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  • 151.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Energikontor Sydost, Sweden.
    Tekniska och ekonomiska förutsättningar för oljeersättning i industrin med pyrolysolja2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For potential users, especially in the industry, which consider bio-oil as well as pyrolysis oil as a fuel alternatives in the future, in-depth knowledge of its technical and economic conditions in various industrial applications is required. To verify which requirements these oils sets on the combustion technology more combustion tests in potential burners are needed to clarify any technical development. To minimize any problems that may arise with pyrolysis oil, from delivery to storage and combustion, the available knowledge about the use of common bio-oils should be used. The overall objective of this project is to investigate the possibilities to use pyrolysis oil in various industrial applications.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 152.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Ingvarson, Robert
    Janfire, Sweden.
    Sänkning av kväveoxidemissioner samt förlängd livslängd genom rökgasåterföring i en pelletsbrännare 750 kW2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The project has been involved in developing a flue gas recirculation system aimed at reducing emissions of NO

    x and dust, as well as extending the life of the material in a pellet burner. Installation of a flue gas recirculation system and combustion tests have been performed in a laundry in Bengtsfors, which has a pellet-fired boiler with two janfire burners of 750 kW each. The results of the tests showed that the flue gas recirculation had an impact on NOx emissions. These decreased by about 17-18% in wood pellets combustion and by 10% in combustion of nitrogen rich agro fuel pellets in comparison to non-flue gas recirculation. With flue gas recirculation, the combustion furnace temperatures decreased by 85-105 oC for wood pellets and about 70 oC for agro fuel pellets.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 153.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Löfgren, Bengt-Erik
    Pelletsförbundet, Sweden.
    Iwarsson Wide, Maria
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Melin, Gustav
    SVEBIO, Sweden.
    Innovationskluster för internationalisering inom bioenergiområdet - förstudie2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy contributes to a sustainable energy mix in most countries worldwide, is the largest renewable energy generation and has a global development potential. Bioenergy today accounts for 60 percent of all renewable energy in the EU: 11 percent of all used energy, compared with 7 percent for all other renewable energy sources. However, the market for Swedish bioenergy and bioenergy technology in Sweden has decreased. Partly because our domestic market for new district heating installations has already been expanded and partly because the competition from electricity heating through energy efficient heat pumps in the residential segment takes over the exchange market. In order for Swedish know-how and products to grow, increased exports and visibility are important. An innovation cluster for internationalization in the bioenergy field cre-ates a meeting place that facilitates involved bioenergy companies and organizations to create sustainable growth inside and outside their own industry.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 154.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    von Bahr, Bo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Wallertz, Anna
    Rosenqvist, Håkan
    Slam från små avloppsanläggningar i kretslopp2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The project aimed at locally investigate the availability of suitable sludge products from small sewage plants in the area of Alberga, Bälgviken and Näshulta in the municipality of Eskilstuna for a placement of a hygienic composting machine (ICM). Furthermore, the project included an investigation of the economic potential of a local solution as well as an overall calculation of the local environmental benefits of the cycle.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 155.
    Pericault, Youen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Data supporting the life cycle impact assessment and cost evaluation of technical alternatives for providing water and heating services to a suburban development in Gällivare Sweden.2018Inngår i: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 21, s. 1204-1208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents input data that were used in Pericault et al. (2018) for life cycle impact assessment and total cost assessment of five technical alternatives for heat and water services provision in a suburban development in Sweden. The data consists of a list of environmental impacts (cumulative exergy demand of energy carriers - CExDe, global warming potential - GWP, abiotic depletion potential of elements - ADPE), costs, amortisation periods, lifetimes and output flows of the system processes composing the alternatives. The data was derived from values collected in lifecycle databases, environmental product declarations, scientific publications and personal communications with companies.

  • 156.
    Pericault, Youen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Expansion of sewer, water and district heating networks in cold climate regions: An integrated sustainability assessment2018Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 10, artikkel-id 3743Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an integrated sustainability assessment of technical alternatives for water and heating services provision in suburban areas affected by a cold climate. Each alternative combines a drinking water supply, sewerage (gravity or low-pressure), pipe freeze protection (deep burial or shallow burial with heat tracing) and heating solution (district heating or geothermal heat pumps). An innovative freeze protection option was considered, in which low-temperature district heating (LTDH) is used to heat trace shallow sewer and water pipes. First, the performance of each alternative regarding seven sustainability criteria was evaluated on a projected residential area in Sweden using a systems analysis approach. A multi-criteria method was then applied to propose a sustainability ranking of the alternatives based on a set of weights obtained from local stakeholders. The alternative with a deep buried gravity sewer and geothermal heat pumps was found to have the highest sustainability score in the case study. In the sensitivity analysis, the integrated trench solution with a gravity sewer, innovative heat tracing and LTDH was found to potentially top the sustainability ranking if geothermal energy was used as the district heating source, or if the weight of the cost criterion increased from 24% to 64%. The study highlights the need for integrated decision-making between different utility providers as an integrated solution can represent sustainability gains.

  • 157.
    Persson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Europeisk standardisering av biobränsleeldade pannor och kaminer - revision till följd av EcoDesign-krav2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During 2016 and 2017 the European standards for solid fuel boilers and roomheaters have been under revision. RISE has taken active part in this work as a representative for Swedish interests. This includes meetings in the Swedish mirror committee SIS TK 169, participation in CEN Technical Committees TC 57 and 295 and in relevant working groups as well as continuous dissemination work. The report describes issues addressed at the meetings, Swedish positions and arguments as well as the status of the revision process.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 158.
    Petersen, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Enebro, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Solid-state organo-modification of montmorillonite for manufacturing of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) nanocomposites2018Inngår i: Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, ISSN 1083-5601, Vol. 24, s. E146-E153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The preparation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites via direct melt processing is still posing problems mainly because of the lack of availability of suitable commercial organoclays and because of the low thermal stability of PVC. A new type of organic compounds for modifying montmorillonite (MMT), which is suitable for use in plasticized PVC, has been found earlier. The current study shows that it is possible to achieve partially exfoliated PVC nanocomposites with greatly improved mechanical properties using a method of liquid-solid–state intercalation of MMT when using tributyl citrate and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) plasticizers as organic modifiers. It is also shown that liquid mixed metal stabilizers have the ability to intercalate the clay at least when DINP is used. The observation raises questions regarding how this phenomenon can affect the thermal stability of PVC composites. J. VINYL ADDIT. TECHNOL., 24:E146–E153, 2018. © 2017 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  • 159.
    Petersen, L.
    et al.
    Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Teixeira, R.
    Barreiro Municipality, Portugal.
    Creating comparable public tolerance and technical performance measures for critical infrastructure resilience evaluation2018Inngår i: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, s. 1231-1240Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    No consensus currently exists on how to measure and evaluate Critical Infrastructure (CI) resilience. Attempting to use the public’s declared coping capacity as a target for CI resilience, this paper explores how to develop relevant resilience performance measurements that enable comparison to the tolerance levels of the general public. To do so, one must first establish the normal performance of the system and the applicable performance measures. Then, a survey is used to convert public perception into these measures as to enable comparison with the technical resilience performance. The CI resilience will be presented through a family of so-called resilience triangles which will illustrate the evolution of the performance, before, during and after a crisis event. A case study of the Municipal Water Network of Barreiro, Portugal, is used. The overall performance is preferably described with the categories quality, quantity and delivery. In quantifying the performance the importance of what is being assessed, to what hazard and for which end-user became evident.

  • 160.
    Pettersson, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Valeria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Fuglesang, Malin
    ÅF Industry, Sweden.
    Systems analysis of different value chains based on domestic forest biomass for the production of bio-SNG2018Inngår i: International Journal of Energy Research, ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 2117-2140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares value chains based on domestic forest biomass for the production of bio-synthetic natural gas (SNG) with respect to economic performance, GHG emissions, and energy efficiency. Value chains in which raw material is upgraded to intermediate products before transportation to an SNG plant integrated with a district heating system for further upgrading are compared with a chain in which the raw material is transported directly to the SNG plant. The intermediates considered are either dried biomass from forest residues, or bark, upgraded at pulp mills, or pellets from sawdust upgraded at sawmills. The findings show that the difference in performance between the studied value chains is generally small. The highest cost and significantly lowest energy efficiency are associated with the value chain with pellets, which leads to the conclusion that more pretreatment than what is required by the SNG process, to lower transport costs, is not profitable. Drying forest residues at pulp mills before further transportation to and upgrading at an SNG plant leads to somewhat higher transportation costs because of the relatively high fixed costs associated with transportation. However, the benefit of drying the biomass using excess heat at pulp mills is that heat is "moved" from a location, where it can be hard to find profitable ways to use it, to the SNG plant, where the excess heat can be used for district heating. With these two factors working in opposition, the total cost is similar if forest residues are transported directly to the SNG plant or via a pulp mill. The lowest cost is achieved when falling bark from pulp mills is used because the first transportation step is avoided and no additional investment for biomass handling at the mill is required. However, there is a technical uncertainty regarding how much bark can be used in the SNG process.

