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  • 151.
    Andersson, Y
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Håkansson, C
    Lind, I
    Jakobsson, B
    Nedkylning av mat i storhushåll. Intervjuer, tid/temperaturmätningar, marknadsinventering av utrustning.1981Report (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Andersson, Yngve
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Extrudering - en process i tiden.1979In: Livsmedelsteknik, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 291-293Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Andersson, Yngve
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Extruderingsarbeten vid SIK.1983In: Livsmedelsteknik, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 392-393Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Andersson, Yngve
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Food preparation in the foodservice business: Fundamental and applied work done at SIK - The Swedish Food Institute.1986In: Journal of Foodservice Systems, Vol. 4, p. 69-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Andersson, Yngve
    et al.
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Drake, Birger
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Granquist, A.
    Halldin, L.
    Johansson, B.
    Pangborn, Ros-Marie
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Fracture force, hardness and brittleness in crisp bread, with a generalized regression analysis approach to instrumental-sensory comparisons.1973In: Journal of Texture Studies, Vol. 4, p. 119-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Andersson, Yngve
    et al.
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Hedlund, Bruno
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Extruded wheat flour.: Correlation between processing and product quality parameters1990In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 201-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of independent processing parameters on the product properties of extruded mixtures of wheat flour and water has been investigated. Physical, chemical, and sensory measurements are reported and correlated with underlying processing parameters. Such correlation could be used to automate and control the extrusion process. © 1991.

  • 157.
    Andersson, Yngve
    et al.
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Hedlund, Bruno
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Jonsson, L.
    Svensson, S.
    Extrusion cooking of a high fiber cereal with crispbread character1981In: Cereal Chemistry, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 370-374Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Andersson, Yngve
    et al.
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Lundgren, Birgit
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Sensory texture/consistency descriptors of beef patties containing protein products1981In: Journal of Texture Studies, Vol. 12, p. 217-241Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Angervall, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Förenklad metod för klimat-/GWP-beräkningar av livsmedel : slutrapport, ver 12011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att genomföra livscykelanalyser enligt gängse standarder och metoder är ofta mycket resurskrävande. För företag med många och sammansatta produkter är det inte realistiskt att ta fram LCA-baserade resultat för alla deras olika produkter, inte ens om de är inriktade mot enbart klimatpåverkan. För att livsmedelsföretagen ändå ska kunna ta fram LCA-baserade underlag och resultat om deras produkters klimatpåverkan finns det därför behov av en förenklad modell för GWP-beräkningar. SIK’s projekt om att ta fram en ny och enklare metod för att beräkna livsmedelsprodukters klimatpåverkan/ GWP i ett livscykelperspektiv som ett alternativ till fullständiga livscykelanalyser enligt ISO 14040-43 och PAS 2050. Det huvudsakliga målet har varit att livsmedelsföretagen på ett enklare, snabbare och billigare sätt skall kunna få trovärdiga underlag och fakta med god kvalitet om sina produkters klimatpåverkan. Övriga mål i projektet har varit att öka kunskapen om olika livsmedels klimatpåverkan i ett livscykelperspektiv genom att studera livsmedels-produkter som tidigare inte har analyserats ur ett LCA-perspektiv.

