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  • 151.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Inertering av siloanläggningar med kvävgas - Gasfyllnadsförsök och simuleringar2009Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 152.
    Purser, Jennifer A.
    et al.
    Hartford Environmental Research, United Kingdom.
    Purser, David A.
    Hartford Environmental Research, United Kingdom.
    Stec, Anna A.
    University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom.
    Moffatt, Colin
    University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom.
    Hull, T. Richard
    University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom.
    Su, Joseph Z.
    National Research Council Canada, Canada.
    Bijloos, Martin
    National Research Council Canada, Canada.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Repeatability and reproducibility of the ISO/TS 19700 steady state tube furnace2013In: Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 55, p. 22-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO/TS 19700 steady state tube furnace is designed to measure the yields of combustion products, and in particular toxic combustion products, under a range of different specified decomposition conditions occurring in full-scale compartment fires. In order to establish the repeatability and reproducibility of the method, a Round Robin inter-laboratory study and statistical analysis has been carried out involving three laboratories. Pre-existing data from a fourth laboratory have also been considered where appropriate. Samples of different polymers (PMMA, LDPE, PA6.6 and rigid PVC) were tested under two fire conditions: well-ventilated flaming at 650 °C and post-flashover under-ventilated flaming at 825 °C, with each laboratory performing three replicate runs on each polymer under each condition. The results showed good agreement between laboratories and against calculated stoichiometric maxima, demonstrating satisfactory levels of repeatability and reproducibility for key combustion gases. These included O2 consumption, and the yields of CO2, CO, HCN and HCl. A number of amendments to the standard have been recommended as a result of minor procedural issues arising during preliminary work.

  • 153.
    Pushp, Mohit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Arun Chaudhari, Ojas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Vikegard, Peter
    Waters Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ghafar, Ali Nejad
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Specific heat and excess heat capacity of grout with phase change materials using heat conduction microcalorimetry2023In: Construction and Building Materials, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 401, p. 132915-132915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microencapsulated phase-change-materials (PCMs) incorporated in cementitious grout can be used as a source of energy in an underground thermal energy storage system. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique to measure the latent heat or specific heat of PCM-embedded cementitious materials. However, using milligram sample sizes (as required by DSC) of a cementitious material fails to represent the actual scale of cementitious components. This is the reason why, in the present paper, non-isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry (MC) was evaluated as a tool for determining the thermal properties of PCM-embedded grout as well as pure PCM (three PCMs were used). An MC experimental protocol (using both single and 5–6 temperature cycles) was developed and used to measure latent heat and melting and crystallization temperatures, which were in good agreement with those reported for pure PCMs by the producers. In addition, the specific heats of the PCM-containing grout also agreed with measurements using the hot disk technique. Overall, the results show that the MC technique can be used as a potential standard method in determining thermal processes in complex systems, such as in PCM-embedded cementitious systems, where a large sample size is needed to represent the material.