  • 161.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    The role of biobased building materials in the climate impacts of construction: Effects of increased use of biobased materials in the Swedish building sector2017Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant share of the global climate change impacts can be attributed to the construction sector. One mitigation strategy is increasing the use of biobased materials. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to demonstrate the benefits of this, but forest complexities create uncertainty due to omission of key aspects. This aim of this thesis is to enhance understanding of the effects of increasing use of biobased materials in climate change mitigation of construction works with a life cycle perspective. Non-traditional LCA methodology aspects were identified and the climate impact effects of increasing the use of biobased materials while accounting for these was studied. The method applied was dynamic LCA combined with forest carbon data under multi-approach scenarios. Diverse case studies (a building, a small road bridge and the Swedish building stock) were used. Most scenarios result in impact reductions from increasing the use of biobased materials in construction. The inclusion of non-traditional aspects affected the results, but not this outcome. Results show that the climate mitigation potential is maximized by simultaneously implementing other strategies (such as increased use of low-impact concrete). Biobased building materials should not be generalised as climate neutral because it depends on case-sensitive factors. Some of these factors depend on the modelling of the forest system (timing of tree growth, spatial level approach, forest land use baseline) or LCA modelling parameters (choice of the time horizon, end-of-life assumptions, service life). To decrease uncertainty, it is recommended to use at least one metric that allows assessment of emissions based on their timing and to use long-term time horizons. Practitioners should clearly state if and how non-traditional aspects are handled, and study several methodological settings. Technological changes should be accounted for when studying long-term climate impacts of building stocks.

  • 162.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Falk, Andreas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Future scenarios for climate mitigation of new construction in Sweden: Effects of different technological pathways2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 187, s. 1025-1035Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of climate mitigation strategies is available to mitigate climate impacts of buildings. Several studies evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies have been performed at the building stock level, but do not consider the technological change in building material manufacturing. The objective of this study is to evaluate the climate mitigation effects of increasing the use of biobased materials in the construction of new residential dwellings in Sweden under future scenarios related to technological change. A model to estimate the climate impact from Swedish new dwellings has been proposed combining official statistics and life cycle assessment data of seven different dwelling typologies. Eight future scenarios for increased use of harvested wood products are explored under different pathways for changes in the market share of typologies and in energy generation. The results show that an increased use of harvested wood products results in lower climate impacts in all scenarios evaluated, but reductions decrease if the use of low-impact concrete expands more rapidly or under optimistic energy scenarios. Results are highly sensitive to the choice of climate impact metric. The Swedish construction sector can only reach maximum climate change mitigation scenarios if the low-impact building typologies are implemented together and rapidly.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 163.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    The influence of system boundaries and baseline in climate impact assessment of forest products2019Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 160-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article aims to explore how different assumptions about system boundaries and setting of baselines for forest growth affect the outcome of climate impact assessments of forest products using life cycle assessment (LCA), regarding the potential for climate impact mitigation from replacing non-forest benchmarks. This article attempts to explore how several assumptions interact and influence results for different products with different service life lengths. Methods: Four products made from forest biomass were analysed and compared to non-forest benchmarks using dynamic LCA with time horizons between 0 and 300 years. The studied products have different service lives: butanol automotive fuel (0 years), viscose textile fibres (2 years), a cross-laminated timber building structure (50 years) and methanol used to produce short-lived (0 years) and long-lived (20 years) products. Five calculation setups were tested featuring different assumptions about how to account for the carbon uptake during forest growth or regrowth. These assumptions relate to the timing of the uptake (before or after harvest), the spatial system boundaries (national, landscape or single stand) and the land-use baseline (zero baseline or natural regeneration). Results and discussion: The implications of using different assumptions depend on the type of product. The choice of time horizon for dynamic LCA and the timing of forest carbon uptake are important for all products, especially long-lived ones where end-of-life biogenic emissions take place in the relatively distant future. The choice of time horizon is less influential when using landscape- or national-level system boundaries than when using stand-level system boundaries and has greater influence on the results for long-lived products. Short-lived products perform worse than their benchmarks with short time horizons whatever spatial system boundaries are chosen, while long-lived products outperform their benchmarks with all methods tested. The approach and data used to model the forest carbon uptake can significantly influence the outcome of the assessment for all products. Conclusions: The choices of spatial system boundaries, temporal system boundaries and land-use baseline have a large influence on the results, and this influence decreases for longer time horizons. Short-lived products are more sensitive to the choice of time horizon than long-lived products. Recommendations are given for LCA practitioners: to be aware of the influence of method choice when carrying out studies, to use case-specific data (for the forest growth) and to communicate clearly how results can be used.

  • 164.
    Pushp, Mohit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Gall, Dan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Seemann, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jan B C
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Influence of Bed Material, Additives, and Operational Conditions on Alkali Metal and Tar Concentrations in Fluidized Bed Gasification of Biomass2018Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 6797-6806Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification of biomass results in release of tar and alkali metal compounds that constitute a significant challenge to the optimization of the gasification process. Here we describe on-line measurements of alkali, condensable tar, and particle concentrations in product gas from a 2-4 MWth dual fluidized bed gasifier, with the aims to characterize typical concentrations and contribute to the understanding of alkali-tar interactions. The influence of bed material, additives, and operational parameters on the concentrations is investigated. Alkali concentrations are measured with a surface ionization detector, and particle and tar concentrations are determined using aerosol measurement techniques. The gasification of wood chips using quartz or olivine as bed material results in an alkali concentration of 30-250 mg m-3, and the observed alkali levels are consistent with a significant release of the fuel alkali content. Addition of ilmenite to a quartz bed and additions of K2SO4 and K2CO3 to an olivine bed influence both alkali and heavy tar concentrations. The additions result in changes in alkali concentration that relaxes to a new steady state in tens of minutes. The concentration of condensable tar is lower for the olivine bed than for the quartz bed, and tends to decrease when potassium or sulfur is added. The concentration of condensable tar compounds is anticorrelated with the alkali concentration when a quartz bed is used, while no clear trend is observed with an olivine bed. An increase in steam flow rate results in a substantial decrease in heavy tar concentration from a quartz sand bed, while the alkali concentration increases slightly with increasing flow rate. This is in contrast to the alkali concentrations observed when using an activated olivine bed, where concentrations are higher and tend to decrease with increasing steam flow rate. The study confirms that several primary methods are available to optimize the alkali and tar behavior in the gasifier, and suggests that on-line monitoring is needed to systematically change the operational conditions and to study the underlying processes.

  • 165.
    Regmi, P.
    et al.
    Brown and Caldwell, USA.
    Miller, M.
    Brown and Caldwell, USA.
    Jimenez, J.
    Brown and Caldwell, USA.
    Stewart, H.
    Jacobs, USA.
    Johnson, B.
    Jacobs, USA.
    Amerlinck, Y.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Volcke, E. I. P.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Lund University, Sweden.
    García, P. J.
    Atkins, UK.
    Maere, T.
    Université Laval, Canada; Québec Water Research Center, Canada.
    Torfs, E.
    Université Laval, Canada; Québec Water Research Center, Canada.
    Vanrolleghem, P. A.
    Université Laval, Canada; Québec Water Research Center, Canada.
    Miletić, I.
    InCTRL Solutions Inc, Canada.
    Rieger, L.
    InCTRL Solutions Inc, Canada.
    Schraa, O.
    InCTRL Solutions Inc, Canada.
    Samstag, R.
    Bainbridge Island, USA.
    Santoro, D.
    Trojan Technologies, Canada.
    Snowling, S.
    Hydromantis ESS Inc, Canada.
    Takács, I.
    Dynamita, France.
    The future of WRRF modelling - Outlook and challenges2019Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 79, nr 1, s. 3-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The wastewater industry is currently facing dramatic changes, shifting away from energy-intensive wastewater treatment towards low-energy, sustainable technologies capable of achieving energy positive operation and resource recovery. The latter will shift the focus of the wastewater industry to how one could manage and extract resources from the wastewater, as opposed to the conventional paradigm of treatment. Debatable questions arise: Can the more complex models be calibrated, or will additional unknowns be introduced? After almost 30 years using well-known International Water Association (IWA) models, should the community move to other components, processes, or model structures like 'black box' models, computational fluid dynamics techniques, etc.? Can new data sources - e.g. on-line sensor data, chemical and molecular analyses, new analytical techniques, off-gas analysis - keep up with the increasing process complexity? Are different methods for data management, data reconciliation, and fault detection mature enough for coping with such a large amount of information? Are the available calibration techniques able to cope with such complex models? This paper describes the thoughts and opinions collected during the closing session of the 6th IWA/WEF Water Resource Recovery Modelling Seminar 2018. It presents a concerted and collective effort by individuals from many different sectors of the wastewater industry to offer past and present insights, as well as an outlook into the future of wastewater modelling.

  • 166.
    Reinelt, Torsten
    et al.
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Delre, Antonio
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Westerkamp, Tanja
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Liebetrau, Jan
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Scheutz, Charlotte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Comparative use of different emission measurement approaches to determine methane emissions from a biogas plant2017Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 68, s. 173-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable anaerobic biowaste treatment has to mitigate methane emissions from the entire biogas production chain, but the exact quantification of these emissions remains a challenge. This study presents a comparative measurement campaign carried out with on-site and ground-based remote sensing measurement approaches conducted by six measuring teams at a Swedish biowaste treatment plant. The measured emissions showed high variations, amongst others caused by different periods of measurement performance in connection with varying operational states of the plant. The overall methane emissions measured by ground-based remote sensing varied from 5 to 25 kg h−1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6–3.0% of upgraded methane produced), depending on operating conditions and the measurement method applied. Overall methane emissions measured by the on-site measuring approaches varied between 5 and 17 kg h−1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6 and 2.1%) from team to team, depending on the number of measured emission points, operational state during the measurements and the measurement method applied. Taking the operational conditions into account, the deviation between different approaches and teams could be explained, in that the two largest methane-emitting sources, contributing about 90% of the entire site’s emissions, were found to be the open digestate storage tank and a pressure release valve on the compressor station.

