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  • 151.
    Hansson, J.
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lönnqvist, T.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Klintbom, Patrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Trinh, J.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE PROSPECTS FOR DIFFERENT BIOFUELS AND ELECTROFUELS FROM FOREST RESIDUES-STRATEGIES FOR DROP-IN AND SINGLE MOLECULE FUELS ARE BOTH INTERESTING OPTIONS2022Inngår i: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2022, s. 333-340Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares several forest biomass-based biofuels and some electrofuels, for use in cars and trucks, in terms of economic and climate performance and resource efficiency from a Swedish perspective. Both dropin fuels possible to blend in conventional fuels and single molecule fuels requiring new vehicles and infrastructure are included. Mature costs for feedstock, production, distribution, and vehicles are included. There is no clear winner between drop-in and single-molecular fuels when considering both costs, GHG emissions and resource efficiency, neither for cars nor trucks. For trucks, both single-molecular fuels in the form of methanol and DME (dimethyl ether) and drop-in fuels in the form of diesel based on lignin and from hydropyrolysis perform best (given a process designed to reach high GHG performance). For cars drop-in fuels such as petrol produced from lignin or hydropyrolysis perform well, closely followed by the single molecular fuels methanol, DME and methane and some of the other drop-in fuels. For cars, where electrification is progressing fast, it is reasonable to apply the drop-in fuel strategy. For trucks, either continue with the drop-in fuel strategy or, due to uncertainties linked to new fuel production processes, invest in single molecule fuels such as methanol and DME.

  • 152.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Mousavirad, Seyed
    Hakim Sabzevari University, Iran.
    Deeper at the SBST 2021 Tool Competition: ADAS Testing Using Multi-Objective Search2021Inngår i: Proceedings - 2021 IEEE/ACM 14th International Workshop on Search-Based Software Testing, SBST 2021, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021, s. 40-41Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deeper is a simulation-based test generator that uses an evolutionary process, i.e., an archive-based NSGA-II augmented with a quality population seed, for generating test cases to test a deep neural network-based lane-keeping system. This paper presents Deeper briefly and summarizes the results of Deeper's participation in the Cyber-physical systems (CPS) testing competition at SBST 2021. 

  • 153.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Hamidi, Golrokh
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Potena, Pasqualina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Performance Testing Using a Smart Reinforcement Learning-Driven Test Agent2021Inngår i: 2021 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), 2021, s. 2385-2394Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance testing with the aim of generating an efficient and effective workload to identify performance issues is challenging. Many of the automated approaches mainly rely on analyzing system models, source code, or extracting the usage pattern of the system during the execution. However, such information and artifacts are not always available. Moreover, all the transactions within a generated workload do not impact the performance of the system the same way, a finely tuned workload could accomplish the test objective in an efficient way. Model-free reinforcement learning is widely used for finding the optimal behavior to accomplish an objective in many decision-making problems without relying on a model of the system. This paper proposes that if the optimal policy (way) for generating test workload to meet a test objective can be learned by a test agent, then efficient test automation would be possible without relying on system models or source code. We present a self-adaptive reinforcement learning-driven load testing agent, RELOAD, that learns the optimal policy for test workload generation and generates an effective workload efficiently to meet the test objective. Once the agent learns the optimal policy, it can reuse the learned policy in subsequent testing activities. Our experiments show that the proposed intelligent load test agent can accomplish the test objective with lower test cost compared to common load testing procedures, and results in higher test efficiency.

  • 154.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    An autonomous performance testing framework using self-adaptive fuzzy reinforcement learning2022Inngår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, s. 127-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Test automation brings the potential to reduce costs and human effort, but several aspects of software testing remain challenging to automate. One such example is automated performance testing to find performance breaking points. Current approaches to tackle automated generation of performance test cases mainly involve using source code or system model analysis or use-case-based techniques. However, source code and system models might not always be available at testing time. On the other hand, if the optimal performance testing policy for the intended objective in a testing process instead could be learned by the testing system, then test automation without advanced performance models could be possible. Furthermore, the learned policy could later be reused for similar software systems under test, thus leading to higher test efficiency. We propose SaFReL, a self-adaptive fuzzy reinforcement learning-based performance testing framework. SaFReL learns the optimal policy to generate performance test cases through an initial learning phase, then reuses it during a transfer learning phase, while keeping the learning running and updating the policy in the long term. Through multiple experiments in a simulated performance testing setup, we demonstrate that our approach generates the target performance test cases for different programs more efficiently than a typical testing process and performs adaptively without access to source code and performance models. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 155.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system. Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Bohlin, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Lisper, Björn
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Poster: Performance Testing Driven by Reinforcement Learning2020Inngår i: 2020 IEEE 13th International Conference on Software Testing, Validation and Verification (ICST), 2020, s. 402-405Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance testing remains a challenge, particularly for complex systems. Different application-, platform- and workload-based factors can influence the performance of software under test. Common approaches for generating platform- and workload-based test conditions are often based on system model or source code analysis, real usage modeling and use-case based design techniques. Nonetheless, creating a detailed performance model is often difficult, and also those artifacts might not be always available during the testing. On the other hand, test automation solutions such as automated test case generation can enable effort and cost reduction with the potential to improve the intended test criteria coverage. Furthermore, if the optimal way (policy) to generate test cases can be learnt by testing system, then the learnt policy can be reused in further testing situations such as testing variants, evolved versions of software, and different testing scenarios. This capability can lead to additional cost and computation time saving in the testing process. In this research, we present an autonomous performance testing framework which uses a model-free reinforcement learning augmented by fuzzy logic and self-adaptive strategies. It is able to learn the optimal policy to generate platform- and workload-based test conditions which result in meeting the intended testing objective without access to system model and source code. The use of fuzzy logic and self-adaptive strategy helps to tackle the issue of uncertainty and improve the accuracy and adaptivity of the proposed learning. Our evaluation experiments show that the proposed autonomous performance testing framework is able to generate the test conditions efficiently and in a way adaptive to varying testing situations.

  • 156.
    Henriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Semcon Sweden AB, Sweden; Chalmers Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    Chalmers Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Tornberg, Lars
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Sathyamoorthy, Sankar
    QRTech AB, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Performance analysis of out-of-distribution detection on trained neural networks2020Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, artikkel-id 106409Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Deep Neural Networks (DNN) have shown great promise in various domains, for example to support pattern recognition in medical imagery. However, DNNs need to be tested for robustness before being deployed in safety critical applications. One common challenge occurs when the model is exposed to data samples outside of the training data domain, which can yield to outputs with high confidence despite no prior knowledge of the given input. Objective: The aim of this paper is to investigate how the performance of detecting out-of-distribution (OOD) samples changes for outlier detection methods (e.g., supervisors) when DNNs become better on training samples. Method: Supervisors are components aiming at detecting out-of-distribution samples for a DNN. The experimental setup in this work compares the performance of supervisors using metrics and datasets that reflect the most common setups in related works. Four different DNNs with three different supervisors are compared during different stages of training, to detect at what point during training the performance of the supervisors begins to deteriorate. Results: Found that the outlier detection performance of the supervisors increased as the accuracy of the underlying DNN improved. However, all supervisors showed a large variation in performance, even for variations of network parameters that marginally changed the model accuracy. The results showed that understanding the relationship between training results and supervisor performance is crucial to improve a model's robustness. Conclusion: Analyzing DNNs for robustness is a challenging task. Results showed that variations in model parameters that have small variations on model predictions can have a large impact on the out-of-distribution detection performance. This kind of behavior needs to be addressed when DNNs are part of a safety critical application and hence, the necessary safety argumentation for such systems need be structured accordingly.

  • 157.
    Holmberg, Per-Erik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Karlsson, MariAnne
    Chamers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pernestål, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Kombinerad mobilitet uppskalning i Sverige (KOMPIS): Projektrapport2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kombinerad mobilitet, Mobilitet som tjänst, Mobility as a Service (MaaS), integrerade mobilitetstjänster. Företeelsen har många namn, och många forskare, entreprenörer, innovatörer och konsulter som ägnat mycket tid åt den utifrån olika perspektiv. En del hävdar att det finns fler som studerar kombinerad mobilitet än faktiska användare. Det är dock en av de frågor vi inte adresserat i KOMPIS – alltså hur många som studerar kombinerad mobilitet. 

