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  • 151.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Andersson, M.
    Edström, P.
    Determination of quantum efficiency in fluorescing turbid media2011In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, no 17, p. 2784-2792Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Andersson, M.
    Edström, P.
    Kinnunen, J.
    Limitations in the efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents in uncoated paper2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 3, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Neuman, M.
    Edström, P.
    Extension of the Stokes equation for layered constructions to fluorescent turbid media2012In: Optical Society of America. Journal A: Optics, Image Science, and Vision, ISSN 1084-7529, E-ISSN 1520-8532, no 4, p. 574-578Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 154.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Neuman, M.
    Edström, P.
    Lateral light scattering in paper: MTF simulation and measurement2011In: Optics Express, E-ISSN 1094-4087, no 25, p. 25181-25187Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Norberg, O.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE, Innventia.
    Paper whiteness and its effect on perceived image quality2010In: 18th Color and Imaging Conference: Color Science and Engineering Systems, Technologies, and Applications, Technical Papers and Proceedings: CIC18, 2010, p. 62-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whiteness is a commercially important characteristic of paper and board, although its perception depends on many factors that often are neglected by instrumental measurements. High whiteness improves the contrast of printed areas and increases the number of reproducible colours, but few quantitative studies have been published. In this paper, we report just-noticeable image quality difference (JND) from pair wise comparisons of images printed on paper substrate of different shades and whiteness. The JND was estimated to approximately 15 CIE whiteness, for the images and whiteness levels in this study, implying that a large substrate whiteness difference is required to get a significant visual impact on image quality. Unlike previous studies limited to colour rendering issues, the influence of the substrate’s shade as a surrounding frame to the images was also investigated here. It was found that the surrounding frame did not have a significant impact on image quality, when the images had an inherent dim background around the objects in the image. However, floating images in which the image objects are adjacent to the unprinted substrate would need further attention, since their perceived image quality seemed to depend both on the colour reproduction related to whiteness and shade, and on the contrast between the image and the substrate.

  • 156.
    Coppel, Ludovic
    RISE, Innventia.
    Measuring and producing high perceived whiteness2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Coppel, Ludovic Gustafsson
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Fluorescence model for multi-layer papers using conventional spectrophotometers2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 418-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an extension of a Kubelka- Munk based fluorescence model in which we introduce an apparent scattering (S UV) and absorption (K UV) coefficient for all wavelengths below 400 nm. We describe a method for modelling the total radiance factor of multi-layer papers and for estimating the optical parameters (S, K and Q) of each layer. Assuming that the fluorescent whitening agent only absorbs below 400 nm, we are able to determine S UV, K UV and the apparent quantum efficiency, Q(UV,λ) for 400 nm<λ<700 nm, from spectral radiance measurements in the visual part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We test the proposed method on different layered constructions made of three individual pilot paper layers. The proposed method allows the papermaker to determine the illumination independent fluorescence characteristics of single- and multilayer paper layers using a conventional singlemonochromator spectrophotometer operating in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and also to predict the radiance factor of fluorescing layered papers.

  • 158.
    Coppel, Ludovic Gustafsson
    et al.
    Gjøvik University College, Norway.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Norberg, Ole
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Siv
    RISE, Innventia.
    Impact of illumination spectral power distribution on radiance factor of fluorescing materials2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectral radiance factor and thereby the appearance of fluorescing material is known to depend strongly on the spectral power distribution (SPD) of the illumination in the fluorophore's excitation wavelength band. The present work demonstrates the impact of the SPD in the fluorescence emission band on the total radiance factor. The total radiance factor of a fluorescing paper is measured in three different illuminations. The presence of peaks in the SPD of fluorescent light tubes dramatically decreases the luminescent radiance factor. This effect will impact the appearance of fluorescing media under illuminations with large variation in SPD, which includes recent LED illuminations.

  • 159.
    Coseri, Sergiu
    et al.
    Romanian Academy, Romania.
    Biliuta, Gabriela
    Romanian Academy, Romania.
    Zemlijic, Lidija Fras
    University of Maribor, Slovenia.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Strnad, Simona
    University of Maribor, Slovenia.
    Kreze, Tatjana
    University of Maribor, Slovenia.
    Naderi, Ali
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, Innventia.
    Correction: One-shot carboxylation of microcrystalline cellulose in the presence of nitroxyl radicals and sodium periodate2015In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, no 117, p. 96927-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correction for ‘One-shot carboxylation of microcrystalline cellulose in the presence of nitroxyl radicals and sodium periodate’ by Sergiu Coseri et al.RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 85889–85897.

    The authors regret that the images presented for Fig. 1 and 3 in the original article present incorrect carbohydrate structures. The amended versions of these images, in which the 3-position hydroxyl groups are equatorial rather than axial, are presented below.

