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  • 151.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    Flerskalig metodik för att undersöka betongs mekaniska respons2012In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 152.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hansson, Erik
    Inspecta.
    Analysis of irradiated concrete: Microscopic and mechanical tests on concrete from a nuclear power plant containment structure2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drilled concrete cores from the centralpart of the containment structure of reactor 2 in Oskarshamn weretested in the present study. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy wereapplied.The microscopy analyses performed have not documented any changes in the properties of the concrete that can be interpreted as beingdue to the specific environment to which the samples havebeen exposed. The parameters that havebeen studied includecrack patterns that could indicate volume changes inthe aggregate or cement pasteand indications of alkali silica reaction. The observed differences in the concrete surface compared to the inner part of the concrete are such that they couldoccur in concrete exposed to a normal indoor environment. There are no crack patterns to indicatethat the radiation has caused a volume increase inthe aggregate or drying shrinkage in the cement paste. Thereareno changesin the crack patterns, porosity or polarization properties that may indicate reduced mechanical strength. The damage seen in the surface of sample 5 is likely to have beencaused by a local mechanical impact and thisdamage is superficial andlocal. The mechanical properties of the concrete were evaluated by uniaxial compression tests on cylinders machined from drilled cores. Full-field strain measurement was performed on the surface of the cylinders during the compression test. Optical full-field deformation measurement was conducted usinga measurement technique based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) with a stereoscopic camera set-up, consisting of two CCDcameras. The basic idea behind DIC is to measure the deformation of the specimen duringtesting by tracking the deformation of a surface speckle pattern in a series of digital images acquired during loading. That there is some variation in strain between the various segments is natural, since the local stiffness depends on aggregate sizeand location. The general picture is that the strain distribution is relatively uniform along the length of the cylinder,which indicates that the tested cylinders do not exhibit any degradation of mechanical properties. There is also no significant difference between the cylinders taken towards the insideof the structure, compared with thosetaken towards the outside.The overall conclusion is that the tests carried out do not indicate any degradation of the mechanical properties, and that the properties in general are equivalent for the cores taken towards the inside and the outside of the structure.

  • 153.
    Liu, Hongyuan
    et al.
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Lindqvist, Per Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Urban
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Kou, Shaoquan
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Characterisation of rock aggregate breakage properties using realistic texture-based modelling2012In: International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, ISSN 0363-9061, E-ISSN 1096-9853, Vol. 36, no 10, p. 1280-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Realistic texture-based modelling methods, that is microstructural modelling and micromechanical modelling, are developed to simulate the rock aggregate breakage properties on the basis of the rock actual microstructure obtained using microscopic observations and image analysis. The breakage properties of three types of rocks, that is Avja, LEP and Vandle taken from three quarries in Sweden, in single aggregate breakage tests and in inter-aggregate breakage tests are then modelled using the proposed methods. The microstructural modelling directly integrates the microscopic observation, image analysis and numerical simulation together and provides a valuable tool to investigate the mechanical properties of rock aggregates on the basis of their microstructure properties. The micromechanical modelling takes the most important microstructure properties of rock aggregates into consideration and can model the major mechanical properties. Throughout this study, it is concluded that in general, the microstructure properties of rock aggregate work together to affect their mechanical properties, and it is difficult to correlate a single microstructure property with the mechanical properties of rock aggregates. In particular, for the three types of rock Avja, LEP and Vandle in this study, crack size distribution, grain size and grain perimeter (i.e. grain shape and spatial arrangement) show good correlations with the mechanical properties. The crack length and the grain size negatively affect the mechanical properties of Avja, LEP and Vandle, but the perimeter positively influences the mechanical properties. Besides, the modelled rock aggregate breakage properties in both single aggregate and inter-aggregate tests reveal that the aggregate microstructure, aggregate shape and loading conditions influence the breakage process of rock aggregate in service. For the rock aggregate with the same microstructure, the quadratic shape and good packing dramatically improve its mechanical properties. During services, the aggregate is easiest to be fragmented under point-to-point loading condition, and then in the sequence of multiple-point, point-to-plane and plane-to-plane loading conditions.