    Flera av oss som varit delaktiga i projektet KOMPIS, allt från forskare, finansiärer och entreprenörer – har varit med på denna resa sedan långt före begreppet MaaS stadfästes i Finland . I Sverige startade den resan egentligen med ett förstudieprojekt 2011 som finansierades av Västra Götalandsregionen och leddes av Hans Arby och Olle Boethius - Den flexible trafikanten. 

    En idé om en affärsmodell där det skulle gå att erbjuda mobilitet i delar, fast i ett paket; att det kanske skulle kunna finnas en tredje part vars affärsidé var att kombinera alla dessa delar till något bättre, och mer anpassat till resenärers verkliga behov.I förstudien deltog förutom forskare och entreprenörer även kollektivtrafiken, hyrbils- och bilpoolsföretagen taxi och många fler. Slutsatsen var ganska enhällig: “Ja det skulle nog behövas en sådan konsoliderande tjänst, men det är inte vi som ska ta den rollen”.

    Under förstudieprojektet till GoSmart som drevs av Lindholmen Science Park fick jag möjlighet att tillsammans med MariAnne Karlsson på Chalmers att utarbeta ett förslag till hur man faktiskt tillsammans med Hans och Olle skulle kunna pröva idén som de hade mejslat fram i förstudien. Det ledde till, påstår vi, det först riktiga försöket i världen att bygga och testa en KM-tjänst. Jo, jag vet – många kommer vända sig mot det påståendet och visa att det visst testats kombinerade mobilitetstjänster innan – men ingen hade på riktigt prövat affärsmodellen för kombinerad mobilitet före GoSmart – men det är mindre viktigt. Projektet, som måste sägas var lyckat, visade ändå att denna typ av tjänst var uppskattad av de som testade – och förmodligen behövde en sådan tjänst. Men hur många är de egentligen? Hur stor är potentialen?Samtidigt, i en annan ände av innovationssystemet, hade Viktoriainstitutet (numera en del av RISE) tillsammans med Samtrafiken och Chalmers precis genomfört innovationstävlingen Travelhack inom projektet Innovation för Hållbart Vardagsresande. Förutom tanken att få hela kollektivtrafiken att öppna upp sin data också erbjuda den på något man kallade Trafiklab, till tredjepartsutvecklare. En del i denna plan var också att stimulera tredjepartsutveckling med innovationstävlingar baserat på kollektivtrafikdata – Travelhack. En av pristagarna hade tagit fram en app där man kunde söka efter och beställa biljetter för olika kollektivtrafikaktörer i en och samma app. De hade under prisutdelningskvällen en lång diskussion, som jag fick lyssna på, med Samtrafikens VD och en av SL’s representanter, om varför man inte kunde få tillgång till kollektivtrafikens biljetter som API – detta var 2013.

    Västtrafik, som var en av parterna i GOSMART började i detta projekt sin resa kring kombinerad mobilitet; att utforska behovet och på vilket sätt de bör och kan engagera sig. Denna resa är väl beskriven i flera forskningsartiklar av KOMPIS egen bibliotekarie, Göran Smith, vilka tillsammans illustrerar hur komplicerad frågan faktiskt är .2015, på ITS World Congress i Bordeaux fullkomligt exploderade begreppet Mobility as a Service. Vi som arbetat med forskningsfrågan, och knappt hade hunnit sätta ett namn på det, blev tagna på sängen. Från att behöva lägga mycket tid på att beskriva fenomenet, roller och hitta intressenter, var kombinerad mobilitet plötsligt på allas läppar – mycket beroende på att Finland under sin ordförandeperiod valde att lyfta fram kombinerad mobilitet som en av landets stora, framtida exporttjänster. Finlands jättemonter i Bordeaux var målad med just den affärsmodell som föreslagits av Hans och Olle i förstudien 2011. ERTICO bildade MaaS Alliance och fordonsindustrin började på allvar prata om mobilitetstjänster som något även de skulle erbjuda i framtiden.

    Finlands roll i att lyfta fram kombinerad mobilitet skall inte underskattas. Sverige och Finland hade samarbetat kring frågan under flera år. När drivkraften för oss i Sverige var ett hållbart transportsystem, så var det i vårt grannland i öster snarare en vision av att hitta ett nytt NOKIA och ett nytt GSM som var drivkraften. Målsättning med företag, export och arbetstillfällen var tydligare där än i Sverige och förmodligen ett av skälen till att Finland, ända upp på ministernivå, drev frågan så hårt.

    Vi i Sverige fick också en insikt i hur Finland hade nått så långt på så kort tid. ITS Finland samlade tidigt intressenter från näringsliv och offentlig sektor i en informell sammanslutning av aktörer som ’ville kombinerad mobilitet’. Deras så kallade ’MaaS-öl’ på en särskild restaurang i Helsingfors har beskrivits för mig av många som en av de viktigare anledningarna till att kombinerad mobilitet tog fart i Finland. En möjlighet att träffas över organisationsgränser och skapa nya idéer under otvungna förhållanden. En idé som vi tog med oss in i KOMPIS och blev grunden till Kompis MeetUps.

    Flertalet förstudier, konsultrapporter och konferenser senare – 2016, tog regeringens samverkansgrupp för Nästa Generations Resor och Transporter, på initiativ av Ulrika Bokeberg på Västra Götalandsregionen, beslut om att en färdplan för kombinerad mobilitet skulle tas fram för Sverige. Uppdraget gick till Drive Sweden och Anna Pernestål. Anna samlade en kärngrupp med representanter från Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH (Anna Kramers), Västra Götalandsregionen (Göran Smith), Samtrafiken (Adam Laurell) och RISE (som jag fick äran att representera) vilken utvecklade och förankrade den första versionen av Färdplanen för Kombinerad mobilitet i Sverige. 2017 fick vi av samma grupp en förfrågan att starta ett samverkansprojekt för att stötta realiserandet av färdplanen. Ett uppdrag som jag, tillsammans med Anna och på senare tid, Steven Sarasini, med stor respekt och entusiasm tog på oss att leda. Detta projekt blev Kombinerad Mobilitet - imPlementering I Sverige (KOMPIS).

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  • 158.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Enerbäck, Oscar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Utvärderingsmetod för utbyggnad av elvägssträckor i Sverige : en delanalys i Genomförbarhetsstudie elväg E222022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation method for development of electric road system network in Sweden – an analysis within the Feasibility study E22-project

