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  • 151.
    Cea, B.
    et al.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Fraboulet, I.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Feuger, O.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Hugony, F.
    ENEA, Italy.
    Morreale, C.
    Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria S.r.l, Italy.
    Migliavacca, G.
    Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria S.r.l, Italy.
    Andersen, J. S.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Warming-Jespersen, M. G.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Development and Evaluation of an Innovative Method Based on Dilution to Sample Solid and Condensable Fractions of Particles Emitted by Residential Wood Combustion2021In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 35, no 23, p. 19705-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative and simple method based on dilution, named as the dilution chamber (DC), allowing the measurement of solid and condensable fractions of particulate matter emitted by residential wood combustion appliances has been developed, and its performances have been evaluated. The DC method was then tested by five European institutes (Ineris, ISSI/ENEA, DTI, and RISE) on advanced residential wood log/pellet stoves, under nominal output and low output combustion conditions and using different fuel types. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of the DC method to collect the condensable fraction. The DC method was compared with another manual method used to collect the solid and condensable fractions at the same time, the dilution tunnel (DT), on four sampling platforms. A third method, a combining heated filter and impinger filled in with isopropanol collection (SPC-IPA), was also used by Ineris only for comparison with the DC method. PM measurements based on the DC method globally showed a linear correlation with PM measurements based on DT (R2 ranged between 0.81 and 0.99, p < 0.05) specifically for the residential wood stoves under low output conditions when the condensable fraction contributes the most. An analysis and quantification of PAHs related to the total mass of PM of samples taken by the DC method and performed by ENEA/ISSI showed that it produces a condensation effect of semivolatile species comparable or even greater than the DT method. PM emission factors calculated from PM measurements based on the DC method were (i) about 2- to 20-fold higher for the residential wood stoves (EF ranged between 201 to 2420 g GJ-1) compared to those obtained for the residential pellet stoves (EF ranged between 108 to 556 g GJ-1) and (ii) of the same magnitude of PM emission factors from the literature or the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook.

  • 152.
    Chandolias, Konstantinos
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Pawar, Sudhanshu
    Fortum Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Vu, H. D.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Wainaina, S.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, M. J.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Bio‑hydrogen and VFA production from steel mill gases using pure and mixed bacterial cultures2023In: Bioresource Technology Reports, ISSN 2589-014X, Vol. 23, article id 101544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major source of CO2 emissions is the flaring of steel mill gas. This work demonstrated the enrichment of carboxydotrophic bacteria for converting steel mill gas into volatile fatty acids and H2, via gas fermentation. Several combinations of pure and mixed anaerobic cultures were used as inoculum in 0.5-L reactors, operated at 30 and 60 °C. The process was then scaled up in a 4-L membrane bioreactor, operated for 20 days, at 48 °C. The results showed that the enriched microbiomes can oxidize CO completely to produce H2/H+ which is subsequently used to fix the CO2. At 30 °C, a mixture of acetate, isobutyrate and propionate was obtained while H2 and acetate were the main products at 60 °C. The highest CO conversion and H2 production rate observed in the membrane bioreactor were 29 and 28 mL/LR/h, respectively. The taxonomic diversity of the bacterial community increased and the dominant species was Pseudomonas.

  • 153.
    Chandolias, Konstantinos
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sugianto, Laurenz Alan Ricardo
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Izazi, Nurina
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Millati, Ria
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Claes
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Protective effect of a reverse membrane bioreactor against toluene and naphthalene in anaerobic digestion.2022In: Biotechnology and applied biochemistry, ISSN 0885-4513, E-ISSN 1470-8744, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 1267-1274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Raw syngas contains tar contaminants including toluene and naphthalene, which inhibit its conversion to methane. Cell encasement in a hydrophilic reverse membrane bioreactor (RMBR) could protect the cells from hydrophobic contaminants. This study aimed to investigate the inhibition of toluene and naphthalene and the effect of using RMBR. In this work, toluene and napthalene were added at concentrations of 0.5 - 1.0 and 0.1 - 0.2 g/L in batch operation. In continuous operation, concentration of 0 - 6.44 g/L for toluene and 0 - 1.28 g/L for napthalene were studied. The results showed that no inhibition was observed in batch operation for toluene and naphthalene at concentrations up to 1 and 0.2 g/L, respectively. In continuous operation of free cell bioreactors (FCBR), inhibition of toluene and naphthalene started at 2.05 g/L and 0.63 g/L, respectively. When they were present simultaneously, inhibition of toluene and naphthalene occurred at concentrations of 3.14 g/L and 0.63 g/L, respectively. In continuous RMBRs, no inhibition for toluene and less inhibition for naphthalene were observed, resulting in higher methane production from RMBR than that of FCBR. These results indicated that RMBR system gave a better protection effect against inhibitors compared to FCBR. 

  • 154.
    Chen, Tao
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ku, Xiaoke
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Sjöblom, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ström, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; .
    High-temperature pyrolysis modeling of a thermally thick biomass particle based on an MD-derived tar cracking model2021In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 417, article id 127923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass pyrolysis in the thermally thick regime is an important thermochemical phenomenon encountered in many different types of reactors. In this paper, a particle-resolved algorithm for thermally thick biomass particle during high-temperature pyrolysis is established by using reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The temperature gradient inside the particle is computed with a heat transfer equation, and a multiphase flow algorithm is used to simulate the advection/diffusion both inside and outside the particle. Besides, to simulate the influence of intraparticle temperature gradient on the primary pyrolysis yields, a multistep kinetic scheme is used. Moreover, a new tar decomposition model is developed by reactive molecular dynamic simulations where every primary tar species in the multistep kinetic scheme cracks under high temperature. The integrated pyrolysis model is evaluated against a pyrolysis experiment of a centimeter-sized beech wood particle at 800–1050 °C. The simulation results show a remarkable improvement in both light gas and tar yields compared with a simplified tar cracking model. Meanwhile, the MD tar cracking model also gives a more reasonable prediction of the species yield history, which avoids the appearance of unrealistically high peak values at the initial stage of pyrolysis. Based on the new results, the different roles of secondary tar cracking inside and outside the particle are studied. Finally, the model is also used to assess the influence of tar residence time and several other factors impacting the pyrolysis.

  • 155.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Life cycle assessment of Internet of Things(IoT) solution in Södertälje municipality– A smart waste collection system2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of things (IoT) is expected to transform the way we live, work, and learn. Using IoT can be a game-changer for municipalities to move towards sustainability. Within the Vinnova financed project, the municipality wants to explore how IoT can enable route optimization and placement planning for increased operational efficiency. The aim of this study is to enhance the knowledge of the environmental benefits of IoT systems in the waste collection system in the city center of Södertälje. This life cycle assessment, LCA, will support the project by identifying environmental hotspots. The LCA study was performed in Jan-Sep 2021. The functional unit of the study has been set to 1 year of IoT system service for 160 litter bins in city center of Södertälje. The studied system is a cradle-to-grave system, including raw materials, sensors and gateways, use phase, and end of life the sensors and gateways, internet connection, as well as the cloud services. Inventory information have been collected mainly from Södertälje, suppliers, and the service providers. Generic data, such as electricity mix, and transports have been taken from the Ecoinvent database and literature. This study has evaluated the environmental impacts of IoT system in Södertälje for the case of smart waste collection system installed in the city center in a life cycle perspective. The objective of the study has been: 1. To estimate the environmental impact (with focus on climate change impact) of IoT system in Södertälje and find out the hotspots within the system in a life cycle perspective. The climate change impact of the IoT system solution in Södertälje is estimated about 120 kg CO2eq per year, which mainly contributes from the gateways (50%) and sensors (27%) and the use of internet (23%). 2. To estimate the environmental impact (focus on climate change impact) of the waste collection system (without IoT system) and find out the hotspots within the system. The climate change impact of the current waste collection system in the city centre of Södertälje contributes approximately 12t CO2eq per year, which mainly contributed from the use of fossil-based plastic trash bags (96%) and the HVO based transport (4%). 3. To compare the current with the future waste collection system (including IoT system for planning and service). To compare the current with the future waste collection system, we use scenarios (see Figure 20 for results). At the starting point of the study (scenario 1), we present results that are based on assumptions and have the same CO2 emissions for the transport and the trash bags. The results were based on diesel (50%) and recycled plastic trash bags (50%). The recycled plastic is made of 80% recycled LDPE and 20% virgin LDPE (Tingstad, 2021). The next step (scenario 2) of the study, we present results that are based on direct data of the current system. The results were based on HVO and fossil trash bags, which results into 11.5 t CO2 for fossil bags and 380 kg CO2eq per year for transport and 120 kg CO2eq extra for the IoT system. The last step (scenario 3) of the study, we present results that are based on future assumptions. The results were based on using no bags and no CO2 emission from bags, which results into 120 kg CO2eq for the IoT system and 380kg CO2eq for the transport and 0 kg CO2eq for the trash bags. The future waste collection system needs to be better than the current system. That means, the future waste collection system needs to reduce the CO2eq emissions by at least 120 kg CO2eq to break-even the extra IoT system. For the IoT system to have an effect, at least 32% of the transport (km) or the number of trash bags used need to be reduced (50 bins of 160 bins), in order to outweighs the extra CO2eq from the IoT system (Figure 21). - A reduction of trp km or trash bags by 32% reduce CO2eq by 120 kg. (=IoT system). - A reduction of trp km or trash bags by 64% reduce CO2eq by 240 kg. (> IoT system).

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  • 156.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Life cycle assessment of IoT system in Södertälje – The case of textile waste collection and the municipality’s recycling stations2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of things (IoT) is expected to transform the way we live, work, and learn. Using IoT can be a game-changer for municipalities to move towards sustainability. Within the Vinnova financed project, The inclusive, sustainable, and connected society, the municipality wants to explore how IoT can enable route optimization and placement planning for increased operational efficiency. The aim of these environmental studies is to enhance the knowledge of the environmental benefits of IoT systems in three parts of the waste collection systems and services provided in the municipality of Södertälje: Waste collection in the city centre (Telge Återvinning), Textile collection (Human Bridge) and Recycling stations (Telge Återvinning). The LCA results for waste collection in the city centre are documented in Chiew & Brunklaus (2021); while the main LCA results and conclusions for textile collection (part 2) and recycling stations (part 3) are summarized in this report. The results for all three types of waste collection system show that the implementation of the IoT system is quite low (<1%). In this study, the climate impacts of both textile waste collection and recycling stations services per year were identified with LCA. By using the actor analysis, we found that in both the textile waste collection and the recycling stations services, the major climate impacts come from citizens, e.g., in the case of the textile waste collection service. The climate impact of transportation of the citizens to the textile station is 36%, followed by the plastic or paper bags from the citizens is 22% of the total impact of the textile waste, while the transportation of citizens to the recycling stations is even higher, such as 70% of the total impact of the recycling station system. The textile collection and recycling stations showed that citizen’s choice has huge impact on the CO2 emission. Re-used and recycled textiles, instead of incinerating can save up to 23-44kg CO2 per kg of new textile produced. The recycling stations collects almost 9kt of waste, which are consumer products (e.g. bicycles, furniture, electronic devices and car decks). Re-used products can save between 100kg CO2 eq per bicycle up to 300kg CO2 eq per electronic devices, such as electric tools or laptop computers, as well as 28kg CO2 eq per car decks. On the other hand, the service provided by Södertälje has a huge influence on the citizens choice. The “rullande återvinning” (rolling service), in which Telge Återvinning arranged trucks to collect bulky waste closer to the citizen can reduce the emission that is caused by the citizen transportation. In addition, the IoT system installed in the recycling station can provide good information to the citizen to avoid congestion time and paying for an empty visit due to long queue in the recycling stations. The service provided by Human Bridge and Telge Återvinning can be improved. However, both have already started to implement green choices. The environmental choices already made by Human Bridge (part 2) include the choice of thinner and recycled plastic bags and the choice of green electricity. The environmental choices already made by Telge Återvinning (part 3) include the choice of transportation (HVO instead of diesel) and the choice of green electricity. The recommendations for the future could include better service for the citizens (rolling service) and setting requirements on the service provider, such as in the textile collection (fossil-free transport).

