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  • 151.
    Olsson, O
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Alexandersson, E
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Hybridbussar med ström från spårvagnsnätet: Förstudie kring dynamisk energiöverföring för ökad elektrisk räckvidd2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    I expanderande städer innebär det stora utmaningar att skapa och tillhandahålla god mobilitet för samtliga grupper i samhället samtidigt som trängsel, luftemissioner och buller ska minimeras. Elfordon har, jämfört med förbränningsfordon, högre energieffektivitet samt kraftigt reducerade lokala utsläpp och kan därför underlätta vid ovannämnda utmaning. Dessvärre är energidensiteten i batterier relativt låg, jämfört med exempelvis diesel, och de batterier som skulle krävas för att motsvara ett konventionellt fordons räckvidd kan bli både dyra och tunga.

    Denna förstudie syftar till att undersöka möjligheterna och i största möjliga mån utreda oklarheter och krav för att utnyttja Göteborgs spårvagnsnät för kontinuerlig energiförsörjning även till hybridbussar och därmed minska behovet av energilagring i batterier.

    Rapporten utreder kraven på hybridbussen och på den nödvändiga tekniken för att ansluta till spårvagnsnätet utan att riskera säkerheten för passagerare eller spårvagnsnät. Vidare har energikapaciteten i spårvagnsnätet undersökts och linjer föreslagits där elektrifierade bussar med ström från spårvagnsnätet lämpligtvis skulle kunna demonstreras.

    Förstudien har genomförts i samarbete med Volvo Bussar, Trafikkontoret i Göteborg och Västtrafik. 

    Projektet har finansierats av Västra Götalandsregionen Regionutvecklingsnämnden.

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  • 152.
    Olsson, Oscar
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Grauers, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Method to analyze cost effectiveness of different electric bus systems2016Ingår i: EVS 2016 - 29th International Electric Vehicle Symposium, 2016, s. 604-615Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method developed to analyze a complete electric bus system including electricity supply infrastructure, charging system, buses' energy system and scheduling. This method can give an understanding of what kind of electric bus system that is the most cost-effective based on local conditions such as transport demand and type of electricity infrastructure available. It is being used as a tool in planning and construction of future public transport systems.

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  • 153.
    Olsson, Oscar
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Olausson, Ellen
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Hybrid buses with continuous energy transfer from tram network2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Expanding cities need to cope with significant challenges to provide good mobility, while atthe same time minimizing congestion, emissions and noise. Compared to combustion vehicles,electric vehicles have higher energy efficiency, reduced local emissions and are quiet, and cantherefore ease the above challenges. Unfortunately, the energy density in batteries is relativelylow; therefore they would be both expensive and heavy to achieve a corresponding range ofconventional vehicles. This case study has therefore examined the possibilities, ambiguitiesand requirements for utilizing Gothenburg’s existing tram network as energy source foren-route charging of buses. A conceptual technical solution has furthermore been presented toenable the connection to the tram network. It is also recommended to implement smart controlof the vehicle’s energy consumption in order to optimize the network power utilizationwithout additional infrastructure investments.

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  • 154.
    Olsson, Oscar
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, S.
    Sebestyen, R.
    Poly segment monorail, a conductive method as an alternative for highway electrification2012Ingår i: World Electric Vehicle Journal, ISSN 2032-6653, E-ISSN 2032-6653, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 679-687Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles driven on alternative fuels, such as electric vehicles (EVs), are becoming more common while awareness of a diminishing oil supply, oil prices and environmental pollution are increasing. Despite technical breakthroughs, the low energy density in the battery is a problem that limits long distance travel, especially for heavy-duty vehicles (HDV). The low energy density combined with the high cost and the uncertain predictable lifetime of the battery could be estimated to hamper the expansion of the long distance EVs. Electrified highways connecting cities could be one solution to reduce the battery and fuel dependency by supplying electricity continuously to the vehicles. Different technical solutions of electric roads, both conductive and inductive, have been proven functional but are today mainly used in the tram and train industry. Despite the inductive system's major benefit of not relying on a physical contact, an inductive system is not necessarily the best option due to high costs and questionable efficiency. This said, also a conductive system intended for highway transport, despite the mature technology used, is far from problem free. This paper presents the new concept Poly segment monorail (PSM), intended to reduce the drawbacks of the general conductive system for highways. PSM utilizes segments alternating each other at road level, in contrast to traditionally being parallel and sometimes partially buried. With the new design and segments that are galvanically insulated, reduced losses and increase safety could be achieved. The paper also highlights the complexity for the new technology, involving several stakeholder markets, to achieve an international standard, which could be estimated a requirement for such a system to be beneficial and reasonable. © 2012 WEVA.

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  • 155. Olstam, J
    et al.
    Häll, CH
    Smith, Göran
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Dynamic bus lanes in Sweden – a pre-study2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Dedicated bus lanes and bus streets have, in recent years, become common measures for prioritisation of public transport. By ensuring free path along routes, they increase average speed and travel time reliability of buses. However, a major drawback is that the total traffic capacities of the roads decrease. Hence, these measures are only suitable when the total traffic flow is low enough to allow for a reduction of lanes; if it is possible to reroute adjacent traffic; or if it is possible to extend the road with additional lanes. A supplementary priority measure could be to utilize dynamic bus lanes (also called intermittent bus lanes and bus lanes with intermittent priority). Dynamic bus lanes are only dedicated for buses when and where the buses need them, and otherwise open for all vehicles to use. At any given point, adjacent traffic is only permitted from using the dynamic bus lanes at the stretches where buses are in the vicinity. This report presents the results from a pre-study, investigating the potential that dynamic bus lanes could have as a priority measure for public transport in a Swedish context.

    Knowledge of situations in which dynamic bus lanes have the highest potential, and their implementation requirements is scarce. It is moreover uncertain how they would affect traffic safety, level of service and user experience. Two real world field tests have been conducted; one in Lisbon and one in Melbourne. The installation in Melbourne is now permanently applied for trams on one street. The field test in Lisbon was on the contrary not made permanent, although the results showed large benefits for buses and limited adverse effects on other vehicles. Dynamic bus lanes have also been investigated by means of traffic analysis and traffic simulation experiments. In general, these studies show that the effects on travel time for buses are in general positive and delays for other vehicles are limited. Results from example calculations in this pre-study show that this also could be true for a Swedish context. It has also been identified that the effects on travel times are highly dependent on factors such as: the total traffic flow; the bus flow, the capacity of roads and junctions; the distance between junctions and bus stops; the type of bus stops and the yielding rules at bus stops. The effects on travel time variations are unclear and need to be further investigated.