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 160.
    Coseri, Sergiu
    et al.
    Romanian Academy, Romania.
    Biliuta, Gabriela
    Romanian Academy, Romania.
    Zemlijic, Lidija Fras
    University of Maribor, Slovenia.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Strnad, Simona
    University of Maribor, Slovenia.
    Kreze, Tatjana
    University of Maribor, Slovenia.
    Naderi, Ali
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, Innventia.
    One-shot carboxylation of microcrystalline cellulose in the presence of nitroxyl radicals and sodium periodate2015In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, no 104, p. 85889-85897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water soluble cellulose derivatives are highly required products for many practical purposes, expanding the limited applications of pure cellulose caused by the highly ordered hydrogen bond network and high crystallinity. In this connection, this paper, presents a new approach to obtain water soluble carboxyl-functionalized cellulosic materials, combining two of the most common selective oxidation protocols for cellulose, i.e. nitroxyl mediated reaction and periodate oxidation, in a one-shot reaction. It was found that, under specific reaction conditions, fully oxidized, 2,3,6-tricarboxy cellulose can be obtained in large amounts. The other valuable oxidized fractions were found to possess large amounts of carboxylic groups, as determined by potentiometric titration. 13C-NMR evidenced the presence of three distinctive carboxylic groups in the fully oxidized product, whereas for the partially oxidized samples, 13C CP-MAS solid-state NMR did not detect any carbonyl signals. The oxidized products were characterized by means of FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the changes of the degree of polymerization occurring after oxidative treatments were viscometrically determined.

  • 161.
    Cozzolino, Carlo A.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute. University of Sassari, Italy.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Iotti, Marco
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Sacchi, Benedetta
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Piga, Antonio
    University of Sassari, Italy.
    Farris, Stefano
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Exploiting the nano-sized features of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) for the development of controlled-release packaging2013In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 110, p. 208-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was used in this study to prepare films containing an active molecule, lysozyme, which is a natural antimicrobial agent. The main goal of this research was to assess the potential for exploiting the nano-sized dimension of cellulose fibrils to slow the release of the antimicrobial molecule, thus avoiding a too-quick release into the surrounding medium, which is a major disadvantage of most release systems. For this purpose, the release kinetics of lysozyme over a 10-day period in two different media (pure water and water/ethanol 10. wt.%) were obtained, and the experimental data was fitted with a solution of Fick's second law to quantify the apparent diffusion coefficient (D). The results indicate that the MFC retained lysozyme, presumably due to electrostatic, hydrogen, and ion-dipole interactions, with the largest release of lysozyme-approximately 14%-occurring from the initial amount loaded on the films. As expected, ethanol as a co-solvent slightly decreased the diffusion of lysozyme from the MFC polymer network. The addition of two potential modulating release agents-glycerol and sodium chloride-was also evaluated. Findings from this work suggest that MFC-based films can be considered a suitable candidate for use in controlled-release packaging systems.

  • 162.
    Cunha, Ana Gisela
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhou, Qi
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Topochemical acetylation of cellulose nanopaper structures for biocomposites: Mechanisms for reduced water vapour sorption2014In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 2773-2787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture sorption decreases dimensional stability and mechanical properties of polymer matrix biocomposites based on plant fibers. Cellulose nanofiber reinforcement may offer advantages in this respect. Here, wood-based nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and bacterial cellulose (BC) nanopaper structures, with different specific surface area (SSA), ranging from 0.03 to 173.3 m2/g, were topochemically acetylated and characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, solid-state CP/MAS 13C-NMR and moisture sorption studies. Polymer matrix nanocomposites based on NFC were also prepared as demonstrators. The surface degree of substitution (surface-DS) of the acetylated cellulose nanofibers is a key parameter, which increased with increasing SSA. Successful topochemical acetylation was confirmed and significantly reduced the moisture sorption in nanopaper structures, especially at RH = 53 %. BC nanopaper sorbed less moisture than the NFC counterpart, and mechanisms are discussed. Topochemical NFC nanopaper acetylation can be used to prepare moisture-stable nanocellulose biocomposites.

  • 163.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, Karolina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Thermoplastic wood hemicellulose-lactide graft-polymers and films2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, Karolina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Thermoplastic wood hemicellulose-lactide graft-polymers and films2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Danielsson, Sverker
    RISE, Innventia.
    Pure xylan from black liquor through new separation technique2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Danielsson, Sverker
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sorption and desorption of black liquor xylan onto cellulose fibers2014In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 48, no 9-10, p. 819-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of xylan as a polymer in different new materials is large and not yet utilized. The availability in kraft pulp mills is large as the polymeric xylan dissolved in process liquors corresponds to up to 160 kg/adt and is today burnt to recover energy. A pre-requisite for using black liquor xylan in high-value products is to purify it from inorganic material and lignin in a technically effective and economical feasible way. This study combines two known properties of xylan: its affinity to cellulose and its solubility in alkali. The aim is to design an efficient separation process to produce black liquor xylan of high purity. A very pure xylan was reached with as low lignin contents as 1%. The hydroxide ion concentration was varied in the sorption step and it was found that an increase in hydroxide ion concentration resulted in a decreased amount of isolated xylan, decreased degree of substitution of uronic acids, but no effect on the lignin content and ash content was seen.