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  • 157.
    Cintas, Olivia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Climate impact of BioZEment in the construction of residential buildings in Norway2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is a major contributor to global warming. One solution to the challenge is to develop new sustainable material alternatives. The BioZEment concept employs bio-catalytic dissolution and precipitation of calcium carbonate as a novel alternative to concrete. In this report, the reduction in global warming potential of using BioZEment is assessed with a building stock model, where the use of conventional concrete is compared to the use of BioZEment in Norwegian dwellings until 2100. The assessment is conducted with the assumption that BioZEment has expected material properties and is gradually penetrating the building stock until it reaches a full implementation by 2050.

    Results indicate that the use of BioZEment has a higher potential of reducing global warming potential than conventional concrete, regardless of the development of the cement industry. BioZEment could decrease cumulative greenhouse gas emissions with ca 15 % by 2100 compared to using conventional concrete with a conservative development and slightly less if compared to using concrete with an optimistic development (including among other initiatives breakthrough technologies like carbon capture and storage, and carbon capture and utilization).

    Results also indicate that, while BioZEment is not fully implemented in the entire building stock, using the optimistic development concrete instead of conservative concrete provides the lowest cumulative emissions by 2100. That means that including several migration strategies at the same time will reduce emissions further than taking one single action.

    The building stock model provides interesting indications about the potential of BioZEment, which can guide further development. If Norway is to meet its ambitious goals of emission reductions and climate neutrality, it is important to design thought through and robust strategies for the construction sector.

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    Climate impact of BioZEment in the construction of residential buildings in Norway
  • 158.
    Couceiro, Jose
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Forsman, Tobias
    Martinssons, Sweden.
    Oscillerande torkningsklimat – studier i tomograf och klimatkammare: Slutrapport2021Report (Other academic)
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  • 159.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The conditioning regime in industrial drying of Scots pine sawn timber studied by X-ray computed tomography: a case-study2020In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 78, no 4, p. 673-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial drying of sawn timber is a process driven by a difference in moisture content (MC) between the core and the surface as moisture moves from the wet inner region towards the drier surface. After drying, the timber surface is always drier than its core, and stresses have developed within the wood volume. If the timber is to be further processed, these stresses and the moisture gradient need to be reduced to avoid unwanted distortion, i.e. the timber needs to be conditioned. Conditioning is usually accomplished by exposing the timber to a hot and humid climate after the drying regime. The conditioning regime is essential for timber quality, and it is energy and time consuming; therefore of interest for optimisation. This research was a case study where for the first time the MC during conditioning was studied in an X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. The aim was to test a previously developed algorithm and investigate the influence of MC and heartwood-sapwood proportion on the effectivity of the moisture equalisation in 30 mm thick Scots pine boards. The MC was estimated from CT data acquired during the drying and conditioning of the boards in a lab-scale kiln adapted to a medical CT scanner. Results show that the algorithm can provide relevant data of internal MC distribution of sawn timber at the pixel level. Furthermore, for the drying schedules studied, the conditioning at low MC (8%) does not need to be longer than 3 h, while higher MC (18%) requires a longer conditioning.

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  • 160.
    Cristescu, Carmen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandin, Ylva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Shotton, Elizabeth
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Walsh, St John
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Cramer, Marlene
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Ridley-Ellis, Daniel
    Edinburgh Napier University, UK.
    Harte, Annete
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Ui Chulana, Catriona
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland.
    Risse, Michael
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Ivanica, Raphaela
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    De Arana-Fernández, Marina
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    García Barbero, Manuel
    Klimark + Novadomus Hábitat, Spain.
    Llana, Daniel
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Íñiguez-González, Guillermo
    Technical University of Madrid, Spain.
    Nasiri, Bahareh
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Hughes, Mark
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Krofl, Žiga
    University of Ljubljana, Slovania.
    Design for deconstruction and reuse of timber structures – state of the art review2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a state-of-the-art on timber construction in selected european countries and and discusses technical premises for a potential circular use of timber in building construction, focusing on Design for Deconstruction and Reuse (DfDR) in low-rise timber buildings, up to 3 storeys. It describes the historic and contemporary building techniques of timber buildings in all project countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, UK, Spain, Germany, Slovenia) and finds, that all of these countries have a long history of building with timber, but in most regions other materials dominated the housing output from the beginning of the 20th century. Only in the second half of the 20th century timber started gaining importance as a building material in Europe again, with light timber frame construction becoming an important construction system. From the beginning of the 21st century, innovations in the sector started transforming the construction industry. Mass timber products like CLT opened the market for high-rise timber buildings and in some countries office blocks, schools and hotels are built using timber, although the majority of timber construction remains residential. An even more important development might be the uptake of offsite construction, that makes timber construction more accurate, material efficient, fast and it reduces waste. These modern methods of construction are gaining importance in the construction sector of all partner countries and are likely to dominate the European housing output in the future. There will be some regional differences in the level of prefabrication, material choices and designs, so that any design guidelines for DfDR need to be adapted to the regional context. However, modern timber construction is not currently aligned with circular economy principles and is seldomly taking buildings endof-life-into account.

    Therefore, the report continues to summarise novel design concepts for deconstruction and reuse, that could be used in modern timber buildings. It outlines that the feasibility as well as the reuse potential depends on the scale of reclaimed components, where larger components and assemblies are often considered beneficial in terms of time, greenhouse gas emissions and waste production. If volumetric or planar units could be salvaged in the future, they also need to be adaptable for altered regulations or standards or alternative functions. It is further necessary that assemblies can be altered within buildings, since different building components have different life expectancies. Various examples for DfDR in buildings with the accompanying design strategies are presented. The buildings in the examples are often designed to be in one place for a limited timeframe and can be deconstructed and re-erected elsewhere without replacement of components. Key-features often include modularity of components, reversible connections, adaptability of the floor-plan and circular procurement. Even though it is evidently possible, the structural reuse of timber is not a wide-spread approach to date. Barriers to the use of reclaimed structural components are mainly a lack in demand for salvaged materials, but also prohibitive building regulations and the lack of design standards. Demolition practices play a crucial role as well and need to be considered in the design of buildings, to avoid damage to the components.

    Finally, the report summarises principles and guidelines for DfDR by different authors. As a generic approach an indicator system for deconstructability and reusability could be introduced. Time, Separability, Risk and Safety, Simplicity and Interchangeability are identified5as the main indicators for DfDR, that remain somewhat abstract. As opposed to using a generic indicator system, a more practical approach of assessing DfDR on an individual basis could be taken. This way specific shortcomings of the design can be addressed. But if DfDR found a wider application in the future, this approach may be too time consuming and there is a need for a more directed decision-making tool that can be used during the design phase of buildings to enhance DfDR. As the InFutUReWood project proceeds, it will examine a more granular approach to DfDR, relating it to the actual construction stages used in practice, developing a general template to be appropriated and adjusted to account for regional variations in construction. A strategic matrix is in development which will provide designers with a methodology based on relating principles, strategies and specific tactics to the typical design stages, to aid design decisions that promote DfDR.

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  • 161.
    Crocetti, R.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lappalainen, K.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Backman, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wålinder, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Multiple shear plane connections with timber based gusset plates2021In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2021, WCTE 2021, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study conducted on multiple-shear joints consisting of gusset plates made of either LVL or plywood connected to the timber members by means of full-threaded self-tapping screw. Both hardwood and softwood timber based gusset plates with different thickness and face grain orientations were investigated. The results show that this type of connection has an excellent structural performance, with not very dissimilar strength from that of comparable connections which makes use of slotted-in steel plates and dowels. It is believed, therefore, that the proposed solution can be a valid alternative to the more traditional timber connection with slotted-in steel plates and dowels. 

  • 162.
    Dahl, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Edo, Mar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Avancerad spektroskopisk speciering av metaller i askan från avfallsförbränning2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användning av sekundära råvaror har på senare tid fått ett ökat fokus med den drivkraft som finns kring cirkulär omställning. Möjligheten att nyttja askor ifrån avfallsförbränning är starkt beroende av deras innehåll av toxiska men också värdefulla komponenter, bland annat metaller.

    Föreliggande projekt har undersökt möjligheterna med att använda röntgenabsorptionsspektroskopi (XAS) för att påvisa de dominerande förekomstformerna av metallerna zink, bly, koppar och antimon i askor från förbränning av avfall. En ökad kunskap om dessa förekomstformer kan ge nya möjligheter till klassificering av bottenaskor (slaggrus) samt ge viktig information för optimering av behandlingsmetoder för att endera stabilisera flygaskor för säker deponi eller för utvinning av värdefulla metaller. I projektet ingick därför analyser av ett mindre antal askor representerande både färska och lagrade bottenaskor samt behandlade och icke behandlade flygaskor. Dessutom representerades olika förbränningsteknologier, såsom rosterpanna, roterugn och cirkulerande fluidiserad bädd (CFB).

    I projektet har röntgen-absorptionsspektroskopimätningar (XAS) genomförts vid BALDER som är ett av strålrören på MAX IV laboratoriet, Lund. XAS kan delas in i två delar, EXAFS och XANES, där XANES utnyttjar den första delen av spektrumet (energier närmast absorptionskanten) och kräver betydligt kortare analystid än en full EXAFS analys (högre energier). Fokus har därför legat på XANES i detta projekt då det är den teknik som har störst potential att fungera som en tidseffektiv standardanalys på MAX IV, speciellt för heterogena prov som genererar hög brusnivå vilket är typiskt för askor.

