltic countries. Furthermore, it is desirable to look at existing research and investigate to which extent sweeping of fireplace will have a fire preventive effect. A literature review was carried out, searching for existing research that could be used to determine what should be viewed as best practice. In the literature review it became clear that sweeping of fireplaces is a topic with limited attention, and the literature was therefore insufficient, and no conclusion could be drawn based on this. Through contact with professional networks, a project carried out by the local sweeping service in Trondheim was found, which shed light on how sweeping of fireplaces affects the energy efficiency of a stove. If soot builds up on the inside of the fireplace, this will insulate the fireplace which in turn yields a lower energy output to the room. Another possible result of the insulating property of the soot is that the combustion takes place at a higher temperature, which makes the combustion cleaner and more complete, which in turn reduces the number of combustible particles in the smoke ducts. Without further testing, it is difficult to say whether the sum of these effects is positive or negative for the overall fire safety of the system. Through contact with professional personnel experience-based issues have been discussed from a fire technical point of view. This involves issues such as: - Incorrect handling of the fire place and user habits - Sweeping and energy efficiency A literature review has been carried out on combustion products produced under different combustion conditions. Furthermore, it has been identified that the part of the combustion products that pose the greatest risk of starting chimney fires is the organic carbon particles. These are produced at a low combustion temperature or during low-oxygen combustion. For obtaining optimal combustion from a fire technical perspective, correct handling of the fire place and good user habits are important. Based on the limited existing research, it is difficult to provide a conclusion on whether sweeping of fireplaces will have a fire preventive effect. In order to determine this, it is necessary to perform research focusing on this topic.

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  • 186.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire in a municipal housing in Norway, 7th August 20212023Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 187.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    FRIC webinar: Brann i kommunalt boligbygg i Norge, 7. august 20212023Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 188.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ehrlenspiel, Rupert
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Smouldering fire test methods – Documenting the potential for smouldering fires in thermal insulation2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this FRIC report, fire test methods to document smouldering in thermal insulation are presented. Standardized test methods from Europe, USA and Canada are presented, describing the test principles and assessment criteria. In addition, a selection of non-standardized experimental methods for smouldering fire documentation used in research and investigations are presented. Finally, factors impacting the outcome of tests as well as knowledge gaps are discussed. The overview presented in this report may be used as a guideline to the reader on benefits and challenges with different methods. Industry, researchers, fire investigators and others may benefit from this overview, to ensure that a relevant method is chosen for each end-use.

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  • 189.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Olofsson, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Nurk, Jane Liise
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Öberg Månsson, Ingrid (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Small-scale tests with adhesive bonds with CLT, GLTand finger joints2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood construction is growing rapidly and provides a substantial contribution to the development of a more sustainable construction sector. Several modern wood-based building systems are developed with a focus on tall wooden houses and industrial production, where glued products are an important part. Fire safety is important, but the adhesive properties in fire conditions are not fully understood. This applies in particular to new adhesive systems but also to existing ones that exhibit poor load carrying capacity in a fire. The problem has been noted by the FSUW (Fire Safe Use of Wood) global network, which formed a sub-group of “Glue-line failure of engineered wood products” with representatives from Australia, NZ, Canada, USA, France, Italy, Switzerland, Sweden, and Germany. The global network has gathered knowledge and experience from known cases of fire testing of glued wood components (especially glulam, finger joints, and CLT) and has defined research needs. The results highlighted by this group relate to the delamination of glued bonds in a fire which can cause increased charring of glued wood products, especially for CLT. The results show that the temperature during standard fire testing increases continuously without cooling phase and with delamination of CLT until a collapse of the structure occurs. Thicker CLT may be required to reduce delamination risks or to protect the wood material. This can lead to increased costs and greater weight of the construction as well as reduced possibility of using visible wood. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to find methods for evaluating the adhesive bond properties in a fire. The hypothesis is that different adhesive systems have different behaviour in fire, and especially that delamination behaviour can be avoided by choosing a suitable adhesive system. The best method for the evaluation of fire delamination is a full-scale test, but considering the high costs of such full-scale tests, a smaller-scale test needs to be developed. The intention of FIRENWOOD project is that such small-scale methods should give the same results as full-scale tests. A new, smaller-scale method for classifying adhesives concerning fire properties would also simplify the planning of full-scale tests. In Work Package 3 of FIRENWOOD project, some small-scale fire testing methods for adhesive bonds were evaluated at RISE, and this report includes results from small-scale fire tests of adhesive bonds in finger joints, CLT and GLT. The report is organized in three chapters based on the three different products tested. The common for all three tests was that the same eleven adhesive systems were used in all adhesive bonds.

