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  • 151.
    Stading, Mats
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Pettersson, A.
    Léufven, A.
    Mechanical properties and permeability of whey protein films.1996In: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 4, p. 93-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Sundberg, M
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Finite difference time domain analysis of industrial microwave ovens.1996Report (Refereed)
  • 153. Sundström, B.
    et al.
    Janestad, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Skjöldebrand, Christina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Process simulation - everything to win nothing to lose.1993In: European Food and Drink Review, Autumn, p. 89-93Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 154.
    Svanberg, U.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Lorri, W.
    Sandberg, A.-S.
    Lactic fermentation of non-tannin and high-tannin cereals: Effects of in vitro estimation of iron availability and phytate hydrolysis.1993In: Journal of Food Science, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 408-412Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Svanberg, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Sjogren, E.
    Lorri, W.
    Svennerholm, A.-M.
    Kaijser, B.
    Inhibited growth of common enteropathogenic bacteria in lactic-fermented cereal gruels1992In: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 0959-3993, E-ISSN 1573-0972, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 601-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A natural lactic fermentation of mixtures of water and whole flour of either maize or high-tannin sorghum was obtained either before or after cooking to a weaning gruel: The preparations had a final pH of about 3.8 (range 3.67 to 4.00) and a ratio of lactic acid to acetic acid of 9:1 (w/w). The growth of added (about 107 c.f.u./g gruel) Gram-negative intestinal pathogenic bacteria, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium, was strongly inhibited in the sour gruels, and the effect could primarily be explained by the low pH caused by the formation of lactic and acetic acids during the fermentation process. Of the added Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus showed similar inhibited growth up to 7h after inoculation in the sour gruels. The strain of Staphylococcus, however, showed only a continued reduction in growth in the fermented gruel samples, which had a viable lactic bacteria culture indicating the presence of a bacteriocin. This implies that a low pH (< 4.0) alone is not sufficient to sustain the inhibition of the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The survival studies were carried out at optimal temperatures for each respective enteropathogen. © 1992 Rapid Communications of Oxford Ltd.

  • 156.
    Svanberg, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Sjögren, E.
    Lorri, W.
    Svennerholm, A.-M.
    Kaijser, B.
    Inhibited growth of common bacteria in lactic-fermented cereal gruels.1992In: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, Vol. 8, p. 601-606Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Svegmark, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Potato starch dispersions : structure and rheology1992Report (Refereed)
  • 158. Svegmark, K.
    et al.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Distribution of amylose and amylopektin in potato starch pastes: Effects of heating and shearing.1991In: Food Structure, Vol. 10, p. 117-129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 159. Svegmark, K.
    et al.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Microstructure and rheological properties of composites of potato starch granules and amylose: A comparison of observed and and predicted structures.1993In: Food Structure, Vol. 12, p. 181-193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 160. Svegmark, K.
    et al.
    Kidman, Siw
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Molecular structures obtained from mixed amylose and potato starch dispersions and their rheological behaviour1993In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic viscoelastic measurements were used to study the effects of varying the ratio of potato starch to amylose. Solubilised amylose was mixed with two different types of potato starch: one with starch in the form of swollen granules and the other in the form of a molecular dispersion. The total concentration was kept constant at 8% (w/w). When the level of added amylose was low, the shear modulus (G*) was higher for gels with swollen granules than for molecular dispersions of starch. When the level of added amylose was high, the value of G* was approximately the same, independent of the type of starch structure. The rheological data were evaluated by a model treating the added amylose and potato starch as phase-separated systems. The model showed that the inherent amylose of potato starch did not contribute markedly to the gel strength caused by the added amylose. Potato starch alone does not form strong gels in the time scale studied. TEM studies confirmed that the inherent and the added amylose gave rise to completely different types of structure. The added amylose had an open network structure of stiff strands. This type of structure was found in the mixed systems with added amylose and starch, but not in systems with only potato starch. Solubilised amylopectin appeared to have a droplet-like structure, often found in the form of a string of beads. © 1993.

  • 161. Svegmark, Karin
    et al.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Changes induced by shear and gel formation in the viscoelastic behaviour of potato, wheat and maize starch dispersions1991In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 151-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of shear and gel formation on the behaviour of heat-treated wheat, maize and potato starch dispersions was studied using dynamic viscoelastic measurements. The starch types were compared both at a concentration of 10% and at concentrations where the same level of shear forces was applied during the paste preparation procedure (11% wheat, 10% maize, and 4% potato). The cereal and the potato starch pastes initially showed similar viscoelastic properties after gelatinization, but the cereal starch pastes underwent a transition in their viscoelastic behaviour when cooled. This transition was believed to be due to the gelation of amylose. The main changes observed were a sharp increase in the shear modulus and a drop in the phase angle to below 2 degrees. No such transition occurred on cooling the potato starch pastes, at 25°C for 1 h, in the concentration range studied (4-10%).