    Metoden är väldigt beroende av relevanta referensspektrum för att kunna identifiera de olika förekomstformerna. En stor del av arbetet har därför varit att identifiera, framskaffa, kontrollera renhetsgrad för och slutligen mäta på de totalt 43 referensmaterial som använts i analyserna (14 zinkföreningar, 14 kopparföreningar, 10 blyföreningar och 3 antimonföreningar). Dessa spektrum ligger kvar i en databas på MAX IV och kan därför utökas och kompletteras med nya relevanta referensmaterial för att ytterligare förbättra metoden framöver. Dessa är också tillgängliga för andra användare av MAX IV.

    Resultaten visade inte oväntat på att bottenaskor är mer heterogena än flygaskor vilket gav mer brus i analyserna av dessa askor, men med god reproducerbarhet. Övriga trender är beroende på vilket grundämne som undersöks.

    Den klart vanligaste förekomstformer av zink är silikatet hemimorfit (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2·H2O) både i flyg- och bottenaskor. Analyserna föreslår att ca. 20-40 % av zink återfinns i denna form i de flesta askorna. Övriga dominerande förekomstformer sett till andelen zink är Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 (Hydrozinkit) och ett annat silkat som heter Willemite och har formeln Zn2SiO3 men med en större skillnad mellan de olika analyserade askorna. En viss andel zinkklorid, ZnCl2, återfinns också i de flesta askorna.

    Den vanligaste förekomstformen av koppar i flygaskor är Cu(OH)2 (30–55%) men resultaten för bottenaskorna visar på en mer komplex sammansättning med olika oxidformer (CuO, Cu2O, CuFe2O4, Cu2SiO3) men också på förekomst av karbonat (CuCO3*Cu(OH)2) i ett av de lagrade proven.

    Den vanligaste förekomstformen av bly är associerad med någon form av silikat (PbSiO3 eller bundet till amorft SiO2 – liknande strukturen i Pb-glas), men även PbCl2 är vanligt förekommande, speciellt i flygaskor.

    Antimon var bara delvis inkluderad i studien och begränsat till tre referenser. Analysen fokuserade därför på att detektera skillnader före och efter behandling av flygaska. Ingen sådan skillnad kunde detekteras. Värt att notera är att Sb-spektrumet för den bottenaska som analyserades är identisk med det för referensen Sb2O5 och att oxidationstalet för Sb i alla askor ligger nära den för samma referens.

    En slutsats av analyserna var att vissa av referensmaterialens spektrum är mycket lika vilket resulterar i att några referenser som t.ex. ZnS aktivt behövdes selekteras bort vid analyserna baserat på kunskap om hur trolig deras förekomst i askorna är. Det finns också starka indikationer på att fler referensmaterial behövs för att beskriva några av askorna. En kombination av andra mätmetoder som t.ex. μ-XRF föreslås därför som en möjlighet i framtida arbete för att identifiera viktiga saknade referensmaterial. Dessutom skulle en jämförelse med lakanalyser vara kunskapsbyggande.

    Sammanfattningsvis har det i projektet utvecklats en fungerande analysmetod som har potential att kunna bli industriellt gångbar. De resultat som tagits fram kring möjliga förekomstformer är, sett till vad som finns publicerat i litteraturen, betydande. Men för att dra riktiga slutsatser kring olika påverkansfaktorer krävs betydligt fler riktade analyser.

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  • 163.
    Dahlberg, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Kusoffsky, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Klingberg, Josefine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Testbädd för prefabricerade dagvattenanläggningar2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Test facility for prefabricated storm water treatment devices.

    In Sweden, stormwater management has usually implied release of stormwater into the nearest recipient with no concern for either the levels of contaminants in the water or to the sensitivity of the recipient. The demand for sustainable solutions has increased along with more knowledge concerning stormwater toxicity and the harmful effects it can have on the environment in the long term. New technical solutions for stormwater treatment are continuously being presented on the market, however, independent third-party tests have rarely been conducted to verify the function of these solutions. To choose the right technology for a specific application while ensuring the function over an extended period of time, can therefore be complex task for customers. Likewise, the variety of requirements on treatment efficiency makes in challenging for technology suppliers as there is currently no possibility of independent testing of stormwater treatment devices in Sweden to verify this. As a step towards a more sustainable stormwater management, RISE developed a proposal for a national standard for prefabricated treatment devices within a Vinnova-funded project in 2019. Subsequently, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has financed three follow-up projects where this is the latter of the three. The aim for this project has been to answer the remaining questions and create sufficient knowledge to be able to build the test bed in a next step. During the project, a lot of valuable information has been gathered through interviews, dialogues, a workshop and a survey with actors from both the customer side and the supplier side in Sweden and internationally. The design of the test bed has emerged and is based on the proposed standard and the input that has come along the project. A business model has been developed, where different alternatives have been studied. Based on this, ways forward have been discussed. The conclusions of the project can be summarized by the fact that the need for a clearer definition of requirements for stormwater quality and a national standard for third-party tests of stormwater treatment devices is great both from customers and technology suppliers. Based on the dialogues conducted with international actors, it has emerged that several countries (e.g., Germany and the UK) have come further than Sweden in this area and there is much to be gained from continuing the dialogue and cooperate further on these issues. The business model shows that a mobile facility is preferable, as the area of use can then be broadened and revenues for rent can supplement income from standardized tests. However, this means that only smaller facilities can be evaluated in the facility, which several technology providers have been critical of. One possibility that have been discussed within the project is that larger facilities could be evaluated according to a Swedish standard at an established test bed abroad. For standardized tests, the cost estimate is SEK 200,000 towards the customer, to also get coverage for inactive periods. If the investment cost of the test bed can be financed in another way, for example through national grants, depreciation costs are reduced by approximately SEK 10,000 / week, which contributes to reduced costs per test and rental period. This would give more technology providers the opportunity to perform tests, as well as enable an expanded knowledge building, which would benefit the industry as a whole.

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  • 164.
    de Jong, Annelise M.
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    The potential of plastic reuse for manufacturing: A case study into circular business models for an on-line marketplace2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 4, article id 2007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plastic industry is facing increasingly growing social and political demands on plastic recycling and reuse. The resource perspective is essential for plastic production companies. Circular economy is one perspective for how industries could deal with a lack of resources today and in the future. However, there are large challenges in the reuse of plastics waste, predominantly due to concern regarding the quality of the waste material. Our paper focuses on the potential of the exchange of plastic material waste between companies in the production process before it enters into the recycling loop. In this study our aim is to investigate if an on-line marketplace is relevant for the plastic industry for this exchange, the market potential and the potential business model and requirements of the marketplace. Through interviews and benchmarking with five platform providers and two plastic manufacturing companies, we collected information on the business models of international digital platforms and plastic manufacturers concerning the exchange of reusable materials between companies. We also collected data through a survey sent out to plastic manufacturers via two industry organizations in Sweden. This paper will present the results from the study and conclude with a description of draft requirements with particular focus on direct reuse of regrind material, and a potential business model for the on-line marketplace that should be run on a commercial basis. This study shows that there are opportunities for the plastic industry to be at the forefront of a circular initiative that could also be utilized by other industries with adjustments to reflect the specific requirements of each industry. © 2021 by the authors.

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  • 165. De San Pio, Ignacio
    et al.
    Simons, Andrew
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Delgado, Luis Fernando
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Process Water Management for Sustainable Papermaking2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the challenges in papermaking have been the same for many years, however the demands from the market are increasing continuously and, together with them, the challenges for the paper mills. We consider it is the time to put a lot of efforts together to help papermaking industry to comply with these new demands on a cost-effective way. When it comes to the wet-end chemistry and stock preparation this is a clear and actual challenge. Many developments have been done in developing green chemicals with higher efficiency, machine suppliers are improving the efficiency of each unit, fiber recovery and water cleaning technologies are also under continuous improvement, but the degree of implementation of those advances is still limited. From our perspective, a mindset change is needed, where all those developments are combined to improve the product properties and the process efficiency. Process waters have a very important role to play in that, and in this presentation, we will demonstrate the link and importance that keeping the process water components under control can give to the process. Those improvements were evaluated at lab scale, demonstrated at pilot scale and then implemented at mill level. We will show how the performance of the process chemicals is affected by the process water components, and the impact on the product quality. We will also describe the methods used to understand and evaluate those impacts and describe in a full-scale test how improving the process waters lead to energy savings and the possibility to improve the product performance. The designed methodology can be of use for: - Chemical suppliers, that need to evaluate and demonstrate the performance on challenging processes, such as closed water loop mills. - Companies looking to save water and energy, identifying the costs related to their actual water management and therefore the benefits to implement the right technologies. - Water cleaning technology suppliers that are nowadays not implemented in paper mills, that would be able to demonstrate the removal of the right contaminants and the potential savings that this technology can give to the specific mill. - Paper mills with challenges due to changes in their incoming water quality, or when there are increasing demands from the market that require adaptation of the process chemistry, unlocking possibilities for further development. 

  • 166.
    Derba-Maceluch, Marta
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sivan, Pramod
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Donev, EN
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gandla, Medhavi
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Vaasan, Rakhesh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heinonen, Emilia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sanna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Amini, Fariba
    Umeå University, Sweden; Arak University, Iran.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Johansson, Ulf
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Vilaplana, FJ
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Albrectsen, BR
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hertzberg, Magnus
    SweTree Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Leif
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Mellerowicz, E. J.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Impact of xylan on field productivity and wood saccharification properties in aspen2023In: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 14, article id 1218302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xylan that comprises roughly 25% of hardwood biomass is undesirable in biorefinery applications involving saccharification and fermentation. Efforts to reduce xylan levels have therefore been made in many species, usually resulting in improved saccharification. However, such modified plants have not yet been tested under field conditions. Here we evaluate the field performance of transgenic hybrid aspen lines with reduced xylan levels and assess their usefulness as short-rotation feedstocks for biorefineries. Three types of transgenic lines were tested in four-year field tests with RNAi constructs targeting either Populus GT43 clades B and C (GT43BC) corresponding to Arabidopsis clades IRX9 and IRX14, respectively, involved in xylan backbone biosynthesis, GATL1.1 corresponding to AtGALT1 involved in xylan reducing end sequence biosynthesis, or ASPR1 encoding an atypical aspartate protease. Their productivity, wood quality traits, and saccharification efficiency were analyzed. The only lines differing significantly from the wild type with respect to growth and biotic stress resistance were the ASPR1 lines, whose stems were roughly 10% shorter and narrower and leaves showed increased arthropod damage. GT43BC lines exhibited no growth advantage in the field despite their superior growth in greenhouse experiments. Wood from the ASPR1 and GT43BC lines had slightly reduced density due to thinner cell walls and, in the case of ASPR1, larger cell diameters. The xylan was less extractable by alkali but more hydrolysable by acid, had increased glucuronosylation, and its content was reduced in all three types of transgenic lines. The hemicellulose size distribution in the GALT1.1 and ASPR1 lines was skewed towards higher molecular mass compared to the wild type. These results provide experimental evidence that GATL1.1 functions in xylan biosynthesis and suggest that ASPR1 may regulate this process. In saccharification without pretreatment, lines of all three constructs provided 8-11% higher average glucose yields than wild-type plants. In saccharification with acid pretreatment, the GT43BC construct provided a 10% yield increase on average. The best transgenic lines of each construct are thus predicted to modestly outperform the wild type in terms of glucose yields per hectare. The field evaluation of transgenic xylan-reduced aspen represents an important step towards more productive feedstocks for biorefineries. Copyright © 2023 Derba-Maceluch, Sivan, Donev, Gandla, Yassin, Vaasan, Heinonen, Andersson, Amini, Scheepers, Johansson, Vilaplana, Albrectsen, Hertzberg, Jönsson and Mellerowicz.

