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  • 151.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Influence of fire suppression on combustion products in tunnel fires2018Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 97, s. 96-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of model scale tunnel fire tests was carried out to investigate effects of the fire suppression system on production of key combustion products including CO and soot. The key parameters accounted for in the tests include fuel type, ventilation velocity and activation time. The results show that fire suppression indeed has influence on production of combustion products especially for cellulose fuels. In case that the fire is not effectively suppressed, e.g. when the water density is too low or activation is too late, the CO concentration and visibility could be worse than in the free-burn test. From the point of view of production of combustion products, only fire suppression systems with sufficient capability and early activation are recommended to be used in tunnels.

  • 152.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests on maximum ceiling gas temperature for structural protection2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale tests with varying materials as tunnel structure were carried out to further study the theoretical model of maximum gas temperature for structural protection. New correlation for calculation of air mass flow rate is introduced. Test results showed that the maximum ceiling gas temperatures increases with the increasing heat release rate and decreases with the increasing tunnel width and thermal inertia of the tunnel linings. Higher ventilation velocity may also result in slightly higher temperatures for large fires.

    Comparisons of model scale tests and theoretical models showed that the theoretical models predict the maximum ceiling gas temperature very well. A fire with a fixed heat release rate or a time-varying heat release rate, the effects of tunnel structure, tunnel ventilation, tunnel width and fire size have been well considered by the model. Comparisons of other model and full scale tests with theoretical models further verified this.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 153.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    New models for calculating maximum gas temperatures in large tunnel fires2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this report focuses on estimating maximum gas temperatures at ceiling level during large tunnel fires. Gas temperature is an important parameter to consider when designing the fire resistance of a tunnel structure. Earlier work by the authors has established correlations between excess ceiling gas temperature and effective tunnel height, ventilation rate, and heat release rate. The maximum possible excess gas temperature was set as 1350°C, independent of the tunnel structure and local combustion conditions. As a result of this research, two models have been developed to better estimate possible excess maximum gas temperatures for large tunnel fires in tunnels with differing lining materials and structure types (e.g. rock, concrete). These have been validated using both model- and full-scale tests. Comparisons of predicted and measured temperatures show that both models correlate well with the test data. However, Model I is better and more optimal, due to the fact that it is more conservative and easier to use. The fire duration and flame volume are found to be related to gas temperature development. In reality, the models could also be used to estimate temperatures in a fully developed compartment fire.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 154.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Overview of research on fire safety in underground road and railway tunnels2018Inngår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 81, s. 568-589Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past two decades, the interest in fire safety science of tunnels has significantly increased, mainly due to the rapidly increasing number of tunnels built and the catastrophic tunnel fire incidents occurred. This paper presents an overview of research on fire safety in underground road and railway tunnels from the perspectives of fire safety design. The main focuses are on design fires, structural protection, smoke control and use of water-based fire suppression systems. Besides, some key fire characteristics, including flame length, fire spread, heat flux and smoke stratification, are discussed.

  • 155.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Scaling of wood pallet fires2017Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 88, s. 96-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    §method for scaling time-resolved burning behaviors of wood pallet fires has been developed. A series of validation tests was carried out in two different scales and the time-resolved heat release rates were obtained and compared. The results show that the scaling method proposed works very well. The scaling method proposed could be applied to general wood pallets.

  • 156.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Tunnel fire safety: editorial2018Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 97, s. 85-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 157.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Influence of tunnel slope on smoke control2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The critical velocity and backlayering length in sloped tunnels are investigated by numerical simulations using FDS. Simulation in two full-scale tunnels, with negative slopes ranging up to -18 % and heat release rates from 5 to 100 MW were carried out.

    The results show that NFPA 502 equation significantly overestimates the effect of negative slopes.

    The equation proposed by Atkinson and Wu is found to be in closer agreement with the results. A simplified correlation, i.e. Eq. (12), is proposed and recommended for practical use.

    The previous correlation for dimensionless backlayering length, Eq. (3), is valid for tunnels of various slopes and aspect ratios, and can be used for prediction of backlayering length.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 158.
    Li, Zhiyuan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Performance assessment of the crashworthiness of corroded ship hulls.2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Marine Structures (MARSTRUCT2017), Lisbon, Portugal, May 2017, 2017, s. 523-532Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 159.
    Lin, Lexin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Integrating a national risk assessment into a disaster risk management system: Process and practice2018Inngår i: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 27, s. 625-631Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The national risk assessment (NRA) has recently become a very important component in a country's disaster risk management (DRM) system. The NRA aims to identify threats and hazards that could affect the entire country, and assess their potential likelihood and impacts from a national perspective. Compared to other DRM activities, NRA work is comparatively new, and is often a response to an external demand. For instance, in the European Union (EU), most member states initiated their NRA process in response to a EU directive. This article investigates how the requirement to conduct a NRA has influenced an existing DRM system, taking the case of Sweden as a study case. Specifically, it examines how the NRA process has been integrated into the multi-stakeholder, multi-level, bottom-up Swedish DRM system. Empirical data were collected through 21 semi-structured interviews with representatives from 13 national authorities, supplemented by Swedish and EU documentation. The results were analyzed following the ISO 31000 risk assessment process. The findings provide an indication of how NRA work has been integrated into ongoing DRM activities, and the level of integration. The results also indicate the extent of stakeholder involvement in the NRA process, the quality of DRM information communication among stakeholders, how the NRA has been implemented in the Swedish context, and the potential to expand the NRA worldwide.

  • 160.
    Lindström, Camilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Appelquist, Karin
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Sjöqvist, Lovise
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Kvantifiering av mikrostrukturer och dess inverkan på sprickbildning i berg2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A new methodology based on monitoring of crack propagation during small-scale mechanical tests on sawn rock prisms under tension has been developed. The methodology includes a combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scale levels. Material testing is performed through a tensile stage. Crack monitoring is performed by means of Digital Image Correlation and Acoustic Emission. After the test, microcrack and fracture patterns are studied and quantified in thin-sections using fluorescent light under a petrographic microscope.