  • 160.
    Angervall, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mat och klimat : en sammanfattning om matens klimatpåverkan i ett livscykelperspektiv2008Report (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Angervall, T
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Utveckling av förbättringsarbetet i befintliga miljöledningssystem inom livsmedelsindustrin2004Report (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Anjou, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Aromen hos kött : en litteraturstudie1966Report (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Anjou, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Aromen hos några vacciniumarters bär : [The aroma of the berries from som Vaccinium species]1974Report (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Anjou, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Industriell saftframställning : en litteraturstudie1966Report (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Anjou, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Naturliga variationer i den kemiska sammansättningen hos råsafter av frukt och bär : en litteraturstudie1966Report (Refereed)
  • 166. Anjou, K.
    et al.
    von Sydow, Erik
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    The aroma of cranberries.: 1. Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.1967In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0904-213X, E-ISSN 1902-3103, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 945-952Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 167. Anjou, K.
    et al.
    von Sydow, Erik
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    The aroma of cranberries.: 2. Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.1967In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0904-213X, E-ISSN 1902-3103, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 2076-2082Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 168. Anjou, K.
    et al.
    von Sydow, Erik
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    The aroma of cranberries.: 3. Juice of vaccinium vitis idaea L.1969In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0904-213X, E-ISSN 1902-3103, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 169. Anjou, K.
    et al.
    von Sydow, Erik
    SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    The aroma of cranberries.: 4. Juice of Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait1968In: Arkiv för Kemi, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 9-14Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Anker, M
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Edible and biodegradable films and coatings for food packaging : a literature review1996Report (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Anker, M
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Edible and biodegradable whey protein films as barriers in foods and food packaging2000Report (Refereed)
  • 172. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Berntsen, J.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Improved water vapor barrier of whey protein films by addition of an acetylated monoglyceride2002In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to determine to what extent the water-vapor barrier of whey protein isolate (WPI) films could be improved by adding a lipid and make laminate and emulsion films. The laminate whey protein-lipid film decreased the water vapor permeability (WVP) 70 times compared with the WPI film. The WVP of the emulsion films was half the value of the WPI film and was not affected by changes in lipid concentration, whereas an increased homogenization led to a slight reduction in WVP. The mechanical properties showed that the lipid functioned as an apparent plasticizer by enhancing the fracture properties of the emulsion films. This effect increased with homogenization. The maximum strain at break was 117% compared with 50% for the less-homogenized emulsion films and 20% for the pure WPI films. Phase-separated emulsion films were produced with a concentration gradient of fat through the films, but pure bilayer films were not formed. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 173. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Aging of whey protein films and the effect on mechanical and barrier properties2001In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 989-995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on the aging of whey protein isolate (WPI) films plasticized with glycerol (G) and sorbitol (S). The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions at pH 7 and dried at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH) for 16 h. They were stored in a climate room (23 °C, 50% RH) for 120 days, and the film properties were measured at regular intervals. The moisture content (MC) of the WPI/G films decreased from 22% (2 days) to 15% (45 days) and was thereafter constant at 15% (up to 120 days). This affected the mechanical properties and caused an increased stress at break (from 2.7 to 8.3 MPa), a decreased strain at break (from 33 to 4%), and an increased glass transition temperature (T g) (from -56 to -45 °C). The barrier properties were, however, unaffected, with constant water vapor permeability and a uniform film thickness. The MC of the WPI/S films was constant at ?9%, which gave no change in film properties.

  • 174. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Effects of pH and the gel state on the mechanical properties, moisture contents, and glass transition temperatures of whey protein films1999In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1878-1886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties, moisture contents (MC), and glass transition temperature (T(g)) of whey protein isolate (WPI) films were studied at various pH values using sorbitol (S) as a plasticizer. The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions and dried in a climate chamber at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH) for 16 h. The critical gel concentrations (c(g)) for the cooled aqueous solutions were found to be 11.7, 12.1, and 11.3% (w/w) WPI for pH 7, 8, and 9, respectively. The cooling rate influenced the c(g), in that a lower amount of WPI was needed for gelation when a slower cooling rate was applied. Both cooling rates used in this study showed a maximum in the c(g) at pH 8. The influence of the polymer network on the film properties was elucidated by varying the concentration of WPI over and under the c(g). Strain at break (?(b)) showed a maximum at the c(g) for all pH values, thus implying that the most favorable structure regarding the ability of the films to stretch is formed at this concentration. Young's modulus (E) and stress at break (?(b)) showed a maximum at c(g) for pH 7 and 8. The MC and ?(b) increased when pH increased from 7 to 9, whereas T(g) decreased. Hence, T(g) values were -17, -18, and -21 °C for pH 7, 8, and 9, respectively. E and ?(b) decreased and ?(b) and thickness increased when the surrounding RH increased. The thickness of the WPI films also increased with the concentration of WPI.

  • 175. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mechanical Properties, Water Vapor Permeability, and Moisture Contents of ?-Lactoglobulin and Whey Protein Films Using Multivariate Analysis1998In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 1820-1829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical and barrier properties of ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg) and whey protein isolate (WPI) films were studied using sorbitol (S) as a plasticizer. The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions and dried in a climate chamber at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity for 16 h. The multivariate analysis used has proved to be a valuable tool for evaluating and quantifying the influences of the variables in the specified experimental domain. Two identical factorial designs were applied to evaluate the influence of the concentration of ?-Lg and WPI, the concentration of S, and the pH. The two materials, ?-Lg and WPI, show similar results, which can be attributed to the dominating protein ?-lactoglobulin. At pH 9, Young's modulus and stress at break are not affected when the concentration of ?-Lg, WPI, or S varies. At pH 7 and 8, Young's modulus and stress at break increase when the concentration of ?-Lg and WPI increases, and they decrease when the concentration of S increases. Strain at break increases when pH increases from 7 to 9, a more pronounced effect being observed for the WPI films. Water vapor permeability (WVP) decreases and increases for pH 7 and 9, respectively, as the concentration of ?-Lg and WPI increases. This contrast in behavior at different pH values is probably due to a structural difference that occurs above pH 8. Moisture content and WVP increase when S increases. Here a clear distinction can be observed between the two film materials: the ?-Lg films show higher values for both moisture content and WVP measurements.