  • 167.
    Diener, Derek
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Ways of operating in business ecosystems to drive circular transitions2021In: New Business Models in a Decade of Action:  Sustainable • Evidence-based • Impactful. Full Conference Proceedings. New Business Models 2021, Halmstad, Sweden, 2021, p. 150-156Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy megatrend demands that manufacturing firms change their business model, implying that great changes must happen in business ecosystems. This short paper is based on observations from research in three ecosystems and identifies avenues firms can take in business ecosystems when orchestrating implementation of circular economy goals.

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  • 168.
    Diener, Derek
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Analys av CO2-utsläpp av återbrukade IT-produkter2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Elanders AB har en verksamhet som hanterar logistik och renovering av begagnade datorer och andra IT-produkter. Företaget ville ha hjälp att utforska eventuella fördelarna klimatmässigt för kunder som köper renoverade produkter. Först och främst vill företaget veta hur mycket växthusgasutsläpp (i CO2-ekvivalenter) som kan undvikas med hjälp av renovering och återbruk av ett antal standardprodukter i IT-sortimentet.

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  • 169.
    Diener, Derek
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Analysis of CO2 emissions of reused IT products2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Elanders AB has a business that handles logistics and refurbishment of used computers. The company wanted help exploring the possible climate benefits for customers who buy refurbished computers. First of all, the company wanted to know how much greenhouse gas emissions (in CO2 equivalents) can be avoided by refurbishing and reusing a number of standard IT products.

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  • 170.
    Diener, Derek
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Boyer, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hållbar Interiör Kriteriedokument: Version 1.0 Maj 20242024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Interiörer står för en betydande del av en byggnads totala miljöpåverkan under dess livscykel. Det har uppskattats att tusentals ton interiörer kan återbrukas och att dessa representerar tusentals ton koldioxidekvivalenter i klimatbesparingspotential. Kravkriterierna för Hållbar Interiör har utvecklats i syfte att komma åt just den potentialen och till rekommendationer på praxis som kan öka återbruk (IVL NrB 2351). Kriterierna fokuserar på att förebygga vanligt förekommande fenomen inom interiör- och inredningsområdet. Till exempel är det vanligt att objekt i interiören rivs eller monteras ner under inredningsprojekt oavsett skick och behov, vilket innebär att befintlig interiör ersätts med nyproducerad interiör. Det sker ofta utan analys av möjligheter att tillvarata befintlig interiör. Kriterierna tar också hänsyn till utmaningar avseende hållbara val vid planering och drift av lokaler och hållbara val av interiörer. Kravkriterierna i Hållbar Interiör bygger på en logik som följer prioritetsordningen: 1. Tillräcklighetsprincipen: Utvärdera om objektet behövs, identifiera alternativa lösningar som uppfyller behoven av interiör. 2. Använd länge: Behåll inredning, laga eller renovera vid behov. 3. Återbruka inredning från extern part 4. Inköp av ny inredning med hög miljöprestanda Kravkriterierna omfattar tre delar som viktas samman under en slutlig bedömning av uppfyllelse av kraven i detta dokument.

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    Version 1.0 Maj 2024
  • 171.
    Dikeç, Mustafa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Rage as a political emotion2023In: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, ISSN 0020-2754, E-ISSN 1475-5661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    George Floyd’s murder by a white policeman has sparked the largest urban uprising in US cities since the 1960s. By contextualising this wave of uprisings in the broader context of similar uprisings in twenty-first-century US cities, this paper shows that such an uprising has long been in the making with the violence, murders and revolts that have marked US cities since the turn of the century. My argument in this paper is against the pathological framing of these uprisings that evokes the alleged irrational anger of those who participate in the uprisings and the bad behaviour of a few police officers. Such a framing directs attention away from the structural violence that is at the source of these uprisings, and perpetuates racialised images of those who participate in the uprisings as irrational and impulsive. These uprisings, I argue, are not the actions of irrationally angry individuals mindlessly following the crowds; they cannot be reduced to gratuitous looting and burning, and they are not triggered by some police officers behaving badly. The sources of this urban rage lie in systematic, mostly unchecked, violence. The rage that erupts in these uprisings is a political emotion guided by cognition and judgements about right and wrong, just and unjust, rather than a pathological reaction spurred by uncontrollable impulses. It is a deliberate response to white contempt and the violence associated with it. The information, practices and views in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG). 

  • 172.
    Donev, E. N.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Derba-Maceluch, M.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Gandla, M. L.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Pramod, S.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heinonen, E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kumar, V.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Vilaplana, F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, U.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hertzberg, M.
    SweTree Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Sundberg, B.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Winestrand, S.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hörnberg, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Alriksson, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Jönsson, L. J.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Mellerowicz, E. J.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Field testing of transgenic aspen from large greenhouse screening identifies unexpected winners2023In: Plant Biotechnology Journal, ISSN 1467-7644, E-ISSN 1467-7652, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1005-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trees constitute promising renewable feedstocks for biorefinery using biochemical conversion, but their recalcitrance restricts their attractiveness for the industry. To obtain trees with reduced recalcitrance, large-scale genetic engineering experiments were performed in hybrid aspen blindly targeting genes expressed during wood formation and 32 lines representing seven constructs were selected for characterization in the field. Here we report phenotypes of five-year old trees considering 49 traits related to growth and wood properties. The best performing construct considering growth and glucose yield in saccharification with acid pretreatment had suppressed expression of the gene encoding an uncharacterized 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (2OGD). It showed minor changes in wood chemistry but increased nanoporosity and glucose conversion. Suppressed levels of SUCROSE SYNTHASE, (SuSy), CINNAMATE 4-HYDROXYLASE (C4H) and increased levels of GTPase activating protein for ADP-ribosylation factor ZAC led to significant growth reductions and anatomical abnormalities. However, C4H and SuSy constructs greatly improved glucose yields in saccharification without and with pretreatment, respectively. Traits associated with high glucose yields were different for saccharification with and without pretreatment. While carbohydrates, phenolics and tension wood contents positively impacted the yields without pretreatment and growth, lignin content and S/G ratio were negative factors, the yields with pretreatment positively correlated with S lignin and negatively with carbohydrate contents. The genotypes with high glucose yields had increased nanoporosity and mGlcA/Xyl ratio, and some had shorter polymers extractable with subcritical water compared to wild-type. The pilot-scale industrial-like pretreatment of best-performing 2OGD construct confirmed its superior sugar yields, supporting our strategy. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 173.
    Edblad, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Oberrauter, Lisa-Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Bergman, Penny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ett digitalt system för ökad källsortering och engagemang i offentlig miljö2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As we cope with our society’s increasingly hectic pace, sales of fast food and "on-the-go" products have dramatically increased. This consumption has led to increasing amounts of waste packaging in the public environment. While littering is a visible problem so is the appropriate provision of waste bins. The vast majority of waste collected from the public environment is not sorted for material recycling. The purpose of the project was to test and evaluate a deposit-return-system on “on-the-go” single use packaging. A three-month test focused on coffee cups. A local marketing communications campaign provided consumers with information on how the packaging was to be recycled. Mini-recycling stations (paper, glass, plastic and ‘other’) were provided within a short walk. The numerous regular ‘unsorted’ waste bins remained in place during the test. When buying a coffee at participating cafes in Örnsköldsvik, between 1 June and 31 August 2021, consumers paid an additional 2 SEK. This deposit was refunded to the consumer when they recycled their coffee cup. This was done using a smartphone ‘app’ at one of the eight mini-recycling stations in the city center. It was also possible to get the refund at the conventional household packaging recycling stations in Örnsköldsvik. The evaluation considered three areas. Firstly, the extent consumers retrieved the deposit. In the test consumers retrieved the deposit about 10% of the time. The majority was refunded and recycled at conventional recycling stations where consumers normally recycle household packaging. Secondly, recycling levels and the purity of collected waste. The test demonstrated increased sorting and improved sorting quality. Of the paper coffee cups left at one of the eight mini-recycling stations, 90% were sorted in the correct fraction. Compared to other beverage paper cups of which 70% were sorted correctly. When considering the unsorted waste from the numerous regular waste bins, an overall recycling level of 56% of refundable coffee cups was achieved. This, together with the low share of coffee cups refunded, indicates that the proximity and convenience of disposal has a higher value than the need to recycle. Thirdly, acceptance among consumers and cafés. A deposit-return-system for on-the-go packaging was not crucial for increasing recycling in public environment. The participating and surveyed consumers were positive towards the project's aim to increase recycling of on-the-go packaging. They did not, however, appreciate the design of the app used in the project. Café owners varied in their perception of the digital deposit system. The main project conclusion is that a deposit-return-system for on-the-go packaging is not crucial for increased source sorting in public environments. This was an ambitious project testing consumer behavioral change. Örnsköldsvik’s city centre went from using bins without the possibility of recycling-to-recycling stations in public environments with the possibility to recycle coffee cups with a refund. While residents and visitors participated, there was limited marketing and only a three-month test period. As a consequence, results must be qualified by the relatively small data sets. That includes physical volumes of cups refunded and recycled, the number of respondents in interviews and surveys. Örnsköldsvik’s city centre has retained recycling stations following the project.