    By using Digital Image Correlation it is possible to follow crack propagation in relation to the microstructure on the surface of the specimen in a detailed way, whereas Acoustic Emission offers real-time measurement of the crack activity within the specimen. By combining these techniques, it is possible to relate the Acoustic Emission signal characteristics to different phases of the cracking process, such as crack initiation, propagation and bridging of microcracks into macrocracks as well as the creation and localization of the final fracture. After the tensile stage test, crack patterns and the final fractures are studied in detail using polarizing and fluorescence microscopy, establishing the relationship of these. The methodology is practiced to increase the knowledge of critical parameters affecting cracking processes in rock materials and to show how this is related to the material's microstructure as well as mesostructure.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 161.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Brandsäker energilagring - Sammanställning av risker och forskningsbehov2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large interest in the possibilities in storing produced energy that is not needed at that particular moment or to store energy when the cost for production of electricity is low. For this reason, different types of energy storage systems are used. With a fast development of new technologies and new forms of application for energy storage systems, it is important to also study the existing and potential risks with these types of systems.

    This prestudy describes the field, its risks and needs for research. It focuses on risks associated with fire, including explosions and when relevant the production of toxic gases. Although the main focus of the prestudy is different types of energy storage systems, the report contains information also on risks associated with storage of solid biofuels and waste. This means that the report contains information on risks and needs for research for batteries, hydrogen, biogas, liquified gases, biofuels and waste.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 162.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, HaukurRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Proceedings from the Eighth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Borås, Sweden, March 14-16, 20182018Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes the Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Borås, Sweden, 14-16th of March, 2018. The Proceedings include 41 papers given by session speakers and 16 extended abstracts presenting posters exhibited at the Symposium. The papers were presented in 12 different sessions. Among them are Fire Safety Engineering: Cases & Incidents, Fire Safety Engineering: The Aims, Fire Detection, Explosions, Risk Analysis, Fire Safety Engineering: Case studies, Ventilation, Fire Safety Engineering: State of the Art, Fire Dynamics, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems (FFFS) and Evacuation and Human Behavior.

    Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total six) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Hans Brun, the Swedish Defence University, Dr Iain Bowman, Mott MacDonald, Canada, Dr Ying Zhen Li, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Dr Johan Lundin, WSP, Sweden, Allan Skovlund, Greater Copenhagen Fire Department, Denmark and Prof David Purser, Hartford Environmental Research, UK. We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 163.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, HaukurRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Proceedings from the Seventh International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, ISTSS, Montréal, Canada, March 16-18, 20162016Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes the Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Montreal, Canada, 16-18

    th of March, 2016. The Proceedings include 59 papers given by session speakers and 9 extended abstracts presenting posters exhibited at the Symposium. The papers were presented in 17 different sessions. Among them are Emergency Management, Passive Protection, Case Studies, Safety Levels and Acceptable Risks, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems, Security and Safe Operations, Regulations, Testing and Design, Risk Analysis, Ventilation, Evacuation and Fire Dynamics.

    Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total six) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Alexandre Debs, Ministére des Transports du Québec, Canada, Gary English, City of Seattle Fire Department, USA, Tony Cash, Transport for London, UK, Ahmend Kashef, National Research Council of Canada, George Hadjisophocleous, Carleton University of Canada and Harold L. Levitt, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, USA. We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 164.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Kumm, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire development in a 1/3 train carriage mock-up2017Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, s. 432-440Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To study what parameters that control the initial fire spread and the development to local flashover in a metro carriage, a total of six fire tests were conducted in a mock-up of a metro carriage that is about 1/3 of a full wagon length. They were carried out under a large scale calorimeter in a laboratory environment. The focus was on the initial fire development in a corner scenario using different types of ignition source that may lead to a fully developed fire. The ignition sources used were either a wood crib placed on a corner seat or one litre of petrol poured on the corner seat and the neighbouring floor together with a backpack. The amount of luggage and wood cribs in the neighbourhood of the ignition source was continuously increased in order to identify the limits for flashover in the test-setup. The tests showed that the combustible boards on parts of the walls had a significant effect on the fire spread. In the cases where the initial fire did not exceed a range of 400–600 kW no flashover was observed. If the initial fire grew up to 700–900 kW a flashover was observed. The maximum heat release rate during a short flashover period for this test set-up was about 3.5 MW. The time to reach flashover was highly dependent on the ignition type: wood cribs or backpack and petrol. A full developed carriage fire was achieved as a result of intense radiation from the flames and ceiling smoke layer. This was mostly dependent on the amount of fire load nearby the ignition source and how strong the vertical flame spread on the high pressure laminate boards mounted to walls and ceiling above the ignition source was, leading to a ceiling flame. In such cases, the seats alone did not contain sufficient fuel for the fire to spread within the train, and additional fuel (luggage) is required near the seats. For fully developed carriage fires, the fire starting on the seat in the corner spread to the opposite seat on the same side of the aisle, then horizontally spread to seats on the other side of the aisle, and finally a longitudinal flame spread along the carriage was observed. When and where the fire stopped or whether it reached a fully developed stage was mostly dependent on the amount of fire load nearby the ignition source and how strong the vertical flame spread on the high pressure laminate boards mounted to walls and ceiling above the ignition source was.

  • 165.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Cascading effects during incidents: CascEff2017Inngår i: Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016, 2017, s. 18-, artikkel-id 181029Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern socio-technical systems are increasingly characterised by high degrees of interdependencies. Whereas these interdependencies generally make systems more efficient under normal operations, they contribute to cascading effects in times of crises. Therefore, challenges for emergency preparedness and response are growing significantly. An escalating incident in such an environment can lead to severe cascading effects and quickly become extremely difficult for emergency services to handle. The more complex the environment where an incident is evolving, the more vulnerable the system, the greater the risk for escalation and cascading effects. In such instances the incident management needs to be as efficient as possible and build on up to date decision support information. New strategies, structures and methodologies are, therefore, needed to meet these new challenges, including cross border cooperation in conducting operations and providing or receiving support across borders.

  • 166.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Hedenstedt, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jones, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Rekommendation för proaktivt brandskyddsarbete2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 167.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Trella, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Bergérus Rensvik, Åsa
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Brandsäkerhet vid lagring av avfallsbränslen2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt har varit att ge ökad kunskap kring olika förekommande brandrisker och råd om hur dessa kan reduceras med olika åtgärder, primärt baserat på praktiska erfarenheter från genomfört säkerhetsarbete samt uppkomna bränder ute i olika anläggningar. Målet är att de samlade kunskaperna och erfarenheterna kan komma till nytta för hela branschen, övriga berörda intressenter och myndigheter och på sikt ligga till grund för t.ex. framtida branschrekommendationer.