  • 167.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Bouffier, C.
    INERIS Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Durgun, Özüm
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Guay, F.
    DBI Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology, Denmark.
    Ioannou, I.
    University College London, UK.
    Mira da Silva, M.
    University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Petersen, L.
    EMSC European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Theocharidou, M.
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Vigh, L. G.
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.
    Infrastructures facing disaster risk: Pilot implementation of a new resilience management framework2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 168.
    Reitsma, Lizette
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Hayley, Ho
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Nyström, Sofie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    Brikhan, Wasim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Schaeffer, Jennie
    Västmanlands läns museum, Sweden.
    Ryöppy, Merja
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Larsen, Henry
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Strøbech, Elena
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Our burden - Carbondioxide theatre for climate action2019Inngår i: NORDES 2019: WHO CARES?, Espoo, Finland, 2019, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 150Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The biggest changes to the planet are made by humankind and action needs to be taken in order to guarantee a sustainable level of emissions for the planet (Rockström et al. 2009). In the project presented in this poster, we engage young citizens (from 15 to 20 years old), in critically reflecting on social norms and practices around climate goals and CO2 emissions, through participatory theatre methods. Only when those involved can get sufficient authority to determine and guide the research and the research agenda, can a project be truly participatory (Winschiers-Theophilus 2009). Participatory theatre offers ways to meet the longing for shared forums by engaging large groups of people in exploring difficult social dilemmas. It can potentially empower the young participants to change their own situations and organisations, as it is “likely to shake things into action or to “unfreeze” blocked situations ” (Shreyögg and Höpfl 2004).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 169.
    Rex, Emma
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ryding, Sven-Olof
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Recommendation and context: the missing links for increased life cycle impact in large industries2020Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 240-251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study takes an open and explorative approach to investigating the impact, or lack of impact, of life cycle information on behaviours throughout large production companies. Based on cases where life cycle information has been provided, this paper analyses how life cycle information has been interpreted and acted upon—not only by the life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioner conducting the study but also by employees outside the environmental departments. Methods: To understand the impact of life cycle information on everyday actions in organisations and how this impact can be enhanced, this study takes a grounded approach to following flows of life cycle information from the environmental department through other departments of an organisation. From the flows of information, the research team selected rich descriptions of empirical data that reflect action and inaction. Using interviews and documents, we collected barriers and enablers for acting on life cycle information. Barriers and enablers were interpreted and clustered into categories and arranged into concepts. Next, we reviewed the empirical data using theories from social psychology. Results and discussion: The results show that it is difficult for life cycle information to result in subsequent action outside of environmental departments. The barriers to this action were partly due to the life cycle information per se such as gaps between what life cycle information is available and what life cycle information is needed. Barriers and enablers were also found in relation to the context in which life cycle information was applied and new behaviours were adopted, including timing and software structures, reward systems, trade-offs, and personal beliefs about the profession. The results suggest a new role of the life cycle proponent that includes providing the right life cycle information and understanding and influencing the expected agents’ situations. Conclusions: Assisted by theories from social psychology, we found that behaviour can be changed if ‘recommendations’ and ‘contexts’ are considered when providing life cycle information. The paper suggests that the impact of life cycle information could increase if normative arguments about environmental visions, strategies, and overarching goals are aligned with enablers that focus on personal goals, such as meeting a deadline, reducing uncertainty, and reaching the threshold for a bonus.

  • 170.
    Rex, Emma
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Ryding, Sven-Olof
    IVL, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Klas
    Akzo Nobel, Sweden.
    Ringström, Emma
    Akzo Nobel, Sweden.
    Landström, Lena
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Andréasson, Jessica
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Widerberg, Anna
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Dahllöf, Lisbeth
    Volvo Group, Sweden.
    Hallén Jorquera, Rebecka
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tailored for decision – Knowing your target group prior to adaptation2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle thinking is but one perspective - if at all considered -, in everyday business decisions throughout the organization; in the selection of suppliers, in the strategy of new product ranges, and, in what information is chosen to be highlighted to the customers. Tradeoffs are constantly made between e.g. environment, quality, price and other company goals. Before any successful adaptation and visualization of life cycle information, it is important for internal life cycle experts to identify and understand how other functions of the company perceive and value life cycle information in their specific working situations.

    To get a better understanding of these internal users of life cycle information, life cycle experts in four multinational companies (Akzo Nobel, Vattenfall, Volvo Cars, Volvo Group) have joined forces with researchers in life cycle management and behavioral science to create a graphical map of how life cycle information is spread and used in different parts of an organization. The aim of the map is to be used as a basis for discussions and recommendations on how to tailor life cycle information in order to support decision making throughout a company.

    The map is constructed by combining a) inventories on how quantitative data seeks its way to internal users through databases, reports and KPIs, with b) qualitative interviews on goal framing and decision weights of e.g. environmental and economic information. As a result, the map illustrates both the “physical” flows of life cycle information and the “cognitive logics” of this information for different users (e.g. how values, attitudes and norms influence the target groups’ likelihood of including life cycle information in their decision processes).

    Based on the map, each company can identify and discuss who the main users of life cycle information are and what premises for life cycle thinking these users have: In what decision making situation is, or can, life cycle information be used? How is the information understood? What other sources of information and rationales for decisions are used in parallel to, or in conflict with, LCA-results?

    Initial analyses on the usefulness of the map point to a better understanding of how life cycle experts can tailor information for decisions in different parts of the company, as well as on its usefulness in illustrating to people outside of the environmental departments the widespread use of life cycle information that already exist in the company. The latter is not least important for creating an understanding in how the organization respond to ongoing external pressure to focus more on a life cycle approach, e.g. new requirements in ISO 14001, new EU Directives on public procurement and current EU work to establish a common LCA methodology.   

  • 171.
    Rex, Emma
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Rosander, Erica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Veide, Andras
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ulmanen, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden2017Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 125, s. 86-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The option of producing the chemical succinic acid from bio-based resources is well in line with current political and industrial ambitions for a bio-based economy. A little explored but intriguing biomass feedstock opportunity is food waste. Mixed food waste is especially appealing as it represents less resource competition than more homogenous food waste fractions. The feasibility of producing succinic acid from mixed food waste depends on both technical and societal system structures. Therefore, to assess the production prospect, it is important to investigate all relevant system components. This study explores from such multiple perspectives the feasibility of chemical production as a viable added pathway for mixed food waste, using microbial production of succinic acid from municipal solid waste in Sweden as an example. The perspectives explored are: 1) feedstock feasibility, 2) societal drivers and barriers for technology progress, and 3) resource availability. Findings show that even though, from a technical feasibility and resource availability perspective, production seems possible, it lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for development in Sweden. Findings also show that a holistic and interdisciplinary systems perspective contributes valuable insight when assessing prospects for bio-based chemicals.

  • 172.
    Rex, Emma
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Rosander, Erica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Veide, Andreas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ulmanen, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The option of producing the chemical succinic acid from bio-based resources is well in line with current political and industrial ambitions for a bio-based economy. A little explored but intriguing biomass feedstock opportunity is food waste. Mixed food waste is especially appealing as it represents less resource competition than more homogenous food waste fractions. The feasibility of producing succinic acid from mixed food waste depends on both technical and societal system structures. Therefore, to assess the production prospect, it is important to investigate all relevant system components. This study explores from such multiple perspectives the feasibility of chemical production as a viable added pathway for mixed food waste, using microbial production of succinic acid from municipal solid waste in Sweden as an example. The perspectives explored are: 1) feedstock feasibility, 2) societal drivers and barriers for technology progress, and 3) resource availability. Findings show that even though, from a technical feasibility and resource availability perspective, production seems possible, it lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for development in Sweden. Findings also show that a holistic and interdisciplinary systems perspective contributes valuable insight when assessing prospects for bio-based chemicals. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden
  • 173.
    Röyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Life Cycle Assessment of BioZEment – concrete production based on bacteria2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The project BioZEment (University of Oslo 2014) was carried out 2014-2017, with the aim of developing a concrete product that complies with today’s standards of strength and durability, but without using the calcination process. Instead of thermally decomposing the limestone to make reactive lime, the project strived towards finding a low-temperature method for partial dissolution and re-precipitation of the mineral surfaces to make the limestone particles bind to each other, and thereby creating an alternative to conventional concrete with significantly lower climate impact. Modern biotechnology was applied to find microorganisms that could perform the dissolution and precipitation in a controlled manner. The project also included detailed studies of how cementation takes place on the micro- and nano-scale, in combination with microbiology and biotechnology.

    In order to ensure that the project was striving toward a product that truly could be seen as a sustainable alternative to today’s concrete, both the method life cycle assessment (LCA) and studies of ethical, legal and societal aspects of the process were applied. This report presents the results of the LCA.

    The LCA was carried out by SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden. The project was led by the University of Oslo. Other project partners, all based in Norway, were the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), the research institute SINTEF, the consultancy company Dr. tech. Olav Olsen, and the research institute SIFO.