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  • 174.
    Edo Giménez, Mar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Henriksson, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Fördjupad analys av plast i hushållens restavfall och dess potential till ökad materialåtervinning och minskad klimatpåverkan2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att nå uppsatta nationella klimatmål behöver avfalls- och energisektorn minska klimatutsläppen från energiåtervinningen av avfall som idag står för omkring 75 procent av de totala klimatutsläppen från el- och fjärrvärmesektorn. Restavfall från hushåll och liknande verksamheter står för drygt 30 procent av de totala avfallsmängderna som idag går till energiåtervinning i Sverige. En betydande andel av hushållens restavfall utgörs av plastförpackningar som står för de största klimatutsläppen vid energiåtervinning. Därutöver förekommer andra avfallsslag i vilka plast utgör ett av flera material som exempelvis pappersförpackningar som ofta innehåller en vätskebarriär i plast samt blöjor och andra sanitetsprodukter. Fossilt kol som bidrar till klimatpåverkan vid energiåtervinning av restavfall förekommer också i material som man inte uppfattar som plaster, till exempel konstläder, syntetiska textilier och gummi. Idag har vi stor kunskap om avfallssammansättningen i hushållens restavfall eftersom kommuner på regelbunden basis genomför plockanalyser på avfallet. Dock är kunskapen idag begränsad vad gäller klimatpåverkan från restavfallets ingående avfallsfraktioner. Detta med hänsyn tagen till att olika plaster släpper ut olika mycket koldioxid beroende på faktorer såsom polymertyp, innehåll av smuts och vätska, typ av fyllmedel och andel plast i den aktuella avfallsfraktionen. Det har gjorts projekt i vilka man uppskattat klimatpåverkan från olika avfallsfraktioner i hushållens restavfall. Gemensamt för dessa rapporter är att schabloner använts eller antaganden gjorts kring materialsammansättningen för flera avfallsfraktioner för att uppskatta klimatpåverkan samt att data över klimatpåverkan i vissa fall är aggregerad där summan av flera underliggande avfallsfraktioner redovisas. Därutöver finns det också kunskapsluckor kring förekomsten av vilka olämpliga ämnen som olika avfallsfraktioner i restavfallet innehåller. Olämpliga ämnen är sådana ämnen som finns på kandidatförteckningen eller kan vara ämnen som på annat sätt kan försvåra materialåtervinningen. Sammantaget bidrar detta till osäkerheter kring potentialen för olika åtgärder som exempelvis ökade och förbättrade källsorteringsmöjligheter, eftersortering, kemisk återvinning samt CCU och CCS, för att minska klimatpåverkan från energiåtervinning av hushållens restavfall. Syftet med projektet är att ge en ökad förståelse för vilken klimatpåverkan ingående avfallsfraktioner i hushållens restavfall har. Detta genom att analysera avfallsfraktioner innehållande plast med avseende på bl.a. andelen fossilt respektive biogent kol, polymertyp samt innehåll av ämnen på kandidatlistan och annat oönskat material. Baserat på erhållna resultat kan följande slutsatser från projektet dras: • Hårdplastförpackningar och mjukplastförpackningar vilka omfattas av producentansvar står för 35–43 procent av de fossila koldioxidutsläppen vid förbränning av hushållens restavfall. • Fraktionen Övrig plast, som består av plast som inte faller under något producentansvar, utgör 12–17 procent av de fossila koldioxidutsläppen vid förbränning av hushållens restavfall. Denna avfallsfraktion innehåller ämnen på kandidatlistan vilka kan vara ett hinder vid materialåtervinning. • Fraktionen Övrigt brännbart står för 11–12 procent av de fossila koldioxidutsläppen vid förbränning av hushållens restavfall och innehåller ämnen på kandidatlistan (ftalater) vilket kan vara ett hinder vid materialåtervinning. Övrigt brännbart innehåller material som exempelvis leksaker, gummihandskar, hår, skor, mattor m.m. • Blöjor bidrar till 6–9 procent av de totala fossila koldioxidutsläppen vid förbränning av hushållens restavfall. Blöjor och sanitetsprodukter omfattas inte av producentansvar och består av många olika sorters material. • Textilier utgör 3–8 procent av de fossila koldioxidutsläppen vid förbränning av hushållens restavfall och av dessa textilier är omkring en tredjedel återanvändningsbara kläder, vilka det idag finns insamlingssystem för. Några olämpliga ämnen som försvårar materialåtervinning kunde inte identifieras. Från och med 2025 kommer kommunerna samla in uppkommet textilavfall separat. • Tillsammans med fraktionen Blöjor kommer avfallsfraktionerna Övrig plast och Övrigt brännbart att stå för de största fossila koldioxidutsläppen från energiåtervinning av hushållens restavfall när fastighetsnära insamling av förpackningar är på plats. Något producentansvar förekommer idag inte för dessa avfallsfraktioner och förekommande material är svåra att materialåtervinna då det innehåller många olika sorters polymerer. • En jämförelse av klimatpåverkan från avfallsfraktioner i hushållens restavfall gentemot tidigare studier är svårt att göra. En anledning till denna slutsats är att tidigare studier redovisar aggregerade data över klimatpåverkan innehållande flera avfallsfraktioner som var och en bidrar till klimatpåverkan vid förbränning. En annan orsak är skillnader i restavfallets avfallssammansättning mellan studier. Utifrån resultatet som baseras på faktiska mätningar för respektive avfallsslag, finns nu data från samtliga ingående restavfallsfraktioner i hushållens restavfall som bidrar till klimatpåverkan i samband med förbränning. Detta gör det möjligt att uppskatta klimatpåverkan från restavfallet och potentialen i olika klimatåtgärder utifrån olika kommuners specifika avfallssammansättning.

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  • 175.
    Edo, Mar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Nilsson, Jamilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Sorting technologies: Case study about a MSW sorting facility in Norway - IVAR2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The IVAR plant combines post-sorting of residual waste with recycling of some of the plastic waste fractions. At the plant five different fraction of plastics, four fractions of paper, bio- waste, glass, and metal packaging are separated. In total 83.2 % by weight of the incoming waste is sent to energy recovery (WtE) and 16.8 wt% is recovered for material recycling. It is estimated that approx. 82 wt% of the plastic in the waste is separated. Today they also have spare capacity to receive more waste for sorting, however the costs are relatively high and the economic incentive from the sales of the sorted materials are not enough. The largest renumeration comes from the Norwegian producer responsibility schemes for sorting plastic, metal packaging and beverage cartons.

    The bottle neck of the recycling industry with the current state of the art is the quality of the plastic waste. Only part of the plastic waste is suitable for recycling (have a market for the recycled material). New solutions for both plastic sorting and recycling is needed to increase the impact and circularity from the recycling. It will be crucial to find solutions for low quality and mixed plastic materials. There also need to be measures put in place to create a market pull for the recycled material.

    While all the recycled material generates positive climate effects, the recycled plastic generates double gains. It reduces the emissions for the production of virgin plastics and at the same time it reduces the direct fossil CO2 emissions generated by the WtE plant. Considering upcoming regulations in Norway, with increased CO2 taxes, the investments for more residual sorting plants in Norway is likely to increase.

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  • 176.
    Edo, Mar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Waste-to-Energy and Social Acceptance: Copenhill Waste-to-Energy plant in Copenhagen2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of the Copenhill Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plant in a residential suburb in Copenhagen redefines the concept of a WtE plant. This is not just because of its location in a residential area and its special architecture, since that had already been achieved by Spittelau WtE plant in Wien (Austria); but rather for providing a multi-functional building with room for social and industrial activities in a sustainable manner and with good utilization of urban space. Copenhill represents an example of integration of WtE plants in an urban area and collaboration with the residents to achieve social acceptance in the activities developed by the waste and energy sector. In other words, Copenhill is the first WtE-plant of a new reinvented concept; there may be lessons in this for planned projects around the world, as a lack of community acceptance is often cited as a factor in unsuccessful proposals.

    Located only 2 km away from the Royal Palace, Copenhill is integrated into urban life with its innovative architectonic design offering a recreational area on the facility rooftop that includes an all year skiing slope, and a champagne bar for those who would like to visit, as well as a climbing wall on the facade.

    From a technical point of view, Copenhill was conceived from the idea of being a WtE plant showcase that Denmark could export to the world. Therefore, it was built using the best available technology to ensure the highest environmental performance and energy efficiency all in all in the safest environment. In addition, the construction site was used for training apprentices in works associated with the construction of WtE plants, providing economic benefit for the community.

    This case study describes technical and economic aspects of the Copenhill plant, and how Amager Resource Center (ARC), owners of Copenhill, and the residents in the city of Copenhagen found the way to share a common area in which everyone could feel safe and contribute to a more sustainable city while being a profitable business.