    Projektet kan delas in metodmässigt i; statistik, workshoppar samt analys av anläggningsspecifik information.

    Analysen av insatsstatistik från Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) pekar på att det inträffar i storleksordningen 60–70 bränder årligen i avfallsanläggningar och att brandorsaken i de flesta fall är självantändning eller okänd anledning. Tittar man på "brand ej i byggnad" med relevanta bränder för avfallsanläggningar så ser man en svagt ökande trend i antal bränder 2012–2015. 

    De vanligaste materialfraktionerna som enligt statistik från MSB är kopplade till bränder i avfallsanläggningar är sopor, kompost, fluff, papper, trädgårdsavfall, däckgranulat, annat, skrot, återvinningscontainrar. Även en del av flisbränderna kan vara relaterade till RT-trä.

    Från avfallsindustrins sida ansågs bark, returträ, flisat material och GROT (grenar och toppar) kunna ge problem med självuppvärmning. Även krossning av avfall angavs som ett generellt problem av flera deltagare.

    Många incidenter och bränder anses bero på felsorterat eller feldeklarerat avfall och kontrollen av inkommande gods är därför väldigt viktig. Det är också viktigt att kommunicera uppströms i leveranskedjan för att öka chanserna att komma tillrätta med problemen. Många deltagare identifierade batterier (speciellt litiumbatterier) som ett växande problem.

    Hanteringen av förorenat släckvatten varierar mycket. Man påpekar att samma krav över hela landet vore bra. Man önskar tydligare riktlinjer för släckvattenanalyser, kunskap om vad vattnet kan innehålla och information om reningsmetoder för släckvatten.

    Det påpekas att det finns många standarder och normer att förhålla sig till så det vore därför bra att ha en lägsta nivå av krav som bestäms i samarbete med branschen som man kan förhålla sig till och någon form av vägledning från myndigheterna för göra hanteringen mer lik över riket.

    Diskussionerna under workshopparna och tillsammans med projektets referensgrupp har lett fram till 33 rekommendationer uppdelade på olika områden. För varje rekommendation ges i rapporten ytterligare förklaringar. Dessa rekommendationer kan ligga till grund för framtida riktlinjer.

  • 168.
    Mathern, Alexandre
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; NCC Infrastructure, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Ingemar
    Thomas Concrete Group, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Jonas
    NCC Infrastructure, Sweden.
    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TIME-DEPENDENTPROPERTIES OF A LOW-PH CONCRETE FOR DEPOSITIONTUNNELS2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company developed a method for the final disposal of canisters for spent nuclear fuel in tunnels at depths of about 500 meters. The concept for closure of the deposition tunnels is based on a bentonite seal supported by a spherical concrete dome structure. In order to fulfil the requirements specific to the repository concept, a special mix of lowpH self-compacting concrete was developed. A series of large-scale castings and laboratory tests were conducted to gain experience on this low-pH concrete mix, in conjunction with the full-scale demonstration test of an unreinforced concrete dome plug in the underground hard rock laboratory in Äspö, Sweden. The laboratory tests aimed at studying the creep properties under high sustained compressive stresses of the low-pH concrete mix, its shrinkage properties and the properties of the rock-concrete interface. This paper provides an overview of these tests and analyses the latest results of the recently completed creep tests, which include 6 years of measurements. These results allow to improve understanding of the structural behaviour of the concrete plug and to assess the effects of the very high pressure acting on the plug on its deformations, cracking and water tightness.

  • 169.
    Medina, Enrique
    et al.
    Alliance Consulting International, US.
    Wellon, George C.
    Wellon Safety Solutions Inc., Canada.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Methanol Safe Handling Manual: 4th Edition2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 170.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jørgensen, M.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Svensson, S.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; University of Borås, Sweden.
    Jomaas, G.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; University of Edinburgh, UK.
    A simple correlation for monitoring the ignition propensity of wet nordic spruce wood2019Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, s. 186-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A combination of cone heater experiments and asymptotic analysis was used to determine the moisture content of Nordic spruce with varying degree of drying. The fuel moisture content was measured by weighing the specimens before and after a drying procedure in an oven. A high-flux asymptotic solution from an integral model established that the ignition temperature from the experiments (directly linked to the intercept heat flux) was constant for both the dry and the moist wood. As a result, one simple equation was developed that can be used to determine the time to ignition for a piece of wet spruce from the time to ignition of dry wood. This simple correlation, combined with models giving the fuel moisture content of wood from humidity and temperature of air surrounding, can be used as an engineering equation for monitoring the ignition propensity of timber.

  • 171.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Leroux, Jerome
    Bureau Veritas, France.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Vicard, Blandine
    Bureau Veritas, France.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Frösing, Mattias
    Stena Rederi, Sweden.
    Gustin, Lisa
    Stena Rederi, Sweden.
    FIRESAFE II   Detection systems in open ro-ro and weather decks2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main issues with regard to fire safety of open ro-ro spaces and weather decks is that detection systems may not be as efficient as in closed ro-ro spaces. Several recent total losses of ro-ro ships have stressed the need for investigating more efficient fire detection solutions.

    This study evaluated available and emerging fire detection technologies for use in open ro-ro spaces and on weather decks. A review of relevant regulations was performed as well as an evaluation of the expected efficiency of the identified alternative detection technologies, considering detection time and sensitivity to weather conditions, loading conditions and deck configuration, as well as cost.

    Fibre optic linear heat detection and thermal imaging camera detection were selected for fire tests in open ro-ro space and on weather deck, respectively, onboard a commercial RoPax vessel. Both systems were found functional and suitable for the relevant ro-ro space environments. The risk reduction potentials of the systems were quantified and a cost-effectiveness assessment was performed. Thermal imaging camera detection was found cost-effective for all types of RoPax (Existing ships and Newbuildings), and fibre optic linear heat detection system was found cost-effective for Standard and Ferry RoPax (Existing ships and Newbuildings).

  • 172.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire Safety Engineering for Innovative and Sustainable Building Solutions2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic fire safety engineering project for innovative and sustainable building solutions, funded by Nordic Innovation, SBUF (the Swedish construction industry's organisation for research and development) and DIBK (the Norwegian National Office of Building Technology and Administration), started in June 2014 and ended in August 2017. The aim of this project was the production of practical specifications on two areas within fire safety engineering:

    • Standard on Probabilistic Method to Verify Fire Safety Design in Buildings
    • Standard on Control in the Building Process

    What has been developed is tailored for the Nordic context which is a region that has used fire safety engineering for a relatively long time. This project supported Nordic harmonization of fire safety which in the end may facilitate trade of services and products.