  • 154.
    Rahm, Michael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Fire testing on cork – furan/glass fibre sandwich panel for marine application2015Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 155.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Does age matter?: Impact on fire safety properties of composite materials from ageing2020In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, IOP Publishing Ltd , 2020, Vol. 942, no 1, article id 012042Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When materials are tested and classified before entering the market, they are mainly tested as newly produced. However, it is known that material properties change with time and when exposed to temperature, humidity, wind and light. As a result, it is important to have knowledge of how material age and which parameters are affected in order to retain safety. Studies show how the mechanical properties change when the materials age. But not much can be found in literature about the ageing effect on fire properties. In the present study, accelerated ageing testing was made with a composite material of phenolic resin and basalt fibres. Selected ageing methods applied were thermal ageing at 90 C and moisture ageing at 40 C and 90 % Relative Humidity. Samples were collected from ageing chambers after one, two and four weeks. To investigate the ageing effect on the fire properties of the composite, fire testing was conducted using cone calorimetry according to ISO 5660-1. The test results showed that ageing does matter. There was an impact on the material and the fire properties were affected. The ignition time decreased for the aged samples and the heat release rate slightly increased. Also, the smoke production increased with ageing. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 156.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Markert, Frank
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Methods for accelerated ageing of composite materials: a review2018In: Nordic Fire & Safety Days, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New materials and designs enter the market every day. They have a great market potential needed for many applications. The future market for development and production of fibre reinforced composite materials (lightweight materials) is very promising, not only within advanced application such as aeronautics, but also in maritime industries, on modern ship vessels and in railway vehicles. As a result of this it is important to know the material properties and fire behaviour in order to ensure a high safety level [1].Materials are tested as “new” and un-aged, which means testing is performed on newly produced products and materials. Very little research has been done regarding fire performance of materials after aging [5].Accelerated ageing can be performed with different aspects and in numerous ways. One type of these can be called weathering and there are mainly four basic types of this ageing used for products and materials. They are: thermal ageing, exposure of high temperature during a selected time; moisture ageing, exposure of water or moisture; UV exposure, and radiation ageing. [5]These types of ageing can be performed in many ways and combinations. For example, thermal ageing can be performed at a selected temperature and time. But it can also be one part of a climate cycling were you have fixed periods with temperature exposure followed by moisture exposure and UV exposure. This cycle can be repeated a numerus of times [7].The degradation of composite materials and change in properties is slow at room temperature. It gets faster with increased temperature. Accelerated ageing is an intentional way to expose materials and products to a proper simulation of long-term usage. Within a few days, weeks or months the damage and degradation of the materials can occur, which normally would be after years in normal climate and after normal usage. Accelerated ageing can cause the material properties to get worse, and an undesirable loss of functionality may be evolved [4].The behavior and material properties of fibre reinforced composites, after exposure of aggressive environmental conditions, shows changes, compared to new materials. After exposure of moisture, the fibres may result in damage and the material structure might be changed. After exposure of moisture and high temperature the durability of the composite is reduced [2].The Arrhenius Rate Law of accelerated ageing can be used to correlate the time in ageing climate. A generalization, supported by the Arrhenius Rate Laws, is that for a reaction in room temperature, the reaction rate doubles every 10°C increase in temperature [6].The objective of this work is to gather the most common methods to perform accelerated ageing, to see the variations between the methods and within the method.

  • 157.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Markert, Frank
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    The necessity of accelerated ageing in fire performance assessments of composite materials2021In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 141, article id 105358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The market for lightweight fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is growing. This is seen within advanced applications for e.g. aeronautics, modern ship vessels and railway vehicles. FRPs are often used to save weight, but the downside is that they are ignitable, which implies a potential higher fire risk. It is thus important to thoroughly characterise the material properties of FRPs, including the fire performance, in order to ensure a high safety level. Fire performance testing is made with newly produced materials to show the conformance to required standard test. However, the impact of ageing on the fire performance of materials and products is not mandatory information and hardly ever known. This is still an overlooked matter that is important to address for combustible materials in transport applications, where the requirements of personal safety are especially high. Accelerated ageing is a method to expose materials and products to various environmental parameters for a simulation of long-term usage. Within a few days, weeks or months the damage and degradation of the materials can occur, which normally would be after years in normal climate and after normal usage. Fire performance testing of test samples subjected to accelerated ageing would potentially give important information on the long-term safety of the end-use application of FRPs. The objective of this paper is twofold. One is to find out if the industry, society and research need to deal with the effect of ageing on materials in relation to fire safety as this is not dealt with in fire regulations. And further to identify the state-of-the-art of accelerated ageing methods relevant for Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials. In summary, the findings in the literature were limited of reported ageing effects of FRPs, with respect to the fire behaviour. An important conclusion is that there is a major lack of knowledge regarding material aging and fire behaviour, especially for FRPs. However, the identified ageing studies showed that both fire and mechanical properties were affected by ageing. The accelerated ageing methods described in literature was not consequently applied. The ageing methods were special designed for each study and application of material. All methods need a proper validation applying real time ageing. 

  • 158.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire safe bus interior materials – flame retardants and the effect on smoke production and smoke gas toxicity2023In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands on bus interior products have increased with increasing sustainability, circularity and a reduction of harmful substances, today’s materials must be improved with regards of additives, such as flame retardants. A comprehensive study was made to evaluate the possibility to use phosphorous flame retardants (FRs) instead of the commonly used halogenated FRs compounded with ABS. The study showed that the fire performance could be improved with phosphorous FRs regarding heat release and smoke production. However, it was noted that the smoke production still was high, and that the smoke density was highest possible, i.e., no visibility through the smoke layer. Further testing of today’s bus interior materials showed that the high smoke density was achieved already after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that, in case of a fire, the visibility in the bus will be reduced and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. The bus fire regulation R118 for interior materials basically deals with burning rate and melting through a fine mesh. Critical fire parameters such as smoke production and smoke toxicity is not dealt with. The R118 regulation need to be improved with these critical parameters in order to have fire safe materials inside the bus.