    Few rigorous research studies have in general been undertaken to measure the user experiences or road safety implications of bus priority schemes, and evidence from those that do exist are mixed. Anyhow, the experiences from Lisbon and Melbourne suggest that drivers in adjacent lanes in general understand and accept that they are deprived of the right to use the lane when the buses need it, and that they will behave appropriately. Neither of the field tests has observed any negative impact on road safety. A workshop was conducted within this pre-study in order to further investigate plausible user experiences. The results indicate that bus drivers’ stress levels could be reduced; the relative attractiveness of travelling by bus might rise; and that motorists probably would experience the introduction of dynamic bus lanes as neither good nor bad, as long as the system is fairly intuitive.

    Technical solutions for implementing dynamic bus lanes exist. A dynamic bus lane system would require development of a system control unit and integration with bus sensors, sensors for traffic flow measurement, variable message signs (to inform road users of the current status of the dynamic bus lane) and traffic signals. It is moreover, in Sweden, possible to develop a local traffic rule that regulates dynamic bus lanes. However, the rule needs to be properly specified, designed, communicated, signed and marked on the road.

    The overall conclusion form the pre-study is that dynamic bus lanes could be a useful complementary priority measure for public transport vehicles in Sweden, especially when dedicated bus lanes are not feasible or desirable. However, a real world installation in Sweden, including pre implementation traffic analysis, is needed, in order to further investigate the potential and consequences. Thus, the next step is to plan for an implementation on a specific road stretch. That would include both estimation of costs, and generate input to further studies of effect on level of service and user experience. Driving simulators and traffic simulation experiments are applicable methods for investigating these issues. 

  • 156. Ouattara, L
    et al.
    Mikkelsen, A
    Lundgren, E
    Hoglund, L
    Asplund, C
    Andersson, JY
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    A cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy study of a quantum dot infrared photodetector structure2006Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 100, s. 44320-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 157.
    Pettersson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Rydström, Annie
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hylving, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Karlsson, MariAnne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Living Room on the Move: Autonomous Vehicles and Social Experiences2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 2016, artikel-id 129Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing autonomous vehicles is technically complex and up to now research has focused on technical improvement and operative safety. As the level of automation increases the role of the driver will change; from controlling every movement of the vehicle into becoming an operator/passenger. Little is known about how this new context will affect the social experiences with and within the vehicle. This workshop focuses on three different kinds of social experience and socializing, namely; between other road users and the autonomous car, the social activities taking place within the autonomous car, and lastly the relationship between the car and the operator. The workshop aims at exploring possible practices, research and design directions of autonomous vehicles in relation to these social experiences. A human-centered design approach is the core of the workshop, with playful field excursions and ideation sessions.

  • 158.
    Pettersson, S
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    ELVIIS - FINAL REPORT TOGÖTEBORG ENERGIFORSKNINGSSTIFTELSE2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report mainly describes research activities as part of the ELVIIS program during Oct. 2011 to June 2013. The overall vision of the ELVIIS-program is to contribute to a mass-adoption of electric vehicles by means of an open architecture platform that enables the development of future new electric vehicle services. The ELVIIS program is cross industry cooperation with the target to facilitate the ownership and promote a broader acceptance of electric vehicles with the use of Information and Communication Technology. The ELVIIS-partners consist of Göteborg Energi, Volvo Car Corporation, Ericsson and Viktoria Swedish ICT.

    The ELVIIS program has resulted in a building of a technical architecture demonstrator platform with implemented services currently consisting of charging and billing. The program has been financed by Swedish ICT, Region Västra Götaland and Göteborg Energi forskningsstiftelse. The latter funding has given the possibility to study open innovation possibilities, business models and user experiences. The main part of this report is devoted to these areas and a brief summary follows.

    Regarding the open innovation possibilities, it is suggested that a federative ecosystem for electric vehicles could be expected to:

    • Increase the ability of users, developers and data providers to generate new, valuable uses that are easy to distribute.
    • Improve the ability to distribute innovations across firm specific segments.
    • Change the traditional value chains and business models in order to secure a distributed revenue flow over actors in the federative ecosystem
    • Act Subsidiary in helping smaller or more local actors to accomplish their respective ends without self arrogating those tasks.

    Furthermore, within the project it has been identified that the ELVIIS concept has significant merits compared to charging poles as a charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, not least economically. However, the current state of ELVIIS is such that it is not a selectable choice for actors who need or desire to develop an electric vehicle infrastructure because ELVIIS is not sufficiently diffused among the actors who must adopt it before it becomes usable in practice. For a diffusion process to take place, certain limitations and incentive issues must be solved, and someone must solve them. A potential solutions and a potential change agent that can make them happen are suggested; these are based on interviews and discussions with ELVIIS project members analyzed through theory on diffusion of innovations and adopter discrepancies.

    Despite the technical problems occurring during the trial period, user experiences have been captured and it can be determined that the ELVIIS concept present a charging solution that would enhance and ease the driving of electrical vehicles. Furthermore, it can be concluded that ELVIIS is useful and convenient in the day-to-day driving of electric vehicles – it provides the ability to easily access, check, and control the charging process. Most of the users would recommend it to a friend or use itself in an electric vehicle. In particular, the accessibility and availability the smart-phone application provides, presents the best ELVIIS features. The web application provides the feature least appreciated of the ELVIIS concept. In addition, the ELVIIS concept provides features that have the potential to minimise range anxiety and help electric vehicle drivers in utilising the full potential of the vehicle range by providing the ability to control/check/set/access the charging.

    The ELVIIS concept has the potential to be a much cheaper charging infrastructure solution compared to the building of expensive intelligent charging poles, advocated by charging pole suppliers and utilities. If all motor heaters and ordinary outlets can be counted as charging points, the number of charging places currently suggested by EU is already achieved. It is our strong belief that ELVIIS, if implemented in large scale, will contribute to a quicker mass-adoption of electric vehicles.