    Furthermore, and in order to cover the Nordic context, all Nordic countries have been represented by at least one project partz§ner. The following table shows all the partners as well as their country of origin.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 173.
    Molander, Marcus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Sandström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Development of condition monitoring methods for polymeric com-ponents including low dose rate radiation exposure2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Different plastics, rubber and other polymer based materials are widely used in various applications in nuclear power plants and inside containments, e.g. cable jacketing/insulators, sealants, paint coatings, lubricants and greases. As any other material or component, polymers are susceptible to ageing. Ele-vated temperature, ionizing radiation and moisture are considered to be the most important ageing stressors and they tend to interact with the polymer structure in different ways. In addition to these ageing stressors, properties of polymer composition, e.g. crystallinity degree, amount of fillers and antioxidants, has an effect to the ageing behavior. Thus, the degradation mechanism can be quite complex.

    Proper ageing management procedures are based on knowledge on the ageing behavior and how to set correct requirements for the polymer components in use that they will endure their designed life-time. The ageing behavior needs to be known when polymer components are qualified. Accelerated ageing is used as part of the artificial ageing of the qualified polymer and the ageing mechanism should be the same as in the real service environment in order to yield in identical ageing conditions. Thus, the effects of dose rate and temperature to the ageing mechanism must be known as well as the synergistic effects rising from the simultaneous and/or sequential exposure to ionizing radiation and excess heat.

    In a previous feasibility study [2015:157]1 the acceptance criteria for functional properties for different polymers in system components was studied. The components were selected based on interviews with the five Nordic nuclear power plants. A need to study the polymer degradation, using low dose rates (20-50 Gy/h to total dose of 14 kGy) was identified since previous work described in literature often focused on using a high dose rate to achieve the life time dose during a short period of time to achieve a life time dose2. This may cause different degradation, compared to that obtained with a long exposure at a low dose rate, which is the case for many O-rings inside a Nuclear Power plant (NPP). Like the previous feasibility study this research project is performed in collaboration with the Nordic nuclear industry for in a longer perspective implementing the results.

    Rubber materials were tested for different properties such as compression set, stress relaxation, elon-gation at break, Oxidation Induction Temperature (T

    ox) and hardness after heat ageing and gamma irradiation. These properties were then correlated to the function of the O-ring i.e. tightness verified by a leakage test in a specially designed test rig. To be able to better compare the degradation effect caused by the irradiation, a parallel test on samples aged in heat only was performed. By testing the correlation between material data and tightness of an O-ring an understanding of the function (tight-ness) based on a material property (compression set) can be made. The aim was to be able to use this to set acceptance criteria for an O-ring using compression set as a property. A model using Finite Elements (FE) based on the relaxation data and compression set data from the experiment was also done but is only described briefly in this paper.

  • 174.
    Monteserin, Carlos
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Engsig-Karup, Allan
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Nonlinear wave-body interaction using a mixed-eulerian-lagrangian spectral element model2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present recent progress on the development of a newfully nonlinear potential flow (FNPF) model for estimation ofnonlinear wave-body interactions based on a stabilised unstructuredspectral element method (SEM). We introduce new proofof-concepts for forced nonlinear wave-body interaction in twospatial dimensions to establish the methodology in the SEM settingutilising dynamically adapted unstructured meshes. The numericalmethod behind the proposed methodology is describedin some detail and numerical experiments on the forced motionof (i) surface piercing and (ii) submerged bodies are presented.

  • 175.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete and its Application for Facades2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is a fairly novel material with extraordinary strength and durability properties. Due to these properties, it is increasingly being utilized also for external facade cladding thus enabling a considerable reduction in the thickness of concrete elements. Commercial RPC formulations on the market have drawbacks in terms of sustainability due to their high clinker content and heat curing which is often applied to increase final strength and material density. The presented study focusses on improved formulations with higher replacement levels of cement clinker by supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). One different mix formulation was designed and tested in terms of mechanical properties. The formulation was combined with carbon textile reinforcements primarily to enhance the flexural and tensile behavior of the material. The results showed that even with clinker replacement levels of up to 33 % of the total binder amount, a satisfactory mechanical performance of the RPC mix could still be achieved. Fairly steep strength gains rendered heat treatment unnecessary. The incorporation of carbon textile fiber grids proved to be effective in improving the post peak performance of the RPC. However, their performance depended strongly on the bond between the carbon grid and the RPC. Higher moister contents in the concrete proved to reduce the bond strength between the carbon textile and the cement paste. This is maybe less relevant for facades but structural elements with textile reinforcement and RPC might perform less well in completely submerged environment.

  • 176.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Klippel, Michel
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Procedure for implementing new materials to the component additive method2019Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, s. 149-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of light timber frame wall and floor assemblies in fire depends on their composition. The assemblies' ability to form fire-separations between building compartments (separating function) can be assessed by full-scale fire testing or calculation methods. Calculations are the low cost and more flexible alternative.The component additive method is a commonly used calculation method for fire design of timber structures. The method considers the insulation ability of the material layers present in the assembly. The component additive method described in this article is developed to be flexible to implement different materials and products of different dimensions. However, the amount of different materials currently included in this method is rather limited and there is no generally accepted procedure to implement new materials.This paper presents a common agreement of the procedure to implement new materials which comprises of: (1) the design and execution of model-scale fire tests; (2) determination of the modified thermal properties needed for simulations; (3) thermal simulations of assemblies in fire conditions; (4) development of design equations and; (5) verification by one or more full-scale fire test(s). The abovementioned steps have been clearly presented in this paper and supported by examples.