    This report is the result of the work package on Evaluation method within the project “Feasibility study of the electric road system pilot E22”. The original objective with the work package was to describe an evaluation method for the introduction of electric road systems. Important objectives for electric road system (ERS) projects and parameters for measuring goal achievement and, customer satisfaction was to be defined. The results are based on documentation from comparable infrastructure projects, workshops and interviews with stakeholders and project partners. The method was kept as originally outlined but instead of identifying objectives, which can depend on the actor that initiates/is the owner of the ERS, we have taken the existing framework and the processes for evaluation of large-scale infrastructure projects that is already established as the starting point. The existing processes and methods are described at the Swedish Transport Administrations websites for industry. The evaluation process is done according to established calculation and evaluation tools with corresponding manuals. The project has focused on identifying parameters that are unique to ERS or of specific importance for the outcome of an ERS project. Consideration was taken to the fact that ERS is a new technology and that there are knowledge gaps especially for the implementation and operational phases that needs to be filled. For these phases extra evaluations could give important feedback during the development of a larger ERS network. The study has not assumed a specific technology for implementation or for the transmission of electricity to the vehicles, i.e., neither overhead line nor road based. The results from this work package shows that there is an existing framework for evaluations that can be used, and many important parameters are already included in this framework. Some additions to the framework´s methods and tools of parameters specific for ERS needs to be done. Examples of parameters for which new evaluation tools need to be developed and included in the existing framework include: • profitability from a business perspective and in comparison, to other alternatives, • climate impact from a life cycle perspective that also includes the vehicle and fuels/energy used for propulsion and • the optimal level of the user fee from a socioeconomic perspective. How often follow-ups are made also needs to be adjusted in the existing framework. Follow-ups needs to be done more frequently and more parameters needs to be evaluated. There is also a need for a learning process and knowledge sharing framework to enable a fast enrollment of electric road systems in a cost-efficient way. Additional evaluations are also required for ERS since it is new technology that has not been implemented on a large scale. Examples of such parameters include operational and maintenance for ERS, accidents, noise, emissions of particulates, impact on plant and animal life, electromagnetic fields and electromagnetic compatibility. As a next step to develop the evaluation methods for the build-out of ERS we recommend to using the first permanent stretch being built between Örebro and Hallsberg to develop a learning process framework and a process for knowledge sharing of planning, procurement and building of ERS. At this first permanent stretch, parameters with uncertainty should also be evaluated. A direct continuation of this project would also be to connect the results from the work-packages on evaluation and upscaling to quantify uncertain parameters to better evaluate their real importance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 159.
    Hult, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Perjo, Liisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Region Västra Götaland, Sweden; University of Sydney, Australia.
    Shared Mobility in Rural Contexts: Organizational Insights from Five Mobility-as-a-Service Pilots in Sweden2021Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 18, artikkel-id 10134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a growing interest in using Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) as a tool to address rural transport problems, the question of how to organize such a concept remains unanswered. To address this knowledge gap, this article explores organizational elements of rural MaaS pilots. The analysis, which is based on participatory observation and interviews with actors involved in five pilots in rural areas of Sweden, reveals that the motives of the actors involved in rural MaaS both overlap with and diverge from the frequently stated objectives of urban MaaS developments. Both concepts center on complementing and extending public transport, but while urban MaaS is underpinned by the fight against climate change, congestion, and local pollution, the main objective of rural MaaS is to reduce transport poverty. The analysis, moreover, illustrates that despite the geographic differences, actors involved in rural MaaS pilots face similar organizational challenges as have been reported from urban MaaS developments. In both cases, actors struggle with finding their roles, mitigating uncertainties, distributing responsibilities, and negotiating business models. Finally, the analysis finds that rural MaaS puts higher expectations on user involvement than urban MaaS and identifies a risk that rural MaaS developments might contribute to spatial injustice since the studied pilots only supported rural communities with high social capital.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 160.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Habibi, Shiva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    What drives demand for paid access to a sharing box with underused items?: A choice experiment with Swedish consumers2023Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 393, artikkel-id 135793Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Determinants of consumer demand for subscription to a sharing platform for underused tools and hobby items were investigated in a series of choice experiments. The stated-preference study with a census-representative sample of 702 Swedish adults, tested four types of offers (sharing boxes) containing: gardening and power tools, photo and video equipment, kitchen and household tools and outdoor/sport equipment. Respondents faced hypothetical buying scenarios: they were asked to choose a subscription to a maintained and insured sharing box located in a public space and containing premium-segment items from one of the above categories. Results show that a possible location for a sharing box depends on its content - for instance, the sharing box with garden tools was preferred by small garden owners. It was also tested, in a demand simulation scenario, how measures aimed at managing utilisation of shared items, such as booking in advance, booking limits or location of the sharing box would affect the preference for the offer. Findings suggest that respondents would be willing to accept these inconveniences of sharing, provided the subscription price was set accordingly (25% lower than the average used across all experiments). Moreover, respondents seem to be using familiar digital subscriptions as a benchmark to determine a fair price for the offers used in the study. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 161.
    Hunka, Agnieszka
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Habibi, Shiva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Determinants of consumer demand for circular economy products. A case for reuse and remanufacturing for sustainable development2021Inngår i: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 535-550Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate determinants of consumer demand for circular (reused and remanufactured) products. Based on exploratory choice-based conjoint experiments with a sample of 800 adults in the United Kingdom, we examine two types of premium segment electronic appliances: a mobile phone and a robot vacuum cleaner. We find that consumers prefer partly circulated products over fully or not at all circulated products and that circular products can likely successfully enter the existing market at the retail price of a new product. Interestingly, circular products compete for market share primarily with new products, leaving the market share of second-hand options less affected. The results show a promising path for firms considering a transition to circular business models. © 2020 The Authors.

  • 162.
    Jabbari, Mona
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. CitUpia AB, Sweden.
    Fonseca, Fernando
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Smith, Göran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    Conticelli, Elisa
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Tondelli, Simona
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Ribeiro, Paulo
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Papageorgiou, George
    European University Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Ramos, Rui
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    The Pedestrian Network Concept: A Systematic Literature Review2023Inngår i: Journal of Urban Mobility, ISSN 2667-0917, Vol. 3, artikkel-id 100051Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of urban spaces that foster sustainable practices requires new analytical and structural approaches to spatial planning. An appropriate pedestrian network could significantly contribute to sustainable urban development goals, particularly by promoting sustainable mobility and pedestrian friendliness. With such goals, several attempts have been made to develop suitable models for pedestrian networks. However, something that is missing from the current literature is a framework that incorporates the main findings of the various studies as an integrated concise concept of the pedestrian network. To address this knowledge gap, this paper reviews studies on pedestrian networks and evaluates this concept based on the systematic 3W1H analysis method, which asks where, what, who, and how. In essence, the following questions are thus analyzed: Where is the pedestrian network located, What criteria play a role in the pedestrian network's performance, Who uses the pedestrian network, and How can the pedestrian network be analyzed? In this context, a systematic literature review is carried out by investigating studies conducted during the period 2001 to 2023 that appear in the Scopus database. The paper presents the results of the review of a selection of 67 papers dealing with pedestrian networks. Findings show that different models have been developed based on particular characteristics. Overall, researchers aimed to identify the most suitable network based on specific criteria for optimizing the walking experience in urban areas. By synthesizing the findings reported in these papers, this paper arguably contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of pedestrian networks, provides insights into the prioritization of design phases, facilitates the use of pedestrian network assessment models for future research, and creates a bigger picture for urban planners with a multidimensional view to a new sustainable urban structure.

  • 163.
    Jagstedt, Siri
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Hedvall, Klas
    Lindlöf, Ludvig
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Ramirez Hernandez, Tabea
    Agile Management Practices for Solutions Development: Managerial Challenges in an  Interorganizational Context2021Inngår i: Proceedings of Spring Servitization Conference, 2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Solutions development among several actors gives rise to a tension between  stability, that is, the need to standardise and synchronise development activities, and  agility, meaning the need to respond and adapt to a changing environment, which is  represented, for example, in agile management practices. This study focuses on agile  solutions development in an interorganisational context to investigate and characterise  this agility-stability tension. 

    Design/Methodology/Approach: This study bases its insights on findings derived from  two focus groups and interviews with managers and specialists within the area of study. 

    Findings: The findings show strong challenges deriving from the agility-stability tension.  These can be organised in a typology of artefacts, roles, and processes. 

    Originality/Value: The results of this study contribute to the servitization literature on  co-creation, solutions development, and agile management practices, by providing a  novel understanding of the challenges arising in interorganisational solutions  development through the identification and characterisation of the agility-stability  tension.

  • 164.
    Jagstedt, Siri
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    Ictech, Sweden.
    Lind, Kenneth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Dependencies as a barrier for continuous innovation in cyber-physical systems2023Inngår i: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 93, nr 3-4, s. 194-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the automotive domain, as an example of cyber-physical systems, continuous software deployment is actively explored to deliver increasingly capable features to existing fleets of vehicles. The distributed nature of software coupled with tight hardware integration and potentially tremendous variability between vehicles make ensuring compatibility of updated software a significant challenge – both technically and managerially. While the automotive industry commonly forms larger multi-brand organisations to utilise economies of scale, processes for continuous deployment contradictory assumes a single organisation with full control. This paper sets out to shed light on challenges of adopting continuous deployment in the context of such a multi-brand cyber-physical systems organisation. Following a case study, the paper describes a tension between the managerial perspective concerned with platform strategies, and the engineering perspective responsible for developing products from those platforms. The paper highlights software dependencies as a barrier to continuous innovation of cyber-physical systems in multi-brand organisations.