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  • 190.
    Storm, Artur
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Celander, Eva-Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport. Lund University, Sweden.
    Field evacuation experiment in a long inclined tunnel2022Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 132, artikel-id 103640Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An evacuation experiment was carried out at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in March 2018 to investigate human behaviour during evacuation in underground facilities via escape routes with long ascending tunnels. The objective of the experiment was to collect data that could be used as a basis for evacuation risk and safety assessments in underground tunnels and other large infrastructure projects related to e.g., mining. In total, 32 participants individually ascended the 907 m long tunnel with an inclination of 14%. During the evacuation, each participant's walking speed, vertical walking speed, heart rate and estimated physical exertion was documented. The measured walking speeds were found to be higher than the walking speeds obtained in previous experiments, but the vertical walking speeds were lower. The strategy of 44% of the participants was to adjust their walking speed to a pace they thought could be maintained over a longer distance. The results of this experiment show that the walking speed decreased as the level of perceived exertion increased. Moreover, the results indicate that the walking speed and the level of perceived exertion stabilized during the movement along the tunnel. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 191.
    Storm, Artur
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Kumm, Mia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Räddningsinsats i långa spårtunnlar2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Räddningsinsatser i undermarksanläggningar kan vara komplexa och kräva såväl kunskap som stora resurser. Spårtunnlar är dock generellt sett lättare att orientera sig i då tågtrafiken kräver relativt raka tunnlar utan stora lutningar. Om tunneln inte försetts med brännbar kondensisolering gör bergets eller betongens ytskikt och egenskaper att risken för övertändning är försumbar utom exempelvis inuti ett fordon eller i slutna teknikutrymmen. Detta gör att behovet av släckvatten för självskydd längre bort från branden är liten och att behovet av snabb och effektiv förflyttning vid rekognosering och avsökning motiverar förflyttning utan samtidig slanguppbyggnad.

    Inom Ostlänken-projektet har ett insatskoncept tagits fram, där huvudsaklig förflyttning sker i en brandtekniskt avskild servicetunnel och förflyttning från närliggande tvärtunnlar till en plats på säkert avstånd från branden sker i det drabbade tunnelröret. Förflyttningen från tvärtunneln mot branden föreslås ske utan samtidig slanguppbyggnad i de fall detta kan ske utan risk för den enskilda rökdykaren. Insatskonceptet för Ostlänken bygger också på att räddningstjänsten ska kunna dra nytta av de tekniska installationer som projekterats som stöd för utrymning, exempelvis belysning i handledare ovan gångbana.

    Projektet har genomförts i syfte att studera förflyttnings- och avsökningshastigheter i spårtunnelmiljö utan samtidig slangdragning, samt för assisterad förflyttning med bår eller med spårgående räddningstralla.  Målsättningen var att påbörja insamlandet av ett vetenskapligt underlag som kan användas i verifieringen av insatskoncept liknande Ostlänken och vid andra tillfällen när bedömning av räddningstjänstens förmåga eller metoder behöver genomföras.

    Rökdykarnas hastighet vid avsökning var snabbare än vad som visats i andra försök med samtidig slanguppbyggnad. Avsökningshastigheten var ca 0,5–0,6 m/s gående på gångbana och ca 0,6–2,0 m/s när avsökningen skedde från räddningstrallan. Ljusförhållandena var dock betydligt bättre än under tidigare försök i och med den kontinuerliga belysningen på handledaren. När avsökningen skedde från trallan var det endast det rökdykarpar som hade den lägsta förflyttningshastigheten som lyckades hitta den nödställde på gångbanan bakom tåget.

