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  • 151.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Textilarmerad betong för renovering av fasader2013In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 5-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundahl, Anna
    Tekniska textilier i betong2010In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundahl, Anna
    Use of technical textiles for modification of concrete surface2012In: Restoration of Building and Monuments, ISSN 1864-7251, Vol. 18, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 154.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Relevance of hydrophobic and oleophobic properties of antigraffiti systems on their cleaning efficiency on concrete and stone surfaces2013In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 755-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of graffiti is not entirely restricted to urban areas, but also appears frequently in rural communities and along traffic infrastructure. Besides its aesthetic and societal effects, graffiti cause considerable removal costs and subsequent costs for repairing damages caused by improper graffiti removal. Over the last two decades, strategies have been developed to combat graffiti in the built environment, including the development of protective measures in the form of antigraffiti systems (AGSs). Antigraffiti systems promise to be affordable and easily applicable for a wide range of substrates, and many products have already been on the market for many years. In practice, however, successful application of AGS and removal of graffiti depend on many factors in which the type of coating and condition of the substrate play critical roles. The optimal environmental goal is to use AGS without any cleaning chemicals except for pure water. Available studies on the behavior of the same AGS on various substrates can show completely different results concerning the cleaning efficacy and the durability of the AGS under different climatic conditions. The question of which properties of an AGS are most essential for its efficiency has still not been fully investigated. The goal of this study was to investigate cleaning efficacy in conjunction with hydrophobic and oleophobic properties of the AGS on different substrates. The results showed that hydrophobicity and oleophobicity are important for dense substrates but have a low influence on porous substrates. In this case, cleaning efficiency is majorly determined by the physical properties of the substrates.

  • 155.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Combadura y dilatación de paneles de piedra natural: ensayo y evaluación de mármol y caliza2008In: Materiales de construcción, ISSN 0465-2746, E-ISSN 1988-3226, Vol. 58, no 289-290, p. 97-112Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Textilarmerad betong ger lättare konstruktioner2011In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 157. Mattsson, Hans-Åke
    et al.
    Sundquist, Håkan
    Bridge demolition and construction rates: inspection data-based indicators2008In: Bridge structures, ISSN 1573-2487, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 33-47Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 158. Maurenbrecher, P
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    RILEM TC 203-RHM: Repair mortars for historic masonry: Requirements for repointing mortars for historic masonry2012In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 1303-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a summary of functional and performance requirements for repointing mortars for historic masonry (design, execution and maintenance). Successful performance of repair and conservation of mortar in historic masonry requires more care with design and execution than with modern masonry.

  • 159. Mańczyk, K
    et al.
    Trzebicka, B
    Ti02 photoinduced processes in environmental purification2009In: Polish Journal of Applied Chemistry, ISSN 0867-8928, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 323-336Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Mc Carthy, Richard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Is it possible to predict formwork pressure when using SCC?: A field study2014In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 73-91Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the market share of cast-in-place Self-Compacting_x000D_ Concrete (SCC) is only around 10%. Uncertainty concerning_x000D_ formwork pressure is considered to be one of the most important_x000D_ factors explaining the slow progression. During construction of a_x000D_ 400 m long, 6 m high and 0.27 m thick prison wall in northern_x000D_ Sweden, SCC alone was used. The formwork used consisted of_x000D_ steel-framed panels, instrumented with flush-mounted pressure_x000D_ sensors. Each concrete batch was tested for air content, slumpflow,_x000D_ concrete and air temperature. Besides tests on torsional_x000D_ moment or torque, L-box, and V-funnel were carried out._x000D_ Relations between concrete properties, casting rate and time_x000D_ versus formwork pressure were investigated. The results_x000D_ confirmed that structural build-up of SCC has to be taken into_x000D_ account for predicting formwork pressure. The torsional moment_x000D_ was measured at three consecutive times at each casting and the_x000D_ time-dependent development of the torsional moment was_x000D_ subsequently used as indirect input in two simple formwork_x000D_ pressure methods that have been developed recently. The_x000D_ comparison between computed and measured formwork pressure_x000D_ shows that both these methods would be possible to use for_x000D_ predicting formwork pressure generated by SCC.

  • 161. Mc Carthy, Richard
    et al.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    The Swedish user´s view of self-compacting concrete2011In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 75-86Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 162. Mechtcherine, V
    et al.
    Gram, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Simulation of fresh concrete flow using Discrete Element Method (DEM): theory and applications2014In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 615-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of the development and the contemporary state of research in the field of simulating fresh concrete flow using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). First, this work originating from TC 222-SCF simulation of fresh concrete flow, covers the mathematical methodology, the identification of the model parameters and the link between the rheological properties of fresh concrete and the parameters of DEM-based models. Various examples of the estimation of model parameters and calibration of the model were demonstrated, followed by verifications by comparing the numerical results and the corresponding predictions by analytical formula and laboratory experiments. Furthermore, software used in concrete engineering and existing industrial applications of the developed particle models were described, showing the potential of DEM.