  • 162.
    Thorsell, U
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Guide to the development of food products and packages for microwave ovens : packages and products for heating in microwave ovens1994Report (Refereed)
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  • 163.
    Thorsell, U
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Handbok för utveckling av livsmedelsprodukter och förpackningar för mikrovågsuppvärmning1994Report (Refereed)
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  • 164.
    Thorvaldsson, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Diffusion of water in food materials : a literature review1995Report (Refereed)
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  • 165. Thorvaldsson, K.
    et al.
    Skjöldebrand, Christina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Method and instrument for measuring local water content inside food1996In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method of measuring local water content inside food during heat processing has been evaluated. The method uses a fibre optic NIR-Instrument. The evaluation was mainly based on investigations of the influence of structure and temperature. The instrument was found to be very sensitive to both the structure and the temperature of the sample. The dependence on the temperature of the sample can be incorporated into the calibration and is thereby not an impediment to the measurements. The structural dependence makes quantitative measurements at different places in the sample difficult for inhomogeneous materials. However, measurements of dynamic changes in the water content in one spot work well for both homogenous and inhomogeneous materials and are probably the best application of the instrument. By using two or more optic fibres, the diffusion of water can also be measured. Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Limited.

  • 166. Thorvaldsson, K.
    et al.
    Skjöldebrand, Christina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Water transport in meat during reheating1996In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 13-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of heat and water transport in meat during a heating process was conducted. The meat samples were heated from 10 to 100°C in a conventional oven at 175°C and local water content and temperatures were measured during the heating process. Using whole meat from bovine muscles, the mechanism behind water transport inside the sample during heating was investigated. The anisotropy of meat in terms of heat and water transport was also studied. The study yielded two main results: When heating commences, water moves towards the centre of the samples. At a centre temperature of ?70°C, water transport stops and changes direction. A theory for transport phenomena has been developed and is described in this paper. The results also indicate that, as expected, both water transport and heat transport are faster parallel to the meat fibres than perpendicular to them. Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Limited.

  • 167.
    Thorvaldsson, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Kidman, Siw
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Langton, Maud
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Rheology and structure of heat-treated pasta dough - influence of water content and heating rate1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The migration of water, and the influence of water content and heating rate on the rheological and structural formation of pasta dough were investigated. During heating, the local water content was measured in the center of the samples with a fiber optic NIR-instrument. The rheology of the heat-treated samples was studied by tensile tests. Young's modulus, the stress at maximum load and the energy to break point were calculated. The microstructure of the samples was characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the parameters were quantified by image analysis. No migration of water inside the samples could be found, and both the water content and the heating rate affected the structural and rheological properties of the samples.

  • 168. Tidehag, P.
    et al.
    Sandberg, A.-S.
    Hallmans, G.
    Wing, K.
    Türk, Maria
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Holm, S.
    Effect of milk and fermented milk on iron absorption in ileostomy subjects.1995In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 62, p. 1234-1238Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Türk, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Carlsson, N.-G.
    Sandberg, A.-S.
    Reduction in the levels of phytate during wholemeal bread making: Effect of yeast and wheat phytases1996In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 257-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    No difference in wheat phytase activity was observed when different types of acid were used to adjust the pH of wholemeal wheat flour suspensions to pH 5·0, the optimum for wheat phytase. When whole wheat bread was made without additives or after adjustment of the dough pH with acetic acid or lingonberry (traditional ingredients in bread making in Sweden), 64%, 96% and 83%, respectively, of the initial phytate was hydrolysed. A small but significant difference between breads with and without yeast or with deactivated yeast was found, indicating that yeast contributed some phytase activity under the conditions of bread making (pH 5·3-5·8 and 30-37°C). The optimum pH of yeast phytase was found to be 3·5. The isomers of IP5 formed with purified wheat phytase or yeast phytase were studied using sodium phytate as substrate. Wheat phytase formed 1,2,3,4,5-IP5 whereas yeast phytase formed 1,2,4,5,6-IP5. Determination of the isomers of inositol pentaphosphate demonstrated that the reduction in phytate levels in bread compared with wholemeal flour resulted from both wheat and yeast phytase activities. © 1996 Academic Press Limited.

  • 170.
    Türk, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Sandberg, A.-S.
    Phytate degradation during breadmaking.: Effect of phytase addition.1992In: Journal of Cereal Science, Vol. 15, p. 281-294Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Undeland, I
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Oxidation in fatty fish during processing and storage : a literature review1995Report (Refereed)
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  • 172.
    Walkenström, P
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Functional properties of whey proteins : scientific background and patent applications in low-fat products1993Report (Refereed)
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  • 173.
    Walkenström, P
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Phase distribution of mixed biopolymer gels in relation to process conditions1996Report (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Fine-stranded mixed gels of whey proteins and gelatin1996In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rheological properties of mixed and pure gels of gelatin and whey protein concentrate (WPC) have been investigated by means of tensile tests and dynamic oscillatory measurements. The microstructure of the system has been evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The pH values chosen are within the range where the WPC forms a fine-stranded network structure, i.e. pH 7.5 and 3.0. When the ratio between the polymers was varied at pH 7.5, a shift in rheological properties was observed. The shift took place around 10% WPC addition to 3% gelatin. Below the shift, the mixed gels followed the behaviour of gelatin, and above, they followed the behaviour of WPC. Gel formation studies showed that the components gel individually, suggesting a phase-separation of the polymers. The gel formation of the WPC was independent of the presence of gelatin, while that of gelatin was shown to be dependent on the presence of WPC. At concentrations below the shift the mixed gels were remeltable and the system was interpreted as gelatin-continuous. At concentrations above the shift, the microstructure of the mixed gels suggested that a phase-separated, bicontinuous system was formed. The WPC network structure seemed to be unchanged in the presence of gelatin. No microstructural phase inversion took place. At pH 3.0 the gel formation of the WPC was strongly affected by the presence of gelatin, i.e. a stronger gel with an earlier gel point was formed. The microstructure of the system showed that an inhomogeneous, aggregated mixed gel, containing large pores, was formed. © Oxford University Press.