  • 154.
    Lundevall, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Sundberg, L.
    Mattsson, L.
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Improved glass bonding with plasma treatment2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 155. Lundgren, K
    et al.
    Kettil, P
    Analytical model for the bond-slip behaviour of corroded ribbed reinforcement2012In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 157-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of reinforcement affects the bond mechanism between reinforcement and concrete, and thus the anchorage. Reliable models describing this are needed especially for assessment of the load-carrying capacity of existing structures. This paper presents an analytical one-dimensional model for bond-slip response of corroded reinforcement. The proposed model is an extension of the bond-slip model given in the CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, and is practically applicable for structural analyses to determine the load-carrying capacity of corroded structures. Furthermore, the anchorage length needed to anchor the yield force is calculated from the bond slip, using the one-dimensional bond-slip differential equation. Results of the proposed model are compared with experimental results as well as results from an advanced three-dimensional finite element model. The suggested model is shown to give results that are consistent with the physical behaviour.

  • 156.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Blick för forskning2014In: Cementa, ISSN 0346-8771, no 2, p. 16-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Effekten av impregnering och klotterskydd är oklar2009In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 36-38Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klotter kostar runt en miljard årligen. Ett problem är att det saknas testmetoder för att avgöra om ett klotterskydd är effektivt mot klotter och smuts på en viss typ av yta. Inom kulturvård används impregnering för att förstärka byggnadsmaterial.

  • 158.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Klotterskydd: hur effektivt är det på betong och natursten?2008In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 159.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Marknaden är inte mogen för alternativa (eller nya) bindemedel i betongkonstruktionen2014In: Svensk Byggtidning, ISSN 2000-8880, no 6, p. 102-103Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ny fasad med textilarmering2012In: Cementa, ISSN 0346-8771, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ny VD2014In: Svensk Bergs & Brukstidning, ISSN 0039-6435, Vol. 93, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Textil armering kan bli verklighet2012In: Betong.se, no 11 AprilArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Textilarmerad betong för renovering av fasader2013In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 5-Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 164.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundahl, Anna
    Tekniska textilier i betong2010In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 165.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundahl, Anna
    Use of technical textiles for modification of concrete surface2012In: Restoration of Building and Monuments, ISSN 1864-7251, Vol. 18, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    Ställ tekniska egenskapskrav och använd deklarationerna2014In: Energi & Miljö, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Relevance of hydrophobic and oleophobic properties of antigraffiti systems on their cleaning efficiency on concrete and stone surfaces2013In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 755-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of graffiti is not entirely restricted to urban areas, but also appears frequently in rural communities and along traffic infrastructure. Besides its aesthetic and societal effects, graffiti cause considerable removal costs and subsequent costs for repairing damages caused by improper graffiti removal. Over the last two decades, strategies have been developed to combat graffiti in the built environment, including the development of protective measures in the form of antigraffiti systems (AGSs). Antigraffiti systems promise to be affordable and easily applicable for a wide range of substrates, and many products have already been on the market for many years. In practice, however, successful application of AGS and removal of graffiti depend on many factors in which the type of coating and condition of the substrate play critical roles. The optimal environmental goal is to use AGS without any cleaning chemicals except for pure water. Available studies on the behavior of the same AGS on various substrates can show completely different results concerning the cleaning efficacy and the durability of the AGS under different climatic conditions. The question of which properties of an AGS are most essential for its efficiency has still not been fully investigated. The goal of this study was to investigate cleaning efficacy in conjunction with hydrophobic and oleophobic properties of the AGS on different substrates. The results showed that hydrophobicity and oleophobicity are important for dense substrates but have a low influence on porous substrates. In this case, cleaning efficiency is majorly determined by the physical properties of the substrates.

  • 168.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Combadura y dilatación de paneles de piedra natural: ensayo y evaluación de mármol y caliza2008In: Materiales de construcción, ISSN 0465-2746, E-ISSN 1988-3226, Vol. 58, no 289-290, p. 97-112Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Textilarmerad betong ger lättare konstruktioner2011In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 170. Mattsson, Hans-Åke
    et al.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    Bridge demolition and construction rates: inspection data-based indicators2008In: Bridge structures, ISSN 1573-2487, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 33-47Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 171. Maurenbrecher, P
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    RILEM TC 203-RHM: Repair mortars for historic masonry: Requirements for repointing mortars for historic masonry2012In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 1303-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a summary of functional and performance requirements for repointing mortars for historic masonry (design, execution and maintenance). Successful performance of repair and conservation of mortar in historic masonry requires more care with design and execution than with modern masonry.