  • 176. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Relationship between the microstructure and the mechanical and barrier properties of whey protein films2000In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 3806-3816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was focused on the relationship between the microstructure and the mechanical and barrier properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) films. Sorbitol (S) and glycerol (G) were used as plasticizers and the pH was varied between 7 and 9. The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions and dried in a climate room at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity for 16 h. The microstructure of the films was found to be dependent on the concentration, the plasticizers, and the pH. When the concentration increased, a more aggregated structure was formed, with a denser protein network and larger pores. This resulted in increased water vapor permeability (WVP) and decreased oxygen permeability (OP). When G was used as a plasticizer instead of S, the microstructure was different, and the moisture content and WVP approximately doubled. When the pH increased from 7 to 9, a denser protein structure was formed, the strain at break increased, and the OP decreased.

  • 177. Anthonsen, M.W.
    et al.
    Varum, K.M.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Smidsrod, O.
    Brant, D.A.
    Aggregates in acidic solutions of chitosans detected by static laser light scattering1994In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 13-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chitosans having degrees of N-acetylation, FA, ranging from 0 to 0·6, were randomly degraded to different molecular weights and studied by multi angle static laser light scattering (LLS). Under the given experimental conditions, negative second virial coefficients of the solutions, A?2, revealed the presence of concentration dependent aggregates. Attempts to remove the aggregates, or to influence the aggregation behavior, were made by ultracentrifugation and extensive filtering of the solutions. Modification of the solvent conditions such as pH, ionic strength and temperature were carried out, and chitosan solutions were digested with an acidic proteinase. Non-degraded samples and chitosans prepared by both heterogeneous and homogeneous N-deacetylation of chitin were also studied. In all cases, the negative A?2 remained. However, it was observed that ultracentrifugation and filtering of the solutions decreased the measured molecular weights and radii of gyration, indicating that some of the material of high molecular weight and size could be removed by ultracentrifugation and filtration. The chemical nature of the physical basis of the molecular association was not revealed. Nevertheless, by the use of gel permeation chromatography coupled to an on-line low angle laser light scattering instrument and a differential refractive index concentration detector (HPSEC-LALLS-RI), a bimodal molecular weight distribution was observed in which about 5% of the sample had a very high molecular weight. These results coupled with the positive virial coefficients obtained earlier from osmotic pressure measurements suggest that a small fraction of the chitosan is aggregated to high molecular weight material, probably following a closed association model. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of some supramolecular structures. The positive second virial coefficients obtained earlier from osmometry are in harmony with these findings. The results demonstrate the occurrence of reversible aggregation in chitosan solutions. Static laser light scattering therefore cannot readily be used to determine molecular weights and sizes of chitosans under these conditions. It was not possible to correlate the extent of aggregation with the chemical composition of the chitosans. © 1994.