  • 177.
    Nasr, Amro
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Kjellström, E.
    SMHI, Sweden.
    Climate change impact on safety and performance of existing and future bridges2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE 2018), 2018, s. 1735-1741Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent decades have seen an increased attention towards the threat of climate change to our built environment and not least our infrastructure. Accounting for the different ways in which potential climate change scenarios can affect our infrastructure is paramount in determining appropriate adaptation and risk management strategies. This paper presents the initial findings of a new research project which is concerned with establishing an improved management of the risks to our infrastructure, especially bridges, in light of a changing climate. In this paper, a preliminary survey of the climate change related risks on bridges is conducted. Timely consideration of these impacts is of utmost importance to ensure a satisfactory performance of our bridges in the future. The interplay between the different risks and how the occurrence of one risk may influence other risks is also briefly discussed. The future stages of the project are mentioned as well. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the Swedish Transport Administration. Any opinions, findings, or conclusions in this work are those of the authors and are not necessarily in accordance with those of the Swedish Transport Administration.

  • 178.
    Nele Mäger, Katrin
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Development of Design Equations for Termoträ Fire Protect for the Component Additive Method2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report details the development of effective thermal properties and design equations for Termoträ Fire Protect which can be used for the improved component additive method for fire design of timber structures.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 179.
    Nele Mäger, Katrin
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Development of Design Equations for the Component Additive Method for Paroc eXtra2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report details the development of effective thermal properties and design equations for Paroc eXtra which can be used for the improved component additive method for fire design of timber structures.  The results are validated with full scale fire tests where such reports are available. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 180.
    Nessvi, Ken
    et al.
    PS Group, Sweden.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Dammexplosionsrisker i metallbearbetande industri2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    The project has focused on the risks of dust explosions and any fire that may arise in various manufacturing processes where metal dust is formed. The work has included studying available statistics to get a better picture of frequency, cause and effect in connection with explosions that occurred, but also to study some real incidents in detail to give examples of events and in some cases also measures taken to reduce the risk of similar events occurring again. In the project, a limited literature review has also been conducted.

    Nationally, incidents reported to the Swedish Work Environment Authority have been studied as well as statistics based on the incident reports provided by the Swedish Fire and Rescue Services to the Swedish Civil Contingency Agency (MSB). Internationally, we have mainly studied statistics from the US compiled by CSB (U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board) and from the database "Combustible Dust Incident Database". Studying metal dust explosions specifically, these constitute about 20-25 % of all explosion incidents. It is also clear that the explosions usually occur in dust extraction systems and associated equipment. In several of the incidents, these have also been associated with some form of manual work in the plant, for example cleaning. In many cases, explosions have also been associated with ignorance, e.g. by lack of control of the equipment. The report gives some examples of this type of incident.

    Although Sweden has been spared from fatal accidents related to dust explosions, the international statistics show that this is a very common consequence. During the last 15-year period, CSB statistics show that this in average resulted in 0,3 fatalities per reported metal dust incident. It can also be noted that some very serious accidents have occurred in China within the metal industry caused a large number of fatalities. This indicates that dust explosions in the metal industry can be very violent.

    Increased knowledge and exchange of experience between metal working industries could result in risk mitigation measures and improved working procedures and are perhaps the most important measures to reduce the risk of serious explosion incidents. There is also a need for more basic knowledge about the explosion processes for different types of metals in order to ensure that different types of protection systems are dimensioned in a correct manner. Today, it cannot be assumed that this is the case as standards for different protection systems are not always adapted for metal dust.

    The report also presents some recommendations that form a basis for minimizing the risks for dust explosions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 181.
    Nilsson, Markus
    et al.
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    A numerical comparison of protective measures againstexternal fire spread2018Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 493-507Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of different passive protective measures against external vertical firespread was investigated using the numerical tool Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS).The numerical study was divided into a validation study and a comparative analysis.The validation study was performed to evaluate FDS as a calculation tool for modellingexternal vertical fire spread and was conducted using experimental results from alarge‐scale fire test done on a SP FIRE 105 test rig at SP, Sweden. It was concludedthat FDS 6.2.0 could reproduce the experimental results with a reasonable level ofdetail. In the comparative analysis, the impact on the external fire from a smallerapartment was studied in FDS with different configurations of horizontal projectionsand spandrels in the building exterior. Also, the effects of an upper and lower facadeset‐back configuration were studied. The results show that facade solutions based ona horizontal projection or an upper facade set‐back configuration result in comparableor better protection compared with a defined spandrel height. The results also showthat a spandrel height of at least 1.2 m can be replaced by a 60‐cm‐deep horizontalprojection, given that the balcony is wider than the underlying opening.

  • 182.
    Nord, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    D6.18 Communication and Dissemination Plan M13-M24 : project PRoPART2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 183.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of thermochromic coatings of VO2 on the fire performance of windows2018Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, nr 7, s. 873-876Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of thermochromic coatings of vanadium dioxide (VO2) on the fire performance of windows was experimentally tested. Prototypes were subjected to radiant heat and the radiation transmitted through the specimens was measured as a function of time. The results indicate that windows coated with VO2 can reduce radiative heat transfer from fires and thereby also reduce or prevent fire spread. The results clearly show that VO2coatings on BK7 substrates hinder approximately 30% of the transmission of radiation from fire sources when compared with the performance of uncoated windows. It is expected that VO2 will not be solely implemented for the purpose of increasing fire performance of windows, but it will rather provide a secondary positive effect if such windows are realized for energy‐saving purposes.

  • 184.
    Olsson, Kim
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Uncertainty propagation in FE modelling of a fire resistance test using fractional factorial design based model reduction and deterministic sampling2017Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, fractional factorial design (FFD) and deterministic sampling (DS) are applied to a finite element (FE) model of a fire resistance test of a loaded steel beam, to investigate how uncertainties are propagated through the FE model. The sought quantity was the time when the deflection of the beam exceeded 225. mm. The FFD method was used as a model reduction technique which reduced the number of uncertain parameters from 5 to 3. The DS method was compared to a reference Monte Carlo (MC) method of 1000 simulations from all 5 uncertain parameters, which was the minimum number of simulations in order for the statistical moments to converge. The combined FFD and DS method successfully computed the propagation of the mean and standard deviation in the model, compared to the MC method. Given the uncertainties in the FE model, the fractional factorial design reduced the number of simulations required in the DS method by 82%. The combined method of FFD and DS reduced the number of required simulations by 96% compared to the MC method. The DS method did not capture the tails of the probability distribution and is therefore not a suitable candidate for probabilistic evaluation of the time of failure at the edges of the domain of possible failure times. Future research could very well be on improving the tails in DS. However, the DS method provides a conservative 95% coverage interval of 6. min for the time to failure of the steel beam.