  • 172. Mańczyk, K
    et al.
    Trzebicka, B
    Ti02 photoinduced processes in environmental purification2009In: Polish Journal of Applied Chemistry, ISSN 0867-8928, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 323-336Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Mc Carthy, Richard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Is it possible to predict formwork pressure when using SCC?: A field study2014In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 73-91Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the market share of cast-in-place Self-Compacting_x000D_ Concrete (SCC) is only around 10%. Uncertainty concerning_x000D_ formwork pressure is considered to be one of the most important_x000D_ factors explaining the slow progression. During construction of a_x000D_ 400 m long, 6 m high and 0.27 m thick prison wall in northern_x000D_ Sweden, SCC alone was used. The formwork used consisted of_x000D_ steel-framed panels, instrumented with flush-mounted pressure_x000D_ sensors. Each concrete batch was tested for air content, slumpflow,_x000D_ concrete and air temperature. Besides tests on torsional_x000D_ moment or torque, L-box, and V-funnel were carried out._x000D_ Relations between concrete properties, casting rate and time_x000D_ versus formwork pressure were investigated. The results_x000D_ confirmed that structural build-up of SCC has to be taken into_x000D_ account for predicting formwork pressure. The torsional moment_x000D_ was measured at three consecutive times at each casting and the_x000D_ time-dependent development of the torsional moment was_x000D_ subsequently used as indirect input in two simple formwork_x000D_ pressure methods that have been developed recently. The_x000D_ comparison between computed and measured formwork pressure_x000D_ shows that both these methods would be possible to use for_x000D_ predicting formwork pressure generated by SCC.

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  • 174. Mc Carthy, Richard
    et al.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    The Swedish user´s view of self-compacting concrete2011In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 75-86Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Mechtcherine, Viktor
    et al.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Gram, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Krenzer, Knut
    Institut für Angewandte Bauforschung Weimar GmbH, Germany.
    Schwabe, Jörg Henry
    University of Applied Science Jena, Germany.
    Shyshko, Sergiy
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Roussel, Nicolas
    Universite Paris Est, France.
    Simulation of fresh concrete flow using Discrete Element Method (DEM): theory and applications2014In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 615-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of the development and the contemporary state of research in the field of simulating fresh concrete flow using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). First, this work originating from TC 222-SCF simulation of fresh concrete flow, covers the mathematical methodology, the identification of the model parameters and the link between the rheological properties of fresh concrete and the parameters of DEM-based models. Various examples of the estimation of model parameters and calibration of the model were demonstrated, followed by verifications by comparing the numerical results and the corresponding predictions by analytical formula and laboratory experiments. Furthermore, software used in concrete engineering and existing industrial applications of the developed particle models were described, showing the potential of DEM.

  • 176.
    Melander, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Bullerdämpande betong en effektiv ljudfälla2012In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 177.
    Melander, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    System med Rockdrain2011In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 11-Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 178.
    Meng, Birgit
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Performance of a new anti-graffiti agent used for immovable cultural heritage objects2014In: International Journal of Architectural Heritage, ISSN 1558-3058, E-ISSN 1558-3066, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 820-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural Heritage objects are in many cases invaluable and irrecoverable, therefore their protection is a major goal. One threat arises by intentionally defacing such objects with graffiti. One possibility to face the imminent threat is the application of a surface protection in form of anti-graffiti systems (AGS). However, the knowledge about the performance and durability of AGS on substrates used for historical buildings is still fragmented. The goal of the present study was to investigate the performance of a newly developed anti-graffiti agent in comparison to a selection of commercial anti-graffiti agents on different substrates that were used for historical buildings. Four commercial anti-graffiti agents with different chemical formulations were selected and tested with the new agent on different stone and brick substrates. The results showed clearly that AGS based on dense, water-vapor impermeable coatings are not suitable to porous substrates such as sandstone, brick, or porous limestone due to their impairment of the hygric properties and the visual appearance of a substrate. The new agent could not completely reach the cleaning efficacy of the dense coatings but exhibited a much lower impact on the properties of the substrate and was therefore better compatible to historical surfaces.