    Results indicate that the BioZEment has the potential to reduce climate impact considerably, in a range of 70-85%. For other environmental impact categories (ozone depletion potential, eutrophication potential, and land use, and for the higher acidification estimate), the BioZEment has a higher environmental impact than conventional concrete. The impact levels are, however, not severe. Nevertheless, ammonia emissions (causing eutrophication and acidification) should be monitored. In the further development of the BioZEment, specific attention should be paid to:

    • Reducing water consumption

    • Establishing systems for waste water treatment

    • Minimizing urea demand

    • Minimizing ammonia emissions and/or capture ammonia emissions

     

    Key words: life cycle assessment, concrete, cement, bacteria, climate

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 174.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    The importance of including service life in the climate impact comparison of bioplastics and fossil-based plastics2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioplastics are gaining attention as a means of reducing fossil resource dependence. Most bioplastics differ from fossil-based plastics in molecular structure, and therefore in terms of properties and durability. Still, the life cycle environmental performance of bioplastics has attracted limited attention in research. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the importance of applying a life cycle perspective and identify key considerations in the environmental evaluation of bioplastics and bioplastic products under development.

    The climate impact of the life cycle of an engine component storage box currently made of the fossil-based plastic acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is compared to a hypothetical case study, based on laboratory observations, of the same box produced from a blend of polycarbonate and the bioplastic polylactic acid (PC/PLA) and a box made of biopolyamide (PA1010). The comparison is conducted with a cradle-to-grave attributional life cycle assessment. The functional unit of the study is five years of service life, which reflects the required function of the storage box.

    Whereas the climate impact of the production of the different plastic materials differ only slightly, the PC/PLA engine component storage box was found to have a significantly higher climate impact that the ABS and PA1010 boxes when the whole life cycle is taken into account. The dominant contributor to climate impact is premature material deterioration due to humidity and heat during service life, which prevents the product from fulfilling the required function. Two other influential aspects are the possibility of material reuse and the share of fossil or biogenic carbon in the product. Production of plastic materials and boxes, and transport distances, are of less importance.

    Results demonstrate the high significance of including service life and potential material deterioration when bioplastics and fossil-based plastics are compared. Our findings underline the importance of applying a life cycle perspective and taking into account the intended application and function of bioplastics as part of their development and environmental assessment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 175.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Cintas, Olivia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Assessment Roadmapfor Emerging Bio-based Technologies: Identifying Sustainability Prospects with Multiple Perspectives2019Inngår i: Life cycle Management Conference 2019: Life cycle Management Conference 2019, Poznan, Polen, 2019, Vol. 9Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many bio-based technologies are emerging technologies, with the characteristics of being radical and fast growing. The 2018 Nobel prize in chemistry is based on enzymatic bio-based conversion as a green alterative for several conventional technologies. Overall, the transition to a bio-based economy is seen as a mean to reach sustainability, energy independence and economic growth. Bioeconomy strategies have however also been criticized for focusing too much on economic growth and too little on sustainability. Assessing potential life cycle sustainability risks and benefits early in the development of technologies – when still at lab or pilot scale – provides valuable insights about how to prioritize research activities and to potentially avert unintended consequences. The lack of knowledge and high uncertainty in early development however also makes such assessments challenging. On the social sustainability side, bio-based technologies create new jobs, while the social acceptance can hinder the market growth even in an innovation country like Sweden. Emerging technologies like for example artificial intelligence might reduce jobs and gene therapy in medicine might bear risk for coming future generation. The questions and risks are manifold. Therefore, it is essential to have a roadmap for guidance that takes a holistic approach to sustainability with a life cycle perspective. To add to the complexity, the possibilities for assessment approaches are extensive. Different perspectives can be assessed in numerous ways and with many different methods. The goal of this study is to contribute to a sustainable transition to the bioeconomy, by serving as a roadmap for research and innovation (R&I) on emerging bio-based technologies.

    To suggest a general roadmap for holistic and interdisciplinary assessments, this study identifies, and describes the use of multiple perspective assessments in selected R&I projects on emerging bio-based technologies. The projects include virgin and waste raw materials, biotechnology conversion processes and products such as bio-based chemicals, building materials, soil amendment, and pellets for heat. The findings are, in combination with existing frameworks on biomass- and bio-product prospect models, used to suggest an assessment roadmap for identifying sustainability prospects of emerging bio-based technologies.

    The result consists of an “assessment roadmap” including the perspectives resource-, economic-, environmental-, social- and market potential. Each perspective is accompanied by questions targeted to identify benefits and risks, such as “What valorization routes currently exists, and are under research, for the feedstock?”; “Is the feedstock available, also in the future?”; “Is the production technology socially accepted?”. The roadmap for bio -based emerging technologies also provides advice on the procedure for sustainability assessments, such as organizing an initial workshop with expert knowledge and highlight the importance of scanning before allocating resources for in depth analyses.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 176.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Ringström, Emma
    AkzoNobel Sustainability, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Environmental Evaluation of Industry Cluster Strategies with a Life Cycle Perspective: Replacing Fossil Feedstock with Forest-Based Feedstock and Increasing Thermal Energy Integration2018Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 694-705Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Symbiotic linkages in industry clusters in the form of interconnected materials, energy and information flows, and close proximity provide unique opportunities to develop efficient environmental strategies. The purpose of our study is to examine the practical potential of applying a life cycle approach in strategy evaluations, as the environmental impact caused by industrial symbiosis systems outside the company gates has been scarcely addressed. This is done by evaluating two strategies for an industry cluster in Sweden: (1) to replace a share of the fossil feedstock used in the industry cluster with forest-based feedstock and (2) to improve energy efficiency through thermal energy integration. The environmental impact reduction potential of the strategies is evaluated using life cycle assessment. The ratio between investment cost and reduced global warming potential is used as an indicator to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the strategies. Results demonstrate the importance of applying a life cycle perspective as the assessment outcome depends heavily on whether only on-site consequences are assessed or if upstream and downstream processes are also included. 20% of the greenhouse gas emission reduction of the energy integration strategy occurs off-site, whereas the forest strategy has the largest reduction potential off-site, >80%.

  • 177.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Quistgaard, Louise
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Improved Communication of Environmental Impacts – The Case of LCA Results2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely used environmental assessment tool. However, only a small share of efforts have been made to extend communication. Researchers, practitioners, and their targeted audiences have divergent needs and knowledge for using and communicating the information provided from LCAs. As such, communication efforts are needed to transparently and coherently identify how LCA can be used and how to interpret the results.

    The goal of the study is to provide insight and guidance on improved communication of LCA results. The goal is approached, on the one hand, by exploring how LCA results presently are communicated, and on the other, by exploring preferences on communication among different stakeholder groups.

    The study employs a mix of methods; interviews, a literature review and a final online survey. Results from these methods are later analyzed and triangulated to provide further understanding of improving LCA communication; based on feedback, needs and knowledge from all stakeholders involved in the study and scientific knowledge.

    The interviews resulted in a review of divergent needs, knowledge and opinions from different societal actors on communicating life cycle-based knowledge. The interviewees highlighted the importance of communication of intent and conclusions. This was however not reflected by the current practice identified in the literature reviews. The survey respondents emphasized the importance of tailoring communication to media and audience, and a need for a certain LCA knowledge when communicating LCA results. Perceptions towards result presentation in figures and tables were mapped. Of suggested actions for improving communication, education and courses received the most recognition.

    In conclusion, the study identified a need for focus on LCA communication, both when it comes to the identification and evaluation of current practice and providing support for those communicating and receiving LCA results.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 178.
    Saagi, Ramesh
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Lund University, Sweden.
    Reyes, Diego
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sehlén, Robert
    Tekniska Verken i Linköping, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modelling heat transfer in sewer systems - towards a city-wide model for heat recovery from wastewater2019Inngår i: Proceedings of 10th IWA Symposium on Modelling and Integrated Assessment, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Majority of the energy consumed for urban water services is used to heat tap water. In order to allow for a system-wide evaluation of heat recovery possibilities from wastewater, this paper presents a one-dimensional model that can describe temperature and flow rate variations in a sewer pipe. The model is applied to successfully predict downstream wastewater temperature for sewer stretches in two Swedish cities (Linköping, Malmö). The model can be used to study various heat recovery possibilities from wastewater. It can be easily integrated with models developed to generate flow rate and temperature profiles from households as well as standard activated sludge models for modelling wastewater treatment plants so that a system-wide heat recovery study can be made possible.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 179.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    et al.
    Profu, Sweden.
    Solis, Martyna
    Profu, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu, Sweden.
    Edo Giménez, Mar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Bränslekvalitet – Nuläge och scenarier för sammansättningen av restavfall till år 20252019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Restavfall till energiåtervinning påverkas av konjunkturoch våra konsumtionsmönster liksom avstyrmedel, normer och insatser för materialåtervinningoch avfallsbehandling, en cirkulär omställningoch resurshushållning.Syftet med projektet Bränslekvalitet är att ökakunskap om både dagens befintliga och framtidafraktioner avfallsbränsle samt asksammansättningenefter energiutvinning. Avfallsbränslen somundersöks är brännbart avfall från hushåll, byggnation,rivning och andra verksamheter samt utsorteratimporterat avfallsbränsle. I projektet undersöksockså askor från avfallsförbränning.

    Projektet är en uppföljning av det tidigare ”Bränslekvalitet- sammansättning och egenskaper föravfall till energiutvinning” som finansierades avAvfall Sverige (2014:E01) och Waste Refinery, samtav deltagande företag.

    Baserat på erhållna resultat kan följande slutsatserfrån projektet dras:Slutsatser om dagens situation:Hushållsavfall

    • Det finns en mycket stor potential till en förbättradutsortering av hushållens restavfall,omkring 80 procent av restavfallsmängdernaskulle kunna sorteras till annan behandling.

    • Av mängden restavfall är det omkring 27procent som utgörs av matavfall som bordesorterats ut till biologisk behandling. Av dessamängder var det knappt 33 procent som utgjordesav onödigt matavfall det vill säga matavfallhade kunnat konsumerats om det hanteratsannorlunda.