  • 185.
    Ong, Chee Beng
    et al.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Chang, Wen Shao
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Ansell, Martin P.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material.
    Walker, Pete
    University of Bath, UK.
    Bench-scale fire tests of Dark Red Meranti and Spruce finger joints in tension2018Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 168, s. 257-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the secondary failure of Malaysian Dark Red Meranti (Shorea spp.) and Spruce (Picea abies) finger joints in a glulam beam in a fire test using a bench-scale test set-up. Secondary failure is the occurrence of failure of the bond lines due to fire and the falling off of the outermost tension layers, exposing the uncharred inner layers to a sudden increase of fire intensity. The lack of published work and the difficulties in describing the behaviour of the finger joints after the secondary failure in a full-scale fire test has identified the need for a simple bench-scale method, incorporating the conditions of the standard fire test. This paper focusses on the performance of the finger joints which together with other defects such as knots and splits are generally the weakest component in the glulam beam. The finger joints were bonded with structural adhesives, specifically phenol resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF) and polyurethane (PUR). They were tested in tension to imitate the failure of finger joints on the tension side of a standard fire test of a glulam beam. Constant heat flux was introduced to the finger-jointed specimens to replicate the secondary failure of a glulam beam in the standard fire test. The results of this study indicate a relationship between the charring rate and density of the specimens, with higher density Dark Red Meranti showing lower charring rate compared to the lower density Spruce specimens. Factors such as constant heat flux as opposed to the time-increasing heat flux exposure and specimen size influenced the charring rate of the specimens. The char rate was measured at the early stages of the fire test, which is known to have higher values since the build-up of the charred layers was not sufficiently substantial to protect the inner unburnt wood. Overall, the bench-scale fire test set-up was able to differentiate the fire performance of the adhesives, with PRF showing better fire performance compared to the specimens finger-jointed with PUR adhesive. In addition, tensile tests at ambient temperature showed no significant difference in tensile strength between finger joints bonded with different adhesives for the same wood species. The tensile strengths of the finger joints bonded with different adhesives were influenced by the temperature profile through the joint. The proposed bench-scale fire test was used to compare the quality of the adhesives in a fire situation, specifically with respect to secondary failure. The PRF was selected as the reference adhesive.

  • 186.
    Palm, Johannes
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Parametric excitation of moored wave energy converters using viscous and non-viscous CFD simulations2019Inngår i: Advances in Renewable Energies Offshore / [ed] C. Guedes Soares, Taylor & Francis Group, 2019, s. 455-462Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the use of CFD simulations to analyse the parametric excitation of moored, full scale wave energy converters in six degrees of freedom. We present results of VOF- RANS and VOF-Euler simulations in Open FOAM® for two body shapes: (i) a truncated cylinder; and (ii) a cylinder with a smooth hemispherical bottom. Flow characteristics show large differences in smoothness of flow between the hull shapes, where the smoother shape results in a larger heave response. However the increased amplitude makes it unstable and parametric pitch excitation occurs with amplitudes up to 30°. The responses in surge, heave and pitch (including the transition to parametric motion) are found to be insensitive to the viscous effects. This is notable as the converters are working in resonance. The effect of viscous damping was visible in the roll motion, where the RANS simulations showed a smaller roll. However, the roll motion was found to be triggered not by wave-body interaction with the incident wave, but by reflections from the side walls. This highlights the importance of controlling the reflections in numerical wave tanks for simulations with WEC motion in six degrees of freedom.

  • 187.
    Petersen, L.
    et al.
    Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Teixeira, R.
    Barreiro Municipality, Portugal.
    Creating comparable public tolerance and technical performance measures for critical infrastructure resilience evaluation2018Inngår i: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, s. 1231-1240Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    No consensus currently exists on how to measure and evaluate Critical Infrastructure (CI) resilience. Attempting to use the public’s declared coping capacity as a target for CI resilience, this paper explores how to develop relevant resilience performance measurements that enable comparison to the tolerance levels of the general public. To do so, one must first establish the normal performance of the system and the applicable performance measures. Then, a survey is used to convert public perception into these measures as to enable comparison with the technical resilience performance. The CI resilience will be presented through a family of so-called resilience triangles which will illustrate the evolution of the performance, before, during and after a crisis event. A case study of the Municipal Water Network of Barreiro, Portugal, is used. The overall performance is preferably described with the categories quality, quantity and delivery. In quantifying the performance the importance of what is being assessed, to what hazard and for which end-user became evident.

  • 188.
    Petersen, Laura
    et al.
    UIC International union of railways, France.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Horvath, Eva
    Magyar Közút Nonprofit Zrt, Hungary.
    Evaluating critical infrastructure resilience via tolerance triangles: Hungarian Highway pilot case study2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the International ISCRAM Conference, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM , 2019, s. 1210-1225Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While accepted as part of critical infrastructure (CI) resilience, no consensus exists on how to measure the exact minimum level of service or the rapidity of rapidly restoring services. The H2020 European project IMPROVER (Improved risk evaluation and implementation of resilience concepts to critical infrastructure) suggests to use the public's declared tolerance levels for both minimum level of service and rapidity of service restoration as criteria with which to evaluate if the resilience of a given CI is resilient enough. This paper demonstrates the development of a questionnaire-based methodology to determine public tolerance levels. It then tests this methodology via a pilot case study at IMPROVER's Hungarian Highway Living Lab. The paper argues that public tolerance levels are a reasonable choice for resilience evaluation criteria and demonstrates that the questionnaire-based methodology permits one to evaluate public perception in such a way as to compare it to technical resilience analyses.

