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  • 151.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    20m3 of ethanol burnt in research project2013Inngår i: FIRE Middle East Magazine, nr 20, s. 37-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 152.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    SP bränner 20 m3 etanol i projektet ETANKFIRE2012Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 47, s. 10-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 153.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    ETANKFIRE – Experimental results of large ethanol fuel pool fires2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 154.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Claesson, Alexander
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Piku Amen, Malika
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lagring av biobränsle och avfall - Statistik och erfarenheter från incidenter och bränder: summerande rapport2014Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 155.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Claesson, Alexander
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Piku Amen, Malika
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lagring av biobränsle och avfall: Statistik och erfarenheter från incidenter och bränder2014Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 156.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Användning av expanderat glas som brandskydd inom petrokemisk industri2010Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 157.
    Piku Amen, Malika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Preliminary study of the Øko-Ø-færge project2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 158.
    Piku Amen, Malika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Nätverket S-Läss hjälper svensk industri bygga lätta fartyg2011Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 45, s. 9-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 159.
    Piku Amen, Malika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    S-LÄSS - ett svenskt nätverk för lättviktskontruktioner till sjöss2011Inngår i: Skärgårdsredaren, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 11-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 160.
    Post, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Snart dags att CE-märka kablar2013Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 49, s. 19-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 161.
    Post, Johan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Förslag på ändrade byggregler för kablar är ute på remiss2013Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 49, s. 30-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 162.
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    A breakthrough in European shipbuilding2010Inngår i: BrandPosten, nr 42, s. 38-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 163.
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ett genombrott i europeisk skeppsbyggnad2010Inngår i: BrandPosten, nr 42, s. 38-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 164.
    Rahm, Michael
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Fire testing on cork – furan/glass fibre sandwich panel for marine application2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 165.
    Rahm, Michael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Hiltz, John
    van der Wal, Rogier
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lindström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    New technologies for fire suppression on board naval craft2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 166.
    Rakovic, Alen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Bus fires in Sweden 2005-20132014Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 51, s. 34-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 167.
    Rakovic, Alen
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Bus fires in Sweden 2005 - 20132015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 168.
    Rönnblom, Johan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Fire detection in engine compartments of buses2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 169.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Low emissivity surfaces for improved fire performance2015Inngår i: Fire and Materials 2015: 14th International Conference and Exhibition, Proceedings, 2015, Vol. 1, s. 464-477Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiative heat transfer accounts for around one third of the heat released from fires, and this is the most important mode of heat transfer for example at long distances and from a hot smoke gas layer to lower objects, such as to a floor for example. The possibility for reducing the absorptivity of surfaces in the infrared part of the spectrum has been discussed for several decades, mainly for energy saving purposes. Such surfaces are called low emissivity surfaces, or low emissivity coatings, and much focus has been on the spectral absorptivity up to wavelengths around 2.5 μm, e.g for solar reflective paints. Spectra from fires are distributed to longer wavelengths and this paper concerns the absorptivity for paints and thin coatings over the full spectral range where radiation from fires is important. The correlation between absorptivity and time to ignition in the cone calorimeter is also investigated.

  • 170.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Smarta ytskikt för förbättrade brandegenskaper2015Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 52, s. 15-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 171.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Lindström, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    CFD simulations of the Cutting extinguisher2014Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing tactics for extinguishing fires located in civil structures is needed. Nowadays, the most commonly procedure employed by most fire brigades when extinguishing fires located in the interior of buildings, consists in sending a unit of firefighters inside the structure spraying water on the surface of the burning fuels. This procedure has enormous caveats since it leads to the unavoidable necessity of exposing personal to situations where risks to their personal safety are major. An alternative to these tactics consists on using the Cutting extinguisher which in principle allows combating a fire by injecting water mist into the burning building without the necessity of entering it. This work studies the capabilities and limitations of the Cutting extinguisher when used for fire-fighting activities in conventional and idealised civil structures by the aid of computerised simulations and experimental data. The simulations were done using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) which is an open-source code for modelling well-ventilated fires while experimental data was obtained from idealised and controlled fires and experiments. Findings of this study suggest that the Cutting extinguisher is effective for combating fires of moderated size in confinements using less water than traditional methods by reducing the relative concentration of oxygen in the room instead of by cooling the fuels as traditional methods do. The high velocity of the jet induces mixing in the confinement, enhancing the interaction of droplets with hot combustion products and promoting the vaporisation of the injected water. Furthermore, the induced momentum to the gases in the room together with the vaporisation of the injected water reduces the overall gas temperature inside the structure.