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  • 159.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Lightweight infrastructure for electric vehicle charging2015Ingår i: World Electric Vehicle Journal, ISSN 2032-6653, E-ISSN 2032-6653, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 631-642, artikel-id WEVJ7-0631Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles need a charging infrastructure. In this paper, it will be argued that Sweden already has a charging infrastructure that potentially could provide all cars with electricity if they were electrified. The charging infrastructure consists of existing motor heaters sockets and outlets near e.g. villas and holiday homes which directly or for low cost can be rebuild to provide electric vehicles with energy. Building a lightweight infrastructure for electric vehicle charging consisting of simple sockets is roughly hundred times cheaper than building fast chargers or a charging infrastructure with Type 2 plug with charging modes Mode 2 or Mode 3. Therefore, it is wise to build a lightweight charging infrastructure for electric vehicle charging and use the connectivity of the vehicle to e.g. enable smart charging and other desirable services/applications. Parts of the conclusions and results in this paper have been established in a Swedish project denoted ELVIIS consisting of partners from research (Viktoria Swedish ICT), car industry (Volvo Car Cooperation), telecom sector (Ericsson) and utility industry (Göteborg Energi).

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  • 160.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Fransson, Tommy
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Large scale testing of wireless charging in Sweden2016Ingår i: EVS 2016 - 29th International Electric Vehicle Symposium, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless charging has the potential to simplify charging of electric cars, a technology that is now tested on a larger scale in Sweden in an ongoing project denoted WiCh (Wireless charging of electric vehicles). Inductive wireless chargers have been installed in a total of 20 electric vehicles located in Sweden, which means that so far the study is the largest demonstration activity of inductively charged vehicles in the world. The technology will be demonstrated and assessed during a year, and the experiences gained so far are outlined in this paper.

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  • 161. Pissadakis, S
    et al.
    Candiani, A
    Sterner, C
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Margulis, W
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Microstructured optical fiber gratings for magnetofluidic sensors and actuators2011Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The infiltration of ferrofluids inside microstructured optical fiber Bragg gratings enables photonic devices with spectral behavior that can be stimulated by external magnetic fields.

    Full text

  • 162.
    Pohl, H
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Radical Innovation: Management and policy for electric and hybrid electric vehicle development2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 163.
    Rudmark, D
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Att öppna datakällor för tredjepartsutveckling - rekommendationer för kollektivtrafikbranschen2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 164.
    Rönnbäck, Åsa
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Quality in the public procurement process2012Ingår i: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 447-460Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate four dimensions of how to integrate quality in the public procurement process from three perspectives. The study was carried out in the public transportation industry where service provision has been outsourced. Design/methodology/approach - An explorative case study was carried out using two data collection methods. The first involved a document study that considered the integration of quality in the public procurement process. This led to the second method, which involved conducting in-depth interviews to follow up on the procurement and the role of quality with the participants. Findings - The findings provide insights into how quality can be included in the public procurement process and, in particular, how self-assessment can be used to evaluate the "best quality practice". The quality maturity of the industry also has an influence on three dimensions: the choice of quality model, the weighting between price and quality and how the tenders perform their self-assessments. Research limitations/implications - The study focuses on one case and presents explorative findings. This has implications for future research, for which the set of procurement decisions regarding the integration of quality must be analysed. Practical implications - The integration of quality in the public procurement process involves choosing a future business partner according to the "best quality practice", not just the lowest price. Including quality in the public procurement process can help facilitate the delivery of high-quality services to customers when service provision has been outsourced. Originality/value - This study contributes to the service quality literature by empirically investigating how quality can be integrated in the public procurement process, which is a prerequisite for contracting a desired service supplier

  • 165.
    Rönnbäck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Eriksson, H.
    A case study on quality management and digital innovation: Relationship and learning aspects2012Ingår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 408-422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the maturity of quality management and digital innovation in an organisation. Furthermore, the purpose is to analyse the relationship between and learning opportunities of the two concepts based on that maturity. An explorative case study was carried out by conducting in-depth interviews with both quality management and IT professionals, complemented with a document study. The findings of this research show the maturity of quality management and digital innovation in an organization using a set of principles. The analysis shows that, on an overall level, the majority of the principles studied concerning quality management and digital innovation are categorized as “uncommitted” or “initiators”. The study shows that there is an interrelationship between quality management and digital innovation and they are dependent on each other. This is a case study and focuses on one context where the interrelationship between quality management and digital innovation is studied. The results can provide insights on the importance of working cross-functionally when developing the organisation. The maturity of quality management in an organisation can either inhibit or facilitate digital innovation, and similarly, digital innovation can improve or deteriorate service quality for both internal and external customers. This study contributes to the service quality literature by empirically investigating the maturity of quality management and digital innovation, and discussing how they can relate and what they can learn from each other.

  • 166. Salomonson, N.
    et al.
    Allwood, J.
    Lind, Mikael
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Alm, H.
    Comparing Human-to-Human and Human-to-AEA Communication in Service Encounters2013Ingår i: Journal of Business Communication, ISSN 0021-9436, E-ISSN 1552-4582, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 87-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of companies are introducing artificial agents as self-service tools on their websites, often motivated by the need to provide cost-efficient interaction solutions. These agents are designed to help customers and clients to conduct their business on the website. Their role on commercial websites is often to act as online sales/shopping assistants with the hope of replacing some of the interactions between customers and sales staff, thus supplementing or replacing human-to-human communication. However, research on artificial agents and comparisons with human-to-human communication, in particular, is still scarce. The purpose of this article is to explore the similarities and differences in communication between an artificial agent and customers compared with face-to-face communication between human service providers and customers. The method employed is a qualitative comparison of face-to-face human service provision in a travel agency setting and logs of interactions between customers and an artificial agent on an airline company website. The analysis is based on the theory of "activity-based communication analysis" and makes use of a framework of specific communication features provided by this theory. The article demonstrates a number of deficiencies in communication between artificial embodied agents and humans, suggesting that artificial embodied agents still lack many of the desirable communicative aspects of human-to-human service encounters.