  • 167.
    Danielsson, Sverker
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Holm, Richard
    RISE, Innventia.
    Öhman, Fredrik
    Lipnizki, Frank
    A novel approach for applied membrane filtration on processing flows2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Dedic, D.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Iversen, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sandberg, T.
    Ek, M.
    Chemical analysis of wood extractives and lignin in the oak wood of the 380 year old Swedish warship vasa2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Dedic, Dina
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cellulose degradation in the Vasa - the role of acids and rust2013In: Studies in Conservation, ISSN 0039-3630, E-ISSN 2047-0584, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 308-313, article id 40105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oak timbers of the Swedish warship Vasa are deteriorating. High amounts of oxalic acid have been found along with a low pH and low molecular weight cellulose deep in the wood timbers. The iron-rich surface wood differs from the interior wood in that it displays higher pH and cellulose with higher molecular weight. The objective of this study was to determine why there is a difference in cellulose degradation, pH, and oxalic acid amount between the surface region and the interior of the Vasa timbers. Analysis of cellulose weight average molecular weight by size exclusion chromatography was performed, as well as quantification of oxalic acid and iron by high-performance anion exchange chromatography and atomic emission spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that a decrease in iron content coincides with an increase in oxalic acid concentration and a drop in pH at a certain depth from the wood surface. When iron-rich surface wood samples from the Vasa were mixed with an aqueous solution of oxalic acid, a fast increase of pH over time was observed. Neither interior wood poor in iron nor the fresh oak reference showed the same neutralizing effect during the time of measurement. This indicates that the presence of iron (rust) causes a neutralization of the wood, through the formation of iron(III) oxalato complexes, thus protecting the wood from oxalic acid hydrolysis. This effect was not observed to the same extent for other acids observed in Vasa wood (sulfuric, formic, glycolic, and acetic acids).

  • 170.
    Dedic, Dina
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Teresia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Analysis of lignin and extractives in the oak wood of the 17th century warship Vasa2014In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 419-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wood in the 17th century Swedish warship Vasa is weak. A depolymerization of the wood's cellulose has been linked to the weakening, but the chemical mechanisms are yet unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the lignin and tannin moieties of the wood to clarify whether the depolymerization of cellulose via ongoing oxidative mechanisms is indeed the main reason for weakening the wood in the Vasa. Lignin was analyzed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance [cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C NMR] and by means of wet chemical degradation (thioacidolysis) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the products. No differences could be observed between the Vasa samples and the reference samples that could have been ascribed to extensive lignin degradation. Wood extracts (tannins) were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) combined with time-of-flight (TOF) MS and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The wood of the Vasa contained no discernible amounts of tannins, whereas still-waterlogged Vasa wood contained ellagic acid and traces of castalagin/vescalagin and grandinin. The results indicate that the condition of lignin in the Vasa wood is similar to fresh oak and that potentially harmful tannins are not present in high amounts. Thus, oxidative degradation mechanisms are not supported as a primary route to cellulose depolymerization.

  • 171.
    Djafari Petroudy, Seyed Rahman
    et al.
    Shahid Beheshti University, Iran.
    Ghasemian, Ali
    Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
    Resalati, Hossein
    Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The effect of xylan on the fibrillation efficiency of DED bleached soda bagasse pulp and on nanopaper characteristics2015In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 385-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide and the most abundant hemicellulose component of soda bagasse pulp. In this study, bleached soda bagasse pulp (SB) and bleached bagasse dissolving pulp (DB) with varying amounts of xylan were fibrillated with a homogenization process. The produced fibrillated materials were used for making nanopaper structures. The surface, physical, mechanical and optical properties of the nanopaper were measured, and the effect of xylan was assessed. Laser profilometry (LP) and field emission scanning electron microscopy were applied to study the degree of the fibrillation. The pulp having the highest xylan content, SB, showed the highest yield of cellulose nanofibrils. Nanopaper produced from SB had a more consolidated structure than that produced from DB. Additionally, SB nanopaper yielded higher tensile strength, lower LP roughness, a higher barrier against oxygen and lower opacity. These results indicate a higher degree of fibrillation of the SB pulp compared to the DB pulp. Hence, the positive effect of xylan for facilitating the fibrillation of the starting pulp fibers was demonstrated.