  • 178.
    Arinder, P
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Behandling av frö med väteperoxid2013Report (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Arinder, P
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Dekontaminering av bladgrönsaker i förädlingsledet2014Report (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Arinder, P
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Kvalitetsstandarder för odling och förädling av bladgrönsaker2013Report (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Arinder, P
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mikrobilogiska risker i grönsakskedjan - lathund för odlare och odlarorganisation2014Report (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Arinder, P
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mikrobiologisk riskbedömning – grönsakskedjan2013Report (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Arinder, P
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mikrobiologiska analyser av grönsaker2014Report (Other academic)
  • 184.
    Arinder, P
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mikrobiologiska risker i grönsakskedjan - lathund för grossist och handel2014Report (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Arinder, P
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mikrobiologiska risker i grönsakskedjan – Lathund för grossist och handel2014Report (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Arinder, P
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mikrobiologiska risker i grönsakskedjan –Lathund för odlare och odlarorganisationer2014Report (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Arinder, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Johannessson, Pär
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Karlsson, Ingela
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Transfer and Decontamination of S. aureus in Transmission Routes Regarding Hands and Contact Surfaces2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, article id e0156390Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Aronsson, Anna
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Livscykelanalys av industrispenat (Spinacia oleracea L.)- Miljöpåverkan i samband med produktion2013Report (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Aronsson, K
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Inactivation, cell injury and growth of microorganisms exposed to pulsed electric fields using a continuous process.2002Report (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Aronsson, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Microbiology in the pulsed electric field (PEF) processing : a literature review2001Report (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Aronsson, Kristina
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stenlof, B.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Growth of pulsed electric field exposed Escherichia coli in relation to inactivation and environmental factors2004In: International Journal of Food Microbiology, ISSN 0168-1605, E-ISSN 1879-3460, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) have been proven to inactivate microorganisms during nonthermal conditions and have the potential to replace thermal processing as a method for food preservation. However, there is a need to understand the recovery and growth of survivors and potentially injured microorganisms following PEF processing. The purpose of this investigation was to study the growth of Escherichia coli at 10°C following exposure to electrical field strengths (15, 22.5 and 30 kV/cm) in relation to inactivation and the amount of potentially sublethally injured cells. One medium was used as both a treatment medium and an incubation medium, to study the influence of environmental factors on the inactivation and the growth of the surviving population. The pH (5.0, 6.0 and 7.0) and water activity (1.00, 0.985 and 0.97) of the medium was varied by adding HCl and glycerol, respectively. Growth was followed continuously by measuring the optical density. The time-to-detection (td) and the maximum specific growth rate (?max) were calculated from these data. Results showed that the PEF process did not cause any obvious sublethal injury to the E. coli cells. The number of survivors was a consequence of the combination of electrical field strength and environmental factors, with pH being the most prominent. Interestingly, the ?max of subsequent growth was influenced by the applied electrical field strength during the process, with an increased ?max at more intense electrical field strengths. In addition, the ?max was also influenced by the pH and water activity. The td, which could theoretically be considered as an increase in shelf life, was found to depend on a complex correlation between electrical field strength, pH and water activity. That could be explained by the fact that the td is a combination of the number of survivors, the recovery of sublethal injured cells and the growth rate of the survivors. © 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 192.
    Aronsson, Kristina
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lindgren, M.
    Johansson, B.R.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Inactivation of microorganisms using pulsed electric fields: The influence of process parameters on Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae2001In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 41-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the killing effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on four organisms suspended in a model medium. Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae differ in size, shape and cell wall construction. The electric field strength, pulse duration and number of pulses were varied in the ranges of 25-35 kV/cm, 2-4 ?s and 20-40 pulses, respectively. The results showed that S. cerevisiae was the most sensitive organism with a 6-log reduction, followed by E. coli with a 5.4-log reduction, when they were exposed to 30 kV/cm, and 20 pulses with 4 ?s duration. The most resistant organisms were L. innocua and L. mesenteroides with only a 3-log reduction, however, by increasing the parameters to 35 kV/cm and 40 pulses with 4 ?s pulse duration; marked viability reductions of 8 and 7 log, respectively, were observed. Heat, which is generated during the process, has limited killing effect on the cells, hence the observed reduction can be ascribed to the PEF treatment. Although transmission electron microscopy of PEF treated cells did not confirm membrane damage, observations suggest that PEF treatments have profound direct or indirect effects on the intracellular organisation of microorganisms. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 193.
    Aronsson, Kristina
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Erratum: "Influence of pH, water activity and temperature on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by pulsed electric fields" (Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies (2001) vol. 2 (105-112)2002In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 101-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Aronsson, Kristina
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of pH, water activity and temperature on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by pulsed electric fields2001In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of pH, water activity (aw) and temperature on the killing effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspended in a model media were subjected to 20 pulses with 4 ?s duration in a continuous PEF system, during which the effects of pH (4.0-7.0), aw (1.00-0.94) and inlet temperature (10°C and 30°C) could easily be studied. Electrical field strengths were set to 25 kV/cm for S. cerevisiae and 30 kV/cm for E. coli and the highest outlet temperature was monitored to 44°C. A synergy of low pH values, high temperatures and PEF processing was observed. A drop in pH value from 7.0 to 4.0 resulted in the reduction of E. coli by four additional log units, whereas for S. cerevisiae, the pH effect was less pronounced. Lowering aw seems to protect both E. coli and S. cerevisiae from PEF processing. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 195.
    Aronsson, Kristina
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to membrane permeabilization and subsequent leakage of intracellular compounds due to pulsed electric field processing2005In: International Journal of Food Microbiology, ISSN 0168-1605, E-ISSN 1879-3460, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 19-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane permeabilization, caused by pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of microbial cells, was investigated by measurement of propidium iodide (PI) uptake with flow cytometry. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined by viable counts, and leakage of intracellular compounds, such as ATP and UV-absorbing substances, was measured in the extracellular environment. Electrical field strength and pulse duration influenced membrane permeabilization of all three tested organisms of which S. cerevisiae was the most PEF sensitive, followed by E. coli and L. innocua. It was shown by viable counts, PI uptake and leakage of intracellular compounds that L. innocua was the most resistant. Increased inactivation corresponded to greater numbers of permeabilized cells, which were reflected by increased PI uptake and larger amounts of intracellular compounds leaking from cells. For E. coli and L. innocua, a linear relationship was observed between the number of inactivated cells (determined as CFU) and cells with permeated membranes (determined by PI uptake), with higher number of inactivated cells than permeated cells. Increased leakage of intracellular compounds with increasing treatment severity provided further evidence that cells were permeabilized. For S. cerevisiae, there was higher PI uptake after PEF treatments, although very little or no inactivation was observed. Results suggest that E. coli and L. innocua cells, which took up PI, lost their ability to multiply, whereas cells of S. cerevisiae, which also took up PI, were not necessarily lethally permeabilized. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 196. Artin, I.
    et al.
    Carter, A.T.
    Holst, Emma
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lövenklev, Maria
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mason, D.R.
    Peck, M.W.
    Effects of carbon dioxide on neurotoxin gene expression in nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E2008In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 74, no 8, p. 2391-2397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide is an antimicrobial gas commonly used in modified atmosphere packaging. In the present study, the effects of carbon dioxide on the growth of and neurotoxin production by nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type E were studied during the growth cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to quantify expression of the type E botulinum neurotoxin gene (cntE) and the formation of type E neurotoxin. The expression levels of cntE were similar in two strains, with relative expression peaking in the transition between exponential phase and stationary phase. In stationary phase, cntE mRNA expression declined rapidly. The cntE mRNA half-life was calculated to be approximately 9 minutes. Neurotoxin formation occurred in late exponential phase and stationary phase. High carbon dioxide concentrations delayed growth by increasing the lag time and decreasing the maximum growth rate. The effects of carbon dioxide concentration on relative neurotoxin gene expression and neurotoxin formation were significant. Expression of cntE mRNA and the formation of extracellular neurotoxin were twofold higher with a headspace carbon dioxide concentration of 70% (vol/vol) compared to 10% (vol/vol). This finding sheds a new, cautionary light on the potential risks of botulism associated with the use of modified atmosphere packaging. Copyright © 2008, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  • 197.
    Aschemann-Witzel, J.
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    de Hooge, I.
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Normann, A.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Flavour.
    Consumer-Related Food Waste: Role of Food Marketing and Retailers and Potential for Action2016In: Journal of International Food and Agribusiness Marketing, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 271-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss food marketing and the role and responsibility of retail. Food marketing and retailing contribute to consumer-related food waste via decisions on date labeling, packaging sizes and design elements, and pricing strategies encouraging overpurchase, as well as communication shifting consumer priorities to the disadvantage of food waste avoidance. Potential actions to tackle food waste relate to improved packaging and information, altering pricing strategies, and cooperation with other actors across the supply chain. Three cases highlight the extent to which moral and strategic motives are interlinked and that there are opportunities for competitive advantage through corporate social responsibility and a business case for sustainability in the area of food waste. 2016 Copyright