  • 179.
    Miccoli, L.
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Fontana, P.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mechanical behaviour of earthen materials.: A comparison between earth block masonry, rammed earth and cob2014In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 61, p. 327-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth represents one of the oldest construction materials, which is still utilised both in developed and in developing countries. In this paper a comparison of the mechanical performance of structural elements built in three basic techniques, earth block (adobe) masonry, rammed earth and cob, is presented. In order to gain better knowledge on the structural behaviour under static loads an extensive compression and diagonal compression (shear) test campaign was performed. First compression results showed brittle mechanical behaviour in the case of earth block masonry and rammed earth elements, whereas cob exhibited a very different stress-strain pattern: cob can deform beyond the elastic range with a gradual drop in capacity. Despite its low compressive strength, cob thus presents a relatively good performance within the earthen material range as far as shear behaviour is concerned. The data here reported represents a base for a further investigation on the dynamic behaviour of the three materials considered. The study was carried out within the framework of the project NIKER funded by the European Commission dealing with improving immovable Cultural Heritage assets against the risk of earthquakes.

  • 180. Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Fontana, Patrick
    Mechanical characterization and modelling of earth block masonry2012In: Masonry, ISSN 1432-3427, E-ISSN 1437-1022, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 279-292Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Knowledge of the material properties and failure mechanisms of earthen materials is limited and scattered. Within the framework of the NIKER project (www.niker.eu) funded by EC, the mechanical properties of earthen material elements were therefore determined under static compression and shear loads. The aim was to obtain fundamental data on deformation behaviour and failure mechanisms of earthen material structural elements and to describe them by means of a numerical model. The test results confirmed the brittle behaviour of earth block masonry under monoaxial compressive load and showed that the failure of earth block masonry under shear load occurs by sliding of the earth blocks along the mortar joints after initial cracking in mortar joints and earth block. Numerical macro modelling showed satisfying results with regard to stress-strain behaviour, but the simulated crack pattern was not consistent with experimental observations. In the case of earth block masonry, it is thus necessary to use micro modelling approaches in order to correctly predict the failure process at local level.

  • 181.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Oliveira, Daniel V.
    ISISE University of Minho, Portugal.
    Silva, Rui A.
    ISISE University of Minho, Portugal.
    Muller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Schueremans, Luc
    Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Static behaviour of rammed earth: Experimental testing and finite element modelling2014In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 3443-3456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an experimental program aiming at assessing the mechanical performance of rammed earth walls, namely under compression and shear loading. Axial compression and diagonal compression tests were carried out for this purpose, which allowed determining important mechanical parameters, such as compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, shear strength and shear modulus. Furthermore, it allowed assessing the level of non-linear behaviour of the respective stress-strain relationships as well as the failure modes. The experimental results were then used in the calibration of numerical models (finite element method) for simulating the non-linear behaviour of rammed earth under shear loading. Both macro- and micro modelling approaches were considered for this purpose. The total strain rotating crack model was used to simulate the behaviour of the rammed earth material, while the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was used to simulate the behaviour of interfaces between layers. In general, the numerical models achieved good agreement with the experimental results, but uncertainties related to the definition of the input parameters required to perform a sensitivity analysis. The compressive strength, the Poisson's ratio, the tensile strength and the tensile fracture energy revealed to be the most important parameters in the analyses

  • 182.
    Miettinen, Arttu
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Kataja, Markku
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Three-Dimensional Microstructural Properties of Nanofibrillated Cellulose Films2014In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 4, no 15, p. 6423-6440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films have potential as oxygen barriers for, e.g., food packaging applications, but their use is limited by their hygroscopic characteristics. The three-dimensional microstructure of NFC films made of Pinus radiata (Radiata Pine) kraft pulp fibres has been assessed in this study, considering the structural development as a function of relative humidity (RH). The surface roughness, micro-porosity, thickness and their correlations were analyzed using X-ray microtomography (X-μCT) and computerized image analysis. The results are compared to those from scanning electron microscopy and laser profilometry. Based on a series of films having varying amounts of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidated nanofibrils, it was demonstrated that X-μCT is suitable for assessing the surface and bulk 3D microstructure of the cellulose films. Additionally, one of the series was assessed at varying humidity levels, using the non-destructive capabilities of X-μCT and a newly developed humidity chamber for in-situ characterization. The oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of the films (20 g/m2) was below 3:7mLm-2 day-1 at humidity levels below 60% RH. However, the OTR increased considerably to 12:4mLm-2 day-1 when the humidity level increased to 80% RH. The increase in OTR was attributed to a change of the film porosity, which was reflected as an increase in local thickness. Hence, the characterization techniques applied in this study shed more light on the structures of NFC films and how they are affected by varying humidity levels. It was demonstrated that in increasing relative humidity the films swelled and the oxygen barrier properties decreased.