  • 189.
    Pettersson, Pär
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Sixten
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; Volvo Global Truck Technology, Sweden.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fast, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Santandrea, Fabio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    A proposal for an operating cycle description format for road transport missions2018Inngår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikkel-id 31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article presents a proposal for an operating cycle format for describing transport missions of road vehicles, for example a logging truck fetching its cargo. The primary application is in dynamic simulation models for evaluation of energy consumption and other costs of transportation. When applied to product development, the objective is an ensemble of components and functions optimised for specific tasks and environments. When applied to selection of vehicle configuration, the objective is a vehicle specification tailored for its task. Method: The proposal is presented and its four main parts: road, weather, traffic and mission, are thoroughly explained. Furthermore, we implement the proposal in an example of a dynamic forward simulation model. Results: The example model is used for two case studies: a synthetic example of a complex transport mission (a logging truck fetching its cargo) that shows some advanced format features, and an example from a real vehicle log file (cargo transport) that seeks to compare the resulting simulated speed profile to the measured one. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed format works in practice. It can represent complex transport missions and it can be used to reproduce the main features of a logged speed profile even when combined with simple driver and vehicle models.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 190.
    Pettersson, Pär
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Fast, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Berglund, Sixten
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Volvo AB, Sweden.
    A statistical operating cycle description for prediction of road vehicles’ energy consumption2019Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 73, s. 205-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a novel statistical description of the physical properties of road transport operations by using stochastic models arranged in a hierarchical structure. The description includes speed signs, stops, speed bumps, curvature, topography, road roughness and ground type, with a road type introduced at the top of the hierarchy to group characteristics that are often connected. Methods are described how to generate data on a form (the operating cycle format) that can be used in dynamic simulations to estimate energy usage and CO2 emissions. To showcase the behaviour of the description, two examples are presented using a modular vehicle model for a heavy-duty truck: a sensitivity study on impacts from changes in the environment, and a comparison study on a real goods transport operation with respect to energy usage. It is found that the stop intensity and topography amplitude have the greatest impact in the sensitivity study (8.3% and 9.5% respectively), and the comparison study implies that the statistical description is capable of capturing properties of the road that are significant for vehicular energy usage. Moreover, it is discussed how the statistical description can be used in a vehicle design process, and how the mean CO2 emissions and its variation can be estimated for a vehicle specification.

  • 191.
    Pushp, Mohit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Gall, Dan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Seemann, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jan B C
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Influence of Bed Material, Additives, and Operational Conditions on Alkali Metal and Tar Concentrations in Fluidized Bed Gasification of Biomass2018Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 6797-6806Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification of biomass results in release of tar and alkali metal compounds that constitute a significant challenge to the optimization of the gasification process. Here we describe on-line measurements of alkali, condensable tar, and particle concentrations in product gas from a 2-4 MWth dual fluidized bed gasifier, with the aims to characterize typical concentrations and contribute to the understanding of alkali-tar interactions. The influence of bed material, additives, and operational parameters on the concentrations is investigated. Alkali concentrations are measured with a surface ionization detector, and particle and tar concentrations are determined using aerosol measurement techniques. The gasification of wood chips using quartz or olivine as bed material results in an alkali concentration of 30-250 mg m-3, and the observed alkali levels are consistent with a significant release of the fuel alkali content. Addition of ilmenite to a quartz bed and additions of K2SO4 and K2CO3 to an olivine bed influence both alkali and heavy tar concentrations. The additions result in changes in alkali concentration that relaxes to a new steady state in tens of minutes. The concentration of condensable tar is lower for the olivine bed than for the quartz bed, and tends to decrease when potassium or sulfur is added. The concentration of condensable tar compounds is anticorrelated with the alkali concentration when a quartz bed is used, while no clear trend is observed with an olivine bed. An increase in steam flow rate results in a substantial decrease in heavy tar concentration from a quartz sand bed, while the alkali concentration increases slightly with increasing flow rate. This is in contrast to the alkali concentrations observed when using an activated olivine bed, where concentrations are higher and tend to decrease with increasing steam flow rate. The study confirms that several primary methods are available to optimize the alkali and tar behavior in the gasifier, and suggests that on-line monitoring is needed to systematically change the operational conditions and to study the underlying processes.

  • 192.
    Rahm, Michael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Structural Fire Integrity Testing of Lightweight Multiple Core Sandwich Structures2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Marine Structures - MARSTRUCT. Progress in the Analysis and Design of Marine Structures, 2017, s. 869-878Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lightweight structures become increasingly important to reduce environmental impact and to improve payload/deadweight ratio of ships. Significant weight savings can be accomplished by replacing steel with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sandwich panels. An assessment is then necessary to ensure that equivalent fire safety is provided, since the structures are combustible. To support such assessments, this paper presents results from vertically loaded fire resistance tests of two structures: (1) a “conventional” FRP sandwich bulkhead with thermal insulation (providing load carrying fire resistance for 60 minutes) and (2) a multiple core FRP sandwich bulkhead without insulation. Both bulkheads were constructed for and tested with the same design load. The multiple core sandwich bulkhead demonstrated structural fire integrity performance well beyond 60 minutes whilst having a significantly lower structural weight and thickness. The new type of multiple core sandwich structure thus provides great potential, both from a weight-savings and a fire safety perspective.

  • 193.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jansson, Hanna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, Shun Han
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Örgård, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Comparison of mooring solutions and array systems for point absorbing wave energy devices2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering - OMAE, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the ocean energy technologies are considered to be ina pre-commercial phase and need technical development. Thisstudy focuses on design of mooring solutions and comparesarray systems of a specific floating point-absorbing waveenergy converter (WEC) developed by the companyWaves4Power. A full-scale prototype of the WEC is installedin Runde (Norway) where it is moored with three polyestermooring lines, each having one floater and one gravity anchor.Based on this reference installation, the method of systemsengineering was used to propose twenty-two conceptualmooring solutions for different array systems. They werecompared and reduced to four top concepts in a systematicelimination procedure using Pugh and Kesselring matrices. Thetop concepts were assessed in detail by means of LCOE(levelised cost of energy), LCA (life cycle analysis) and riskanalyses. The fatigue life of the mooring lines and the energycapture were calculated using results obtained from coupledhydrodynamic and structure response analyses in the DNV-GLDeepC software. Two final concepts were proposed for thewater depths 75 and 200 m.

  • 194.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Zhang, Meng
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, Y
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shock analysis of a stern ramp using dynamic design analysis method2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the ASME 2017 36th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE2017), Trondheim, Norway, June 25-30 2017., 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Shock load caused by underwater explosion in naval battles can lead to malfunction of the equipment on-board naval vessels. It makes the ships vulnerable and they can lose the ability to accomplish their missions. This study presents a shock analysis, using the dynamic design analysis method (DDAM), of a naval ship stern ramp subjected to a non-contact underwater explosion. The objective is to evaluate the performance of the ramp subjected to a shock load, identify areas for structural improvements and recommend design changes. The DDAM in the commercial software ANSYS is used in the evaluation of the ramp. The structural response to the shock load is estimated by combined modal and response spectrum analyses. The shock load is applied in three directions (vertical, fore and aft, athwart ships) and the results show that the vertical direction is the most severe loading direction and critical to the functionality of the ramp. A parametric study is presented which shows which parameters that influence the most the structural response. The results from this study are used to suggest improvements of the ramp structure to make it more resistant to shock loads.