    Tillgången till värmekamera angavs i all utvärdering som en förutsättning för säker förflyttning i den rökfyllda miljön. Användandet av dubbla värmekameror skapade en trygghet i att båda rökdykarna enskilt kunde avsöka och orientera sig i tunneln. En skarp rekommendation som stöds av detta, samt tidigare genomförda, försök är att samtliga rökdykare som rör sig i den rökfyllda tunnelmiljön förses med egen värmekamera.

    Även om samtliga medverkande rökdykare i enkäter och vid de gemensamma genomgångarna uppgav att de kände sig trygga att genomföra förflyttning och insats utan samtidig slanguppbyggnad, fanns ett mindre antal rökdykare som angav att de vid en skarp insats gärna sett tillgång till säkert vatten, trots att de inte kunde redogöra för vilken nytta de skulle ha av brandslangen i liknande miljöer längre bort från branden. Detta visar på ett behov av ytterligare utbildning, övning och utveckling för att räddningstjänstens personal ska känna sig trygga med att genomföra insatser längre bort från brandplatsen utan tillgång till säkert vatten.

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  • 192.
    Stölen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    EBOB – Solcelleinstallasjonar på bygg: Eksperimentell studie av brannspreiing i holrom bak solcellemodular på skrå takflater2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    EBOB - Solar cell installations on buildings. Experimental study of fire spread in cavity behind solar cell modules on pitched roof surfaces.

    This report describes a total of 29 experiments where the fire spread in the cavity behind solar cell modules on pitched roof surfaces were studied. The experiments were performed at RISE Fire Research's laboratory in Trondheim in 2021. The series of experiments was carried out to investigate how a fire on a pitched roof surface will be affected by the presence of solar cell modules installed parallel to the roof surface. Simulated steel solar cell modules were used for all experiments. In a small-scale experimental setup, it was studied how different distances (6, 9, 12 and 15 cm) between the simulated solar cell module and the roof surface affect the fire spread at two different wind speeds (2 and 4 m/s). In a medium-scale experimental setup, it was studied how the fire spread was affected by the size of the initial fire. Finally, in a large-scale experimental setup, it was studied how the fire spread occurs on a roof surface with dimensions in the same order of magnitude as for a roof on a small house. The results show that solar cell modules mounted parallel to the roof surface on pitched roofs can affect the fire dynamics of a fire on the roof surface. The findings from the experiments indicate that there is a correlation between the distance from the roof surface to the solar cell module and how large initial fire is needed for the fire to spread. In the small-scale experiments with a small initial fire, it was not found that the simulated solar cell module affected the extent of damage when the distance between the module and the roof surface was greater than 9 cm. For experiments performed in an intermediate-scale setup, it was found that with a larger initial fire, the fire could spread even when there was 12 cm between the roof surface and the simulated solar cell module. The two large-scale experiments also showed fire spread under the simulated solar cell modules with a UL crib (a standardized fire source) used as the initial fire. The extent of the damaged area on the roof surface was similar for the two experiments, even though the wind direction was different. In both experiments, the fire spread below two rows of simulated solar modules and all the way to the ridge. The heat transfer inwards in the roof construction were greater in the experiments with a simulated solar cell module present than without. It increases with a reduced distance between the roof surface and the simulated solar cell module. Directly below the initial fire, no substantially increased thermal stress was observed on the underlying structure when a simulated solar cell module was installed. The thermal stress, on the other hand, increased to a greater extent because of the fire on the roof surface becoming more extensive when the simulated solar cell module was installed. There was a relatively low temperature increase measured under the chipboard behind the roof covering, which indicates that there was no immediate danger of fire spreading inwards into the roof structure directly through the 22 mm thick chipboard.