    • Det finns en potential att förbättra återvinningsbarhetenför den plast som hushållenkonsumerar. För hårdplastförpackningar somstår för 32 procent av plasten i restavfallet uppskattadesatt 25–33 procent inte är anpassadeför att underlätta återvinningen.

    • Inga anmärkningsvärda halter av studerade kemiskaämnen för vare sig mjukplastförpackningar,hårdplastförpackningar eller övrigt brännbarti hushållens restavfall kunde påträffas.Bygg- och rivningsavfall

    • Det finns en stor potential att öka återvinningenav plast i brännbart byggavfallet däromkring 50 procent av plasten utgörs av plastförpackningar.

    • Dela upp åtgärder för att påverka avfall i byggrespektiverivningsavfall, eftersom de har olikaförutsättningar och utmaningar, och det krävsolika strategier för att hantera dem.

    • Det brännbara rivningsavfallet innehåller enbetydande mängd icke brännbart avfall somdomineras av gips.

    • Inga anmärkningsvärda halter av studeradekemiska ämnen för vare sig blandat, brännbartbyggavfall eller blandat, brännbart rivningsavfallpåträffades utan halterna låg i samma storleksordningsom för övriga bränslefraktioner.Askor från avfallsförbränning

    • Det är stora skillnader i hur askan följs uppvilket försvårar att koppla askkvaliteten tillbränslefaktorer.Verksamhetavfall

    • Kunskapen om sammansättningen i det brännbartavfallet från verksamheter är fortsatt lågpå grund av avsaknad av dataunderlag kringavfallets sammansättning.Framtidens avfall

    • Trots stora förändringar i avfallssystemetsåsom ökad mängd restavfall till energiåtervinning,ökad utsortering och ökad andel import,så väntas en liten förändring på restavfalletsegenskaper på kort sikt. På längre sikt kan detkomma förändringar av både ändrade styrmedelkonsumtionsmönster produktionsmetoderoch produkter.

    • Det är en stor mängd faktorer i samhälletoch våra konsumtionsmönster som påverkarrestavfallets mängd och sammansättning texbefolkningsutveckling, ekonomisk utveckling,företagsetableringar, normer och konsumtionsmönster.Förändringarna kan bli större pålängre sikt, när effekter av tex förebyggande,utsorterad andel och användandet av bioplast isamhället får genomslag.

    • Kapaciteten för energiåtervinning ökar, liksomandelen import vilket påverkar restavfalletssammansättning

    • Vid en mycket omfattande insats för att minskade fossila CO2-utsläppen på svensk energiåtervinning,sjunker det fossila kolinnehållet år2025 från cirka 12 till 4 % av vikten.

    Projektet ger följande rekommendationer tillenergiåtervinningsbranschen:

    • Tag initiativ och arbeta efter strategier somstödjer en utsortering av återvinningsbara avfallsfraktioner,snarare än att sortera fram dettekniskt bästa bränslet från blandat avfall.

    • Förtydliga omfattning av och kvalitetsaspekterpå rejektflöden, det vill säga att en viss del avavfall, som är insamlat till materialåtervinning,kasseras och döms ut av olika orsaker.

    • Utöka mätning, kvalitetskontroll, uppföljningför en ökad kunskap om sammansättning påavfallsbränsle.

    Projektet ger följande rekommendationer tillbyggbranschen:

    • Skapa en strategi och samarbete för normförändringi hela kedjan från tillverkare, byggherreoch byggentreprenör som alla måsteprioritera arbetet med att minimera och sorteraavfall, för att nå en förändring. En väg kan varaatt öka utbildning om resurshushållning somockså prioriteras högt vid projektering, planeringoch implementering av byggprojekt.

    • Förtydliga och utöka samarbete mellan olikaaffärsenheter såsom ledning, hållbarhet,teknik, särskilt i stora organisationer. Hållbarhetsavdelningenär vanligen väl insatt i frågornaom avfallsförebyggande och hanteringen,men kan ha svårt att nå ut och nå förändring ipraktiken

    • Öka kunskap om sammansättningen på avfallsströmmargenom systematiska plockanalyseroch hantera avfallsströmmar från byggnationrespektive rivning olika, med skilda behov avåtgärder för förbättring.

    • Sätt branschgemensamma mål och identifieravägar för uppföljning för ökad resurshushållningoch att nå bättre avfallsbehandling. Menett gemensamt mål kan företag sporra varandraatt prestanda mot samma mål.

    • Gör medvetna resursstyrda inköp

    • Skapa ett forum för samverkan mellan aktörernai värdekedjan från ägare av byggnader/infrastruktur hela vägen uppströms till producenternaav materialen/produkterna somanvänds och nedströms till avfallsmottagarna

    • Avsätt utrymme för sortering och förbättraplaneringen såväl som utformningen av insamlingssystemenpå byggplatserna och logistikfrån platserna till avfallshanteringsanläggningarna.

    • Bidra till bättre tillsyn vid rivning, om tillsynsinstansenhar enhetliga krav, så underlättasoch förbättras arbetet. Prioritera också tid ochutrymme för att utveckla selektiv rivning.

    • Avsätt utrymme för sortering och förbättraplaneringen såväl som utformningen av insamlingssystemenpå byggplatserna och logistikfrån platserna till avfallshanteringsanläggningarna.

    • Hantera avfall från byggnation respektive frånrivning som två separata avfallsströmmar.

    • Följ upp sortering vid byggnation för att följaförbättringar.Projektet ger följande rekommendationer tillavfallsbolag (större avfallsanläggningar och ÅVC):

    • Ge stöd till avfallsleverantörer: utbilda och visamöjligheter till sortering samt rekommendationertill ökad sortering för bättre avsättning.

    • Förtydliga omfattning av och kvalitetsaspekterpå rejektflöden, det vill säga att en viss del avavfall, som är insamlat till materialåtervinning,kasseras och döms ut av olika orsaker.

    • Återkoppla till tillverkare av produkter, tillexempel vilka förpackningar som är överrepresenteradei rejekt efter sortering.

    Projektet ger följande rekommendationer tillkommuner:

    • Ställ krav vid offentliga upphandlingar på attinköpta produkter skall innehålla återvunnetmaterial. Det kan vara ett viktigt bidrag för attstimulera efterfrågan, gärna med progressivtökande andelar. Kommuner och övrig offentligsektor är stora arbetsgivare med bland annatstor plastanvändning, och har potential förnormpåverkan och bidra till ökad kunskap.

    • Fortsätt arbetet med utbildning, kommunikation,test, utveckling för förbättrad sorteringhos kommuninvånare. Samarbeta med fastighetsägaresom ofta kontrollerar avfallshanteringsom en av kategorierna i nöjd-kund-index.

    • Fortsätt arbetet med skarpa kommunala avfallsplanerinklusive avfallsförebyggande arbeteoch påverkan på verksamheter.

    Projektet ger följande rekommendationer till regeringen

    • Regeringen bör fokusera på insatser i tidigaskeden, insatser som är riktade mot resurshushållningi produktion, konsumtion och insamling.Några idéer som lyfts:

    • Ställ krav på att tillverkare ska återvinnasitt eget restmaterial in i nya produkter

    • Inför krav på att tillverkade produkter skaha ett innehåll och utformning som gördem möjliga att återvinna och innehålla enviss andel återvunnet material

    • Ställ krav på utökat ansvar på producenternaför insamling av avfall, så att invånareenkelt kan sortera mer än tidningar ochförpackningar.

    • Pantsystem rekommenderas i större omfattningför produkter.

    • Stötta initiativ för samverkan i aktörskedjor:producenter, kommuner, staten och andraberöra aktörer samarbetar för att insamlingenav plast och annat miljöskadligt material skafungera bättre.

    • Stötta samarbeten för att minska mängdenplast i samhället

  • 180.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Johansson, Malin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Environmental impact of textile fibers – what we know and what we don't know: Fiber Bible part 22019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of cotton and synthetic fibres are known to cause negative environmental effects. For cotton, pesticide use and irrigation during cultivation contributes to emissions of toxic substances that cause damage to both human health and the ecosystem. Irrigation of cotton fields cause water stress due to large water needs. Synthetic fibres are questionable due to their (mostly) fossil resource origin and the release of microplastics. To mitigate the environmental effects of fibre production, there is an urgent need to improve the production of many of the established fibres and to find new, better fibre alternatives.

    For the first time ever, this reports compiles all currently publicly available data on the environmental impact of fibre production. By doing this, the report illuminates two things:

    • There is a glaring lack of data on the environmental impact of fibres – for several fibres just a few studies were found, and often only one or a few environmental impacts are covered. For new fibres associated with sustainability claims there is often no data available to support such claims.
    • There are no ”sustainable” or ”unsustainable” fibre types, it is the suppliers that differ. The span within each fibre type (different suppliers) is often too large, in relation to differences between fibre types, to draw strong conclusions about differences between fibre types.

    Further, it is essential to use the life cycle perspective when comparing, promoting or selecting (e.g. by designers or buyers) fibres. To achieve best environmental practice, apart from considering the impact of fibre production, one must consider the functional properties of a fibre and how it fits into an environmentally appropriate product life cycle, including the entire production chain, the use phase and the end-of-life management. Selecting the right fibre for the right application is key for optimising the environmental performance of the product life cycle.

    The report is intended to be useful for several purposes:

    • as input to broader studies including later life cycle stages of textile products,
    • as a map over data gaps in relation to supporting claims on the environmental preferability of certain fibres over others, and
    • as a basis for screening fibre alternatives, for example by designers and buyers (e.g. in public procurement).