  • 167.
    Sani, N.
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Robertsson, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Cooper, P.
    De La Rue, UK.
    Wang, X.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Svensson, M.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, M.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, D.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hesselbom, H.
    Hesselbom Innovation and Development, Sweden.
    Akesso, L.
    De La Rue, UK.
    Fahlman, M.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, X.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Engquist, I.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, G.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    All-printed diode operating at 1.6 GHz2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, s. 11343-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics are considered for wireless electronic tags sensors within the future Internet-of-things (IoT) concept. As a consequence of the low charge carrier mobility of present printable organic inorganic semiconductors, the operational frequency of printed rectifiers is not high enough to enable direct communication powering between mobile phones printed e-tags. Here, we report an all-printed diode operating up to 1.6 GHz. The device, based on two stacked layers of Si NbSi2 particles, is manufactured on a flexible substrate at low temperature in ambient atmosphere. The high charge carrier mobility of the Si microparticles allows device operation to occur in the charge injection-limited regime. The asymmetry of the oxide layers in the resulting device stack leads to rectification of tunneling current. Printed diodes were combined with antennas electrochromic displays to form an all-printed e-tag. The harvested signal from a Global System for Mobile Communications mobile phone was used to update the display. Our findings demonstrate a new communication pathway for printed electronics within IoT applications._x000D_

  • 168. Sanneblad, J.
    et al.
    Holmquist, Lars Erik
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    "Why is everyone inside me?!" Using shared displays in mobile computer games2004Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2004, s. 487-498Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the use of shared mobile displays to create a new type of computer games for mobile devices - Collaborative Games, which require players to physically coordinate their activities to succeed. Collaborative Games are played on mobile devices connected in wireless networks where users can start, join and leave games ad hoc. In a user study, one of these mobile games was made available in a café frequented by high school students for a period of two weeks. During the test period we noted several new forms of interaction emerging, such as players running away with their displays to avoid other players from accessing them. We also found interesting verbal exchanges, such as the use of "me" to refer to both the user's handheld display and her on-screen representation. We believe that these new ways of interaction is a result of using the shared display in a new domain.

  • 169.
    Sanneblad, Johan
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Holmquist, Lars Erik
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    OpenTrek: A platform for developing interactive networked games on mobile devices2003Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2003, s. 224-240Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Programming interactive networking applications for mobile devices is currently a laborious process, due to the lack of standardized development support. We introduce a new software platform, OpenTrek, primarily intended to assist the development of multiplayer networked games on Pocket PC devices. OpenTrek is similar to game development environments on stationary PCs, such as DirectX, but is fully optimized to work with mobile devices. It is a freely downloadable package with a fast learning curve, which includes support for ad hoc networking and efficient graphics. We successfully deployed OpenTrek in a course at a local university. 28 students with no previous experience in Pocket PC programming were able to create 12 different advanced multiplayer networked games in only five weeks (which included introduction to the platform). By easing the development of advanced interactive applications on Pocket PC, OpenTrek can lower the hurdle for researchers who wish to prototype and test novel user interfaces for mobile devices.

  • 170.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    (Failing to) create eco-innovation networks: The Nordic Climate Cluster2015Ingår i: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 283-299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Climate Cluster (NOCC) was an innovation network composed of large Norwegian and Swedish companies from different industries with common interests in climate-friendly eco-innovations. The network was initiated in 2008, but was disbanded just two years later. This study treats the NOCC as a special case (an eco-innovation network) and examines factors that influenced its failure. The study shows that the network failed for a variety of reasons, including a lack of stability, a lack of social capital and inadequate market demands for eco-innovations. The study concludes with implications for policy-makers who are keen to promote eco-innovation via networking.

  • 171.
    Sarasini, Steven
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Collado, Magda
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Governing the transition to a circular economy: A multidimensional approach2015Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 172. Sein, M. K.
    et al.
    Henfridsson, Ola
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Purao, S.
    Rossi, M.
    Lindgren, Rikard
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Action design research2011Ingår i: Management Information Systems Quarterly, ISSN 0276-7783, E-ISSN 2162-9730, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 37-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Design research (DR) positions information technology artifacts at the core of the Information Systems discipline. However, dominant DR thinking takes a technological view of the IT artifact, paying scant attention to its shaping by the organizational context. Consequently, existing DR methods focus on building the artifact and relegate evaluation to a subsequent and separate phase. They value technological rigor at the cost of organizational relevance, and fail to recognize that the artifact emerges from interaction with the organizational context even when its initial design is guided by the researchers' intent. We propose action design research (ADR) as a new DR method to address this problem. ADR reflects the premise that IT artifacts are ensembles shaped by the organizational context during development and use. The method conceptualizes the research process as containing the inseparable and inherently interwoven activities of building the IT artifact, intervening in the organization, and evaluating it concurrently. The essay describes the stages of ADR and associated principles that encapsulate its underlying beliefs and values. We illustrate ADR through a case of competence management at Volvo IT.

  • 173.
    Selander, L
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Henfridsson, O
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Svahn, F
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Capability Search Redeem Across Digital Ecosystems2013Ingår i: JIT. Journal of information technology (Print), ISSN 0268-3962, E-ISSN 1466-4437, Vol. 28, s. 183-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research on digital ecosystems focuses on the focal firm (e.g., a platform owner) its ecosystem governance. However, there is a dearth of literature examining the non-focal actor, i.e., an ecosystem participant who is at the periphery of a digital ecosystem. This paper proposes a theoretical perspective of the non-focal firm€™s participation across digital ecosystems for cultivating its innovation habitat through capability search redeem. Capability search involves the location of external capability deemed valuable for extending the firm€™s innovation habitat. Capability redeem refers to the firm€™s use of external capability to develop, distribute, and/or monetize its products services. We generate sensitize the proposed perspective in the context of Sony Ericsson€™s innovation habitat by interpreting the mobile device manufacturer€™s participation across four digital ecosystems (Visual Basic, Java, Digital Music, Android). Our findings suggest that the non-focal actor cannot rely on a single ecosystem for addressing all relevant layers of innovation. It benefits from pursuing a pluralistic strategy, operating across digital ecosystems to avoid investing all efforts in the same ecosystem. The model of ecosystem capability search redeem, which is a result of ideographic research explanation, extends current perspectives on digital ecosystems contributes to the emerging literature in the digital age._x000D_