  • 165.
    Jagstedt, Siri
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Lind, Kenneth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Managing Dependencies to enable Continuous Innovation in an automotive multi-brand organisation2021Inngår i: Proc. of 22nd CINet Conference., 2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software is an enabler for continuously delivering product innovations to customers. In the automotive domain, continuous software deployment is actively investigated to deliver increasingly capable features to existing fleets of vehicles. The distributed nature of vehicle software coupled with tight hardware integration and a potentially tremendous variability between vehicle individuals makes ensuring compatibility of updated software a significant challenge—both technically and managerially. Agile development processes address such challenges with short development cycles, informal inter-team communication, and tool-support for continuous integration and automated testing. This, however, normally assumes a single organisation with full control of their processes, while the automotive industry commonly forms larger multi-brand organisations to utilise economy of scale—a case not sufficiently investigated by current literature. In this paper we identify and describe organisational challenges with managing software dependencies in the context of a multi-brand automotive organisation. Through an exploratory, qualitative case[1]study we characterise software dependencies to link their technical nature with managerial challenges facing the organisations, which can support an organisation to formulate efficient management strategies.

  • 166.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    FoI-områden relaterade till C-DAS och TMS2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs ett antal olika områden som är relevanta för forskning och innovation i området C-DAS koppling till Trafikledning och Digital graf. Utgångspunkt är erfarenheter från tidigare svenska installationer och ”piloter” med C-DAS i Sverige, och vilka förbättringar som behövs ur Trafikverkets perspektiv för att nyttiggöra den potential som C-DAS ger. De forskningsområden som tas fram prioriteras efter två parametrar: hur viktiga områdena är för Trafikverket och hur mycket forskningen kan bidra till utveckling av området. Prioriteringar ligger dels till grund för Trafikverkets utpekade områden relaterat till detta inom EU-RAIL, och kan även användas för prioritering av FoI i andra sammanhang. Rapporten innehåller även enkla översikter av i sammanhanget relevanta områden, som upplägg och innehåll i EU-RAIL, standarder inom området (SFERA) och hur järnvägsbranschen ser på framtida användning av C-DAS.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 167.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Linköping University. Sweden.
    KAJT Projektkatalog 2024-03-31: BRANSCHPROGRAMKAPACITET I JÄRNVÄGSTRAFIKEN2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sammanställning av aktuella projekt inom Branschprogram Kapacitet i järnvägstrafiken (KAJT).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 168.
    Joborn, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Ranjbar, Zohreh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Effekter av tidiga och sena godståg2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förseningsbidrag, kritiska störningar och småförseningar är nya mätetal som skapats för att förtydliga sambandet mellan störningar under ett tågs färd och dess slutliga punktlighet. I denna rapport beskriver vi dels hur man kan generalisera de nya mätetalen till att kunna appliceras på godståg som ofta är före tidtabellen. Resultat visar att för att öka punktligheten för godståg är det också viktigt att beakta de delar av resorna då tågen ligger före sin tidtabell, eftersom tappad tid även då kan göra att tågen till slut ”trillar över punktlighetskanten’’. Vidare belyser vi hur de tidiga (och sena) godstågen påverkar andra tåg genom en fallstudie på Godsstråket Mjölby-Luleå för tåg under oktober 2019, och resultaten indikerar att de tidiga tågen inte bidrar till opunktlighet utan de nyttjas i operativ trafik för att prioritera andra tåg för att snabba upp andra tågs resor.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 169.
    Joborn, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Ranjbar, Zohreh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Effektsamband mellan störningar och punktlighet för resandetåg2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förseningsbidrag, kritiska störningar och småförseningar är nya mätetal som skapats för att förtydliga sambandet mellan störningar under ett tågs färd och dess punktlighet. I denna rapport analyserar vi effektsamband mellan störningstid och punktlighet med hjälp av förseningsbidrag för några resandetågslinjer i Sverige.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 170.
    Joborn, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Ranjbar, Zohreh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Orsaker till opunktlighet : kritiska störningar och småförseningar2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Delay contribution, critical disturbances and minor delays are new metrics created to clarify the connection between disturbances during a train's journey and its punctuality. A demonstrator for large-scale analyzes based on these metrics has been created. Train traffic throughout 2019 and parts of 2020 is analyzed. The results generally show that the metrics in a meaningful way complement the traditionally used analysis methods and specifically that small delays and disturbances late in travel have a large effect on the punctuality. The metrics can also be applied for station punctuality e.g. in a commuter train system.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 171.
    Joborn, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ranjbar, Zohreh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Understanding causes of unpunctual trains: Delay contribution and critical disturbances2022Inngår i: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 23, artikkel-id 100339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we define new concepts and metrics for improved understanding of causes to unpunctual trains. The metrics are denoted delay contribution and critical disturbance. Delay contribution can be interpreted as how much a specific disturbance contributes to the delay of a train and the critical disturbances can be interpreted as the disturbances that made the train become unpunctual. The metrics are applied in a test case with trains in southern Sweden. The results show that the metrics can provide a complementary view regarding causes to unpunctuality compared to standard methods and are able to pinpoint disturbances that made trains become unpunctual and separate them from disturbances that have less impact on the punctuality. The methods are useable in the continuous work to improve railway performance e.g., by prioritizing maintenance work that give best impact on punctuality. © 2022 The Authors

  • 172.
    Joborn, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Törnquist Krasemann, Johanna
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    VTI, Sweden.
    Josyula, Sai Prashanth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ranjbar, Zohreh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Liden, Thomas
    VTI, Sweden.
    Wahlborg, Magnus
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    Description of a decision support tool aimed at advanced Real Time Network Management and requirements for a demonstrator2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we outline a conceptual demonstrator for advanced real time network management for freight rail traffic. The focus is on the coordination between traffic control, train drivers and yard management, three essential parts in the real time management of a rail freight network. The intention is that the demonstrator can support multiple purposes, such as education and training, demonstrating research advancements, and enabling feedback between practitioners, system developers and researchers. The proposed demonstrator has a focus on the interaction between different systems and between humans using these systems, but also on the rail freight system perspective by the inclusion of the connection between the line and the yard. We present a generic architecture and propose existing components that could be combined to such a demonstrator. Thus, even though the demonstrator may seem complex and visionary, the existence of these components makes the realization of the demonstrator realistic. The development roadmap for the demonstrator proposes both a step-wise implementation plan of the complete demonstrator, as well as several partial packages that provide useful sub-demonstrators by themselves.

    The appendices of the report include contributions to the continued development of two of the components that are part of the demonstrator. Firstly, in order to also better understand the type of situations that yard managers need to handle in operations and what implications these have on the traffic on the line, a Swedish case study has been conducted and the results are presented in Appendix A. More specifically, the case study analyses the factors that influence the departure time deviation for freight trains and how these can be used for predicting the actual departure time. These predictions can be used in a decision support system for yard planning at larger marshalling yards. A conclusion is that no single factor can fully explain the departure time deviation, but many different factors contribute to it, like destination, time of day, train load, number of wagons on the yard, connection time for wagons, and connection time for locomotives.

    Secondly, to support the traffic controllers and dispatchers with an advanced decision support tool for deviation handling, a selection of different functionalities and algorithms may be required. In Appendix B, two different approaches for disturbance management are presented. Approach 1 (ALG1) is a heuristic, parallel algorithm, while the second approach (ALG2) is an exact algorithm based on state-of-the-art commercial optimization software. In order to classify and evaluate alternative algorithms for train re-scheduling and disturbance management, an assessment framework is also proposed in Appendix B. Based on this framework, the overall strengths and shortcomings of the two mentioned train rescheduling algorithms are assessed while applied on a set of 30 simulated disturbance scenarios of various complexity. The results show that typically, ALG2 obtained good rescheduling solutions for all 30 disturbances, but compared to ALG1, ALG2 is slow in obtaining solutions.ALG1 is good at quickly finding solutions with less passenger delays while it is less effective when it is used to solve disturbances associated with an infrastructure failure. The strength of ALG2 is its ability to reschedule the traffic during infrastructure failures. A detailed presentation of the evaluation is found in Appendix B.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 173.
    Joborn, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Wahlborg, Magnus
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    KAJT Projektkatalog 2023-03-31: BRANSCHPROGRAMKAPACITET I JÄRNVÄGSTRAFIKEN2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanställning av aktuella projekt inom Branschprogram Kapacitet i järnvägstrafiken (KAJT).