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  • 193.
    Stølen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Bergius, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brann i holrom bak royaloljebehandla kledning av furu2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains measurements, observations, and results from 30 experiments with fire in the cavity between the wood cladding and the wind barrier. The experiments were performed at RISE Fire Research's laboratory in Trondheim in 2021. The main focus of the study is on fire inside the cavity between the wind barrier and the cladding. The purpose has been to investigate how different parameters, such as material use and geometry, affect the fire in this cavity. This test series is done by using varying combinations of royal oil-treated and untreated cladding of pine with wind barriers of two different reaction to fire classifications and two different lathing types in the various experiments The various experimental setups have been done in a way that is meant to represent typical constructions in Norwegian houses with wooden cladding. All walls were flat, with cladding without gaps or openings and without internal corners, extruding parts, doors, windows, or other penetrations. In most experiments, measures were taken to shield the outside of the cladding from exposure to the initial fire. In several experiments, however, the fire also established itself on the outside of the cladding after it had burned through the cladding from the inside. Large-scale experiments have also been carried out, where both the cavity and the front of the cladding were exposed to the initial fire. The experiments' results show that the use of royal oil-treated cladding had no statistically significant effect on how the fire in the cavity spread. The results indicate that the use of the used wind barrier with reaction to fire classification F lead to faster flame spread and temperature rise than the used wind barrier with fire classification A2 did, but this is not statistically significant and may be due to random variations. Experiments with vertical lathing showed faster temperature rise in the cavity than experiments with cross-lathing. This means that the heat spreads faster upwards in the cavity when it forms continuous vertical channels than where the cavity is connected both horizontally and vertically between the cross-lathing. In the cavity with cross-lathing, on the other hand, the heat and fire spread to a greater extent laterally than in the cavity with only vertical lathing. The fire in the cavity was in many of the experiments limited by oxygen supply. This shows that the supply of air in the cavity can be as crucial for delimiting the fire spread as the fire properties of the materials inside the cavity. When the cavity fire is delimited by the oxygen supply, higher amounts of combustible gases will be formed in the smoke. This can cause the fire to spread to other places if this gas can be re-ignited.

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  • 194.
    Stølen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Wingdahl, Trond
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Large- and small-scale fire test of a building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) facade system2024Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 144, artikel-id 104083Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of installed photovoltaic (PV) modules has increased significantly over the last years, and using available building surfaces to generate electricity by integrating PV modules in the construction is an attractive option. Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) or other vented claddings can spread fires rapidly to large parts of a building if the fire is allowed to propagate. To investigate this hazard, a large-scale SP FIRE 105 façade fire test was conducted. A façade measuring 4000 mm × 6000 mm covered with BIPV modules was exposed to flames that represent the fire plume from a window in a room at flashover. The results from the test show that critical failures, like falling objects and vertical flame propagation, can be expected in such constructions. These results highlight the importance of details in mounting of BIPV-façades and to require proper documentation from relevant fire tests of such systems. Small-scale cone calorimeter tests were conducted on the studied BIPV module to provide material properties of the combustible parts of the installation. These aspects should be considered when planning new or when retrofitting façades, to prevent escalation of fires. The results presented are, however, only valid for the configuration that was tested. Other BIPV-façades should also be investigated to study how these constructions can be built safely in the future with regard to critical details.

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  • 195.
    Stølen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Wingdahl, Trond
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Large-scalefire test of a BIPV façadesystem2023Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 196.
    Stølen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sanfeliu Meliá, Cristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire safety of energy storage and energy production in buildings2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Different technologies for the production and storage of energy are available. The use of renewable energy sources can have both practical, economic, and environmental advantages. However, as renewable energy sources may not be continuously available or in sync with the consumption of energy, the need for energy storage solutions arises. Each building has its characteristic conditions with respect to the availability of renewable energy sources and energy requirements. Moreover, the different types of energy production technologies have different characteristic properties like space requirements, power capacity, investment, and operation cost, etc. Similarly, the energy storage solutions have different energy efficiencies, power and energy capacities, space requirements, and long-term energy loss. Finally, all these energy solutions may lead to different fire hazards that need to be handled in accordance with the building and the environment where the technology will be used. In this report, a short introduction to the following energy production and storage technologies is given: Solar, wind, electric generators, biomass, batteries, hydrogen, thermal, pressurised air, and flywheel rotational energy. Each of these technologies has different characteristics and fire hazards that are mentioned. Smart technology is here defined as any device that can collect information on its environment, evaluate the collected information, and provide some type of output based on the evaluation. A long list of possible input parameters, processing possibilities, and output signals or actions are possible, and any combination of these can be implemented, making a plethora of smart technologies possible. Some of these smart technologies can have an impact on fire safety in buildings. A well-known example is a smoke alarm where the signal from a smoke sensor is compared to a set threshold level that activates an audible alarm. Some example systems are also mentioned to show how different combinations of these solutions can be implemented to cover a specific energy requirement in a building.