  • 159.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. DTU Technical University of Denmark, denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    A modified specimen holder for cone calorimeter testing of composite materials to reduce influence from specimen edges2022In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 80-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ISO 5660-1 specifies the cone calorimeter method for characterizing the ignition and surface burning behavior of materials. The specimen is irradiated through a square opening in the frame of the specimen holder. The frame is intended to protect the edges of the specimen from irradiation but covers the edges with only a few mm. In tests with products such as composite laminates and sandwich wall panels, the production of pyrolysis gases from the edges and, in many cases, burning have been observed. Early contribution from the edges in the test is not representative for surface burning. A modified specimen holder was developed with a larger specimen size to allow better protection of the edges. The opening for exposure to irradiance of the retainer frame is circular and of the same area as that of the original frame. The distance between the exposed surface and the specimen edges is larger in order to prevent early exposure of edges. Tests using the standard specimen holder resulted in pyrolysis and burning from edges that took place outside of the specimen holder. Comparative tests using the modified specimen holder showed that it prevented the exposure and pyrolysis from edges for an extended time. However, the influence on ignition time and peak heat release due to the increased size of the modified specimen holder has not been characterized fully, and test results should not be used for direct comparison with those of the standard holder.

  • 160.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Sørensen, Lars
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    The Effect of Accelerated Ageing on Reaction-to-Fire Properties–Composite Materials2022In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 1305-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As material age, the durability, strength, and other mechanical properties are impacted. The lifespan of a material generally decreases when exposed to weathering conditions such as wind, temperature, humidity, and light. It is important to have knowledge of how materials age and how the material properties are affected. Regarding materials´ fire behaviour and the effect of ageing on these properties, the knowledge is limited. The research questions of the current work are: Are the fire properties of composite materials affected by ageing? And if so, how is it affected? The study is on material at Technology Readiness Level 9 (TRL). In this study, three composite fibre laminates developed for marine applications were exposed to accelerated ageing. Two different ageing conditions were selected, thermal ageing with an increased temperature of 90°C and moisture ageing in a moderately increased temperature of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Samples were collected after one, two and four weeks of ageing. The reaction-to-fire properties after ageing was evaluated using the ISO 5660–1 cone calorimeter and the EN ISO 5659–2 smoke chamber with FTIR gas analysis. The test results showed that the fire behaviour was affected. Two of the composite laminates, both phenolic/basalt composites, showed a deteriorated fire behaviour from the thermal ageing and the third composite laminate, a PFA/glass fibre composite, showed an improved fire behaviour both for thermal and moisture ageing. The smoke toxicity was affected by the accelerated ageing, especially for the PFA/glass fibre composite that showed a higher production of CO and HCN, both for the thermal aged and the moisture aged samples. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 161.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Evaluation of smoke gas toxicity and smoke density of bus interior materials2023In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 270-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials used for interior parts in buses are today fire classified according to UNECE Regulation 118, evaluating the horizontal and vertical burning rates and the melting behaviour. However, in recent accidents, the smoke has been identified as the critical parameter for deaths. An evaluation has been made of six materials used as interior parts in busses and is presented in this paper. Fire testing was conducted according to UNECE R 118 and smoke production including smoke gas toxicity was further evaluated with the smoke chamber test, EN ISO 5659-2 and EN 17084. All six tested materials fulfilled the requirements of UNECE R 118; however, most materials showed fire properties which are not desirable, such as dark smoke and melting of large burning pieces. The tests with the smoke chamber showed that all materials gave a very high smoke production, in fact a smoke density value of the highest possible for the equipment to measure. This occurred only after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that this high smoke production will, in case of fire in a bus, reduce the visibility, and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. © 2022 The Authors.