  • 183.
    Miettinen, Arttu
    et al.
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Ekman, Axel
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Kataja, Markku
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Measuring intrinsic thickness of rough membranes: application to nanofibrillated cellulose films2015In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 50, no 21, p. 6926-6934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adequate measurement of thickness of sheet-like materials or membranes is most important for quantifying their properties such as density, barrier properties and mechanical strength. Depending on the surface roughness of the membrane, the thickness measured by standard micrometre devices (apparent thickness) may considerably overestimate the actual geometrical mean thickness (intrinsic thickness) required for such purposes. In this work, we present a method for correcting the measured apparent thickness value of thin membranes for their surface roughness, thereby obtaining an improved estimate of the intrinsic thickness. The surface roughness data required for the correction can be obtained by common surface profiling techniques. The method includes a calibration parameter, the value of which can be found experimentally by independent measurements, or can be estimated theoretically using results from standard mechanical contact theory. The method is tested on a set of nanofibrillated cellulose films with varying roughness levels controlled by pulp fibre content. The surface topography of film samples was measured using laser profilometry, and the method was calibrated experimentally using data from X-ray microtomographic images for one type of film. The intrinsic thickness estimates given by the new method are generally in good accordance with independent results obtained from X-ray microtomography.

  • 184. Mikczinski, M.
    et al.
    Josefsson, G.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Gamstedt, E.K.
    Fatikow, S.
    Introducing an in-situ microrobotic approach for assessing the stiffness properties of microfibrillated cellulose films2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Internationella och nationella kommittéer om ASR i betong2014In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 11-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Mineralische Baustoffe: Untersuchen, Bewerten und Konservieren2021 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Um Denkmäler zu bewahren und Altbauten für eine zeitgemäße Nutzung instand zu setzen, sind Lösungen notwendig, die den Eigenschaften und dem Erhaltungszustand der Gebäude angepasst sind. Dazu ist ein Grundwissen über historische Baustoffe erforderlich. Reparaturmaterialien interagieren physikalisch und chemisch mit dem Bestand. Falsche Reparaturversuche können Schäden verschlimmern oder neue Schäden hervorrufen. Dieses Buch ist eine Baustoffkunde der seit Jahrtausenden gebräuchlichen Materialien Lehm, Kalk, Gips, Naturstein und Ziegel. Behandelt werden außerdem Zementmörtel und historische Betone sowie unterschiedliche Farben und Pigmente. Ein Kapitel ist dem Asbest gewidmet. Der Autor beschreibt die Geschichte der Entstehung oder Herstellung dieser Baustoffe, ihre stoffliche Zusammensetzung und die Materialeigenschaften. Ein wesentlicher Teil des Buches befasst sich mit naturwissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und Analysemethoden, mit denen Materialzusammensetzungen bestimmt und Schadensursachen aufgeklärt werden können. Dieses Grundwissen benötigen Planer, damit sie baustoffkundliche Untersuchungen gezielt beauftragen und fundierte Entscheidungen für Maßnahmen zum Schutz, zur Konservierung oder zur Instandsetzung treffen können. Das Buch ist Teil der Reihe »Erhalten historisch bedeutsamer Bauwerke - Empfehlungen für die Praxis«. Diese Buchreihe stellt in thematisch abgegrenzten Einzelbänden konzeptionell-entwurfliche und bautechnisch-konstruktive Methoden für einen behutsamen Umgang mit historischer Bausubstanz vor, bei dem Eingriffe auf das wirklich Notwendige beschränkt werden. Sie gründet auf einer gleichnamigen, vor genau 20 Jahren von Fritz Wenzel und Joachim Kleinmanns herausgegebenen Publikationsreihe, in der die Ergebnisse des Sonderforschungsbereichs 315 »Erhalten historisch bedeutsamer Bauwerke - Baugefüge, Konstruktionen, Werkstoffe« veröffentlicht wurden. 