  • 174.
    Selander, Lisen
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Henfridsson, O.
    Cynicism as user resistance in IT implementation2012Ingår i: Information Systems Journal, ISSN 1350-1917, E-ISSN 1365-2575, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 289-312Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the process by which user cynicism emerges and is constituted as part of resistance in information technology (IT) implementation. We ground our process perspective in the received user resistance literature by linking cynicism to users' projections of the system's future use. Rather than attributing cynicism to perceived threats, however, we see user cynicism as cognitively distanced resistance that manifests as a perception of seeing through the espoused goals of the implementers. Based on a process analysis of a customer relationship management implementation at a customer service centre, the paper extends the user resistance model proposed by Lapointe and Rivard by identifying three dimensions of user cynicism in IT implementation. It also shows how cynicism, as a form of passive resistance, easily escalates and feeds new forms of resistance. Lastly, we introduce the cynicism literature as a new reference theory for the Information Systems (IS) audience. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 175.
    Shih Yang, Lin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    Adaptive Wavelength Adjustment (AWLA) for Cooperative Speed Harmonization2014Ingår i: VNC, 2014, s. 113-114Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic merge on express-ways creates bottlenecks for traffic flow that potentially lead to traffic jams, especially in dense traffic. Cooperative speed harmonization (CSH), where vehicles are grouped and associated to virtual speed waves for group-wise joining at intersections, is proven to be efficient for on-ramp traffic merge. Based on CSH and considering variations of traffic density from joining roads, an adaptive wavelength adjustment (AWLA) mechanism is proposed in this paper. AWLA extends CSH by dynamically adjusting the length of segments in virtual waves according to the traffic densities of the joining roads. Therefore, roads with denser traffic may have larger segments to carry more vehicles through the intersection, which may improve the overall performance. Simulation results have shown that AWLA can achieve lower CO2 emissions and shorter travel time compared to CSH with static segment settings.

  • 176.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Electricity Innovation Challenge - Förstudierapport: Mobilize partners, identify needs and design contest2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Den här förstudien samlade 13 av ElectriCitys behovsägare och intressenter i en workshop och utvecklade utifrån informationen som framkom ett tävlingskoncept som uppfyller deras behov och krav. Tävlingskonceptet är tänkt att i nära samarbete med demonstrationsarenan ElectriCity generera, exponera och testa digitala och fysiska innovationer under temat ”framtidens attraktiva bussresa”. Innovationerna som framkommer ska göra det attraktivare att resa med den kollektivtrafiklösning som arenan demonstrera och därmed i förlängningen till att introduktionen av elektrifierad busstrafik bidrar till att andelen kollektivtrafikresor ökas/fördubblas. Tävlingen avses att bli ett återkommande event under demonstrationsarenans livstid, dvs. 2015 - 2018. Tävlingskonceptet har efter den här förstudien planerats och en finansieringsansökan för genomförandet är inskickad till Vinnova. Tävlingen är beroende av 1) att ElectriCity utvecklar en gemensam plattform för öppna data samt 2) att tävlingswebb och en så kallad ”developer zone” tas fram inför genomförandet.

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  • 177.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Flytande busskörfält - Litteraturstudie2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Snabbhet och tillförlitlighet har identifierats som två nyckelfaktorer för att öka kollektivtrafikens konkurrenskraft (Ipsos, 2013, Johansson et al., 2010). För bussar i linjetra- fik är dock både snabbhet och tillförlitlighet underordnat framkomligheten längs linjesträckningen. Bussarna kan aldrig prestera bättre än vad trafiksituationen tillåter. I syfte att komma runt problemet har olika varianter av dedikerade bussgator och busskörfält börjat bli allt vanligare. Införandet har visat sig vara en effektiv metod för att ga- rantera fri väg för bussen och därmed få upp hastigheten (Andersson & Gibrand, 2008). Den stora nackdelen är att vägens totala kapacitet sjunker drastiskt. Metoden kan därför bara användas om trafikflödet för övrig trafik är läg- re än vägens reducerade kapacitet; om det är möjligt att omdirigera övrig trafik; eller om det är möjligt att bygga ut vägen med ytterligare körfält. Ofta är inget av alternativen samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt. Ett potentiellt komplement till dedikerade bussgator och busskörfält är därför flytande busskörfält. Flytande busskörfält är körfält som endast är reserverade för bussar när bussarna behöver det och annars öppna för alla fordon att använda. Därmed kan de i många fall säkerställa bussarnas framkomlighet utan vare sig signifikant påverkan på vägens totala kapacitet eller behov av infrastruktursutbyggnad. Konceptet föreslogs första gången 1996 av Viegas och Lu (1996). Sedan dess har det utförts analytiska utvärderingar, simuleringsstudier och ett fälttest. En variant av konceptet finns även permanent applicerat för spårvagnar i Melbourne sedan 2001. Resultaten har genomgående visat på förbättrad restid och minskad restidsvariation, oftast utan betydande påverkan på övrig trafik. 

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  • 178.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Marknadsplatser för öppna data: En fallstudie kring användare, användning och upplevt värde2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Marknadsplatser för öppna data används allt oftare som en metod för att adressera innovationsbarriärer inom ekosystem för öppna data. Syftet med den här studien var att, via en fallstudie, studera hur sådana marknadsplatser kan skapa värde för utvecklare och därigenom främja innovation. Studien bygger på intervjuer med utvecklare och en webbenkät samt statistik från den studerade marknadsplatsens hemsida.

    Den studerade marknadsplatsen attraherar många olika typer av utvecklare, men programmeringskunniga unga män drivna av interna drivkrafter är en dominant användargrupp. Utvecklarna använder marknadsplatsen på olika sätt, där vissa endast vill komma åt öppen data tidigt under tjänsteutvecklingsprocessen och andra ser marknadsplatsen som en viktig partner under hela tjänstelivscykeln. Marknadsplatsen har genererat fem tydliga värden för utvecklarna: lägre uppgiftskomplexitet, högre tillgång till kunskap, bättre möjligheter att påverka, lägre risk samt större synlighet för öppna data och dess effekter. Dessa värden genereras av en kombination av marknadsplatsens fyra huvudelement: teknisk plattform, hemsida, supportfunktioner samt aktiviteter för kunskapsutbyte. 