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  • 177.
    Edvall, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kjärstad, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larfeldt, Jenny
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vätgas på Västkusten2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt syftar till att samla kunskap och kartlägga det framtida behovet av fossilfri vätgas på västkusten, inom västsvensk industri samt kraft- och värmesektorn. Därefter undersöka och utvärdera vilken infrastruktur som krävs och värdera centraliserade lösningar mot lokala. Projektet har intervjuat deltagande företag kring deras vätgasbehov, vätgasproduktion, önskade framtida roll, vätgasstrategier samt annat relaterat till den industriella omställningen till fossilfrihet. Alla 13 deltagande företag har intervjuats under mars/april 2021 och svaren har sammanställts för att få en aggregerad bild. Utöver intervjuer har det inom projektet också genomförts två workshops med deltagande företag. Bland de 13 deltagande företagen är det 7 industrier som har ett vätgasbehov idag och detta uppgår totalt till 6,4 TWh vätgas/år, vilket motsvarar 192 kton vätgas/år. Industrierna har gett uppskattningar på framtida behov av vätgas uppdelat på två scenarios, ett för minimum och ett för maximum. I minscenariot uppgår vätgasbehovet till 4,9 TWh vätgas/år vilket är en minskning om knappt en fjärdedel (-24 %) jämfört med dagens behov medan maxscenariot motsvarar mer än en fördubbling av dagens behov (+120 %) till totalt 14 TWh vätgas/år. Orsaken till det eventuellt minskade vätgasbehovet är att produktionsvolymer möjligen kan reduceras i framtiden samt en möjlig övergång till mer förädlade råvaror. I detta arbete har vi haft fokus på fossilfri vätgas som produceras genom elektrolys med fossilfri el för både centraliserad och decentraliserad produktion. För de decentraliserade lösningar har tre fiktiva industrier med olika stora behov av vätgas, satta för att täcka in behovsspannet för medverkande företag, jämförts med en centraliserad lösning för produktion av vätgas som sedan transporteras i rörledningar till fler användare. Den centraliserade lösningen som har utvärderats innefattar Göteborg, Stenungsund och Lysekil samt en sträckning för vätgasledningen på 120 km och har utgått från det uppskattade maxscenariot för behovet av vätgas. Rapporten visar att vätgasledningarna endast utgör en marginell del av kostnaden för centraliserad produktion och distribution av vätgas. Dessutom har den föreslagna vätgasledningen en stor överkapacitet och det finns därmed möjlighet att dela kostnaden för ledningarna över en ännu större vätgasvolym. Utöver den rent ekonomiska jämförelsen mellan centraliserad och decentraliserad vätgasproduktion och distribution så finns en rad andra aspekter att beakta. Den centraliserade lösningen kan medföra större flexibilitet för en konsument avseende mängden vätgas som köps in och över hur lång tid. En centraliserad lösning kan också behöva en lägre total kapacitet avseende produktion och lager då eventuell överkapacitet delas mellan alla som är anslutna till nätet. Etableringen av en storskalig vätgasinfrastruktur gör också att satsningarna blir mindre knutet till enskilda aktörer. Dessutom kan ett vätgasnät i regionen nyttjas av andra sektorer och locka nya aktörer att placera verksamhet här, vilket i sin tur kan stärka regionens konkurrenskraft. Den centraliserade lösningens uppbyggnad kräver dock en synkronisering av efterfrågan och produktion samt större investeringar vilket kan medföra längre ledtider än för en decentraliserad produktion hos en enskild aktör. En centraliserad lösning gör att placering av produktionskapacitet blir friare längst vätgasledningens sträckning vilket ger möjlighet att ta hänsyn till elnätskapacitet och avsättning för biprodukterna syrgas och restvärme. En viktig lärdom av projektet var att konstatera att uppbyggnad av en infrastruktur för produktion, transport och lagring av vätgas är en komplex fråga. Man måste samverka brett över flera sektorer för att identifiera många nyttor, för flertalet aktörer, om man vill räkna hem en sådan infrastruktursatsning. Dessutom måste många olika investeringar ske i rätt följd och vara väl samordnade. Därför ser de deltagande aktörerna positivt på ett fortsatt samarbete kring vätgasfrågan. Projektet har identifierat flera möjliga förslag till fortsatt arbete, bland annat: • En mer detaljerad förstudie som genomförs av ett ledande gas-/infrastrukturföretag. Studien bör inkludera produktion och distribution av både förnybar och blå vätgas och eventuellt ammoniak, samt en fördjupad analys av olika lagringsmöjligheter för vätgas. För att kunna genomföra förstudien behövs ett mer preciserat behovsscenario kring exempelvis när i tiden behovet uppstår och hur stort behovet är. • Utvärdering av systemperspektivet kring vätgas, el och andra närliggande sektorer. Exempelvis hur systemintegration kan främja resurseffektivitet och flexibilitet. • Initiering av ett regionalt samordningsprojekt, som bör ha fokus på det kortsiktiga perspektivet och konkreta aktiviteter. Förslag på relevanta aktiviteter i ett sådant projekt har identifierats och inkluderar följande: ‐ Kunskapsbevakning om teknikutveckling inom vätgasområdet, inklusive vätgasproduktion från biometan med CCS (möjlighet till negativa utsläpp) ‐ Kunskapsbevakning om utveckling av CAPEX för produktion, distribution och lagring av vätgas ‐ Bevaknings av sektorkopplingsfrågor i och med att tillgång till förnybar el, både produktion och elnätskapacitet, och elpriset anses vara avgörande för produktion av fossilfri vätgas. ‐ Harmonisering med omvärlden/EU, både i termer av regelverk och möjligheter till sammankoppling med dess vätgasledningar ‐ Påverkansarbete och policyfrågor

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  • 178.
    Edvall, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Rosen, Sophia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flexibel vätgasproduktion2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med projektet är att utreda möjligheter och hinder för en vätgasproducent att leverera flexibilitetstjänster genom en framtida elektrolysöranläggning. Projektet avser även att samla kunskap för att öka förståelsen kring vad som krävs för att detta skall vara genomförbart där hänsyn tas till industrier som har ett kontinuerligt vätgasbehov. Fokus i detta projekt har varit de tekniska egenskaperna hos elektrolysörer och vätgaslager. Dessa egenskaper jämförs med efterfrågan av flexibilitet på olika tidsskalor inom elsystemet. Dessa sträcker sig från under sekunden för de snabbaste stödtjänsterna till upp mot timmen för lokala flexibilitetsmarknader. Projektet har genomfört en kortare litteraturstudie samt intervjuat deltagande parter och andra relevanta aktörer. För att det skall vara möjligt att köra elektrolysörerna flexibelt och samtidigt tillgodose det kontinuerliga flödet av vätgas som industrin efterfrågar krävs att det finns en annan källa till vätgas som kan kompensera för fluktuationerna, exempelvis ett vätgaslager. Det är tekniskt möjligt för elektrolysörer att bidra med flexibilitet till lokala marknader samt stödtjänster till Svenska kraftnät, dock behöver storleken på flexibilitetsbudet anpassas för att kunna matcha kraven. Hänsyn behöver även tas till flexibilitet i utformning och design av anläggningen, exempelvis avseende storlek och typ av elektrolysör, storlek på lager och prestanda för kompressorer. Nedan listas några ytterligare möjligheter och utmaningar som identifierats i projektet kopplade till flexibel körning av elektrolysörer: • Tillgång till ett vätgasnät ger förutsättningar för att köra elektrolysören flexibelt och om det finns ett vätgaslager kopplat till vätgasnätet blir förutsättningar ännu bättre • Utrymme inom industriområdet samt geologiska förutsättningar för underjordiskt lager begränsar möjligheterna till lagring av vätgas • Ett variabelt flöde av biprodukter kan hanteras med lager alternativt att inte nyttja biprodukterna fullt ut, vilket går i linje med att det inte är troligt att avsättning finns för all syrgas och värme • Flexibilitet kan möjliggöra tidigare anslutning till elnätet eftersom anläggningen tekniskt sett kan anpassa sitt eluttag efter nätkapaciteten • Elnätsavtal behöver kunna utformas så att flexibilitet kan komma nätet till nytta • Extra investeringar krävs för flexibilitet samtidigt som möjliga intäkter, besparingar och kostnader är svåra att uppskatta • Att välja bort en investering i flexibilitet medför också en risk då exponering mot framtida elpriser blir högre

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  • 179.
    Edvall, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Eriksson, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Skärhem, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    HANDLINGSPLAN - Regional samverkan kring vätgas2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna handlingsplan är framtagen inom projektet Regional samverkan kring vätgas som finansieras av Klimatledande Processindustri där Västsvenska Kemi- och Materialklustret ingår. Handlingsplanen utgår från det geografiska område i och i närheten av Göteborg, Stenungsund och Lysekil, det område där kemi- och raffinaderiindustrierna på västkusten är verksamma. Handlingsplanen innehåller prioriterade frågeställningar och aktiviteter att utföra i närtid och är framtagen av RISE i samarbete med Borealis, Chalmers, Göteborg Energi, Göteborgs Hamn, Inovyn, Linde Gas, Liquid Wind, Nordion Energi, Perstorp, Preem, St1, Uniper samt Vattenfall. Syftet med projektet är att skapa samverkan kring vätgasrelaterade frågor baserat på identifierade behov hos nyckelaktörer i regionen. Projektet ska även identifiera vilka former för samverkan som på bästa sätt kan underlätta och påskynda omställningen till ett klimatneutralt samhälle, givet regionens specifika utmaningar och möjligheter kopplat till vätgas.

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  • 180.
    Egeskog, Andrea
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Barretto, Alberto
    CTBE Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory, Brazil.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Freitas, Flavio
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Actions and opinions of Brazilian farmers who shift to sugarcane-an interview-based assessment with discussion of implications for land-use change2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 57, p. 594-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugarcane ethanol systems can deliver large greenhouse gas emissions savings if emissions associated with land-use change are kept low. This qualitative study documents and analyzes actions and opinions among Brazilian farmers who shift to sugarcane production. Semi-structured interviews were held with 28 actors associated with sugarcane production in three different regions: one traditional sugarcane region and two regions where sugarcane is currently expanding. Most farmers considered sugarcane a land diversification option with relatively low economic risk, although higher risk than their previous land use. Beef production was considered a low-risk option, but less profitable than sugarcane. In conjunction with converting part of their land to sugarcane, most farmers maintained and further intensified their previous agricultural activity, often beef production. Several farmers invested in expanded production in other regions with relatively low land prices. Very few farmers in the expansion regions shifted all their land from the former, less profitable, use to sugarcane. Very few farmers in this study had deforested any land in connection with changes made when shifting to sugarcane. The respondents understand "environmental friendliness" as compliance with the relevant legislation, especially the Brazilian Forest Act, which is also a requirement for delivering sugarcane to the mills. Indirect land-use change is not a concern for the interviewed farmers, and conversion of forests and other native vegetation into sugarcane plantations is uncontroversial if legal. We derive hypotheses regarding farmers' actions and opinions from our results. These hypotheses aim to contribute to better understanding of what takes place in conjunction with expansion of sugarcane and can, when tested further, be of use in developing, e.g., policies for iLUC-free biofuel production.

  • 181.
    Ekvall, Annika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Nordberg, Åke
    Hannerz, Nils
    Hantering av förpackat livsmedelsavfall2006Report (Refereed)
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  • 182.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    TERRA, Sweden.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Einarson Lindvall, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Palander, Sara
    Swedish Life Cycle Center, Sweden.
    Modelling electricity in environmental footprints2023Report (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Eneqvist, Erica
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Algehed, Jessica
    Municipal Research in West Sweden, Sweden.
    Jensen, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Legitimacy in municipal experimental governance: questioning the public good in urban innovation practices2022In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1596-1614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTUrban experiments, living labs and testbeds have emerged as influential approaches to governing cities around the world. Experimental governance allows stakeholders to trial possible futures and to embrace creativity and innovation in the pursuit of sustainability goals. Experiments are often conducted through triple helix partnerships that favour informal and distributed actions. This is a significant departure from traditional urban development processes that are informed by well-defined processes executed by public authorities to ensure the public good and are legitimated by citizens. In this paper, we investigate this tension between experimental governance and public sector legitimacy by focusing on experimental practices in two Swedish municipalities, Stockholm and Gothenburg. We gathered data through a desk-based study, participant observations and semi-structured interviews with municipal actors to investigate the input, throughput and output legitimacy of municipalities in experimental governance. The findings indicate that municipalities emphasise actions and results from experiments, while de-emphasising reflection and attention to democratic procedures and protection of the public good. The focus on legitimacy reveals the fragmented and instrumental practices of experimental governance and a deficit in organizational capacity with potential detrimental impacts on legitimacy.