  • 172.
    Djafari Petroudy, Seyed Rahman
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Ghasemain, Ali
    Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
    Resalati, Hossein
    Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
    Effects of bagasse microfibrillated cellulose and cationic polyacrylamide on key properties of bagasse paper2014In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 99, p. 311-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the benefits of using bagasse microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in bagasse paper. Two different types of MFC were produced from DED bleached soda bagasse pulp. The MFC was added to soda bagasse pulp furnishes in different amounts. Cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) was selected as retention aid. The results show that addition of MFC increased the strength of paper as expected. Interestingly, 1% MFC in combination with 0.1% C-PAM yielded similar drainage time as the reference pulp, which did not contain MFC. In addition, the samples containing 1% MFC and 0.1% C-PAM yielded (i) a significant increment of the tensile index, (ii) a minor decrease of opacity and (iii) preserved Gurley porosity. Hence, this study proves that small fractions of MFC in combination with adequate retention aids can have positive effects with respect to paper properties, which is most interesting from an industrial point of view.

  • 173. Djafari Petroudy, S.R.
    et al.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Ghasemain, A.
    Resalati, H.
    Gregersen, Ø.W.
    Oriented nanopaper (ONP) made of bagasse nanofibrils2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Dominic, Chris
    RISE, Innventia.
    Packaging logistics performance and how to evaluate the packaging performance by applying the tool packaperforma2010In: 17th IAPRI World Conference on Packaging 2010, 2010, p. 245-250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaperforma is a tool developed in order to increase the efficiency, effectiveness and differentiation in the future design of packaging systems. The tool is based on the theory Packaging Logistics Performance. Packaperforma is a further development of Packaging Scorecard and it could be utilized by packaging designers and supply chain managers to see the functions of the packaging system in the logistics processes. This means that the gap between packaging decisions and logistics decisions can be mitigated, as it can share the downstream information with the upstream and the designers. Packaperforma is used to conduct comparative studies in multiple Supply-Demand Chains. A study as such increases the quantity of data in the Packaperforma database that could be used to indicate the performances of the packaging, the agent and the Supply Demand Chains. The paper presents a study on Packaging Logistics Performance, how to evaluate packaging performance; how to collect feedback information from different agents and efficiently solve packaging related problem. Further the paper describes a web system based tool, packaging performance indicators and packaging performance database.

  • 175.
    Dominic, Chris
    RISE, Innventia.
    Supply and demand chain integration:: A case study conducted in the packaging industry2013In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, no 1, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to study the packaging supplier and the integration of integrating packaging suppliers into the supply and demand chain (SDC). The packaging industry has been analyzed using a structured market analysis, and the companies studied have been positioned in an integration model for packaging suppliers. In addition, case studies were conducted to study the development of the packaging industry and its integration within the SDC in the Scandinavian region. The analysis shows that there are gaps in the business relations between the packaging companies studied and the SDC. Most of the packaging suppliers were not integrated into the SDC. Valuable information, available in the network, seldom reaches the packaging supplier who holds the knowledge necessary to create and offer innovative packaging solutions. The article provides an empirical exploration into the field of packaging, logistics and SDC integration and an original conceptual framework that could serve as a theoretical framework for future research work applied in the packaging industry and an interesting business model to the increase understanding of packaging supply chain integration.

  • 176.
    Dong, F.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Fibre morphological effects on mechano-sorptive creep2010In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 475-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased creep rate of paper under load during moisture cycling conditions as compared to that at high constant humidity is a problem in the use of packaging materials. In order to investigate the influence of morphological factors of the fibres on the occurrence and magnitude of this phenomenon, i.e. the occurrence of mechano-sorptive creep, studies on wood fibres isolated from different parts of spruce wood were performed. Thus, creep properties were studied on earlywood and latewood fibres from both juvenile wood and mature wood. In general, latewood fibres showed a higher degree of mechano-sorptive creep than earlywood fibres, and mature wood showed a higher degree of mechano-sorptive creep than juvenile fibres. The difference in mechano-sorptive creep rate between different fibres was shown to be correlated to the differences in fibril angle. The smaller the fibril angle the higher was the mechano-sorptive creep ratio. It was suggested that at fibril angles approaching 45° wood fibres do not exhibit mechano-sorptive creep.