  • 198. Ayer, N.W.
    et al.
    Tyedmers, P.H.
    Pelletier, N.L.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Scholz, A.
    Co-product allocation in life cycle assessments of seafood production systems: Review of problems and strategies2007In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 480-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, Aim and Scope. As Life Cycle Assessment is being increasingly applied to study fisheries and aquaculture systems, the LCA methodology must be adapted to address the unique aspects of these systems. The focus of this methodological paper is the specific allocation problems faced in studying seafood production systems and how they have been addressed to date. Main Features. The paper begins with a literature review of existing LCA research of fishing and aquaculture systems with a specific focus on 1) identifying the key allocation problems; 2) describing the choice of allocation procedures; and 3) providing insight on the rationale for those choices where available. The allocation procedures are then discussed in the context of ISO recommendations and other published guidance on allocation, followed by a discussion of the key lessons to be learned from the reviewed studies and recommendations for future LCAs of seafood production systems. Literature Review. The literature review suggests that allocation problems are most likely to arise when dealing with: landed by-catch within the context of capture fisheries, the use of co-product feed ingredients in aquaculture feeds, multiple outputs from fish farms, and the generation of by-products when seafood is processed. System expansion and allocation according to physical causality were not applied in most cases, while economic allocation was the most widely used approach. It was also observed that the level of detail and justification provided for allocation decisions in most published reports was inconsistent and incomplete. Discussion. The results of this literature review are consistent with other reviews of allocation in LCA in that allocation according to economic value was found to be the most frequently applied approach. The application of economic allocation when system expansion is not feasible is consistent with ISO guidance. However, economic allocation is not the most appropriate method in seafood production LCAs because it does not reflect the biophysical flows of material and energy between the inputs and outputs of the production system. Conclusions, Recommendations and Perspectives. More effort needs to be invested in developing allocation procedures appropriate to seafood production systems. Allocation based on gross energy content is proposed as one potential alternative means of allocating environmental burdens in some instances in seafood production LCAs. A standard set of requirements for how to describe and justify allocation decisions in published reports is needed to make these studies more robust and transparent. © 2007 ecorried publishers (Verlagsgruppe Hüthig Jehle Rehm GmbH).