  • 174.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Vierth, Inge
    VTI, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The climate and environmental effects of policies for moving freight transport from road to other modes: The case of Sweden2024Inngår i: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 101151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to determine how policy instruments which aim to achieve a modal shift of long-haul freight transport from road to rail or sea affect the direct emissions to air of greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. The analysis is conducted in two stages. First, a range of forecasts reflecting different assumptions are applied using the Swedish national freight transport model (SAMGODS) to derive a range of possible future developments of emissions levels up to 2030 and 2040. This has involved determining emission factors per tonne-km for each of the SAMGODS model's six road freight vehicle types, eleven freight train variants and 22 ship types. The model outcomes are then compared to those of the base year of 2017. Second, the effects of two hypothetical modal shift policy instruments are analyzed with respect to their potential impact on emissions to air. The effects of these two policy instruments are evaluated for the base-year of 2017 and for the 2030 and 2040 forecasts. The paper also analyzes whether the Swedish climate objective for domestic transport in 2030 can be expected to be fulfilled given different forecasts and policy instruments. Within the context of a predicted large increase in total freight tonne-km (between 31 and 53%), emissions of greenhouse gases are calculated to decrease by 50 to 60% by 2040. This means that the Swedish freight transport sector will not achieve its share of greenhouse gas emissions reductions necessary to attain the national climate objective of a 70% reduction by 2030. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are forecast to reduce by between 60 and 75%, emissions of sulfur dioxides to reduce by between 41 and 50%, emissions of volatile organic compounds to increase by 8 to 30% and emissions of particulate matter (from exhaust and tyre/road wear) are calculated to increase by between 13 and 33%. Using modal shift policy instruments to achieve greenhouse gas reductions is calculated to attain worse results over time, by 2040 it might even be counterproductive. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 175.
    Johnsson, Filip
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taljegård, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Johanna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    von Bonin, Michael
    Fraunhofer Institute, Germany.
    Gerhardt, Norman
    Fraunhofer Institute, Germany.
    Electricity supply to electric road systems: Impacts on the energy system and environment2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses how an electrification of the transport sector, including static charging and electric road systems (ERS), could impact the Swedish and German electricity system. The integration of ERS in the electricity system is analysed using: (i) a model-package consisting of an electricity system investment model (ELIN) and electricity system dispatch model (EPOD) and (ii) an energy system investment and dispatch model (SCOPE). The models are run for the same sets of scenarios and methodological differences and results are compared. The modelling results from the CollERS project show that the additional electricity demand from a large-scale implementation of ERS (i.e., a German-Swedish ERS corridor and connecting main road network) is mainly met by investments in wind power in Sweden and both wind and solar power in Germany. Since ERS will take some time to scale up,

    the modelling shows that there should be enough time for the electricity system to be transformed to meet demand for ERS while also meeting the goals on greenhouse gas reduction.

    It can be concluded that ERS are increasing the peak power demand (i.e., the net load) in the electricity system. Therefore, there is a need for more investments in peak power units and storage technologies when using ERS. A smart integration of other electricity demand, such as optimisation of the static charging at the home location of passenger cars, can facilitate an efficient use of renewable electricity also with ERS. Thus,

    it is important that ERS are evaluated and assessed in connection to corresponding assessment of electrification technologies of passenger cars and other sectors, including the industry sector where there are already plans for electrification (e.g. iron and steel, cement and petrochemical industry).

    The model comparison shows that different assumptions and methodological choices impact what kind of investments are taken, such as in wind, solar and thermal power plants to cover an additional demand from the use of ERS. However, an increase in investments in solar power (Germany) and wind power (Sweden) can be seen in all scenarios to cover the new demand for ERS.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    CollERS_Electricty_Supply_ERS_20200511
  • 176.
    Jolak, Rodi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Besker, Terese
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Svensson, Pontus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Building a Sustainable Business Ecosystem for EV Batteries: A Literature Study2023Inngår i: 2023 International Conference on Power and Renewable Energy Engineering (PREE), 2023, s. 116-125Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport system is currently undergoing a transition to become fossil-free and sustainable. Electrification of vehicles is an important part of this transition. These vehicles must include batteries, whose health status will decrease during their lifetime. Batteries whose status no longer fulfill the requirements for use in vehicles can, however, still have a long remaining life-time if used in less-critical domains. It thus becomes necessary to facilitate the reuse and Second Life use of batteries. This presents both technological and business challenges. How can we ensure that adequate battery health data is collected and used to give a correct evaluation of the value of a battery that is being removed from a vehicle? What business models are needed? In this study, we present sustainable circularity models in the context of second-life batteries by analyzing the market scenarios, studying the processes and relationships between the stakeholders, and reviewing the enablers and ecosystems. We also discuss the opportunities, challenges and regulations in order to support a comprehensive understanding of the sustainable circularity process of retired electric vehicle batteries.

  • 177.
    Jolak, Rodi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Gothenburg University, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Rosenstatter, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Aldaghistani, Saif
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Scandariato, Riccardo
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    RIPOSTE: A Collaborative Cyber Attack Response Framework for Automotive Systems2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive domain has got its own share of advancements in information and communication technology, providing more services and leading to more connectivity. However, more connectivity and openness raise cyber security and safety concerns. Indeed, services that depend on online connectivity can serve as entry points for attacks on different assets of the vehicle. This study explores collaborative ways of selecting response techniques to counter real-time cyber attacks on automotive systems. The aim is to mitigate the attacks more quickly than a single vehicle would be able to do, and increase the survivability chances of the collaborating vehicles. To achieve that, the design science research methodology is employed. As a result, we present RIPOSTE, a framework for collaborative real-time evaluation and selection of suitable response techniques when an attack is in progress. We evaluate the framework from a safety perspective by conducting a qualitative study involving domain experts. The proposed framework is deemed slightly unsafe, and insights into how to improve the overall safety of the framework are provided.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 178.
    Jolak, Rodi
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Rosenstatter, Thomas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mohamad, Mazen
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Kim
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Sangchoolie, Behrooz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektrifiering och pålitlighet.
    Nowdehi, Nasser
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Scandariato, Ricardo
    Hamburg University of Technology, Germany.
    CONSERVE: A framework for the selection of techniques for monitoring containers security2022Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 186, artikkel-id 111158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Container-based virtualization is gaining popularity in different domains, as it supports continuous development and improves the efficiency and reliability of run-time environments. Problem: Different techniques are proposed for monitoring the security of containers. However, there are no guidelines supporting the selection of suitable techniques for the tasks at hand. Objective: We aim to support the selection and design of techniques for monitoring container-based virtualization environments. Approach:: First, we review the literature and identify techniques for monitoring containerized environments. Second, we classify these techniques according to a set of categories, such as technical characteristic, applicability, effectiveness, and evaluation. We further detail the pros and cons that are associated with each of the identified techniques. Result: As a result, we present CONSERVE, a multi-dimensional decision support framework for an informed and optimal selection of a suitable set of container monitoring techniques to be implemented in different application domains. Evaluation: A mix of eighteen researchers and practitioners evaluated the ease of use, understandability, usefulness, efficiency, applicability, and completeness of the framework. The evaluation shows a high level of interest, and points out to potential benefits. © 2021 The Authors

  • 179.
    Jones, Grace
    et al.
    Ashtown Research Centre, Ireland.
    Ulan, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Liziniewicz, Mateusz
    Skogforsk The Forest Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Lindeberg, Johan
    Linnaeus university, Sweden.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Relating estimates of wood properties of birch to stem form, age and species2024Inngår i: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607, Vol. 35, nr 1, artikkel-id 14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Birch has long suffered from a lack of active forest management, leading many researchers to use material without a detailed management history. Data collected from three birch (Betula pendula Roth, B. pubescens Ehrh.) sites in southern Sweden were analyzed using regression analysis to detect any trends or differences in wood properties that could be explained by stand history, tree age and stem form. All sites were genetics trials established in the same way. Estimates of acoustic velocity (AV) from non-destructive testing (NDT) and predicted AV had a higher correlation if data was pooled across sites and other stem form factors were considered. A subsample of stems had radial profiles of X-ray wood density and ring width by year created, and wood density was related to ring number from the pith and ring width. It seemed likely that wood density was negatively related to ring width for both birch species. Linear models had slight improvements if site and species were included, but only the youngest site with trees at age 15 had both birch species. This paper indicated that NDT values need to be considered separately, and any predictive models will likely be improved if they are specific to the site and birch species measured. © 2023, The Author(s).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 180.
    Juell-Skielse, Gustaf
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Hjalmarsson Jordanius, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Measuring the Effects of Using Digital Innovation Contests as Policy Tools: Towards an Assessment Instrument2022Inngår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2022, s. 339-343Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Contests have emerged as national government policy tools to stimulate digital innovation and drive digital transformation of the public sector. However, few if any studies have delved deeper into measuring the effects of using digital innovation contests as policy tools. This short paper reports intermediate results from a case study of the Swedish Innovation Agency, Vinnova, who has recently organized its first contest to propel digital innovation to alleviate diabetes using sensitive personal data. Case study data was collected from semi-structured interviews, documents and two focus groups and then analyzed thematically. The result consists of seven identified effect categories related to using contests as innovation policy tools at a national level and an assessment instrument consisting of 25 items. The next step of the research project is to validate the assessment tool in use, against a larger sample of respondents from several stakeholders, including other public domains and other types of government agencies. © 2022 Owner/Author.