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  • 179.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. University of Borås, Sweden.
    ElectriCity innovation challenge 2015: Experiences2016Ingår i: World Electric Vehicle Journal, ISSN 2032-6653, E-ISSN 2032-6653, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 690-698Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ElectriCity Innovation Challenge 2015 was an open innovation contest in Gothenburg, Sweden. The main purpose was to surge public interest and involvement in ElectriCity, a demonstration arena for next-generation's electrified bus systems. The contest furthermore aimed to catalyse innovation that can contribute to making public transport more attractive, and to test a novel innovation platform that assembles data from buses and bus stops. The outcome was six events with a total of more than 800 attendants, 48 viable prototypes with potential to increase the modal share of electrified public transport and feedback on the innovation platform's potential for development.

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  • 180.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Fransson, T
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    MCE MODELS - Development of marginal conversion efficiency models for Powertrade2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Powertrade is a distributed model based optimization methodology under development at AB Volvo that intends to include all energy consumers and energy storages in a single vehicle energy management strategy. The objective is to maximize global efficiency and thereby lower the total net energy losses that contribute to the total fuel cost.

    The scope of the project that this report is a part of is to develop Powertrade for demonstration in a parallel-hybrid city bus. Viktoria Swedish ICT has during the project assisted AB Volvo by modeling marginal conversion efficiency for the components that are included in the current version of Powertrade. This report describes the development of these models and the reasoning behind them.

    Models were developed for the following components; internal combustion engine, electric machine, air conditioning system, DC/DC converter, 600-volt battery and 24-volt battery. The suitability of the models differed profoundly, mainly due to that some models were based on unsatisfactory measurement data, but also since the components differ in nature and complexity. The overall conclusion is that all MCE-models but AC and 24-volt are sufficient for verifying the Powertrade’s ability to handle different variants of vehicles and to indicate the effort required for a production ready implementation. Significant model refinement is however needed if for example the concept’s savings potential is to be evaluated.

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  • 181.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Catalyzing knowledge transfer in innovation ecosystems through contests2016Ingår i: AMCIS 2016: Surfing the IT Innovation Wave - 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Open innovation practices are gaining traction. Hence, the relevance of measures for engaging and managing heterogeneous groups of distributed complementors is rising. This mixed-method case study defines a pilot demonstration of emergent technology as an innovation ecosystem and utilizes a knowledge transfer lens to explore the impact of an open innovation contest. The contribution to the IS research stream is threefold. Firstly, the paper portrays that open innovation contests can spark coupled open innovation and facilitate innovation management, without lowering the generative capability. Secondly, it explains these gains by concluding that contests can catalyze cross-border knowledge transfer within innovation ecosystems. Thirdly, the paper moreover proposes that additional innovation deployment measures are needed in order for sustaining established relations and for aiding the implementation of innovation ideas beyond the contests.

  • 182.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Niska, A
    Grönqvist, T
    Cykeleffekt - Slutrapport för förstudie2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Det finns sedan länge en bred politisk samsyn i Sverige kring att andelen cykelresor bör ökas. Trots detta är det svårt att påvisa någon övergripande positiv trend. En bidragande orsak är att det i dagsläget saknas grundläggande kunskap om hur utformning, drift och underhåll av cykelinfrastruktur påverkar cyklisterna och cykeltrafiken. Kunskapsluckorna gör det svårt för trafikplanerare att prioritera mellan olika typer av åtgärder samt att motivera sina val gentemot beslutsfattare. Det leder i sin tur till att utväxlingen av tilldelade resurser inte maximeras.

    Det överliggande syftet med forskningsinitiativet Cykeleffekt är att komplettera befintliga handböcker om cykelinfrastruktur med kunskap om vilken effekt olika typer av infrastrukturåtgärder ämnade att främja cykling har. För att möjliggöra forskningen krävs en samverkansplattform mellan kommuner och forskningsinstanser samt tillgång till faktiska infrastrukturåtgärder/-objekt att studera. Huvudmålet med den här förstudien var därför att bedöma potentialen för att koppla den typen av forskningsprojekt till det nybildade kommunnätverket Svenska Cykelstäder.

    För att kunna bedöma forskningspotentialen utfördes: en kort litteraturöversikt över befintlig kunskap om effekten av åtgärder och identifierade metoder för att utreda effektsamband; en konkretisering av nätverkets upplägg och agenda samt; en kartläggning av medlemskommunerna planerade åtgärder och intresse i att beforska effektsamband.

    Litteraturstudien pekade på att kunskapen om effekten av cykelinfrastrukturåtgärder är låg men att det finns metoder för att möjliggöra den forskning som krävs för att ta fram hypoteser om effektsamband. Det konkretiserade nätverket ansågs vara en lämplig plattform att koppla samma forskningsinstanser och kommunala cykelplanerare kring sådan forskning. Kommunerna uttryckte dessutom stort intresse för att delta i framtida forskningsprojekt och det finns gott om planerade infrastrukturåtgärder att beforska inom nätverket. I kontakten med kommunerna framkom det även att de tror att de skulle kunna utnyttja sina resurser för att öka andelen cykling bättre om de hade större tillgång till dokumenterad kunskap om effektsamband. Sammantaget bedömdes forskningspotentialen därav som god.

    Som slutprodukt för förstudien utvecklades ett förslag till syfte, mål, upplägg och genomförandeplan för fortsatt forskning med koppling till Svenska Cykelstäder.

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  • 183.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Ofe, Hosea Ayaba
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Digital Service Innovation from Open Data: Exploring the Value Proposition of an Open Data Marketplace2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2016), 2016, s. 1277-1286Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Open data marketplaces have emerged as a mode of addressing open data adoption barriers. However, knowledge of how such marketplaces affect digital service innovation in open data ecosystems is limited. This paper explores their value proposition for open data users based on an exploratory case study. Five prominent perceived values are identified: lower task complexity, higher access to knowledge, increased possibilities to influence, lower risk and higher visibility. The impact on open data adoption barriers is analyzed and the consequences for ecosystem sustainability is discussed. The paper concludes that open data marketplaces can lower the threshold of using open data by providing better access to open data and associated support services, and by increasing knowledge transfer within the ecosystem. 