  • 184.
    Eneqvist, Erica
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Experimental governance and urban planning futures: Five strategic functions for municipalities in local innovation2021In: Urban Planning, E-ISSN 2183-7635, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 183-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental governance is increasingly being implemented in cities around the world through laboratories, testbeds, platforms, and innovation districts to address a wide range of complex sustainability challenges. Experiments often involve public-private partnerships and triple helix collaborations with the municipality as a key stakeholder. This stretches the responsibilities of local authorities beyond conventional practices of policymaking and regulation to engage in more applied, collaborative, and recursive forms of planning. In this article, we examine how local authorities are involved in experimental governance and how this is influencing their approach to urban development. We are specifically interested in the multiple strategic functions that municipalities play in experimental governance and the broader implications to existing urban planning practices and norms. We begin the article by developing an analytic framework of the most common strategic functions of municipalities in experimental governance and then apply this framework to Stockholm, a city that has embraced experimental governance as a means to realise its sustainability ambitions. Our findings reveal how the strategic functions of visioning, facilitating, supporting, amplifying, and guarding are producing new opportunities and challenges to urban planning practices in twenty-first century cities. © 2021 by the author

  • 185.
    Enger, J
    et al.
    University of Arts, Crafts and Design, Sweden .
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark; .
    Carolina, Hiller
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    PERCEPTUAL METRICS FOR LIGHT QUALITY IN SPATIAL ENVIRONMENTS2023Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 186.
    Eriksson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Cederstav, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ranäng, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lyrberg, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Einarson Lindvall, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    von Wieding, Sönke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Slutrapport inom Gothenburg Green City Zone (GGCZ): Metodik för analys och införande av klimatneutrala mobilitets- och transportlösningar i städer2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är ett arbetsdokument som har efterfrågats i arbetet inom Gothenburg Green City Zone (GGCZ), där det pågår en process för att ta fram en mer detaljerad planering för en övergång till helt fossilfria transporter i Göteborg. Rapporten resonerar först kring zonbegreppet, vilken forskning som tidigare gjorts, vilka slags zoner som redan finns och som implementerats i Sverige och Europa. Rapporten föreslår sedan en metodik för hur zoner kan definieras och hur en generell zonindelning skulle kunna upprättas som skulle kunna användas som mall för både Göteborg och andra städer. Arbetet är inte färdigt utan kommer att fortsätta under kommande år både inom RISE och tillsammans med övriga samarbetspartners. Det som kvarstår är att definiera i detalj vilka parametrar och egenskaper som gör en viss zon unik, exempelvis genom mätetal som stadsdelars täthet, demografi, socioekonomiska förhållanden, infrastruktur samt befintlig framkomlighet. Målet med arbetet har varit att utveckla och förbättra kunskapen om zonmetodiken, visa på dess möjliga fördelar och utveckla ett verktyg för att användas i omställningen och att hjälpa Göteborg och andra städer att lyckas med omställningen mot klimatneutrala transporter till år 2030.

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  • 187.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Lindgren, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    5G i träindustrin2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Privata 5G nätverk – antingen som en del av ett publikt eller som ett helt eget mobilnät erbjuder möjliga lösningar på ett antal av de utmaningar som finns kring WiFi och trådlösa uppkopplingar i logistik och produktion. Tekniken börjar bli väletablerad och antalet leverantörer ökar snabbt samtidigt som priser för infrastrukturen sjunker i pris. Förutom att femte generationens mobilnät löser problem kring mobilitet och uppkoppling så finns ett antal intressanta funktioner såsom positionering och standardiserad edge computing för lokala digitala tjänster. Dessa funktioner bör dock ses som en del av en framtida uppgradering snarare än något som finns tillgängligt idag (dock inte så långt bort in i framtiden). Alla de besökta sågverken hade liknande utmaningar kring trådlös uppkoppling och i vissa fall har även 4G-baserade lösningar börjat användas – med gott resultat.

    Tyvärr fick vi inte konkreta priser från de operatörer och leverantörer som dialog fördes med men via vissa leverantörer kan man ändå få en viss indikation (se t ex AWS erbjudande där det för ett privat nät med två radioaccespunkter ligger på ca 140 KSEK / månad totalt).

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  • 188.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Ledarskap i mellanrummen – fallstudie av gränsgångare och gränspraktiker i en komplex samverkansmiljö2020Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gränsöverskridande samarbete, samverkan och tidsbegränsade arbetssätt är på modet. Stadsplanering, samhällsstyrning, välfärdsproduktion och tackling av samhälleliga utmaningar sker allt mer i projektform och inkluderar en blandning av offentliga verksamheter, privata aktörer och intressenter. Så kallad gränsöverskridande organisering sker över olika typer av professionella, organisatoriska, geografiska och institutionella gränser. Denna trend har även inneburit ett ökat intresse för gränsgångare och olika typer av gränspraktiker som enligt studier spelar en allt viktigare roll i gränsöverskridande samverkansmiljöer. Denna studie söker svar på hur en gränsgångarpraktik kommer till uttryck i en samverkansmiljö, vilka problem som uppstår och på vilket sätt praktiken eventuellt bidrar till samverkan. Studien har fokuserat på projektet

    Kraftsamling Sjöbo som har pågått sedan december 2017. I Kraftsamlingen deltar offentliga verksamheter, civilsamhället, myndigheter, föreningar, akademin, forskningsinstitut och invånare. Syftet är en hållbar omställning av en stadsdel. För det första visar studien att det krävdes en omfattande arbetsinsats för att åstadkomma ett fungerande samarbete över gränser. Det gränsöverskridande samarbetet försvårades delvis på grund av skillnader i kultur, intressen, värderingar och organisatoriska förutsättningar. För det andra visar studien att projektledarrollen förändrades och arbetet med Kraftsamlingen visade sig kräva omfattande gränsöverskridande interaktion, facilitering och ständigt pågående problemlösning. Gränsgångaren trädde in i en ledarskapsroll när situationer krävde det och arbetade aktivt för att skapa strukturella förutsättningar för att åstadkomma fungerande samarbete, baserat på Kraftsamlingens mission och värden. Gränsgångarpraktiken visade sig vara komplex och mångfacetterad. Gränsgångaren kopplade exempelvis samman aktörer, byggde sociala nätverk, mobiliserade resurser, försökte påverka rådande tanke- och arbetssätt, förflyttade information över gränser, agerade som översättare mellan professionella gemenskaper, löste uppblossande konflikter, skapade nya organisatoriska strukturer, försökte skapa engagemang och drev på för kollektiv handling. Gränsgångaren försökte etablera en gemensam samverkanskultur och arbetade aktivt med de sociala sammanhangen i organisationen.

    För det tredje indikerar studien att den här typen av gränsöverskridande ledarskapspraktik spelar en viktig roll i gränsöverskridande samverkansmiljöer där en mångfald av aktörer som har olika förutsättningar och intressen deltar. Studien illustrerar även de utmaningar som ett projektbaserat arbetssätt kan innebära när gränser korsas och när frågorna som hanteras är komplexa och sammansatta. Studiens resultat kan också omsättas till ett antal praktiska rekommendationer. För det första bör synen på projektledarskapet i komplexa samverkansprojekt nyanseras och utvidgas. För det andra bör gränsgångarroller och det informella ledarskapet synliggöras och uppvärderas i samverkansmiljöer. För det tredje bör de specifika kompetenserna och det nödvändiga sociala hantverket synliggöras och inkluderas i rekryteringsarbetet hos organisationer.

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  • 189.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Planering på gränsen och gränsen för planering - En studie av gränsöverskridande samhällsplanering2023Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory thesis aims to describe and analyze how boundaries emerge, affect planning practices, and how boundaries are managed over time in order to achieve integrated planning processes. This thesis is particularly interested in how the interplay between boundary-spanning and boundary-crossing activities in relation to the organization of strategic spatial planning can be understood from an institutional perspective. The overall research question was sub-divided into three further research questions: How do boundaries emerge, and how are they managed, when planning is organized? What boundary arrangements emerge over time for the managing of boundaries? How can the choice of boundary arrangement be understood in relation to institutional orders? The thesis involves a case study of two urban planning projects and an organizational planning reform. Using a qualitative research approach, empirical data were collected through participant observations when planners collaborated, shadowing planners in their work environment, conducting semi-structured interviews with planners, hosting focus group discussions, and analyzing relevant documents. The findings of the present study demonstrate that planners face multiple challenges related to boundaries, which in turn encourages continuous transformation processes. Negotiations are revealed to play a crucial role in managing and modifying boundaries. More specifically, different and conflicting views on how boundaries should be drawn and desired characteristics of the boundaries converge in negotiation processes. Drawing on the institutional theoretical framework of the study, the organizing principles of egalitarianism and hierarchy are positioned in opposition to one another. Negotiations ultimately result in an egalitarian approach to boundary management, which involves preserving formal boundaries and organizing planning work across boundaries. An informal planning organization emerges alongside the formal planning organization, and specific boundary arrangements and approaches to organize collective action in a polycentric planning environment become institutionalized. This development, however, gives rise to new problematic boundaries between the formal and informal planning organization, which in turn leads to further negotiation and incremental changes to boundary arrangements and planning practices.

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  • 190.
    Ernits, Heiti
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Essunger, Pia
    Borås stad, Sweden.
    Kraftsamling: ett förebyggande arbetssätt för tackling av samhällsutmaningar2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kraftsamling är ett gränsöverskridande arbetssätt för att tackla samhällsutmaningar i ett geografisk avgränsat område. Arbetssättet går ut på att åstadkomma tillfällig resursförstärkning och en kollaborativ planerings- och problemtacklingsprocess som organiseras på ett gränsöverskridande sätt tillsammans med myndigheter, offentliga organisationer, boende, civilsamhället, akademin och företag. Det handlar om att tackla konkreta problem i det korta perspektivet och bygga kapacitet för insatser som verkar långsiktigt på ett förebyggande och främjande sätt. Arbetet sker stegvis och genom ständig lärande. Metodboken innehåller praktiska tips, beskrivning av konkreta lärdomar och en fördjupningsdel med tydligare koppling till rådande forskning. Metodboken lyfter också fram de utmaningar som kan uppstå när arbetet sker på ett gränsöverskridande sätt och när det uppstår konflikterande intressen och perspektiv som måste hanteras. Metodboken skall inte ses som en ”kokbok” som skall följas till ”punkt och pricka” för lyckat resultat, utan snarare tjäna som en inspiration till samhällsplanerare, politiker och experter som behöver experimentera med sina lokala förutsättningar för att kunna åstadkomma en fungerande samhällsplanering.