    For the third use it is important to acknowledge that for a full understanding of the environmental consequences of the choice of fibre, a full cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is recommended.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 181.
    Sehati, Parisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Malmros, Ingemar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Aesthetically pleasing PV modules for the Built Environment2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development of the built environment is in the vicinity with circular economy, green building technology and the integration of renewable energy harvesting devices. Solar energy is an enormous resource, in 90 minutes the sun irradiates energy in an amount that is equal to our entire planet’s annual energy need. PV modules is an increasing alternative to generate electricity which has reached grid parity with fossil energy in larger installations. However, fields of PV modules require space and in the built environment the space is scarce, therefore, building applied and building integrated PV has become increasingly interesting. As PV becomes an integrated part in the built environment the aesthetics becomes important, also for it to become accepted among architects. Today, there are many alternatives to make PV modules aesthetically pleasing and many companies develop this further in collaboration with building contractors and architects. In the current report we introduce color, light and PV modules and present a survey of how to make PV modules aesthetically pleasing with a special focus on modification of its color. We present some examples of aesthetically pleasing PV modules and Nordic companies that have been working with developing this. We also list companies that supply roof- as well as façade systems. Finally, we discuss the challenges and the cost implications for aesthetically pleasing PV modules in the built environment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 182.
    Sjöstrand, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Lindhe, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Anthesis Enveco AB, Sweden.
    Dahlqvist, Peter
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, Sweden.
    Rosen, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    När vattentillgången brister2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to good quality water in sufficient quantity is essential for people’s everyday life and for most businesses and economic sectors. However, water scarcity and drought are emerging as some of the most important global risks to society with both short-term and long-term effects on people, ecosystem services, biodiversity and the economic activities that depend on a reliable water supply. This is a global problem, and Sweden is not spared. The low precipitation and high summer temperatures that hit Sweden for three consecutive years between 2016 and 2018, caused a vastly reduced access to water and led to major consequences for the Swedish society.In most Swedish regions, however, there is usually more than enough water to meet the growing needs of society and at the same time maintain a good environmental status even during drought. But to ensure a long-term sustainable water supply, all parties, i.e. households, water-dependent businesses and authorities, need to take measures. Drought and water scarcity are challenges that do not only affect, or can be solved by, the municipal drinking water supply. Each and everyone who uses and is dependent on water, regardless of whether the water is supplied through public or private systems, is part of the problem and should therefore also be part of the solutions.This report provides information and material to help companies contribute to a better water situation in areas with low water availability. The report describes the water usage and water availability in Sweden today and how they are expected to change in the future. Incentives and driving forces for water savings are described as well as methods for identifying inefficient water usage and improvement measures. A review of studies from various countries provides information on challenges as well as good examples of water scarcity mitigation measures in various economic sectors. Examples of decision support methods that can be used to evaluate and prioritize between alternative measures are also described. Finally, potential implementation barriers are discussed and examples of policy instruments which can facilitate implementation of beneficial measures are given.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 183.
    Sjöstrand, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindhe, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Anthesis Enveco, Sweden.
    Dahlqvist, Peter
    Geological Survey of Sweden, Sweden.
    Rosén, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for Water Scarcity Mitigation under Uncertainty2019Inngår i: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650, Vol. 33, nr 12, s. 4335-4349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As water scarcity and drought become more common, planning to avoid their consequences becomes crucial. Measures to prevent the impact of new climate conditions are expected to be extensive, costly and associated with major uncertainties. It is therefore necessary that policymakers and practitioners in both the public and private sector can compare possible mitigation measures in order to make economically rational investment decisions. For this to be successful, decision-makers need relevant decision support. This paper presents a novel approach of constructing marginal abatement cost curves for comparing water scarcity mitigation measures while taking the underlying uncertainties into account. Uncertainties in input variables are represented by probability distributions and calculations are performed using Monte Carlo simulations. This approach is applied on the island of Gotland, one of the most water-stressed parts of Sweden, to provide the first marginal abatement cost curve in Europe for water scarcity mitigation in which municipal, agricultural, industrial and household measures are compared. The results show that the agricultural measure of on-farm storage has the greatest potential to increase water availability on the island. Among municipal measures, increased groundwater extraction and desalination offer the greatest potential, although desalination is almost 25 times more costly per cubic meter. The most cost-effective measure is linked to hot water savings in the hotel industry. The approach presented provides a quantitative visualization of the financial trade-offs and uncertainties implied by different mitigation measures. It provides critical economic insights for all parties concerned and is thus an important basis for decision-making.

  • 184.
    Sjöstrand, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Chalmers Univinersity of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindhe, Andreas
    Chalmers Univinersity of Technology, Sweden.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Anthesis Enveco, Sweden.
    Rosen, Lars
    Chalmers Univinersity of Technology, Sweden.
    Cost-Benefit Analysis for Supporting Intermunicipal Decisions on Drinking Water Supply2019Inngår i: Journal of water resources planning and management, ISSN 0733-9496, E-ISSN 1943-5452, Vol. 145, nr 12, artikkel-id 04019060Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several countries promote a regionalization of the drinking water sector; however, few decision support tools are adapted to the intermunicipal level to aid in regional decisions. The aim of this paper is to describe and demonstrate a probabilistic cost-benefit analysis approach to assess the societal effects of regional water supply interventions to constitute support for decision makers. A special focus is given to the quantification of effects on consumers’ health, water supply reliability, and operation and maintenance costs. The uncertainties of the quantified values are represented by probability distribution functions and analyzed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed approach was demonstrated in the Göteborg region in Sweden, for which five alternative interventions were evaluated. In conclusion, the proposed approach facilitates the identification and prioritization of societal effects so that costs and benefits normally overlooked in evaluation processes can be explicitly considered and addressed. The paper provides a transparent handling of uncertainties and enables   a structured approach to improve decision makers’ ability in making informed choices on regional water supply alternatives.

     

  • 185.
    Sjöstrand, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindhe, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Anthesis Enveco, Sweden.
    Rosén, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sustainability assessments of regional water supply interventions – Combining cost-benefit and multi-criteria decision analyses2018Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 225, s. 313-324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To cope with present and future challenges, a growing number of water utilities in Sweden, Europe and elsewhere initiate various forms of inter-municipal cooperations creating a new regional level of drinking water governance. In order to reach viable decisions of alternative ways forward, there is an international consensus that sustainability needs to be addressed in water supply planning, design and decision-making. There are, however, few decision aids focusing on assessing the sustainability of inter-municipal cooperations and the inter-municipal policies and interventions that regional decision-makers are faced with. This paper presents a decision support model based on a combination of cost-benefit analysis and multi-criteria decision analysis for assessing the sustainability of regional water supply interventions, including formations of inter-municipal cooperations. The proposed decision support model integrates quantitative and semi-quantitative information on sustainability criteria. It provides a novel way of presenting monetized benefits and costs, capturing utilitarian aspects of alternative interventions, with non-monetized social and environmental effects, capturing aspects based in the deontological theories of moral ethics. The model is based on a probabilistic approach where uncertainties are defined by statistical probability distributions. A case study is used to exemplify and evaluate model application in decision situations regarding regionalization, (de)centralization, source water quality and redundancy. All evaluated alternatives were expected to contribute to a slightly improved social sustainability, whereas the results were more varying in the economic and environmental domains. A structured and transparent treatment of uncertainties facilitates a better understanding of the results as well as communication between decision-makers, stakeholders and the community.

  • 186.
    Stensson, Sofia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Piette, Mary Ann
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Comparing energy systems in California and Sweden: A pilot-study to further develop amethodology for prediction of overall demandresponse potential in Northern Europe2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The share of electricity generation from renewable resources (e.g. wind and solar) is increasing, as a consequence of environmental targets, to avoid the imminent risks of climate change. Renewable generation is less predictable and controllable than conventional generation, which introduces new challenges for the energy system as a whole. Consequently, demand side management is gaining increased attention for its conceivable potential of providing

    needed operational flexibility to the energy system. However, little is still known about the size, accessibility and cost of

    using demand side flexibility on a broader scale. To attain better knowledge, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for how a forecasting tool, previously developed for California, could be adapted in a Swedish demand response potential study. This tool would enable prediction of the demand response potential on a system wide scale. The tool can then be used by researchers and policy makers in order to understand the size of the resource, prioritize research needs and to support policymaking.

  • 187.
    Stoltz Ehn, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Lööf, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Quistgaard, Louise
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Leda och organisera innovation för hållbara städer och samhällen: Erfarenheter från Innovationsplattformarna i Borås, Göteborg Kiruna, Lund, Malmö och Stockholm2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 188.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Södra Skogsägarna Ekonomisk Förening, Sweden.
    Tullin, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Traceability of bulk biomass: Application of radio frequency identification technology on a bulk pellet flow2018Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 118, s. 149-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been used since the 1950s in a wide range of applications. In the energy sector, there is a potential to use the technology to follow biomass fuels throughout a supply chain. In addition to logistic information, the RFID tags can be used to convey vital information of the fuel properties directly to the energy plant to be used at the moment of combustion. A detailed knowledge of the fuel composition at the moment it reaches the furnace can be used to improve energy efficiency, reduce emissions and limit problems with fouling and slagging. In this work, RFID technology was used in three separate trials to trace wood pellets, from the production site to the furnace. In the trials, RFID tags were added to batches of pellets containing 5% or 100% peat. In this way it was possible to follow the shift in pellet quality from standard pellets (100% wood) to the pellets containing the RFID tags by monitoring the change in flue gas composition. From the results it can be concluded that RFID tags indeed can be used to convey logistic information and thus information of fuel quality parameters throughout a supply chain for wood pellets. However, work on optimization is needed to design the RFID carrier properly to mix well with the pellets as illustrated in a separate trial. Finally, an economic estimate indicates that the marginal cost to implement a RFID system would be less than 1% of the total production cost of wood pellets.