  • 177. Dyrset, N.
    et al.
    Øyaas, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hobley, T.J.
    Alfrén, J.
    Hreggvidson, G.
    Uusitalo, J.
    Schenck, A.V.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sustainable Biofuel: Innovations in Bioethanol Production Technologies (SusBioFuel)2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178. Dyrset, Nils
    et al.
    Öyaas, Karin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hobley, Timothy John
    Alfthen, Johan
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hreggvidsson, Gudmundir
    Uusitalo, Jaana
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ochoa-Fernandez, Esther
    Einen, Jörn
    Sustainable biofuel: innovations in bioethanol production technologies (SusBioFuel)2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Eder, Michaela
    et al.
    Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Germany.
    Arnould, Olivier
    Université Montpellier, France.
    Dunlop, John W.C.
    Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Germany.
    Hornatowska, Joanna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Experimental micromechanical characterisation of wood cell walls2013In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, no 1, p. 163-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of wood and wood-based materials are strongly dependent on the properties of the fibres, that is, the cell wall properties. It is thus highly important to be able to mechanically characterise cell walls in order to understand structure-property relationships. This article gives a brief overview of the state of the art in experimental techniques to characterise the mechanical properties of wood at both the level of the single cell and that of the cell wall. Challenges, opportunities, drawbacks and limitations of single fibre tensile tests and nanoindentation are discussed with respect to the wood material properties.

  • 180. Eita, M.
    et al.
    Arwin, H.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, L.
    Addition of silica nanoparticles to tailor the mechanical properties of nanofibrillated cellulose thin films2011In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, no 2, p. 566-572Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Ek, Monica
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Chirat, Christine
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fogelström, Linda
    Grenoble INP-Pagora, France.
    Iversen, Tommy
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Dongfang
    RISE, Innventia.
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Norström, Emelie
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sixta, Herbert
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Testova, Lidia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wawro, Dariusz
    IBWCh Institute of Biopolymer and Chemical Fibres, Poland.
    Wobama - Wood based materials and fuels2014In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 48, no 9-10, p. 773-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    WOBAMA - Wood Based Materials and Fuels is a biorefinery oriented scientific research project supported by Wood Wisdom-Net Research Programme and ERA-NET Bioenergy. In this project, the wood based raw materials were converted to a range of value added products through unconventional techniques. So far, many demonstrators have been prepared, such as the dissolving pulps with high cellulose content, the regenerated cellulose films with high tenacity, the hydrophobic materials based on cellulose and birch bark suberin, as well as the adhesives based on polysaccharides.

  • 182.
    Enberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Norske Skog Saugbrugs, Norway; Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Rundlöf, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden; Capisco Science and Art, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden; AkzoNobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Patrik
    Norske Skog Saugbrugs, Norway.
    Eriksen, Øyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Engstrand, Per O.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Some causes of formation of colour during storage of hydrogen-peroxide bleached Norway spruce mechanical pulp2014In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 2, no 29, p. 356-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discolouration of hydrogen-peroxide bleached Norway spruce mechanical pulp during storage in mill systems was studied and the contributions of process water, iron and dyes were evaluated over the visible spectrum. Washing of the pulp made it less sensitive to storage, possibly due to the removal of extractives, lignin-like substances, iron and pulp fines. Storage in white water gave extensive discolouration with a shoulder in the absorption spectrum at around 550- 650 nm. Most of the colour was associated with pulp fines or filler but some colour was also found in smaller fractions and in the water phase. The addition of ferric ions increased the light absorption coefficient during storage, initially at short wavelengths and then over the whole spectrum, but could not explain the increased absorption at 550-650 nm and could not be the only cause of the darkening in the mill system. A cationic basic violet dye gave a shoulder in the absorption spectrum similar to that in the mill system, but the absorption in this area did not increase during storage. Model calculations indicate that ferric ions together with violet and red dyes could explain a major part, but not all, of the colour observed in the mill system after storage. The darkening not accounted for at longer wavelengths and around 550-650 nm is suggested to be related to fines and fillers including dissolved and colloidal substances associated with these particles.

  • 183.
    Enberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Norske Skog Saugbrugs, Norway; Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Rundlöf, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden; Capisco Science and Art, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden; AkzoNobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Patrik
    Norske Skog Saugbrugs, Norway.
    Eriksen, Øyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Engstrand, Per O.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The influence of process waters on optical properties during storage of hydrogen-peroxide bleached Norway spruce mechanical pulp2014In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 2, no 29, p. 344-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the causes behind the formation of colour in mill systems, the effect of different process waters on the optical properties of hydrogenperoxide bleached Norway spruce mechanical pulp during storage was studied. The influence of process water type, temperature, time, pulp consistency and pH was evaluated over the visible range of wavelengths. The darkening was more pronounced when pulp was stored in process waters compared to in distilled water. Increased temperature and prolonged storage times increased the darkening as expected, whereas a higher storage consistency gave less darkening than a lower storage consistency (15% compared to 5%). The pH value that gave the lowest brightness reduction and a minimum in Δk460 was found to be 5.5-6.0. Storage of pulp in white water from the paper machine resulted in a broad shoulder in the k spectra indicating colour formation related to the particles in this water. Part of this shoulder in absorption spectra was related to added dyes, but the increase in absorption with time is likely to be caused by some other colour formation. The colour measured as a∗, b∗ showed that the storage changed the colour of the pulp towards red and yellow, and initially more towards red.