  • 181.
    Jöhrens, Julius
    et al.
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Lambrecht, Udo
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Spathelf, Felix
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Mottschall, Moritz
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Hacker, Florian
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Jelica, Darijan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Nebauer, Greger
    Intraplan Consult GmbH, Germany.
    Schubert, Markus
    Intraplan Consult GmbH, Germany.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Nordin, Lina
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Taljegård, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Connecting Countries by Electric Roads: Methodology for Feasibility Analysis of a Transnational ERS Corridor2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims at discussing relevant aspects for a potential roll-out of Electric Road Systems (ERS) on transnational corridors, as well as generally for ERS introduction in Europe.

    Feasibility criteria have thus been developed in order to assess the following topics for specific potential ERS corridor projects:

    • Technical aspects: Which technical prerequisites exist for ERS corridors and to which extent can they expected to be met?
    • Environmental aspects: Which effects can be expected on key environmental indicators?
    • Economic aspects: Can an ERS corridor pose a business case? Could it contribute to the improvement of ERS economy in general?
    • Political aspects: Would an ERS corridor implementation make sense from a political point of view?

    The developed criteria may serve as a toolbox for scrutinizing future transnational ERS corridor projects. In order to illustrate their application, we used them to analyse a potential roll-out of an Electric Road System on a selected highway corridor (424 km) connecting Sweden and Germany, but mainly located on Danish territory. Based on traffic flows and patterns along the corridor route, it was found:

    • A considerable part of the total truck mileage on the corridor is done by vehicles with a rather limited driving distance for pre- and post-haul, assuming the corridor is realized as a stand-alone project, and
    • the CO2 emissions (well-to-wheel) of truck traffic along the corridor route can be significantly reduced if electric trucks are powered by the national electricity mixes expected for the year 2030, and even more if it would be powered purely renewable.

    Although a continuous ERS on the complete corridor route would not be economically feasible under current conditions, the analysis pinpoints sections along the route where the traffic volumes with a sufficient share of operation on a potential ERS are significantly higher. These sections are located in the metropolitan areas of Malmö, Copenhagen and Hamburg. For implementation, peculiarities of the local markets and regulation should be considered, as well as country-specific priorities on decarbonizing road freight transport. Additionally, the identified ERS potential for medium distances will depend on the technical and cost development of battery trucks.

    Our analysis also sheds some light on the role of first transnational corridors within a European roll-out strategy for ERS. Such corridor projects could help to

    • proof the principal strengths of ERS,
    • trigger strategic coordination between the participating countries,
    • foster national ERS roll-out due to synergy effects with the corridor and
    • pave the way for integration of ERS into EU legislation (e.g. AFID, TEN-T planning)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    CollERS_Transnational_ERS_20210310
  • 182.
    Kaiser, Christian
    et al.
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, Germany.
    Stocker, Alexander
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, Germany.
    Festl, Andreas
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, Germany.
    Djokic Petrovic, Marija
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, Germany.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Wallberg, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Ezquerro, Gonzalo
    JIG, Spain.
    Ortigosa Orbe, Jordi
    JIG, Spain.
    Szilagyi, Tom
    University of Rostock, Germany.
    A Vehicle Telematics Service for Driving Style Detection: Implementation and Privacy Challenges2020Inngår i: 6th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, {VEHITS} 2020,, 2020, s. 29-36Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected mobility is not only a future market, but also holds great innovation potential. The analysis of vehicle telematics data in the cloud enables novel data-driven services for several stakeholders, e.g. a mobile application for the driver to obtain his driving style. This inevitably leads to privacy concerns and the question why and when are users willing to share driving telematic data, which we addressed in an empirical study. The paper presents an implementation of a data-driven service based on vehicle telematics data and discusses how privacy issues can be tackled. For the data-driven service, the most interesting steps along the vehicle data value chain are described in detail, firstly (i) vehicle telematics data collection, secondly, (ii) the wireless data transfer to a cloud platform, and thirdly, (iii) pre-processing and data analysis to evaluate the drivers’ driving style and analyse the driving risk. Finally, (iv) a smartphone application for drivers presents driving style and driving risk data on the smartphone in an interactive way, so that the driver can work on improving both, which has a positive effect on driving and road safety.

  • 183.
    Kaiser, Christian
    et al.
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, Austria.
    Stocker, Alexander
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, Austria.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Distracted Driver Monitoring with Smartphones: A Preliminary Literature Review2021Inngår i: 2021 29th Conference of Open Innovations Association (FRUCT), 2021, s. 169-176Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Distracted driving is known to be one of the leading causes of vehicle accidents. With the increase in the number of sensors available within vehicles, there exists an abundance of data for monitoring driver behaviour, which, however, have so far only been comparable across vehicle manufacturers to a limited extent due to proprietary solutions. A special role in distraction is played by the smartphone, which is repeatedly a source of distraction for drivers through calls and messages. However, the smartphone can be used for driver behaviour monitoring (like driver distraction detection) too, as current developments show. As vehicle manufacturer-independent device, which is usually equipped with adequate sensor technology, smartphones can provide significant advantages, however, an overview of such approaches is missing so far. Thus, this work carries out an author-centric literature review of 16 research papers to illustrate the opportunities in using smartphones to detect driver distraction.

  • 184.
    Klingegård, Maria
    et al.
    Folksam Insurance Group, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Volvo, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rydström, Annia
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Drivers’ ability to engage in a non-driving related task while in automated driving mode in real traffic2020Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, s. 221654-221668Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engaging in non-driving related tasks (NDRTs) while driving can be considered distracting and safety detrimental. However, with the introduction of highly automated driving systems that relieve drivers from driving, more NDRTs will be feasible. In fact, many car manufacturers emphasize that one of the main advantages with automated cars is that it “frees up time” for other activities while on the move. This paper investigates how well drivers are able to engage in an NDRT while in automated driving mode (i.e., SAE Level 4) in real traffic, via a Wizard of Oz platform. The NDRT was designed to be visually and cognitively demanding and require manual interaction. The results show that the drivers’ attention to a great extent shifted from the road ahead towards the NDRT. Participants could perform the NDRT equally well as when in an office (e.g. correct answers, time to completion), showing that the performance did not deteriorate when in the automated vehicle. Yet, many participants indicated that they noted and reacted to environmental changes and sudden changes in vehicle motion. Participants were also surprised by their own ability to, with ease, disconnect from driving. The presented study extends previous research by identifying that drivers to a high extent are able to engage in an NDTR while in automated mode in real traffic. This is promising for future of automated cars ability to “free up time” and enable drivers to engage in non-driving related activities.