  • 195.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kuznecovs, Artjoms
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, Shun-Han
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Models for design and fatigue analysis of dynamic power cables for wave energy converters2019Inngår i: Trends in the Analysis and Design of Marine Structures - Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Marine Structures, MARSTRUCT 2019, CRC Press/Balkema , 2019, s. 488-497Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study presents a brief overview of a cable design model and simulation models that were developed for the design and fatigue analysis of dynamic cables. These models were applied on a subsea dynamic power cable with a design that is suitable for a floating point-absorbing Wave Energy Converter (WEC), where the cable must withstand cyclic loads imposed by the motions of the WEC, the waves and the ocean currents. An example of a verification study of the cable design model is presented where data from experiments in the literature was used. Further, a simulation model of a fatigue test rig for accelerated rotational bending is also presented. The results from the numerical simulations and the subsequent fatigue analyses are compared against results from experiments using the test rig. The influence of the dynamic effects and mechanical properties on the fatigue life of the cable is discussed.

  • 196.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Zhijuan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kuznecovs, Artjoms
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Analysis of theultimate strength of corroded ships involved in collision accidents andsubjected to biaxial bending2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an analysis of the effects of sudden damage, and progressive deterioration due to corrosion, on the ultimate strength of a ship which has been collided by another vessel. Finite element analyses (FEA) of collision scenarios are presented where factors are varied e.g. the vessels involved in the collision, and consider-ation of corroded ship structure elements and their material characteristics in the model. The striking ship is a coastal tanker, the struck ship is either a RoPax ship, or, a coastal oil tanker vessel. The ultimate strength analy-sis of the struck vessel accounts for the shape and size of the damage opening from the FEA. The Smith method is used to calculate the ultimate strength of intact and damaged ship structures during biaxial bending. The study shows how corroded, collision-damaged ship structures suffer from a reduction in crashworthiness and ultimate strength, how this should be considered and modelled in FEA.

  • 197.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Zhiyuan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Kuznecovs, Artjoms
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shafieisabet, Roozbeh
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Reduction in ultimate strength capacity of corroded ships involved in collision accidents2018Inngår i: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, Vol. 13, s. 155-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of sudden damage, and progressive deterioration due to corrosion, on the ultimate strength of a ship which has been collided by another vessel. Explicit finite element analyses (FEA) of collision scenarios are presented where factors are varied systematically in a parametric study, e.g. the vessels involved in the collision, and consideration of corroded ship structure elements and their material characteristics in the model. The crashworthiness of the struck ships is quantified in terms of the shape and size of the damage opening in the side-shell structure, and the division of energy absorption between the striking and struck ships for the different collision simulations. The ultimate strength of the struck ship is calculated using the Smith method and the shape and size of the damage openings from the FEA. In conclusion, the study contributes to understanding of how corroded, collision-damaged ship structures suffer significantly from a reduction in crashworthiness and ultimate strength, how this should be considered and modelled using the finite element method and analysed further using the Smith method.

  • 198.
    Ringsberg, JW
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Z
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Kuznecovs, A
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shafieisabet, R
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Reduction in ultimate strength capacity of corroded ships involved in collision accidents2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many studies in the literature which present advanced numerical simulations of the assessment of the crashworthiness of marine structures. Most of these studies have not considered the effect of corrosion as an impairment of the struck structure’s resistance to the collision load and the consequence on the ship’s ultimate strength. The objective of the current investigation is to study the effects of sudden damage (ship-ship collision), and progressive deterioration due to corrosion, on the ultimate strength of a ship which has been collided by another vessel. Explicit finite element analyses of collision scenarios are presented where several factors are varied systematically in a parametric study, e.g. the vessels involved in the collision, and consideration of corroded ship structure elements and their material characteristics in the model. The striking ship is represented by a coastal tanker while the struck ship is either a RoPax ship, or, a coastal oil tanker vessel. The crashworthiness of the struck vessels is quantified in terms of the shape and size of the damage opening in the side-shell structure, and the division of energy absorption between the striking and struck ships for the different collision simulations. The ultimate strength of the struck vessel, for each collision simulation, is calculated using the Smith method and the shape and size of the damage openings from the finite element analyses. In conclusion, the study contributes to understanding of how corroded, collision-damaged ship structures suffer significantly from a reduction in crashworthiness and ultimate strength, how this should be considered and modelled using the finite element method and analysed further using the Smith method

  • 199.
    Robuschi, S.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, K.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernandez, I.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, K.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anchorage capacity of corroded smooth reinforcement bars in existing reinforced structures2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 12th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University , 2018, s. 1039-1046Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete structures are strongly affected by reinforcement corrosion, the most common cause of deterioration. Most studies on structural effects of corrosion rely on artificial methods to obtain a corrosion level that would otherwise require years, but doubts on the soundness of the methods have been raised. Specimens taken from existing structures offer the chance of studying the effect of natural corrosion, however the choice of the test setup is challenging. Hence, pilot tests are carried out to investigate the optimal design for testing the anchorage capacity of specimens with smooth reinforcements. The outcome is an asymmetrically supported 3-point bending beam test. The benefits of using complementary tools as Digital Image Correlation (DIC), Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis (NLFEA), pull-out tests and tensile tests and 3D scanning of the bars are presented.

  • 200.
    Robuschi, Samanta
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernandez, Ignasi
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anchorage capacity of corroded smooth reinforcement bars in existing reinforced structures2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 12th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering, 2018, s. 1039-1046Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete structures are strongly affected by reinforcement corrosion, the most common cause of deterioration. Most studies on structural effects of corrosion rely on artificial methods to obtain a corrosion level that would otherwise require years, but doubts on the soundness of the methods have been raised. Specimens taken from existing structures offer the chance of studying the effect of natural corrosion, however the choice of the test setup is challenging. Hence, pilot tests are carried out to investigate the optimal design for testing the anchorage capacity of specimens with smooth reinforcements. The outcome is an asymmetrically supported 3-point bending beam test. The benefits of using complementary tools as Digital Image Correlation (DIC), Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis (NLFEA), pull-out tests and tensile tests and 3D scanning of the bars are presented.

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