  • 184.
    Engelund, Emil Tang
    et al.
    Danish Technological Institute, Denmark; DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tensile creep and recovery of Norway spruce influenced by temperature and moisture2012In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 66, no 8, p. 959-965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time-dependent mechanical behaviour (TDMB) of wood is important when using the material for structural purposes. Recently, a new method for predicting the TDMB by numerical modelling was established based on the assumption that TDMB is caused by the sliding of the microfibrils past each other. In this study, the TDMB is examined via creep experiments on small specimens of Norway spruce latewood. The results of these are compared with results from numerical modelling. The experiments include results at two levels of moisture content and three levels of temperature, enabling an investigation of these two climatic factors on TDMB of wood. It was found that the mechanical response of wood tissue is the sum of responses from both tracheids and middle lamella, with only the previous being reversible. The effect of moisture and temperature differed in that the latter affected the elastic and time-dependent responses equally. Moisture, on the other hand, reduced both the elastic properties and the activation energy barrier for sliding of the microfibrils, but furthermore changed the microfibril angle of the sample as a result of swelling. Hereby, moisture had a larger effect on the time-dependent response than the elastic. All of these effects were predicted by numerical modelling.

  • 185.
    Eriksen, O.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Holmqvist, Claes
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Mohlin, Ulla-Britt
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Fibre floc drainage - a possible cause for substantial pressure peaks in low-consistency refiners2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 321-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is floc drainage a cause for substantial pressure peaks in low-consistency refiners? High-resolution pressure measurements using a sensor mounted in a stator bar have been performed. These show that during the initial stage of a bar crossing, a substantial pressure is sometimes generated, which can reach a level of several MPa. A theoretical model that explains the pressure pulses is presented. The analysis is based on the assumption that a floc of fibres is trapped between the leading edges of the approaching bar surfaces. Water needs to be expelled from the part of the floc that is compressed and enters into the refiner gap. The hydrodynamic resistance to expel the liquid from within the floc is shown to give rise to substantial pressures in the region close to the leading edge of the rotor bar. The estimated pressures are of the same order as the measured values.

  • 186.
    Eriksen, O.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Holmqvist, Claes
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Mohlin, Ulla-Britt
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Theoretical outline of the cause for observed cavitation in a low-consistency refiner2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 315-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-frequency pressure measurements in the refining zone have exposed features that strongly indicate that cavitation occurs regularly in low-consistency refiners. In order to explain the cavitation, it is assumed that pulp fibres are trapped between opposing bars on the discs in such a way that liquid is hindered to enter into the refining gap at the leading edge of the stator bar. In order to prevent a void as the rotor bar drags liquid away from the trapped fibres, a counter flow towards the trapped fibres then needs to be set up. This necessitates a low pressure in the gap, in order that liquid from the groove in front of the rotor is accelerated into the gap at the required rate. It appears that this mechanism can yield gap pressures several hundred kPa below that in the grooves. Cavitation bubbles may then form, which subsequently collapse and cause shock waves when the pressure rises after the bar passage.

  • 187.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lopez Duran, Verónica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Larsson, Per A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Macro- and mesoporous nanocellulose beads for use in energy storage devices2016In: Applied Materials Today, ISSN 2352-9407, Vol. 5, p. 246-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemically cross-linked, wet-stable cellulose nanofibril (CNF) aerogel beads were fabricated using a novel procedure. The procedure facilitated controlled production of millimetre-sized CNF aerogel beads without freeze-drying or critical point drying, while still retaining a highly porous structure with low density. The aerogel beads were mechanically robust in the dry state, supporting loads of 1.3 N at 70% compression, even after being soaked in water and re-dried. Furthermore, they displayed both a good stability in water and a remarkably good shape recovery after wet compression. Owing to the stability in water, the entire surface of the highly porous aerogel beads could be successfully functionalized with polyelectrolytes and carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (CF-SWCNTs) using the Layer-by-Layer technique, introducing a significant electrical conductivity (1.6 mS/cm) to the aerogel beads. The functionalized, electrically conducting aerogel beads could carry as much as 2 kA/cm2 and act as electrodes in a supercapacitor displaying a stabilized charge storage capacity of 9.8 F/g after 50 charging–discharging cycles.