  • 172.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Spraystimuleringar i FDS2015Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 53, s. 16-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 173.
    Theocharidou, Marianthi
    et al.
    JRC, Italy.
    Melkunaite, Laura
    dbi dansk brand- og sikringsteknisk institut, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Winberg, David
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Lange, David
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Guay, Fanny
    dbi dansk brand- og sikringsteknisk institut, Denmark.
    Giannopoulos, Georgios ()
    JRC, Italy.
    Petersen, Laura ()
    EMSC, Spain.
    IMPROVER D1.2 First draft of a lexicon of definitions related to Critical Infrastructure Resilience2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPROVER is a Horizon 2020 project focusing on how to improve European critical infrastructure resilience to crises and disasters through the implementation of resilience concepts to real life examples of pan-European significance, including cross-border examples.

    The project will develop methodologies for the implementation of societal, organisational and technological resilience concepts to critical infrastructure. To this end, it requires several resilience-related concepts to be identified and defined.

    This is the first version of the IMPROVER Lexicon of Definitions. It is the result of the first phase of the international survey conducted by the project and it gathers several resilience concepts and their definitions, as well as other key related terms. We envisage that this will be a dynamic document; that is to say that it will be updated and expanded throughout the duration of the project.

    At this stage, the document identifies and lists several identified definitions for each relevant to critical infrastructure concept, followed by a discussion. This helps the reader to identify similarities, common elements and differences among the listed definitions and work towards selecting a suitable definition for his/her work. For the IMPROVER project, we foresee that in upcoming versions of the document, we will be able to suggest and agree one definition for each term, which will be used by the project partners for the duration of the project and will reflect the assumptions of the proposed IMPROVER methodology.

  • 174.
    Theocharidou, Marianthi
    et al.
    Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Melkunaite, Laura
    Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Winberg, David
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Lange, David
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Guay, Fanny
    Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology, Denmark.
    Lin, Lexin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Giannopoulos, Georgios ()
    Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Petersen, Laura
    European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    IMPROVER D1.3 Final lexicon of definitions related to Critical Infreastructure Resilience2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPROVER is a Horizon 2020 project focusing on how to improve European critical infrastructure resilience to crises and disasters through the implementation of resilience concepts to real life examples of pan-European significance, including cross-border examples.

     

    The project will develop methodologies for the implementation of societal, organisational and technological resilience concepts to critical infrastructure. To this end, it requires several resilience-related concepts to be identified and defined.

     

    This is the final version of the IMPROVER Lexicon of Definitions. It is the result of the international survey conducted by the project and it gathers several resilience concepts and their definitions, as well as other key related terms from all the current, completed deliverables in the project.

     

    In this final version of the document, we offer a list of terms and their definitions which will reflect the assumptions of the proposed IMPROVER methodology and will be used by the project partners for the duration of the project. This lexicon will also serve as a recommendation for terminology towards the project partners, the associated partners, the collaborating projects and the CIP community in general.