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  • 184. Soltanmoradi, R
    et al.
    Wang, Q
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Qiu, M
    Andersson, J
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Transmission of Infrared Radiation Through Metallic Photonic Crystal Structures2013Ingår i: IEEE Photonics Journal, ISSN 1097-5764, E-ISSN 1943-0655, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 45000608-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 185.
    Steinert, Rebecca
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Hess, Andrea
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Observing Software-defined Networks Using a Decentralized Link Monitoring Approach2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2015 1st IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft), 2015, 10, artikel-id 7116137Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scalable and automated monitoring processes for testing, debugging, and operation of VNFs and service-chains are crucial components towards achieving the aims of network softwarization - i.e., cheaper, faster, and shorter service deployment and network management processes. In this paper we present a decentralized monitoring approach aimed at supporting automated deployment and operation of VNFs and service-chains. The approach is inspired by network tomography and is designed to address observability limitations and scalability issues that arise from performing measurements from an SDN controller. From successive end-to-end measurements link metrics are derived via in-network parameter estimation with no need of forwarding raw measurements to the controller, which significantly reduces the measurement overhead compared to when monitoring individual links explicitly from an SDN controller.

  • 186. Stenmark, D.
    et al.
    Lindgren, Rikard
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    System Support for Knowledge Work: Bridging the Knowing-Doing Group2006Ingår i: International Journal of Knowledge Management, ISSN 1548-0666, E-ISSN 1548-0658, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 46-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many researchers argue that information systems (IS) can play an important role in supporting organizational knowledge application. However, recent IS research indicates that knowledge management systems (KMS) often fail when implemented in the knowledge work practice of contemporary organizations. While KMS maintenance has been recognized as an important IS research area, imbalance between the desire for accurate content and the workload required to achieve this still appears to be a critical issue, resulting in systems of little use for organizations in their knowledge application processes. Driven by the ambition to contribute recommendations for how to integrate KMS with everyday knowledge work, we use general lessons learned from development of groupware applications as a theoretical lens to analyze empirical experiences from three implemented and evaluated KMS. Targeting the KMS maintenance challenge, our recommendations extend earlier IS research on the implementation and use of knowledge work support systems. On a practical level, our recommendations assist KMS developers in attempts to bridge the knowing-doing gap in organizations where individual members do not know or know of each other and the organization as a whole does not know what it knows.

  • 187.
    Stenmark, Dick
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Leveraging tacit organizational knowledge2000Ingår i: Journal of Management Information Systems, ISSN 0742-1222, E-ISSN 1557-928X, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 9-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although tacit knowledge constitutes the major part of what we know, it is difficult for organizations to fully benefit from this valuable asset. This is because tacit knowledge is inherently elusive, and in order to capture, store, and disseminate it, it is argued that it first has to be made explicit. However, such a process is difficult, and often fails due to three reasons: (1) we are not necessarily aware of our tacit knowledge, (2) on a personal level, we do not need to make it explicit in order to use it, and (3) we may not want to give up a valuable competitive advantage. During an empirical study of recommender system usage, it was noticed how such technology could be used to circumvent these problems, and make tacit knowledge, in the form of our professional interests, available to the organization as a whole. Using Polanyi's theories, it will be shown how intranet documents can be used to make tacit knowledge tangible without becoming explicit, suggesting that tacitly expressed entities are no t necessarily beyond the reach of information technology.

  • 188. Sternberg, H.
    et al.
    Andersson, Magnus
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Decentralized intelligence in freight transport - A critical review2014Ingår i: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 306-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a research outlook on the concept of decentralized freight intelligence, i.e. autonomous freight making localized routing decisions. A review of research literature on decentralized intelligence in freight transport serves as the foundation of the analysis. The analysis reveals a scarcity of scientific evidence to suggest a successful introduction of decentralized freight intelligence. Among numerous conceptual findings, the analysis reveals a dearth of research on the clear and present challenges of introducing and adopting decentralized freight concepts in contemporary multi organizational open freight systems. For practitioners this paper provides useful input on future ICT development in the transport field. In particular, due to the lack of guidance on adoption of decentralized freight, a focus on non-networked benefits of information technology is to be recommended. Given the large number of projects, papers and various initiatives related to decentralized freight intelligence, this paper, to the authors' best knowledge, provides a novel technology adoption perspective on decentralized freight intelligence research.

  • 189.
    Stålstad, C
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Williander, Mats
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Nya affärsmodeller för elbilar: Resultaten från projektet BeliEVe (Business model innovation for Electric Vehicles)2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 190.
    Svahn, F
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Henfridsson, O
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Situated Knowledge in Context-Aware Computing: A Sequential Multimethod Study of in-Car Navigation2009Ingår i: International Journal of Advanced Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1937-965X, E-ISSN 1937-9668, Vol. 1, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 191.
    Södling, Josefine
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekbom, Rikard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thorngren, Peter
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    From Model to Rig - An Automotive Case Study2016Ingår i: Proccedings of International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development (MODELSWARD 2016), INSTICC Publications , 2016, Vol. 1, s. 615-622Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the size and complexity of the software in a truck grows, new ways of managing the development are needed. Numerous reports show how MDE can be successfully applied for automotive software development. We complement previous research by conducting a case study on the impact of model-based testing for verifying and validating the behaviour of a truck’s headlights. Our results are three-fold. First, we show how a model can be transferred from a model-in-the-loop setting to a hardware-in-the-loop via system simulation. Second, we supply an analysis of the shortcomings of the model that were found as the model was tested in more and more platform-specific settings. Third, our results show that the introduction of model-based testing practices will require organisational changes even if the used tools are familiar to the company.