  • 199. Backman, A.
    et al.
    Lantz, P.-G.
    Radstrom, P.
    Olcen, P.
    Evaluation of an extended diagnostic PCR assay for detection and verification of the common causes of bacterial meningitis in CSF and other biological samples1999In: Molecular and Cellular Probes, ISSN 0890-8508, E-ISSN 1096-1194, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 49-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay was evaluated for detection and verification of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Steptococcus agalactiae and Listeria monocytogenes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and other biological samples. A general bacterial amplicon from the 16S rRNA gene was amplified in a first step, and species-specific regions in a second. The detection level was 4 fg DNA/reaction, corresponding to about one bacterial genome per reaction tube. Sample preparations (Dynabeads DNA DIRECT kit) were assayed from 140 bacterial strains suspended in saline. In CSF the detection level for bacteria was 103 CFU ml-1 for N. meningitidis, H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae, 104 CFU ml-1 for Escherichia coli and 105 CFU ml-1 for S. agalactiae and L. monocytogenes. The detection levels for these bacteria were the same in the other tested biological samples, like blood with or without culture media. Clinical CSF samples were evaluated from 71 patients with proven bacterial meningitis, as were 61 CSF samples from individuals without bacterial meningitis. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay in detecting bacteria in general was 0.97, and for the specific species in the clinical CSF samples 0.87-0.94. The specificity was 1.0 for detecting bacteria in general. Some cross-reactions were noted within the streptococcus group. The PCR results were verified by banding patterns of HaeIII digested PCR products.

  • 200. Baden, S.
    et al.
    Emanuelsson, Andreas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Pihl, L.
    Svensson, C.-J.
    Aberg, P.
    Shift in seagrass food web structure over decades is linked to overfishing2012In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 451, p. 61-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical field studies in seagrass have revealed that overgrowth by filamentous algae which reduces seagrass growth can be explained by a top-down cascading effect caused by declines in top predators, which is enforced by eutrophication. On the Swedish west coast, 60% of the seagrass has disappeared since the 1980s. We hypothesised that overfishing, responsible for a >90% decline in the cod stock, and the 4 to 8 times increase in nutrient load since the 1930s have altered the seagrass structure and function during recent decades. We used quantitative samples from the 1980s and 2000s and analysed the trends in abundance of the 4 feeding guilds: top predatory fish, intermediate predatory fish, crustacean omnivores and mesoherbivores. Since the 1980s, the commercial catch of gadoids on the Swedish west coast has decreased by >90%, and here we found that the biomass of top predators (gadoids and trout) that forage in seagrass has decreased by approximately 80%. In contrast, the biomass of intermediate predatory fish (gobids and sticklebacks) has increased 8 times during summer and 11 times during autumn, while mesoherbivores (idoteids and gammarids >7 mm) have more or less disappeared from the seagrass bed. We thus found clear evidence that a shift in seagrass food web structure has taken place over the last 3 decades. Combining these findings with our recent empirical results from field cage experiments in the Skagerrak seagrass, where we manipulate top-down and bottom-up regulation, we conclude that lack of grazers in concert with eutrophication most likely contributed to the overgrowth by filamentous algae and disappearance of the seagrass on the Swedish west coast. © Inter-Research 2012.

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