  • 189.
    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle
    et al.
    National Food Agency, Sweden ; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bylund, John
    National Food Agency, Sweden.
    Malm, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Magnus
    National Food Agency, Sweden.
    Toljander, Johan
    National Food Agency, Sweden.
    Gastrointestinal illness linked to incidents in drinking water distribution networks in Sweden2017Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 122, s. 503-511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, knowledge gaps on drinking water-related gastrointestinal illness have been identified, especially for non-epidemic cases. Pathogen contamination of drinking water during distribution has been suggested to contribute to these cases, but the risk factors are not yet fully understood. During 2014–2015, we conducted an epidemiological study in five municipalities in Sweden, to assess whether incidents in the drinking water distribution system influence the risk of gastrointestinal illness. Telephone interviews were conducted in the affected areas and in reference areas 7–14 days after a reported incident. Symptoms of gastrointestinal illness occurring during the period were documented for each household member. The results showed a significantly elevated risk of vomiting and acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in the affected areas, compared to the reference areas (ORvom. = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2–3.3; ORAGI = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–3.0). Certain conditions, or risk factors, during the incidents, such as sewage and drinking water pipelines at the same level in the trench, were associated with an elevated risk of AGI and vomiting. Safety measures taken during repair work, like flushing, were also associated with an elevated risk of AGI and vomiting. These results show that incidents in the drinking water distribution network contribute to endemic gastrointestinal illness, especially AGI and vomiting, and that external pathogen contamination of the drinking water is a likely cause of these cases of gastrointestinal illness. The results also indicate that safety measures used today may not be sufficient for eliminating the risk of gastrointestinal illness.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 190.
    Talus, Annika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Wickström, Leyla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Hjörnhede, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Effect of Lead Content in Used Wood Fuel on Furnace Wall Corrosion of 16Mo3, 304L and Alloy 6252017Inngår i: Oxidation of Metals, ISSN 0030-770X, E-ISSN 1573-4889, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of furnace wall tubes is a problem often caused by the use of corrosive fuels. The relatively high contents of lead, zinc, alkali metals and chlorides in these fuels are believed to contribute to the corrosion. Initial corrosion as a function of lead content in a wood-based fuel was studied for three materials: 16Mo3, 304L and Alloy 625. The materials were exposed for 8 h in a laboratory combustion test rig at a position resembling furnace wall conditions. The metal temperatures investigated were 350 and 400 °C. Increasing the lead content in the fuel or the temperature accelerated the corrosion rate of 16Mo3. It is proposed that lead and lead oxides in deposits react with iron chloride to form lead chloride, which when combined with alkali chlorides results in a very corrosive deposit containing low melting salt mixtures. Negligible corrosion was observed for 304L and Alloy 625.

  • 191.
    Torén, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Cintas, Oliva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Food waste as a resource for bio-based chemicals and materials in Sweden2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste, also food waste, abound. From an environmental point of view food waste should first and foremost be avoided. However, the waste that inevitably is produced along the food production chain should be utilized to the best of our ability. One option is to produce biobased chemicals and materials from the waste through biological processes. This study looks into what food waste resources are available for such production, industrial fermentation, in Sweden, from waste emanating in primary production all the way through to final consumption. In addition, drivers for waste generation, influencing institution and waste market characteristics are assessed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 192.
    Vega, Alberto
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Optimal conditions for accelerated thermal ageing of district heating pipes2018Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 149, s. 79-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical lifetime prediction of polymeric materials is often based on accelerated ageing tests at elevated temperatures. Samples are exposed to relatively high temperatures to accelerate the natural degradation processes. For district heating pipes, accelerated thermal ageing is the ordinary method used to determine the lifetime of pipes. According to the Standard EN 253:2009 + A1:2013, the district heating pipes shall be subjected to an accelerated thermal ageing for a long period of time at 160 °C or 170 °C. The lifetime is determined by extrapolation using the Arrhenius relationship. However, papers published recently have questioned this method, especially the high temperatures used for ageing of the pipes and the use of Arrhenius equation to describe the complicated degradation mechanisms, which can result in the erroneous estimation of the technical lifetime. Our investigation has shown the complexity of the pipe's degradation mechanisms. The behaviour of mechanical shear strength at elevated temperatures (T > 130 °C), suggests an alteration rather than an acceleration of the degradation mechanisms. Accelerated ageing tests should reproduce the proper natural ageing mechanisms. The analyses of PUR's thermal conductivity and its chemical structure by FTIR confirmed the degradation patterns

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  • 193.
    Vega, Alberto
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jakubowicz, Ignazy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Determination of the long-term performance of district heating pipes through accelerated ageing2018Inngår i: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 153, s. 15-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The lifetime of pre-insulated district heating pipes (DHPs) is commonly evaluated using the method described in the normative European Standard EN 253. This lifetime is normally calculated using an Arrhenius equation, which makes use of test results from accelerated ageing tests at elevated temperatures. In this investigation, long-term accelerated ageing tests of DHPs at elevated temperatures were carried out. The ageing behaviour, especially at the interface between steel pipe and polyurethane (PUR) foam, showed several routes of degradation. It is clearly demonstrated using measurements of shear strength, thermal conductivity and alterations of chemical structure by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy that the results of accelerated ageing at 170 and 150 °C significantly diverge from those obtained from the ageing test at 130 °C. It is therefore concluded that accelerated ageing at commonly used high temperatures does not create an acceleration of degradation processes at the steel/PUR interface relevant for the DHP application, but rather a significant alteration in mechanism. This finding is of crucial importance for the use of EN 253 and the development of future methods for lifetime prediction of DHPs.

  • 194.
    Vidal, Brenda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Barraud, Sylvie
    National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon, France.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessing the sustainability of on-site sanitation systems using multi-criteria analysis2019Inngår i: Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, ISSN 2053-1400, E-ISSN 2053-1419, Vol. 5, nr 9, s. 1599-1615Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Small on-site sanitation systems are widely present in suburban and rural areas in many countries. As these systems often underperform and have an impact on receiving waters, understanding their overall sustainability is of interest for policy and decision-makers. However, the definition and estimation of indicators defining sustainability are challenging, as it is finding the methodological approach to combine qualitative and quantitative indicators into one comprehensive assessment. In this study, twelve indicators defined by environmental, economic, social, technical and health-related criteria were used to compare nine alternatives of on-site sanitation for single households. A non-compensatory method for multi-criteria decision analysis, ELECTRE III, was used for the assessment together with weights assigned to each indicator by a reference group. Several scenarios were developed to reflect different goals and a sensitivity analysis was conducted. Overall, the graywater-blackwater separation system resulted as the most sustainable option and, in terms of polishing steps for phosphorus removal, chemical treatment was preferred over the phosphorus filter, both options being implemented together with sand filters. Assessing the robustness of the systems was a crucial step in the analysis given the high importance assigned to the aforementioned indicator by the stakeholders, thus the assessment method must be justified. The proposed multi-criteria approach contributes to aid the assessment of complex information needed in the selection of sustainable sanitation systems and in the provision of informed preferences. © 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • 195.
    Vieira, T.
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundberg, J.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Genell, A.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Sandberg, U.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, G.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, M.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Erlingsson, S.
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Porous pavement for reduced tyre/road noise and improved air quality - Initial results from a case study2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, Canadian Acoustical Association , 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One possible solution to reduce noise resulting from tyre-pavement interaction is to use a porous pavement surface. A porous surface will reduce noise by decreasing air pressure gradients in the tyre-pavement contact as well as by decreasing the acoustical impedance of the road surface and reducing the horn effect. While reducing noise, other functional aspects of a pavement such as abrasion wear which impacts on air pollution through generation and suspension of particles, friction and rolling resistance need to be addressed. This paper analyses the acoustical behaviour of a Double Layered Porous Asphalt (DLPA), applied in the city of Linköping, Sweden, as a solution to mitigate noise, compared to a non-porous Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) pavement used as reference. The analysis is based on Close Proximity noise measurements, both in absolute value and as frequency spectra, acoustical homogeneity over the surface length and sound absorption measurements. The acoustic analysis is combined with analyses of air quality measurements of PM10 (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm) from two Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) measurement stations placed near each different pavement section. The initial results indicate that the porous pavement results in a noise reduction of up to 5 dB for light vehicles, and up to 4 dB for heavy vehicles. So far, the DPLA shows approximately 52 % lower PM10 concentrations than the SMA. It should be noted that PM10 is influenced also by meteorological conditions, like humidity, background sources as well as vehicle properties, e.g. use of studded tyres, and that some of the observed decrease can be due to other aspects than porosity e.g. road surface moisture and wind direction. In conclusion, the use of a porous pavement shows promising results from both acoustical and air quality aspects, given the initial, short term results

  • 196.
    Vinas, Victor
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malm, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Overview of microbial risks in water distribution networks and their health consequences: Quantification, modelling, trends, and future implications2019Inngår i: Canadian journal of civil engineering (Print), ISSN 0315-1468, E-ISSN 1208-6029, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 149-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The water distribution network (WDN) is usually the final physical barrier preventing contamination of the drinking water before it reaches consumers. Because the WDN is at the end of the supply chain, and often with limited online water quality monitoring, the probability of an incident to be detected and remediated in time is low. Microbial risks that can affect the distribution network are: intrusion, cross-connections and backflows, inadequate management of reservoirs, improper main pipe repair and (or) maintenance work, and biofilms. Epidemiological investigations have proven that these risks have been sources of waterborne outbreaks. Increasingly since the 1990s, studies have also indicated that the contribution of these risks to the endemic level of disease is not negligible. To address the increasing health risks associated to WDNs, researchers have developed tools for risk quantification and risk management. This review aims to present the recent advancements in the field involving epidemiological investigations, use of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) for modelling, risk mitigation, and decision-support. Increasing the awareness of the progress achieved, but also of the limitations and challenges faced, will aid in accelerating the implementation of QMRA tools for WDN risk management and as a decision-support tool.