  • 188.
    Escamez, Sacha
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Latha Gandla, Madhavi
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Derba-Maceluch, Marta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Tuominen, Hannele
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    A collection of genetically engineered Populus trees reveals wood biomass traits that predict glucose yield from enzymatic hydrolysis2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 15798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood represents a promising source of sugars to produce bio-based renewables, including biofuels. However, breaking down lignocellulose requires costly pretreatments because lignocellulose is recalcitrant to enzymatic saccharification. Increasing saccharification potential would greatly contribute to make wood a competitive alternative to petroleum, but this requires improving wood properties. To identify wood biomass traits associated with saccharification, we analyzed a total of 65 traits related to wood chemistry, anatomy and structure, biomass production and saccharification in 40 genetically engineered Populus tree lines. These lines exhibited broad variation in quantitative traits, allowing for multivariate analyses and mathematical modeling. Modeling revealed that seven wood biomass traits associated in a predictive manner with saccharification of glucose after pretreatment. Four of these seven traits were also negatively associated with biomass production, suggesting a trade-off between saccharification potential and total biomass, which has previously been observed to offset the overall sugar yield from whole trees. We therefore estimated the "total-wood glucose yield" (TWG) from whole trees and found 22 biomass traits predictive of TWG after pretreatment. Both saccharification and TWG were associated with low abundant, often overlooked matrix polysaccharides such as arabinose and rhamnose which possibly represent new markers for improved Populus feedstocks.

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  • 189. Fackler, K.
    et al.
    Stevanic, Jasna S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ters, T.
    Hinterstoisser, B.
    Schwanninger, M.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Localisation and characterisation of incipient brown-rot decay within spruce wood cell walls using FT-IR imaging microscopy2010In: Enzyme and microbial technology, ISSN 0141-0229, E-ISSN 1879-0909, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 257-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spruce wood that had been degraded by brown-rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum or Poria placenta) exhibiting mass losses up to 16% was investigated by transmission Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging microscopy. Here the first work on the application of FT-IR imaging microscopy and multivariate image analysis of fungal degraded wood is presented and the first report on the spatial distribution of polysaccharide degradation during incipient brown-rot of wood. Brown-rot starts to become significant in the outer cell wall regions (middle lamellae, primary cell walls, and the outer layer of the secondary cell wall S1). This pattern was detected even in a sample with non-detectable mass loss. Most significant during incipient decay was the cleavage of glycosidic bonds, i.e. depolymerisation of wood polysaccharides and the degradation of pectic substances. Accordingly, intramolecular hydrogen bonding within cellulose was reduced, while the presence of phenolic groups increased.

  • 190. Fackler, K.
    et al.
    Stevanic, J.S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ters, T.
    Hinterstoisser, B.
    Schwanninger, M.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    FT-IR imaging microscopy to localise and characterise simultaneous and selective white-rot decay within spruce wood cells2011In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, no 3, p. 411-420Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Faia, Pedro M.
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CEMUC Centre of Mechanical Engineering, Portugal.
    Krochak, Paul
    RISE, Innventia.
    Costa, Harold
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CEMUC Centre of Mechanical Engineering, Portugal.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silva, Rui
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CIEPQPF Research Centre on Chemical Process and Forest Products, Portugal.
    Garcia, Fernando A. P.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CIEPQPF Research Centre on Chemical Process and Forest Products, Portugal.
    Rasteiro, Maria Graca
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CIEPQPF Research Centre on Chemical Process and Forest Products, Portugal.
    A comparative study of magnetic resonance imaging, electrical impedance tomography and ultrasonic doppler velocimetry for semi-dilute fibre flow suspension characterisation2016In: International Journal of Computational Methods & Experimental Measurements, ISSN 2046-0546, E-ISSN 2046-0554, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 165-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental comparisons between imaging techniques serve to provide confidence in the validity of each technique for the study of multiphase flow systems. Such cross-validation can establish the limitations of each technique quantitatively. In the present paper, the authors report efforts made on the characterization of semi-dilute, mono-dispersed suspensions of rayon fibres in turbulent water flow using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) and Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Increasing flow velocities and fibre concentration were studied using these three experimental techniques. For lower fibre concentrations more uniform distributions were observed and as flow velocity increased fibre agglomerations were found in the centre region of the pipe.