  • 162.
    Simonson, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Environmental Assessment of fires in products using the fire LCA model2005In: Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Fire Safety Science., IAFSS , 2005, , p. 1071-1082Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Simonson, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Fire-LCA Model: Furniture Case Study2004In: Flame Retardants, 2004, p. 15-26Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 164.
    Simonson, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Evaluating the Impact of Fires on the Environment2011In: 10th International Symposium on Fire Safety Science, International Association for fire safety science , 2011, , p. 43-59Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Simonson, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Fire emissions from products with and without BFRs and the hazard of exposure for fire fighters and clean-up crews2010In: Proceedings of Interflam 2010 12th international Fire Science & Engineering Conference, Interscience Communications Ltd , 2010, , p. 1399-1410Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Simonson, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Van Hees, Patrick
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Study of fire behavior and toxic gas production of cables in real-scale fire tests1999In: Interflam ´99. Proceedings of the eight International Interflam Conference. Vol. 2, Interscience Communications , 1999, , p. 1393-1401Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Direct measurements of thermal properties of wood pellets: elevated temperatures, fine fractions and moisture content2014In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 134, no Oct, p. 460-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The self-heating propensity of biomass fuels is a major challenge to the large scale handling of e.g. wood pellets. The insulating properties in combination with exothermal processes sometimes lead to fires when larger volumes of wood pellets are stored. Recently, the thermal conductivity and specific heat of wood pellets have been investigated (Gou et al., 2013) through back-calculations of transient temperatures in wood bulk storage. Such properties are important in order to make simulations and predictions about safe storage and use. However, little information is available about the temperature dependence of these properties as well as the bulk properties of broken pellets, which is abundant in critical parts of a storage facility. In this study we show that the specific heat and thermal conductivity of wood pellets can be directly measured using the Transient Plane Source technique. We present data between 22 and 120 °C for bulk wood pelletsand investigate the change in conductivity for fine particle bulk material. In addition, we investigate the possibility of measuring on individual pellets while studying the moisture contentdependence.

  • 168.
    Stec, Anna
    et al.
    University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom.
    Readman, James W.
    University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Gylestam, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wojtalewicz, Dominika A.
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Analysis of toxic effluents released from PVC carpet under different fire conditions2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 65-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of investigations have been reported on minimising the PAH and PCDD/F yields during controlled combustion, such as incineration. This study is an attempt to quantify acute and chronic toxicants including PAH and PCDD/F in conditions relating to unwanted fires.This paper investigates distribution patterns of fire effluents between gas and aerosol phase, and the different particle size-ranges produced under different fire conditions. PVC carpet was selected as the fuel as a precursor for both PAH and PCDD/F. In order to generate fire effluents under controlled fire conditions, the steady-state tube furnace, was chosen as the physical fire model. Fire scenarios included oxidative pyrolysis, well-ventilated and under-ventilated fires. Fire effluent measurements included: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans and soot. The distribution patterns between gas and particle phase, and the size-ranges of the particles produced in these fires together with their chemical composition is also reported.Significant quantities of respirable submicron particles were detected, together with a range of PAHs. Lower levels of halogenated dioxins were detected in the fire residue compared with those found in other studies. Nevertheless, the findings do have implications for the health and safety of fire and rescue personnel, fire investigators, and other individuals exposed to the residue from unwanted fires.