  • 185.
    Klintbom, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sager, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Mäki, Elina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Söderena, Petri
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Kanto, Tiia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Mazzucchelli, Paola
    CIRCE Centro Tecnológico, Span.
    Sandquist, Judit
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Kerckow, Birger
    FNR Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e. V, Germany.
    Fellenberg, Thies
    FNR Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e. V, Germany.
    Cocchi, Maurizio
    ETA Florence Renewable Energies, Italy.
    Zavattaro, Chiara
    ETA Florence Renewable Energies, Italy.
    SET4BIO: A FRAMEWORK TO ACCELERATE BIOENERGY AND BIOFUELS SOLUTIONS ACROSS EUROPE AND BEYOND2023Inngår i: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2023, s. 492-494Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU-funded SET4BIO project aims at supporting the implementation of Action 8 of the EU Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) on Bioenergy and Renewable Fuels for sustainable transport. The Horizon 2020 funded coordination and support action SET4BIO has developed a framework with an Implementation Toolbox with the aim of stimulating and supporting the actors and technologies of the sector. The Implementation Toolbox consist of Mapping of National Bioenergy Projects, Financing Opportunities for Bioenergy, Industry Stakeholder Map, Global Outlook, and the Innovation Challenge. These methods and tools have been applied throughout the project which started in early 2020 and ends in August 2023. The methods and tools are described in detail in separate deliverables from the SET4BIO project. There is significant potential to continue applying the methods and tools in the Bioenergy sector and beyond.

  • 186.
    Leijon, Jennifer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hagman, Jens
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Ghaem Sigarchian, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Aalhuizen, Christoffer
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Döhler, Jéssica
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Boström, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Thomas, Karin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Airports with increased electrification – an ongoing project with case studies in Sweden2022Inngår i: 35th International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS35) Oslo, Norway, June 11-15, 2022, 2022Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 187.
    Levén, William
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Broman, Hampus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Besker, Terese
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The broken windows theory applies to technical debt2024Inngår i: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 29, nr 4, artikkel-id 73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The term technical debt (TD) describes the aggregation of sub-optimal solutions that serve to impede the evolution and maintenance of a system. Some claim that the broken windows theory (BWT), a concept borrowed from criminology, also applies to software development projects. The theory states that the presence of indications of previous crime (such as a broken window) will increase the likelihood of further criminal activity; TD could be considered the broken windows of software systems. Objective: To empirically investigate the causal relationship between the TD density of a system and the propensity of developers to introduce new TD during the extension of that system. Method: The study used a mixed-methods research strategy consisting of a controlled experiment with an accompanying survey and follow-up interviews. The experiment had a total of 29 developers of varying experience levels completing system extension tasks in already existing systems with high or low TD density. Results: The analysis revealed significant effects of TD level on the subjects’ tendency to re-implement (rather than reuse) functionality, choose non-descriptive variable names, and introduce other code smells identified by the software tool SonarQube, all with at least 95% credible intervals. Coclusions: Three separate significant results along with a validating qualitative result combine to form substantial evidence of the BWT’s existence in software engineering contexts. This study finds that existing TD can have a major impact on developers propensity to introduce new TD of various types during development. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 188.
    Li, J.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Chen, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Scalable Federated Learning over Passive Optical Networks2021Inngår i: 2021 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2021 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-step aggregation is introduced to facilitate scalable federated learning (SFL) over passive optical networks (PONs). Results reveal that the SFL keeps the required PON upstream bandwidth constant regardless of the number of involved clients, while bringing 10% learning accuracy improvement. © 2021 OSA.

  • 189.
    Li, Jun
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shen, Xiaoman
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Chen, Jiajia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bandwidth Slicing to Boost Federated Learning over Passive Optical Networks2020Inngår i: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 24, nr 7, s. 1492-1495, artikkel-id 9044640Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During federated learning (FL) process, each client needs to periodically upload local model parameters and download global model parameters to/from the central server, thus requires efficient communications. Meanwhile, passive optical network (PON) is promising to support fog computing where FL tasks can be executed and the traffic generated by FL needs to be transmitted together with other types of traffic for broadband access. In this letter, a bandwidth slicing algorithm in PONs is introduced for efficient FL, in which bandwidth is reserved for the involved ONUs collaboratively and mapped into each polling cycle. Results reveal that the proposed bandwidth slicing significantly improves training efficiency while achieving good learning accuracy for the FL task running over the PON. 

  • 190.
    Lidfeldt, August
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Daniel
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hedlund, Ludwig
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Åberg, Simon
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Larsson, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Enabling Image Recognition on Constrained Devices Using Neural Network Pruning and a CycleGAN2020Inngår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2020Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart cameras are increasingly used in surveillance solutions in public spaces. Contemporary computer vision applications can be used to recognize events that require intervention by emergency services. Smart cameras can be mounted in locations where citizens feel particularly unsafe, e.g., pathways and underpasses with a history of incidents. One promising approach for smart cameras is edge AI, i.e., deploying AI technology on IoT devices. However, implementing resource-demanding technology such as image recognition using deep neural networks (DNN) on constrained devices is a substantial challenge. In this paper, we explore two approaches to reduce the need for compute in contemporary image recognition in an underpass. First, we showcase successful neural network pruning, i.e., we retain comparable classification accuracy with only 1.1% of the neurons remaining from the state-of-the-art DNN architecture. Second, we demonstrate how a CycleGAN can be used to transform out-of-distribution images to the operational design domain. We posit that both pruning and CycleGANs are promising enablers for efficient edge AI in smart cameras.

  • 191.
    Lidén, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Stenvall, Brita
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Proposed flood risk classification of buildings - A case study with a heavy rain event2023Inngår i: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, nr 1, artikkel-id 012017Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and associated risks create high costs and must be considered in both city planning and construction. The increasing recognition of threats influences how investments are made both in future projects and in the valuations of existing assets. A feasibility study was performed on how a climate resilience certificate (CRC) can create a tool for better valuation for contractors, and property owners to increase efforts regarding climate change adaptation, easy-to-understand benchmarks for climate resilience of properties for comparability, and to reduce uncertainty if insurance coverage can be guaranteed. This study focuses on a risk classification, tested, and evaluated in a Swedish case study on a property level, with emphasis on heavy rain, as a base for a potential CRC. The study discusses the benefits and drawbacks of on-site assessments versus what is digitally available. Furthermore, this study also highlights vulnerabilities of the evaluated buildings, and where the focus should be placed concerning climate adaptive measures. 

  • 192.
    Lind, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ward, Robert
    NSW, Australia.
    Bergmann, Michael
    BM Bergmann-Marine, Germany.
    Haraldson, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Zerem, Almir
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hoffmann, Jan
    UNCTAD, Switzerland.
    Eklund, Erik
    Dubai Maritime City Authority, United Arab Emirates.
    Maritime Informatics for Increased Collaboration2021Inngår i: Maritime Informatics, Springer, 2021, s. 113-136Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    To overcome the challenges that the maritime sector faces, the future must embody more efficient and effective collaboration. This cannot realistically be achieved without further digitalisation. This chapter identifies the principal tensions and opportunities that impact the inevitable and ongoing digitalisation process that is underway in the maritime transportation sector. The chapter also identifies the trends of development at large and those associated with the key stakeholders that are involved in global maritime operations. The digital trends emerging in shipping companies, ports with its actors, authorities and associations, and movements that are being made by diverse digital solution providers, within and outside the maritime domain are also identified. The discussion takes the point of view that shipping is a global phenomenon enabled by ship movements creating a global network of sea transport facilitated by ports. Achieving higher levels of collaboration through digitalisation requires that tools and systems are interoperable by adopting harmonised open standards. It requires the use of standardised formats and standardised interfaces for communication, building upon commonly agreed definitions of phenomena and processes associated with port call operations. The chapter closes with a brief discussion on the emergence of “smart” ports and “smart” ships, which rely heavily of digitalisation, collaboration and the continuous sharing of and access to relevant data.

  • 193.
    Lindlöf, Ludvig
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Furuhjelm, Jörgen
    SAAB Aeronautics, Sweden .
    MECHANISMS OF MANAGER-TEAM INTERPLAY IN LARGE SCALE AGILITY2020Inngår i: Proc of 21st CINet Conference, 2020Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation in ecosystems becomes increasingly attractive for incumbents as the technical complexity increases and complementarities play an increasingly important role for global competition. Digital platforms are becoming one of the primary means to that end, where incumbents can gain scale effects and reap the benefits of the creative crowd while maintaining ownership of the core product. But a lion’s share of these platforms hinges on the accessibility of data, and the view of the value and ownership of this data differs among actors in the system. This paper accounts for a case study of two type actors in an innovation ecosystem; the keystone firm and the third-party service provider. From interviews with representatives of these actors, we formulate a tentative description of their perspective on the sharing of data in the ecosystem. We find that these perspectives differ in terms of data contextuality and customer value. We argue that these differing perspectives are at the crux of establishing innovation capabilities in ecosystems based on digital platforms.