  • 187.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundgren, Monica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Cement med tillsatsmaterial och risken för ASR i betong2014In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 5-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lundgren, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Hydration of concrete binders blended with ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash and metakaolin2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a study on the effects of ground granulated blast furnace slag, low calcium fly ash and metakaolin on the hydration behavior of different binder pastes blended with these SCM. The study investigated early heat development, phase assemblages at different ages, strength gain, changes in porosity and pore sizes, pore water OH-concentration, development of the microstructure and the micro chemistry of the binder pastes.It was shown that all SCM impact the pore size distribution of pastes of different ages. Compared to a reference paste without SCM, SCM containing pastes shift their pore size range to smaller sizes, the more SCM the pastes contain. The total porosity depends on the type of SCM. With slag, there was a tendency to decrease the total porosity with increasing SCM content. With fly ash, total porosity was increased with increasing fly ash content. The strength development of slag and fly ash containing mortars is under that of a Portland cement reference mortar within the first 28 days. However, after 28 d strength gain, in particular with fly ash is considerable compared to the reference. With metakaolin already at early ages a strong increase in strength was observed. After that, the strength development was parallel the one of the reference mortar. Aluminum containing SCM contribute to the formation of AFm phases. AFm phases increase the chloride binding in seawater or deicing salt exposed concretes. In particular metakaolin and fly ash contribute, due to their high alumina content, to the formation of AFm phases but also increase the aluminum content in the C-S-H phases.

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  • 189.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Plusquellec, Gilles
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Potential for use of activated clays in concrete in Sweden – Roadmap2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish construction industry is generating a save and affordable built environment for transport, work and living but it is faced with a huge challenge: drastic reduction of greenhouse gases and an increase of circularity in their production cycles. One material, which has inherently embodied CO2, is limestone, which is needed for the production of Portland cement, the essential ingredient in concrete. The CO2 emission during cement production can be drastically compensated by so called supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), which replace cement components causing CO2 emissions. SCM can be used by incorporating them into Portland cement or can be used directly by mixing into concrete. However, traditionally used SCM such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash are only available in limited amounts in Sweden, not matching the domestic cement production. An alternative to those more traditional SCM is activated or calcined clay, which reacts similar to blast furnace slag or fly ash. Calcined clay is created from natural clays by heating up to 700 ° - 800 °C, where it become very reactive. In this roadmap the state-of-the-art about activated clays is shown from a Swedish perspective. It also shows challenges and needs that have been formulated for a future implementation of activated clays as a component of low carbon concrete.

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  • 190.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Selander, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Nytt Ramprogram på CBI - Beständighet och hydratation2013In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 3-4, 13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    von Weschpfennig, Dieter
    Anti-Graffiti-Systeme auf Mauerwerk im Bereich der Bundesfernstraßen2011In: Bautechnik, ISSN 0932-8351, Vol. 88, no 7, p. 443–450-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 192.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ziegert, C
    Eigenschaften industrieller lehmbauprodukte für den mauerwerksbau und verhalten von lehmsteinmauerwerk2012In: Masonry, ISSN 1432-3427, E-ISSN 1437-1022, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Properties of industrially produced earthen building products for masonry and behaviour of earth block masonry. The contribution gives an overview of the properties of industrially produced earthen building products for masonry. In the meantime the quality of the industrial production of this group of building materials reached a level similar to that of other products for construction. Earth plasters exist as plasters for universal, one or multi layer applications or as lower, upper or finish plasters. Earth blocks are provided in different sizes and with different perforations. The mechanical properties of different earth block types are signified by compressive strength of up to 11 N/mm2 but are typically in a range between 2 and 5 N/mm2. A critical point is the correlation of the strength of earthen materials with their moisture content. Results from earth blocks showed that in a relative humidity window between 40 and 70 % rh the compressive strength of earth blocks is fairly constant. Masonry made from earth block and earth mortar exhibited compressive strength and elastic modules similar to masonry made with aerated autoclaved concrete blocks. The shear strength of earth block masonry, however, is fairly low, due to the weak bond between earth block and earth mortar.