  • 192. Van Laerhoven, K.
    et al.
    Villar, N.
    Schmidt, A.
    Gellersen, H. -W
    Håkansson, M.
    Holmquist, Lars Erik
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Pin and play: The surface as network medium2003Ingår i: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 90-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating appliances in the home through a wired network often proves to he impractical: routing cables is usually difficult, changing the network structure afterward even more so, and portable devices can only be connected at fixed connection points. Wireless networks aren't the answer either: batteries have to be regularly replaced or changed, and what they add to the device's size and weight might be disproportionate for smaller appliances. In Pin&Play, we explore a design space in between typical wired and wireless networks, investigating the use of surfaces to network objects that are attached to it. This article gives an overview of the network model, and describes functioning prototypes that were built as a proof of concept.

  • 193.
    Voronov, Alexey
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Hoai Hoang
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Ploeg, Jeroen
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Netherlands.
    de Jonhg, Jan
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    van de Sluis, Jacco
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Interactive Test Tool for Interoperable C-ITS Development2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2015, s. 1713-1718, artikel-id 7313370Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the architecture of an Interactive Test Tool (ITT) for interoperability testing of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS). Cooperative systems are developed by different manufacturers at different locations, which makes interoperability testing a tedious task. Up until now, interoperability testing is performed during physical meetings where the C-ITS devices are placed within range of wireless communication, and messages are exchanged. The ITT allows distributed (e.g. over the Internet) interoperability testing starting from the network Transport Layer and all the way up to the Application Layer, e.g. to platooning. ITT clients can be implemented as Hardware-in-the-Loop, thus allowing to combine physical and virtual vehicles. Since the ITT considers each client as a black box, manufacturers can test together without revealing internal implementations to each other.

    The architecture of the ITT allows users to easily switch between physical wireless networking and virtual ITT networking. Therefore, only one implementation of the ITS communication stack is required for both development and testing. This reduces the work overhead and ensures that the stack that is used during the testing is the one deployed in the real world. 

  • 194.
    Voronov, Alexey
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Hoang Bengtsson, Hoai
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Ploeg, Jeroen
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    de Jongh, Jan
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    van de Sluis, Jacco
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Interactive Test Tool for Interoperable C-ITS Development2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2015, s. 1713-1718Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the architecture of an Interactive Test Tool (ITT) for interoperability testing of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS). Cooperative systems are developed by different manufacturers at different locations, which makes interoperability testing a tedious task. Up until now, interoperability testing is performed during physical meetings where the C-ITS devices are placed within range of wireless communication, and messages are exchanged. The ITT allows distributed (e.g. over Internet) interoperability testing starting from the network Transport Layer and all the way up to the Application Layer, e.g. to platooning. ITT clients can be implemented as Hardware-in-the-Loop, thus allowing to combine physical and virtual vehicles. Since the ITT considers each client as a black box, manufacturers can test together without revealing internal implementations to each other. The architecture of the ITT allows users to easily switch between physical wireless networking and virtual ITT networking. Therefore, only one implementation of the ITS communication stack is required for both development and testing, which reduces the work overhead and ensures that the stack that is used during the testing is the one deployed in the real world.

  • 195.
    Voronov, Alexey
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Hultén, Johan
    Sentient+, Sweden.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Radar reflecting pavement markers for vehicle automation2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dependable and fail-safe control of autonomous vehicles requires multiple independent sensors for lane detection and positioning. From analysis of modern sensing technologies, we conclude that radars are underutilized for positioning, and that they might be an enabling technology for achieving safety requirements posed by the standard ISO 26262. To fully utilize the radar potential, we have conducted a pre-study of equipping infrastructure with radar reflectors. We estimate that such reflectors should be installed in the lane markings, about 20-25 meters apart and with some kind of identification. We propose to design and evaluate a combi-reflector based on the traditional cat’s eye design, which will be detectable both by human drivers, radars and lidars. Furthermore, the combi-reflector can be equipped with a magnet for in-vehicle electromagnetic field sensor. From the redundancy evaluation performed, we conclude that the proposed solution increases the level of redundancy significantly. Therefore, the proposed solution could be an enabler for autonomous driving. 

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  • 196.
    Wang, Q
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Junique, S
    Agren, D
    Noharet, B
     Andersson, JY
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators for high-speed free-space optical communication2004Ingår i: IEEE Photonic Technology Letters, Vol. 16, s. 1471-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 197.
    Wang, Q
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Junique, S
    Agren, D
    Noharet, B
    Höglund, L
    Åberg, O
    Petrini, E
    Andersson, J Y
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Two-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well spatial light modulators2003Ingår i: Acta Optical Sinica, Vol. 23, s. 339-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 198.
    Wang, Q
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Noharet, B
    Junique, S
    Almqvist, S
    Agren, D
    Andersson, J Y
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    1550 nm transmissive/reflective surface normal electroabsorption modulator arrays2006Ingår i: Eletronics Letters, Vol. 42, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 199.
    Weilenmann, Alexandra
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    "I can't talk now, I'm in a fitting room": Formulating availability and location in mobile-phone conversations2003Ingår i: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 35, nr 9, s. 1589-1605Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I investigate the ways in which participants in mobile-phone conversations orient to each other's location, activities, and availability. By looking at data from recorded mobile-phone conversations, I use a conversation analytic approach to make initial observations on the character of mobile-phone conversations. I found that the frequent question "what are you doing?" sometimes caused a location to be given as part of the answer which shows how location, activity, and availability are strongly related. The participants thus obtained information about location, when this was considered relevant, through asking about activity. Location seemed especially relevant if it provided information about a future meeting. In some of the conversations where it seemed there was something going on where the 'called party' was located, the 'caller' reacted by initiating the conversation with a strategy which gave the called party a chance to end the conversation.

  • 200.
    Weilenmann, Alexandra
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Negotiating use: Making sense of mobile technology2001Ingår i: Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, ISSN 1617-4909, E-ISSN 1617-4917, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 137-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a study of the ways in which a group negotiated the use of a new mobile technology. The group was made up of ski instructors who, during a one-week ski trip, were equipped with a mobile awareness device called the Hummingbird. The group was studied using ethnomethodologically inspired qualitative methods, with the focus on the group members' different views of the Hummingbird's intended use. Negotiations of use occurred using two methods: talk and action. The users negotiated issues such as where and when to use the technology, and whether to consider the Hummingbird a work tool or a gadget for social events. Further, the empirical results clearly show how negotiations of new, mobile technology differ from stationary technology. © Springer-Verlag London Ltd.

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