  • 194.
    Linåker, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Olsson, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    How to characterize the health of an Open Source Software project?: A snowball literature review of an emerging practice2022Inngår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series. 7 September 2022, Article number 11, Association for Computing Machinery , 2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation: Society's dependence on Open Source Software (OSS) and the communities that maintain the OSS is ever-growing. So are the potential risks of, e.g., vulnerabilities being introduced in projects not actively maintained. By assessing an OSS project's capability to stay viable and maintained over time without interruption or weakening, i.e., the OSS health, users can consider the risk implied by using the OSS as is, and if necessary, decide whether to help improve the health or choose another option. However, such assessment is complex as OSS health covers a wide range of sub-topics, and existing support is limited. Aim: We aim to create an overview of characteristics that affect the health of an OSS project and enable the assessment thereof. Method: We conduct a snowball literature review based on a start set of 9 papers, and identify 146 relevant papers over two iterations of forward and backward snowballing. Health characteristics are elicited and coded using structured and axial coding into a framework structure. Results: The final framework consists of 107 health characteristics divided among 15 themes. Characteristics address the socio-technical spectrum of the community of actors maintaining the OSS project, the software and other deliverables being maintained, and the orchestration facilitating the maintenance. Characteristics are further divided based on the level of abstraction they address, i.e., the OSS project-level specifically, or the project's overarching ecosystem of related OSS projects. Conclusion: The framework provides an overview of the wide span of health characteristics that may need to be considered when evaluating OSS health and can serve as a foundation both for research and practice. © 2022 Owner/Author.

  • 195.
    Linåker, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Robles, Gregorio
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain.
    Bryant, Deborah
    Open Source Initiative, USA.
    Sashiko, Muto
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Open Source Software in the Public Sector: 25 Years and Still in Its Infancy2023Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 39-44Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The proliferation of Open Source Software (OSS) adoption and collaboration has surged within industry, resulting in its ubiquitous presence in commercial offerings and shared digital infrastructure. However, in the public sector, both awareness and adoption of OSS is still in its infancy due to a number of obstacles including regulatory, cultural, and capacity-related challenges. This special issue is a call for action, highlighting the necessity for both research and practice to narrow the gap, selectively transfer and adapt existing knowledge, as well as generate new knowledge to enable the public sector to fully harness the potential benefits OSS has to offer. 

  • 196.
    Linåker, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sustaining Open Data as a Digital Common - Design principles for Common Pool Resources applied to Open Data Ecosystems2022Inngår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series. 7 September 2022, Article number 10, Association for Computing Machinery , 2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation. Digital commons is an emerging phenomenon and of increasing importance, as we enter a digital society. Open data is one example that makes up a pivotal input and foundation for many of today's digital services and applications. Ensuring sustainable provisioning and maintenance of the data, therefore, becomes even more important. Aim. We aim to investigate how such provisioning and maintenance can be collaboratively performed in the community surrounding a common. Specifically, we look at Open Data Ecosystems (ODEs), a type of community of actors, openly sharing and evolving data on a technological platform. Method. We use Elinor Ostrom's design principles for Common Pool Resources as a lens to systematically analyze the governance of earlier reported cases of ODEs using a theory-oriented software engineering framework. Results. We find that, while natural commons must regulate consumption, digital commons such as open data maintained by an ODE must stimulate both use and data provisioning. Governance needs to enable such stimulus while also ensuring that the collective action can still be coordinated and managed within the frame of available maintenance resources of a community. Subtractability is, in this sense, a concern regarding the resources required to maintain the quality and value of the data, rather than the availability of data. Further, we derive empirically-based recommended practices for ODEs based on the design principles by Ostrom for how to design a governance structure in a way that enables a sustainable and collaborative provisioning and maintenance of the data. Conclusion. ODEs are expected to play a role in data provisioning which democratize the digital society and enables innovation from smaller commercial actors. Our empirically based guidelines intend to support this development. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 197.
    Linåker, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zuiderwijk, Anneke
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Brock, Aamanda
    OpenUK, UK.
    Collaborative Aspects of Open Data in Software Engineering2022Inngår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 31-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineers require high-quality data for the design and implementation of today's software, especially in the context of machine learning (ML). This puts an emphasis on the need for the publication and sharing of data from and between organizations, public as well as private. Following the paradigm of open innovation, open data provide a mechanism to increase the availability of information, offering utility and improving innovation and user choice through the inevitable interoperability this enables. 

  • 198.
    Linåker, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sashiko, Muto
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Software Reuse through Open Source Software in the Public Sector: A qualitative survey on Policy and Practice2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report delves into how Public Sector Organizations (PSOs) and the public sector at large facilitate software reuse, specifically through Open Source Software (OSS) as an instrument. The report is commissioned by the Danish Agency for Digital Government (Digitaliseringsstyrelsen[1]) and Local Government Denmark (KL[2]), which provide input on how Danish PSOs can specifically improve at reaping benefits by reusing existing software and creating value by developing software in a way that can be reused.

    A qualitative survey is conducted on a sample of 15 countries considered mature in their digital practices, as indicated through a set of digital maturity indicators. These countries are surveyed in terms of government policies, rationales, support mechanisms, means of promotion, and success stories related to software reuse. The surveyed countries exhibit diverse policies, emphasizing interoperability, digital sovereignty, transparency, and cost efficiency. Economic arguments, interoperability, and transparency are prominent goals, while digital sovereignty varies. Security concerns are discussed, acknowledging both risks and benefits of OSS. The report identifies emerging support structures, including Open Source Program Offices (OSPOs), crucial for institutional capacity. Success stories highlight the transformation to sustainable governance enabled through the use of neutral proxy organizations acting as stewards for public sector OSS projects.

    Recommendations are provided that focus on fostering software reuse through OSS adoption, aiming to guide policy- and decisionmakers at national, regional, and local government levels. The report contributes valuable insights for countries, like Denmark, seeking to leverage software reuse through OSS in their digital transformations. [1] https://digst.dk/[2] https://www.kl.dk/

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Report-2024-7
  • 199.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Klimatanpassning av samhällsviktig verksamhet – juridiska utmaningar2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate adaptation of vital societal functions – a deep dive into the legal issues The climate is changing. This can lead to more frequent extreme weather events which can cause major damages in cities. Especially in larger cities, the climate related damages can go far beyond individual homeowners, as e.g. flooding can impair important societal functions. Today, many cities face the need to implement effective climate adaptation measures. But it is neither possible nor economically justifiable to secure all infrastructure in our cities against all types of climate-related risks. Cities need to prioritize their measures. They may be faced with, for example, the choice of investing in extensive and costly redevelopments or take smaller measures to only protect vital societal functions. Careful consideration of other interests, such as accessibility, is also required. There are organizational, technical, and legal challenges. The roles and responsibilities for various private and public entities, regarding climate adaptation measures, are not entirely clear. In the project “Multifunctional urban climate adaptation in collaboration” (Multifunktionell urban klimatanpassning i samverkan, MuKlis), financed by Vinnova, we explore the conditions for implementing efficient and sustainable climate adaptation of the built urban environment. The focus is on reducing vulnerability in case of cloudburst and heat waves with measures that also create other social, economic, and environmental benefits. In the project, we also explore legal challenges and possibilities for climate adaptation of vital societal functions and critical infrastructure, with a specific focus on the following questions: • If it is legally possible for a public or private actor to protect vital societal functions and critical infrastructure, even if it means an impairment for other actors in the area. • If it is legally possible for local, regional, or national government to demand that a public or private actor protect its vital societal functions and critical infrastructure. • If it is legally possible for an actor with vital societal functions to demand that another actor shall climate-proof for the benefit of its own vital societal functions and critical infrastructure. • If there are special provisions that can be applied if the vital societal functions or critical infrastructure are covered by the scope of the Protective Security Act (i.e. when the vital societal functions or critical infrastructure are also considered as security-sensitive activities).

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  • 200.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Poster: Framtidens ingripanden mot automatiserade fordon2023Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Automatiserade fordon har på sikt potential att kunna bidra till positiva effekter i samhället. Men med obemannad körning följer också nya utmaningar. En viktig utmaning handlar om hur myndigheter ska kunna interagera och kommunicera med dessa fordon.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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