  • 175.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Mixed gels of fine-stranded and particulate networks of gelatin and whey proteins.1994In: Food Hydrocolloids, Vol. 8, p. 589-607Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Wessling, C
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Interactions between polymeric packaging materials, fatty foods and food or polymer additives : a literature review1996Report (Refereed)
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  • 177. Wirtanen, G.
    et al.
    Mattila-Sandholm, T.
    Manninen, M.
    Ahvenainen, R.
    Rönner, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Application of rapid methods and ultrasound imaging in the assessment of the microbial quality of asepticaly packed starch soup.1991In: International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 26, p. 313-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 178. Yin, D.
    et al.
    Lingnert, Hans
    Ekstrand, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Brunk, U.T.
    Fenton reagents may not initiate lipid peroxidation in an emulsified linoleic acid model system1992In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 543-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study includes two parts. First, the Fe2+ autooxidation and chelation processes in the presence of the chelators ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) were studied by measuring UV light absorbance alterations. Competition for Fe3+ between chelators and water or phosphate buffer (PB) ions was confirmed. The addition of EDTA or DTPA to Fe3+ in water or PB only slowly turned the water/PB-Fe3+ complexes to EDTA-Fe3+ or DTPA-Fe3+ complexes. In the second part of this study, the initiation mechanisms of Tween 20 emulsified linoleic acid peroxidation under stimulation by chelator-Fe-O2 complexes were studied by measuring changes in UV light absorbance following diene conjugation. Fe3+ in the presence of EDTA or DTPA did not stimulate diene conjugation. Fe2+ (0.10 mM) and EDTA (0.11 mM) stimulated diene conjugation of the linoleic acid emulsion, but only after apparent Fe2+ autooxidation. Fe2+ and DTPA, as well as premixed DTPA-Fe2+ complex, resulted in very fast diene conjugation in a wide range of concentrations. A nonlinear, mainly square root relation between Fe2+ concentration and peroxidation rate was noted. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and mannitol did not prevent the lipid peroxidation. H2O2 substantially decreased the DTPA-Fe2+ stimulated, otherwise rapid, diene conjugation but slightly enhanced the slower one stimulated by EDTA-Fe2+. Without ambient oxygen, Fenton reagents did not result in 'H abstraction-related diene conjugation. The findings suggest that 'OH resulting from Fenton reagents may not be the main cause for the initiation of peroxidation in this model system. Furthermore, a study with different combinations of Fe2+ and Fe3+ did not support the Fe2+/Fe3+ (1:1) optimum ratio hypothesis. We therefore conclude that perferryl ions or chelator-Fe-O2 complexes may be responsible for the first-chain initiation 2 of lipid peroxidation, at least in this model system.

  • 179.
    Åström, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Heat transfer between fluid and particles in food processing. Licentiate thesis.1991Report (Refereed)
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  • 180.
    Åström, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Mätteknik för livsmedelskvalitet1991Report (Refereed)
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  • 181.
    Åström, Annika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Bark, G.
    Heat transfer between fluid and particles in aseptic processing1994In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 97-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The particle heat transfer coefficient, hfp, is one of the critical factors, besides the residence time distribution, that has to be known for the design and development of continuous heat processes of particulate food products. In the present work, data and methods for determining hhp for conditions relevant to aseptic processing have been studied. The influence of product characteristics, such as size and composition of particles, fluid properties, temperature differences and fluid motion, have been investigated. Among the parameters investigated, the flow field around the particles was shown to be the most important for heat transfer but for special conditions the particle size, particle shape or thermal properties of the particle, as well as the apparent viscosity and the thermal properties of the fluid, are equally important for the value of hfp. For safety considerations, the present investigation indicates that hfp values corresponding to an Nu value of 5-6 should be relevant for medium-sized spherical particles transported by a highly viscous liquid. For the quality aspects, different conditions have to be considered. Particles at different positions in·the tube flow will experience different heat transfer. The few particles in the centre of the tube will experience a low heat transfer and hfp values corresponding to Nu values ranging between 5 and 10. The larger amounts of particles are transported in the liquid with a pronounced velocity gradient which yields Nu values of 10-17, while for extreme conditions occurring for sedimented particles, Nu values between 20 and 45 could be expected. © 1993.

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