  • 197.
    von Bahr, Bo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Internationell utblick – Återrapportering från IWA-Sverige-seminarium om fosforåtervinning från avloppsvatten2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 198.
    von Bahr, Bo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Precious Metals in Waste Materials2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The project aim is to better understand how precious metals (gold, silver and REE, rare earth elements) can be recycled from WEEE material. Today, considerable amounts of these metals are lost in the recycling process, partly due to that the political recycling goals are quantitative rather than qualitative, partly due to the fact that the present low price levels for these materials are not a driver to increase the recycling rates. However, these two stipulations can change rather quickly in the future, and it is important to increase the recycling levels of these materials due to sustainability, and a less dependence on import from China.

    The main activity in the project was to take samples from WEEE, make sample preparations, analyze the samples with different methods and finally draw conclusions from these activities. An important fact is that the hazard waste was removed from the WEEE stream as a first step, required by law. High value products were also removed from the WEEE-stream early in the recycling chain, such as laptop screens, cables and especially PCB (Printed Circuit Boards), and they are omitted in this work.

    The rest continues to the recycling process, and the outputs consist of several materials in different particle sizes. There are some outputs consisting of fine materials, and these are in focus in this project, since some of the precious metals tend to end up in these categories. The project has also gathered know-how in the literature and from other industrial sectors, as well as a description of the present market situation for recycling of precious metals and REE.

    Samples were taken from Stena Technoworld´s site in Halmstad. Three different types of fines were sampled; NF-fines (non-ferrous), Fe-fines (ferrous) and sludge. These three types of material drop out at different stages of the recycling process. A sieving process resulted in three sortings, ending up with nine different samples. These samples were casted to epoxy mounts, and further processed to be suitable for examination with a SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) microscope.

    The samples were examined in the SEM microscope by manually scanning the surface of the mounts. In total, the 2821 particles that were studied in detail, 82 of them included; Gold (16), Silver (24) or REE (42). However, the number of

    particles was too low to make any solid conclusions on commonly occurring shape, particle size or presumed origin of the particles. For that many more samples have to be analyzed.

    An analysis of the total content of precious metals was also done as a complement to the SEM-analysis. A lot of precious metals were detected and the highest total content of gold was found in the NF-fraction.

    From the few particles of gold that were found, it is clear that they all have odd shapes, not the thin films you would expect coming from use in electronic equipment. This suggests that shredders and other process equipment have liberated the material in a rough manor.

    As might be expected a lot of REE containing particles was also found in the fines fractions. However, the economic incentive for REEs’ recovery is still very low. Unless there are regulatory or price changes, status quo is expected.

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  • 199.
    von Bahr, Bo
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Hey, Tobias
    Fosforåtervinning från avloppsvatten: Rapport från ett IWA Sverige-seminarium 20182018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten ger en översikt av presentationerna under ett seminarium i Malmö i april 2018. Seminariet handlade om fosforåtervinning från avloppsvatten, med fokus på termokemisk behandling av avloppsslam. Det anordnades av bland andra IWA Sverige. Syftet var att ta in kunskap från andra länder och att låta teknikleverantörer presentera sin teknik. Frågan om teknisk utveckling när det gäller fosforåtervinning fick förnyad aktualitet under juli månad 2018. Den svenska regeringen tillsatte då en utredning som till hösten 2019 ska lämna förslag på utformning av dels ett krav på utvinning av fosfor ur avloppsslam, dels ett förbud mot spridning av avloppsslam (direktiv 2018:67).

    Under seminariet medverkade experter och företag från Danmark, Finland, Schweiz, Sverige, Tyskland och Österrike. Det tyska deltagandet var av speciellt intresse eftersom Tyskland införde lagstiftning om fosforåtervinning i januari 2018. Utöver teknikleverantörer medverkade också forskare och experter som inte var knutna till någon speciell teknik. Deras föredrag handlade bland annat om förutsättningarna för slamförbränning, erfarenhet av slamförgasning samt återvinningsprocesser i Tyskland. Generellt finns det tre startpunkter för fosforåtervinning. Den första är avvattningsrejektet inne i reningsverket och då begränsas återvinningen till de näringsämnen som finns lösta i rejektvattnet. Hit hör struvitprocessen. Den andra startpunkten är att återvinna fosfor med utgångspunkt från avvattnat slam. Denna processtyp verkar vara på en lägre teknisk mognadsnivå än både struvit- och askprocesser. Ingen sådan teknik var representerad på seminariet, men det kan finnas gångbara processer även här, även om det verkar som att mer forskning och utveckling behövs. Den tredje startpunkten är att torka slammet och därefter införa en termisk process: förbränning, förgasning eller pyrolys. En stor mängd behandlingsvarianter finns i den här kategorin, varav några presenterades på seminariet.

    Ingen teknikleverantör redovisade kostnader för att införa processerna, och ingen av de presenterade processerna finns i dag i kontinuerlig drift på något avloppsreningsverk i Sverige. Några av dem finns dock i drift på reningsverk utanför Sverige.

    Återvunnen näring måste uppfylla tre krav för att fungera på produktiv mark. Den får inte innehålla skadliga föroreningar, den ska ha tillräckligt bra fysiska egenskaper så att befintlig gödselspridarutrustning kan användas, och den ska fungera bra som gödning. Det tredje kravet kopplas ofta till vattenlöslighet, och det har visat sig att återvunna näringsprodukter kan fungera bra trots att de inte har hög initial vattenlöslighet. Marknadssituationen för de fosforprodukter som kommer att återvinnas från avloppsslam är mycket oklar. Mineralgödselindustrin har hittills inte tagit någon aktiv roll i att införa återvunna växtnäringsämnen i produktsortimentet. Men ett eventuellt kommande slamspridningsförbud med krav på fosforåtervinning kommer att påverka marknaden för både fossila och återvunna gödningsmedel.

  • 200.
    von Bahr, Bo
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Tekniska processer för fosforåtervinning ur avloppsslam2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written within the framework of the state's public inquiries M 2018:08, committee directive 2018:67 "Non-toxic and circular recycling of phosphorus from sewage sludge". One of the tasks in the directive is a task about mapping the technological development for phosphorus recovery, which this report highlights.

    The methodology for answering the question has been to examine scientific articles published in recent years, and to review documentation from recent years' conferences, seminars and EU projects (completed and ongoing) in the field. Among the sources available on the internet, the German, Swiss and European phosphorus platforms have been the most important. A selection has been made of relevant processes, where the selection criteria are reported in the report. The starting point for recovering phosphorus is inside the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) where the sludge occurs. The reported processes have been subdivided on the basis of where in the process scheme they have their starting point, which is also the most common classification according to the literature.

    The result is that the choice of method must be a balance of what one wants to achieve because no method meets all the wishes. A vast majority of processes meet the criterion of depollution, ie the degree of detoxification is very high, which is an important driving force for introducing them. The recycling potential of the processes is very variable, from 20 % of incoming phosphorus to the WWTP (usually struvite processes etc.) to just over 95 % of incoming phosphorus (usually thermal processes, e.g. biokol and extraction from ash), since it involves the whole sludge stream. In order to achieve a high recovery rate when internal processes are applied, it is also required that the phosphorus in the remaining dewatered sludge is recycled.

    Only one category of processes is assessed to be fully developed, namely the struvite processes. All other processes are considered "new technology" or "promising innovations". Most of the internal processes in WWTP do not fit well in Sweden because most Swedish WWTPs use chemical precipitation of phosphorus instead of biologically.

    An important aspect from the system- and economic point of view is in what form the phosphorus comes out of the process, which is highly variable for the processes studied. The processes in which phosphorus comes out in a form known to the agriculture (or industry) are considered to have the greatest potential to be viable in the long term. It has been difficult to obtain costs for introducing the studied processes, this because the processes are under development. It is often pointed out that phosphorus recovery processes are very expensive, but compared to today's costs that WWTPs has to get rid of the sludge, it is unclear how large the cost difference actually becomes.

    The report also highlights the environmental impacts from a life-cycle perspective. The general conclusion is that it is difficult to obtain knowledge because most of the processes are under development, and that it is difficult to draw any clear results from the analyzes that have been fulfilled.

    Three different ways of taking care of the entire sludge flow have been identified; bio-coal, ash and ash extraction. The first means that the entire sludge amount is dried and pyrolyzed and the remainder is a bio char which should be regarded as a carbon-sink and a long-term phosphorus source. The second way is to burn ash and direct spread of this ash. The third way involves the extraction of phosphorus from this ash in different ways and here there are three methods of this type that are at approximately the same level of development. Two other methods that are regarded as promising innovations are about HTC processes (hydrothermal carbonization) and extraction using CO2. Assessed advantages and disadvantages for these and other categories of processes can be found in the report.

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