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  • 192.
    Fellers, Christer
    RISE, Innventia.
    Laminate Theory for Papermakers2009In: Paper Products Physics and Technology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 287-314Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Fellers, Christer
    RISE, Innventia.
    Paper physics2009In: Paper Products Physics and Technology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 25-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Fellers, Christer
    RISE, Innventia.
    The structure of paper and its modelling2009In: Paper Products Physics and Technology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 1-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Fellers, Christer N.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mäkelä, Petri
    RISE, Innventia. Tetra Pak Packaging Solutions AB, Sweden.
    Evaluation of the Scott bond test method2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 231-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Scott bond test is the most commonly used test method for quantifying the delamination resistance of paper and board. The objective of this investigation was to validate the hypothesis that the Scott bond value would be dominated by the total energy under the force elongation curve in a z-directional tensile test. The investigation comprised three types of hand sheets with comparatively low strength values. Three test methods were used to obtain the energy for delamination: 1) Z-test, a z-directional tensile test, 2) Scott bond test, and 3) Simulated Scott bond test, a Scott bond type of test performed in a hydraulic tensile tester. The test data were expressed as a correlation between the failure energy obtained from the Z-test and the other two tests. The results showed that the Scott bond test gave slightly higher values than the Z-test for the weakest paper, but that the value tended to be much higher for the stronger papers. On the other hand the Simulated Scott bond test tended to give lower values than the Z-test. High speed photography was used to reveal several energy consuming mechanisms in the Scott bond test that can explain why this test gave higher values than the Ztest. The lower values from the Simulated Scott bond values are more difficult to explain. At this stage we can suggest that the failure mechanism is different if the paper is delaminated by pure tension or by a gradual delamination as in the Scott bond test.

  • 196. Fernandes, S.C.M.
    et al.
    Freire, C.S.R.
    Silvestre, A.J.D.
    Pascoal Neto, C.
    Gandini, A.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Transparent chitosan films reinforced with a high content of nanofibrillated cellulose2010In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 394-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of nanocomposite films based on different chitosan matrices and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) for the purpose of improving strength properties. The nanocomposite films were prepared by a simple procedure of casting a water-based suspension of chitosan and NFC, and were characterized by several techniques: namely SEM, X-ray diffraction, visible spectrophotometry, TGA, tensile and dynamic-mechanical analysis. The films obtained were shown to be highly transparent (transmittance varying between 90 and 20% depending on the type of chitosan and NFC content), flexible, displayed better mechanical properties, with a maximum increment on the Young’s modulus of 78% and 150% for high molecular weight (HCH) and water-soluble high molecular weight (WSHCH) filled chitosans, respectively; and of 200% and 320% for low molecular weight (LCH) and water-soluble filled (WSLCH) chitosans, respectively. The filled films also showed increased thermal stability, with, for example, an increase in the initial degradation temperature (Tdi) from 227 °C in the unfilled LCH film up to 271 °C in filled LCHNFC50% nanocomposite films, and a maximum degradation temperature (Td1) raising from 304 °C to 313 °C for the same materials.

  • 197.
    Ferritsius, Olof
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Mörseburg, Kathrin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Ferritsius, Rita
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden; Stora Enso, Sweden.
    Bat of CTMP and TMP plants with respect to quality development and energy efficiency2014In: International Mechanical Pulping Conference, IMPC 2014, part of PulPaper 2014 Conference, PI , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixteen TMP/CTMP lines aimed for publication and board grades have been compared for energy efficiency with respect to pulp quality development. The pulp property profile and the process design differed substantially, even for similar product grades. A given level of a specific pulp property was reached over a wide range in specific energy. The most energy efficient lines operated at the highest production rates and with high relative speed of the refiner discs. With respect to the final pulp quality there was no obvious influence of how the screen room was equipped. It was possible to develop the fibers in a proper way just by refining of the whole pulp stream.

  • 198.
    Flodberg, Göran
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Helland, I
    Aulin, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    Fredriksen, S B
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, Innventia.
    New barrier for NFC based on CO22014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Flodberg, Göran
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Helland, Irene
    Norner Innovation AS, Norway.
    Thomson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bodil Fredriksen, Siw
    Norner Innovation AS, Norway.
    Barrier properties of polypropylene carbonate and poly(lactic acid) cast films2015In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 63, p. 217-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of the barrier properties of cast film of polypropylene carbonate (PPC) and cast film of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has been made in this paper. Dynamic transmission measurements were conducted to obtain the barrier properties for oxygen transmission and for water vapour transmission. A special algorithm fminsearch in Matlab was used to adapt an exponential expression to the measured values. In this way the time needed to reach a 95% level of steady state was made possible to identify. The oxygen permeability was lower for PPC compared to PLA and this could be explained by a much higher positive enthalpy of solution for oxygen in PPC. The enthalpy of diffusion was close to similar for both PPC and PLA and was higher than for enthalpy of solution. The enthalpy of water vapour permeability was higher for PPC compared to PLA and this resulted in substantially higher water vapour permeability for PLA. The uptake of water vapour was also higher for PLA compared to PPC as shown by dynamic vapour sorption measurements. Differential scanning calorimetry confirmed that PPC is an amorphous polymer and that the PLA used in this study had a minimum of crystallinity which made it comparable to PPC.

  • 200. Forsman, M.
    et al.
    Bernmark, E.
    Nilsson, B.
    Pousette, S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mathiassen, S.E.
    Participative development of packages in the food industry: Evaluation of ergonomics and productivity by objective measurements2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, no SUPPL.1, p. 1751-1755Article in journal (Refereed)
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