  • 193.
    Mäkelä, P.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Östlund, S.
    Cohesive crack modelling of thin sheet material exhibiting anisotropy plasticity and large-scale damage evolution2012In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, p. 50-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Månsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Ekman, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    BETCRETE 2.0 - Tillståndsprocesser : En nulägesbeskrivning2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanfattar författarnas arbete med att undersöka förbättringsmöjligheter hos dagens tillståndsprocesser, ett arbete som bedrivits under perioden januari 2021 till juli 2022. Arbetet har finansierats av VINNOVA UDI 2 - BETCRETE 2.0 och RISE kompetensmedel. I det inledande avsnittet “De fossilfria färdplanerna” beskrivs tillståndsprocessers betydelse för att uppnå målen med de fossilfria färdplanerna, branschernas åsikter om hur tillståndsprocesser fungerar idag och de förhoppningar som gäller förändringar av tillståndsprocesser, för att gå i mål med färdplanerna. Avsnittet "Tillämplig lagstiftning för brytande verksamhet" handlar framför allt om den lagstiftning som ligger till grund för tillståndsprövningar av täkter och liknande verksamhet. I detta avsnitt gås bland annat prövningsprocessens olika steg igenom. Avsnittet "Statistik kring miljötillståndsprövningen" sammanfattar framförallt delar av Naturvårdsverkets rapport från 2022-05-13, "Uppdrag att samla in och analysera statistik för miljötillståndsprövningen för år 2021". Under rubriken "Relevanta aktuella utredningar och deras förslag" redovisas en genomgång av utredningar som väsentligen handlar om förändringar av lagstiftningen rörande tillståndsprocesser. De olika utredningarna ger en inblick i tankar kring och ambitioner med förändringar av lagstiftningen. Utredningar som beskrivs är Klimaträttsutredningen som handlar om hur förutsättningar för att Sveriges klimatmål ska kunna nås skapas, Miljöprövningsutredningen som handlar om att uppnå en modernare och mer effektiv miljöprövning, samt Utredning om hållbar försörjning av innovationskritiska metaller och mineral som handlar om ökad försörjningsberedskap för varor och tjänster. Utöver aktuella utredningar som handlar om eller berör tillståndsprocesser beskrivs också ett antal regeringsuppdrag som är relevanta för tillståndsprocesserna: Ökad försörjningsberedskap för varor och tjänster från industrin handlar om det uppdrag om ökad försörjningsberedskap regeringen gett till en särskild utredare, och i Regleringsbrev för budgetåret 2022 avseende länsstyrelserna ger regeringen bland annat uppdrag till länsstyrelserna som rör miljö-tillståndsprövningen. Slutligen sammanfattas rapporten Naturvårdsverkets rapport 7002 Miljöbedömningar. Under rubriken Aktuella fall beskrivs ett aktuellt miljöprövningsärende som gäller LKAB och ett potentiellt fall som handlar om Kalcinerade leror. Rapporten avslutas med avsnittet Digitala verktyg, som handlar om vad digitalisering och AI-metoder kan bidra med till olika förbättringar av tillståndsprocesserna.

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  • 195.
    Nordström, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mechanical characterization and application of Weibull statistics to the strength of softwood lignin-based carbon fibers2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 130, no 5, p. 3689-3697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical characterization of the first generation of softwood kraft lignin-based carbon fibers (CF) was carried out. The single-fiber tensile tests of filaments with different diameters and length were performed to evaluate stiffness and strength of carbon fibers. The average mechanical properties were measured as follows: tensile strength of approximately 300 MPa, the elastic modulus of 30 GPa and a strain at failure within interval of 0.7-1.2%. The fiber strength data was evaluated by the two-parameter Weibull statistics and parameters of this distribution were obtained. Although strength of the produced fibers is still significantly lower than that of commercially available, the experimental results and predictions based on Weibull statistics show a fairly good fit.

  • 196.
    Nyman, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    ASR- St: Görans gymnasium2014In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Nyman, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Avisningsmedel för gator och vägar2009In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Nyman, Bertil
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Johansson, Lars
    Sprickor i golv2010In: CBI nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of thermochromic coatings of VO2 on the fire performance of windows2018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 873-876Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of thermochromic coatings of vanadium dioxide (VO2) on the fire performance of windows was experimentally tested. Prototypes were subjected to radiant heat and the radiation transmitted through the specimens was measured as a function of time. The results indicate that windows coated with VO2 can reduce radiative heat transfer from fires and thereby also reduce or prevent fire spread. The results clearly show that VO2coatings on BK7 substrates hinder approximately 30% of the transmission of radiation from fire sources when compared with the performance of uncoated windows. It is expected that VO2 will not be solely implemented for the purpose of increasing fire performance of windows, but it will rather provide a secondary positive effect if such windows are realized for energy‐saving purposes.

  • 200.
    Ollandezos, Pavlos
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ny provningsmetod för impregnering av betong2011In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
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