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  • 191.
    Escamez, S.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Terryn, C.
    Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, France.
    Gandla, M. L.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Näsholm, T.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundman, O.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, L. J.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lundberg-Felten, J.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tuominen, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Niittylä, T.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Paës, G.
    Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, France.
    Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging as an in Situ and Label-Free Readout for the Chemical Composition of Lignin2021In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 9, no 51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Naturally fluorescent polymeric molecules such as collagen, resilin, cutin, suberin, or lignin can serve as renewable sources of bioproducts. Theoretical physics predicts that the fluorescence lifetime of these polymers is related to their chemical composition. We verified this prediction for lignin, a major structural element in plant cell walls that form woody biomass. Lignin is composed of different phenylpropanoid units, and its composition affects its properties, biological functions, and the utilization of wood biomass. We carried out fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) measurements of wood cell wall lignin in a population of 90 hybrid aspen trees genetically engineered to display differences in cell wall chemistry and structure. We also measured the wood cell wall composition by classical analytical methods in these trees. Using statistical modeling and machine learning algorithms, we identified parameters of fluorescence lifetime that predict the content of S-type and G-type lignin units, the two main types of units in the lignin of angiosperm (flowering) plants. In a first step toward tailoring lignin biosynthesis toward improvement of woody biomass feedstocks, we show how FLIM can reveal the dynamics of lignin biosynthesis in two different biological contexts, including in vivo while lignin is being synthesized in the walls of living cells. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 192.
    Escamez, Sacha
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Robinson, Kathryn
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Luomaranta, Mikko
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Gandla, Madhavi
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Mähler, Niklas
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Stener, Lars-Göran
    Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, eif
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Street, N. R.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Tuominen, Hannele
    Umeå University, Sweden; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Genetic markers and tree properties predicting wood biorefining potential in aspen (Populus tremula) bioenergy feedstock2023In: Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts, E-ISSN 2731-3654, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Wood represents the majority of the biomass on land and constitutes a renewable source of biofuels and other bioproducts. However, wood is recalcitrant to bioconversion, raising a need for feedstock improvement in production of, for instance, biofuels. We investigated the properties of wood that affect bioconversion, as well as the underlying genetics, to help identify superior tree feedstocks for biorefining. Results: We recorded 65 wood-related and growth traits in a population of 113 natural aspen genotypes from Sweden (https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.gtht76hrd). These traits included three growth and field performance traits, 20 traits for wood chemical composition, 17 traits for wood anatomy and structure, and 25 wood saccharification traits as indicators of bioconversion potential. Glucose release after saccharification with acidic pretreatment correlated positively with tree stem height and diameter and the carbohydrate content of the wood, and negatively with the content of lignin and the hemicellulose sugar units. Most of these traits displayed extensive natural variation within the aspen population and high broad-sense heritability, supporting their potential in genetic improvement of feedstocks towards improved bioconversion. Finally, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed 13 genetic loci for saccharification yield (on a whole-tree-biomass basis), with six of them intersecting with associations for either height or stem diameter of the trees. Conclusions: The simple growth traits of stem height and diameter were identified as good predictors of wood saccharification yield in aspen trees. GWAS elucidated the underlying genetics, revealing putative genetic markers for bioconversion of bioenergy tree feedstocks. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 193.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kantarelis, Efthymios
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Performance analysis and fate of bromine in a single screw reactor for pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)2020In: Process Safety and Environmental Protection, ISSN 0957-5820, E-ISSN 1744-3598, Vol. 143, p. 313-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on chemical recycling of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), which constitutes a problematic waste fraction due to the presence of brominated flame retardants. An auger reactor has been designed and used for this study. Real WEEE material provided by Stena Technoworld has been pyrolyzed under different temperature conditions. The performance of the reactor as well as other important parameters such as the fate of the bromine have been investigated and evaluated. The main outcome of this investigation is to simulate a continuous process, which can be useful for designing a full-scale industrial process. The mass balance results after performing thermal treatment at 400, 500, and 600 °C, showed a high gas yield (44 %wt) at the temperature of 600 °C, which energy content is enough to self-sustain the auger reactor. At the low temperature of 400 °C the oil production reaches its maximum yield as well as maximum concentration of bromine, corresponding to 0.5 wt% in the oil. Several valuable organic compounds have been detected in the oil composition, which can be used as precursors for feedstock recycling producing new plastics. © 2020 The Authors

  • 194.
    Falk, Magnus U
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sjukhus Demonstrator 2021 – 20232023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 195.
    Fallahi, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mogren, Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Zec, Edvin Listo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Algurén, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hallquist, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Financing solutions for circular business models: Exploring the role of business ecosystems and artificial intelligence2023In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 32, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy promotes a transition away from linear modes of production and consumption to systems with circular material flows that can significantly improve resource productivity. However, transforming linear business models to circular business models posits a number of financial consequences for product companies as they need to secure more capital in a stock of products that will be rented out over time and therefore will encounter a slower, more volatile cash flow in the short term compared to linear direct sales of products. This paper discusses the role of financial actors in circular business ecosystems and alternative financing solutions when moving from product-dominant business models to Product-as-a-Service (PaaS) or function-based business models. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates a solution where state-of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI) modeling can be incorporated for financial risk assessment. We provide an open implementation and a thorough empirical evaluation of an AI-model, which learns to predict residual value of stocks of used items. Furthermore, the paper highlights solutions, managerial implications, and potentials for financing circular business models, argues the importance of different forms of data in future business ecosystems, and offers recommendations for how AI can help mitigate some of the challenges businesses face as they transition to circular business models. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 196.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Energy system models as a means of visualising barriers and drivers of forest-based biofuels: An interview study of developers and potential users2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived biofuels have been on the agenda for several decades. Despite extensive research and development efforts, forest biofuel concepts have nevertheless not yet been realized on any significant scale. The discrepancy between the expectations from the research community and the lack of momentum regarding biofuel production raises the question of if and how research results can be used to achieve such goals. Here, we report results from an interview study with the aim of evaluating how energy system models can be used to illustrate barriers and drivers for forest biofuels, with focus on Swedish conditions, using the BeWhere model as case. The study is framed as an example of expertise, and problematizes how energy system models are interpreted among expected users. While the interviews revealed some general scepticism regarding models, and what kinds of questions they can answer, the belief was also expressed that increased complexity might be an advantage in terms of being able to accommodate more barriers against forest biofuels. The study illustrates the complexity of this policy area, where an energy system model can answer some, but never all, 'what if.?' questions. The results reveal a need for reformation in energy system modelling in order to more explicitly make society the subject of the work, and also illustrate that the belief in expertise as a tool for consensus-building in decision-making should be questioned.

  • 197.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Värdeskapande affärer: Företagens entreprenöriella egenskaper och dess påverkan på det teknologiska innovationssystemet2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inför storskaliga teknikskiften krävs omfattande tekniska och sociala omställningar,inte minst inom den etablerade industrin. Resultaten från det härforskningsprojektet visar att individer inom etablerade energiföretag utgör enmycket viktigare funktion för omställningen av det svenska energisystemet än vadsom tidigare varit känt. I fallstudier visas att individer inom etableradeenergiföretag aktivt och självständigt kan välja att engagera sig i olika former avhållbarhetsinitiativ. Deras engagemang lockar med sig kollegor och andra personerutanför organisationen och bidrar därför successivt till nya normer och värderingar.Forskningen om hållbara omställningar av samhälle och industri har kritiserats föratt mestadels befinna sig på systemnivå. I den utsträckning individer förkommerinom denna forskning har de mestadels beskrivits kopplade till så kallade”nischinitiativ”, t ex som småföretagare, gräsrotsinnovatörer eller slutanvändare.Lite uppmärksamhet har ägnats åt individer som är kopplade till etableradeorganisationer. Denna licentiatavhandling visar att individer som är kopplade tilletablerade organisationer självmant kan välja att engagera sig i tre olikasammanhang: jobb-, temporärt- och/eller ett entreprenöriellt sammanhang. Medhjälp av teorier från socialpsykologi förklaras varför individer engagerar sig menockså varför individer ibland väljer att inte engagera sig. Resultaten visar också attindividers engagemang inte automatiskt bibehålls mellan dessa olika sammanhang.Avhandlingens huvudsakliga bidrag är att individer kan välja att delta i hållbaraomställningar i olika sammanhang, inom och utanför deras organisatoriskahemmiljö. Dessa individer är viktiga att se och uppskatta om vi bättre skall förståhur hållbara omställningar startas och uppnås.

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  • 198.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    District heating as a flexibility service: Challenges in sector coupling for increased solar and wind power production in Sweden2023In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 172, article id 113332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With expanding solar and wind power production, the topic of flexibility services attracts increased attention in the Swedish energy system. In this context, the potentials in using thermal storage capacities in district heating (DH) systems have been brought forward, primarily by academic scholars. Using a ‘grounded’ approach, this study investigates if professionals assigned to Swedish DH companies and electricity distribution system operators utilise, or plan to utilise, DH systems as flexibility services for the electricity grid. Original data was collected through semi-structured interviews, held with fourteen individuals affiliated to different actors in the Swedish energy system. These individuals were identified as being experts, or practically engaged, in using DH utilities as flexibility services for the electricity grid. The findings show that although technologies for coupling between DH systems and the electricity grid are already in place, initiatives for using DH systems as flexibility services for the electricity system are rare in Sweden. Coupling challenges stem from ownership and operation legislation frameworks, marginal incentives and a widespread focus on firm benefits rather than energy systems benefits. Identified initiatives for using DH systems for flexibility services are primarily run on a local scale, designed and propelled by small groups of engaged individuals.

  • 199.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansla, André
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    It's all about the functionality: Psychological determinants of acceptance of energy efficient water taps in freshwater abundant urban areas2021In: Energy and Climate Change, ISSN 2666-2787, Vol. 2, article id 100053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate changes will intensify the competition for fresh water. Technologies for reducing household tap water consumption may be an effective measure for sustainable water consumption. However, such technologies may come with a potential perceived reduction in comfort. This field study thus examines whether and how tenants, who live in apartments in water abundant areas and have a standard cost for water included in their rent, accept reduction in tap-water comfort over a six-month period of technology familiarisation, A repeated questionnaire study (n = 38) was conducted to mesasure changes in acceptance and perceived functionality of water efficient faucets over time. We also tested to what extent motivational factors posited by the value-belief-norm (VBN) theory accounted for acceptance of hands-on experiences in the early-stage of familiarisation. Unlike the familiarisation hypothesis, our results show decreased acceptance for bathroom and kitchen faucets mediated by impaired perceived functionalities (in flow and temperature). No such changes were observed for shower faucets. Moreover, while the casual chain hypothesised by the VBN theory (i.e., moving from values to awareness of consequences to a personal norm of water conservation) is shown to account for acceptance, no ascription of responsibility is disclosed. Overreliance and boundary conditions for familiarisation effects are discussed.

  • 200.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurial Sustainability Engagement of Insiders Initiating Energy System Transition2021In: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 13, no 2, article id 734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central point in this article is that energy system transition can be initiated by a team of individuals interacting entrepreneurially beyond their different home-grounds in business, research, or regional development. Such entrepreneurial engagement of insiders with belongings to an established socio-technical system has not been captured in prevalent sustainability transitions or entrepreneurship perspectives. Insiders have mostly been expected to act within (and not outside) of their role expectations. This study investigates who individuals initiating energy transition are, what motives they have, and how they accomplish institutional change. The purpose is to qualify a perspective that can help us better appreciate how transitions, such as in energy systems, can be initiated. The new perspective recognizes the importance of insiders, their personal sustainability beliefs, their choice to teamwork entrepreneurially, and their narratives about the initiative affecting institutional change. It explains how transition in a heavily regulated Swedish energy system can occur. Implications are drawn for research, policy and entrepreneurial teamwork.

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