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  • 197.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Arun Chaudhari, Ojas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Experimental Development and Field Validation of Rock Anchors for Sustainable Onshore Foundations2024Ingår i: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2745, artikel-id 012011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of an innovative rock anchor prototype manufactured using high strength steel sheets produced locally in Sweden is the core of the PROWIND concept. Steel sheets provide a design freedom to easily manufacture complex geometries, which can be advantageous to enhance the shear force transmission in the bond-length segment of the anchor. The underlying challenge of this concept has been to design a solution which meets the design requirements of today and future technological advancements, all while keeping conventional installation practices in mind. The project followed a 4-step development process: (1) concept analysis and modelling, (2) small-scale prototypes testing and (3) large scale lab-validation and lastly (4) field validation. The performance of the developed rock anchor prototype and grouting material was experimentally quantified on both small and large-scale test specimens and also validated in full scale in the field concerning installation process, proof-loading and maintaining the prestress over time. The PROWIND anchors with the end feature with ribbed design have 4-5 times higher load bearing capacity. The experience from the anchor installation proved that the developed grout and anchors are faster and easier to install. The field test in two different geological conditions has proven that the news design is reducing the required anchorage length to just 1 meter. The restressing of anchors is fully possible with the proposed lock-off solution with a nut. All of those contribute to lower costs of installations and possibly longer service-life.

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  • 198.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    FRIC webinar: Large-scale compartment experiments with exposed Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT).2023Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 199.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Friquin, Kathinka Leikanger
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar S.
    NTNU, Norway.
    Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-02 - Exposed wall and ceiling2023Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 141, artikel-id 103986Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is becoming increasingly popular due to its many advantages. However, it has been shown that exposed CLT can have a significant effect on fire dynamics and spread rates. Further studies are therefore needed to better understand the impact of CLT to fire safety. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) representing a modern office building have been performed, #FRIC-01 and #FRIC-02. This paper presents the second experiment, #FRIC-02, with exposed CLT on the back wall and the ceiling. The fire developed fast and spread across the room in less than 3.5 min from ignition of the wood crib on the floor and in 1.5 min after the ignition of the ceiling. Large external flames were observed, despite the compartment being well-ventilated. The 5-layer CLT, which comprised a 40 mm thick exposed outer layer and was face-bonded using a common European polyurethane adhesive, exhibited glue-line integrity failure and led to a second flashover after a significant period of decay. Subsequent layers of 20 mm also delaminated before the fire was manually extinguished after 3 h. Compared to #FRIC-01, the fire spread rate was faster, and temperatures, charring rates, heat release rates and external flames were higher. 

  • 200.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Friquin, Kathinka Leikanger
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; SINTEF, Norway.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-01 – Exposed ceiling2023Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, artikel-id 103869Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposing cross-laminated timber (CLT) structures in buildings is increasingly popular in modern buildings. However, large timber surfaces, window facades, and different geometries can change the fire dynamics in a compartment. The effect of those parameters, therefore, needs to be studied. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) have consequently been performed. The experiments were designed to represent a modern office building with an open-plan space and large window openings. In this experiment, #FRIC-01, the ceiling was exposed. The wood crib fire developed slowly and travelled approximately 1.5 m before the ceiling ignited at 32.5 min. Thereafter the fire spread rapidly across the ceiling and wood crib before it shortly after retracted. Three such cycles of rapid spread followed by a retraction occurred within 13 min, whereby the wood crib fire grew larger for each cycle. After the flames extended through the compartment for the fourth time, the fire remained fully developed. After a short period of intense burning, the CLT self-extinguished while the wood crib fire was still burning. The compartment withstood full burnout, and no reignition occurred despite some delamination and using an adhesive that lacks a demonstrated resistance against glue-line integrity failure. © 2023 The Authors

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