  • 175.
    Thureson, Per
    et al.
    Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Neumann, Nick
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Nya mätinstrument för mätning av värmeeffektutveckling2011Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 45, s. 19-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 176.
    Vylund, Lotta
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Seminarie om räddningsinsatser under mark väckte stort intresse2014Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 51, s. 36-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 177.
    Waldekker, Brenda
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys.
    Social LCA at SP: Challenges and opportunities2014Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 178.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Kovacevic, Vedran
    Fire detection & fire alarm systems in heavy duty vehicles: WP2 – Factors influencing detector performance in vehicles2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 179.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Detection of fires in Heavy Duty (HD) vehicles2014Inngår i: Proceedings from 15th International Conference on Automatic Fire Detection - AUBE´14, 2014, , s. 171-178Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 180.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Branddetektion i toalett och förarsovhytt i bussar2014Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 50, s. 36-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 181.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Fire detection & fire alarm systems in heavy duty vehicles WP5 – Fire detection in bus and coach toilet compartments and driver sleeping compartments2014Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 182.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Brandt, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Fire detection & fire alarm systems in heavy duty vehicles: WP1 – Survey of fire detection in vehicles2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 183.
    Pursiainen, Christer ()
    University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway.
    Rød, Bjarte ()
    University of Tromsø, Norway.
    Alheib, Marwan ()
    INERIS, France.
    Baker, Greg ()
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Bouffier, Christian ()
    INERIS, France.
    Bram, Staffan ()
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Cadete, Goncalo ()
    INOV, Spain.
    Carreira, Elisabete ()
    INOV, Spain.
    Gattinesi, Peter ()
    JRC, Greece.
    Guay, Fanny ()
    DBI.
    Honfi, Daniel ()
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Eriksson, Kerstin ()
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Lange, David ()
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Lundin, Emma ()
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management.
    Malm, Annika ()
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Urban Water Management.
    Melkunaite, Laura ()
    DBI.
    Merad, M ()
    INERIS, Frances.
    Mira da Silva, Miguel ()
    INOV, Spain.
    Petersen, Laura ()
    EMSC.
    Rodrigues, John ()
    INOV, Spain.
    Salmon, Romuald ()
    INERIS, France.
    Theocharidou, Marianthi ()
    JRC.
    Willot, Adrien ()
    INERIS, France.
    IMPROVER D2.2 Report of criteria for evaluating resilience2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, the focus has moved from critical infrastructure protection to that of resilience. But how do we know whether a critical infrastructure is resilient or not, how can it be evaluated, measured and enhanced?

     

    Drawing on, combining and developing the ideas of the existing literature and practices, the current report develops a holistic, easy-to-use and computable methodology to evaluate critical infrastructure resilience, called Critical Infrastructure Resilience Index (CIRI). The methodology is applicable to all types of critical infrastructure, including a possibility to tailor it to the specific needs of different sectors, facilities and hazard scenarios. The proposed methodology is especially suitable for organizational and technological resilience evaluation, but permits including also elements of societal resilience indicators to the evaluations.

     

    The methodology is based on four levels of hierarchically organized indicators. Level 1 consists of the phases well known from the so-called crisis management cycle. Under these phases, we find sets of Level 2 rather generic indicators. Thus under level 1 ‘Prevention’, for instance, we may find a Level 2 indicator such as ‘Resilient design’, further divided into Level 3 more detailed indicators such as ‘Physical robustness’, ‘Cyber robustness’, ‘Redundancy’, ‘Modularity’, and ‘Independency’. The task is to study these indicators on Level 4 in the context of concrete critical infrastructure facilities and hazard scenarios, that is, applying Level 3 indicators into concrete circumstances.

     

    The methodology then permits to transfer quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative evaluations of individual sector-specific resilience indicators into uniform metrics, based on process maturity levels. This in turn makes it possible to give a specific critical infrastructure, or its part, a resilience value on the scale 0-5.

     

    While the real resilience value becomes clear only when one engages in the analysis of several indicators, the methodology can be used also as a step-by-step measurement and development tool for resilience, without necessary immediately engaging in time-consuming total resilience analysis.

     

    The user of this methodology is supposed to be the operator of critical infrastructure, or part of it, in the spirit of self-auditing. In case it would be implemented in a wider scale, in cooperation between the operators and authorities, it would give the authorities a holistic picture about the respective society’s critical infrastructure resilience.

     

    In this report, we draw a concise picture of the methodology and illustrate how this methodology could be applied to a specific infrastructure and hazard scenario.

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