  • 169.
    Sturk, David
    et al.
    Autoliv Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ahlberg Tidblad, Annika
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Analysis of li-ion battery gases vented in an inert atmosphere thermal test chamber2019In: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to support the development of new safety practices in testing and field failure situations of electric vehicles and their lithium-ion (Li-ion) traction batteries is to conduct studies simulating plausible incident scenarios. This paper focuses on risks and hazards associated with venting of gaseous species formed by thermal decomposition reactions of the electrolyte and electrode materials during thermal runaway of the cell. A test set-up for qualitative and quantitative measurements of both major and minor gas species in the vented emissions from Li-ion batteries is described. The objective of the study is to measure gas emissions in the absence of flames, since gassing can occur without subsequent fire. Test results regarding gas emission rates, total gas emission volumes, and amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and CO2 formed in inert atmosphere when heating lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) dioxide/lithium manganese oxide (LMO) spinel cell stacks are presented and discussed. Important test findings include the large difference in total gas emissions from NMC/LMO cells compared to LFP, 780 L kg−1 battery cells, and 42 L kg−1 battery cells, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the total amount of HF formed for both cell types, suggesting that LFP releases higher concentrations of HF than NMC/LMO cells. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 170.
    Sundström, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Thureson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Reconstruction of the Rinkeby fire2011In: BrandPosten, no 43, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 171.
    Sundström, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Thureson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Rekonstruktion av Rinkebybranden2010In: BrandPosten, no 43, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 172.
    Tampas, Spyros Anastasios
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    Camino, Giovanni
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Monti, Marco
    Proplast-Consorzio per la Promozione della Cultura Plastica, Italy.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Preparation and characterisation of nanoparticle-doped commingled composites for improved fire performance2013In: Proceedings from the 19th international conference on composite materials, 2013, p. 1337-1347Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Effect of residence time on fire gases – experiments and simulations2007Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 174.
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Modelling of hydrogen cyanide formation in room fires2004In: Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 39, p. 737-755Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Modelling of hydrogen cyanide formation in room fires. Brandforsk project 321-0112003Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 176.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    A summary of regulations and test methods for technical textiles2007Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 177.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Spontaneous ignition of biofuels - An experimental investigation through small- and large-scale tests2006Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 178.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Simonson, Margaret
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Fire performance of electric cables. New test methods and measurement techniques. Real-scale testing. Appendix 4.2000Report (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Toxic Gases from Fire in Electric Vehicles2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing shift to electromobility has identified new risk areas. Fires involving electric vehicles have attracted considerable media attention and a strong concern related to burning electric vehicles containing lithium-ion batteries is the release of toxic gas. This report includes a literature review, vehicle fire tests, battery fire tests and simulations to gather and present data on gas and heat release during fire in electric vehicles. One electrical vehicle and one conventional vehicle in the full-scale fire tests were of the same model from the same manufacturer which enable a good comparison between the powertrains. Peak heat release rate and total heat release are affected by the fire scenario and vehicle model, but not significantly on the powertrain. Regarding toxic gases, hydrogen fluoride represents the largest difference between electric vehicles and conventional vehicles, but when smoke from vehicle fire is inhaled there are several acute toxic gases present regardless of the type of vehicle burning. Except hydrogen fluoride, there are also some specific metals present in the smoke that constitutes a large difference between the powertrains.

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    fulltext
  • 180.
    Wolter, Nick
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Beber, Vinicius
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Goethals, Frederik
    CENTEXBEL, Belgium.
    Van Hove, Marc
    CENTEXBEL, Belgium.
    Jubete, Elena
    CIDETEC, Spain.
    Mayer, Bernd
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Koschek, Katharina
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Carbon, glass and basalt fiber reinforced polybenzoxazine: The effects of fiber reinforcement on mechanical, fire, smoke and toxicity properties2020In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 2379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphenol F and aniline-based benzoxazine monomers were selected to fabricate basalt, glass and carbon fiber reinforced polybenzoxazine via vacuum infusion, respectively. The impacts of the type of fiber reinforcement on the resulting material properties of the fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) were studied. FRPs exhibited a homogenous morphology with completely impregnated fibers and near-zero porosity. Carbon fiber reinforced polybenzoxazine showed the highest specific mechanical properties because of its low density and high modulus and strength. However, regarding the flammability, fire, smoke and toxicity properties, glass and basalt reinforced polybenzoxazine outperformed carbon fiber reinforced polybenzoxazine. This work offers a deeper understanding of how different types of fiber reinforcement affect polybenzoxazinebased FRPs and provides access to FRPs with inherently good fire, smoke and toxicity performance without the need for further flame retardant additives. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 181.
    Wolter, Nick
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Carrillo Beber, Vinicius
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Haubold, Thorben
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Goethals, Frederick
    CENTEXBEL, Belgium.
    Van Hove, Marc
    CENTEXBEL, Belgium.
    Jubete, Elena
    BRTA, Spain.
    Mayer, Bernd
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Koschek, Katharina
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Effects of flame-retardant additives on the manufacturing, mechanical, and fire properties of basalt fiber-reinforced polybenzoxazine2021In: Polymer Engineering and Science, ISSN 0032-3888, E-ISSN 1548-2634, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 551-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Basalt fiber-reinforced polybenzoxazines (BFRP) were manufactured through vacuum infusion using resorcinol bis (diphenyl phosphate) and poly-(m-phenylene methylphosphonate) together with bisphenol-F and aniline based benzoxazine. Different types and loadings of flame-retardant additives showed to have catalysis or dilution effects in viscosity measurements. BFRPs show well-penetrated fibers and near-zero porosity. Additive addition did not influence tensile properties, while apparent interlaminar shear strength decreased indicating a lower adhesion between fiber and matrix. BFRP's heat and smoke release properties increased, though time to ignition increased and flammability behavior improved by decreasing delamination yielding oxygen indices in between 72 and 91%. © 2020 The Authors. 

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