  • 163.
    Melander, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Bullerdämpande betong en effektiv ljudfälla2012In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Melander, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    System med Rockdrain2011In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 11-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 165. Meng, Birgit
    et al.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Performance of a new anti-graffiti agent used for immovable cultural heritage objects2014In: International Journal of Architectural Heritage, ISSN 1558-3058, E-ISSN 1558-3066, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 820-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural Heritage objects are in many cases invaluable and irrecoverable, therefore their protection is a major goal. One threat arises by intentionally defacing such objects with graffiti. One possibility to face the imminent threat is the application of a surface protection in form of anti-graffiti systems (AGS). However, the knowledge about the performance and durability of AGS on substrates used for historical buildings is still fragmented. The goal of the present study was to investigate the performance of a newly developed anti-graffiti agent in comparison to a selection of commercial anti-graffiti agents on different substrates that were used for historical buildings. Four commercial anti-graffiti agents with different chemical formulations were selected and tested with the new agent on different stone and brick substrates. The results showed clearly that AGS based on dense, water-vapor impermeable coatings are not suitable to porous substrates such as sandstone, brick, or porous limestone due to their impairment of the hygric properties and the visual appearance of a substrate. The new agent could not completely reach the cleaning efficacy of the dense coatings but exhibited a much lower impact on the properties of the substrate and was therefore better compatible to historical surfaces.

  • 166. Miccoli, L
    et al.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Mechanical behaviour of earthen materials.: A comparison between earth block masonry, rammed earth and cob2014In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 61, p. 327-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth represents one of the oldest construction materials, which is still utilised both in developed and in developing countries. In this paper a comparison of the mechanical performance of structural elements built in three basic techniques, earth block (adobe) masonry, rammed earth and cob, is presented. In order to gain better knowledge on the structural behaviour under static loads an extensive compression and diagonal compression (shear) test campaign was performed. First compression results showed brittle mechanical behaviour in the case of earth block masonry and rammed earth elements, whereas cob exhibited a very different stress-strain pattern: cob can deform beyond the elastic range with a gradual drop in capacity. Despite its low compressive strength, cob thus presents a relatively good performance within the earthen material range as far as shear behaviour is concerned. The data here reported represents a base for a further investigation on the dynamic behaviour of the three materials considered. The study was carried out within the framework of the project NIKER funded by the European Commission dealing with improving immovable Cultural Heritage assets against the risk of earthquakes.

  • 167. Miccoli, L
    et al.
    Oliveira, Daniel V
    Static behaviour of rammed earth: Experimental testing and finite element modelling2014In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an experimental program aiming at assessing the mechanical performance of rammed earth walls, namely under compression and shear loading. Axial compression and diagonal compression tests were carried out for this purpose, which allowed determining important mechanical parameters, such as compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, shear strength and shear modulus. Furthermore, it allowed assessing the level of non-linear behaviour of the respective stress-strain relationships as well as the failure modes. The experimental results were then used in the calibration of numerical models (finite element method) for simulating the non-linear behaviour of rammed earth under shear loading. Both macro- and micro modelling approaches were considered for this purpose. The total strain rotating crack model was used to simulate the behaviour of the rammed earth material, while the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was used to simulate the behaviour of interfaces between layers. In general, the numerical models achieved good agreement with the experimental results, but uncertainties related to the definition of the input parameters required to perform a sensitivity analysis. The compressive strength, the Poisson's ratio, the tensile strength and the tensile fracture energy revealed to be the most important parameters in the analyses

  • 168. Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Fontana, Patrick
    Mechanical characterization and modelling of earth block masonry2012In: Masonry, ISSN 1432-3427, E-ISSN 1437-1022, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 279-292Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Knowledge of the material properties and failure mechanisms of earthen materials is limited and scattered. Within the framework of the NIKER project (www.niker.eu) funded by EC, the mechanical properties of earthen material elements were therefore determined under static compression and shear loads. The aim was to obtain fundamental data on deformation behaviour and failure mechanisms of earthen material structural elements and to describe them by means of a numerical model. The test results confirmed the brittle behaviour of earth block masonry under monoaxial compressive load and showed that the failure of earth block masonry under shear load occurs by sliding of the earth blocks along the mortar joints after initial cracking in mortar joints and earth block. Numerical macro modelling showed satisfying results with regard to stress-strain behaviour, but the simulated crack pattern was not consistent with experimental observations. In the case of earth block masonry, it is thus necessary to use micro modelling approaches in order to correctly predict the failure process at local level.

  • 169. Miettinen, A
    et al.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Kataja, M
    Three-Dimensional Microstructural Properties of Nanofibrillated Cellulose Films2014In: Int. J. Mol. Sci, ISSN 1661-6596, Vol. 4, no 15, p. 6423-6440Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 170. Miettinen, A.
    et al.
    Ekman, A.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Kataja, M.
    Measuring intrinsic thickness of rough membranes: application to nanofibrillated cellulose films2015In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 50, no 21, p. 6926-6934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adequate measurement of thickness of sheet-like materials or membranes is most important for quantifying their properties such as density, barrier properties and mechanical strength. Depending on the surface roughness of the membrane, the thickness measured by standard micrometre devices (apparent thickness) may considerably overestimate the actual geometrical mean thickness (intrinsic thickness) required for such purposes. In this work, we present a method for correcting the measured apparent thickness value of thin membranes for their surface roughness, thereby obtaining an improved estimate of the intrinsic thickness. The surface roughness data required for the correction can be obtained by common surface profiling techniques. The method includes a calibration parameter, the value of which can be found experimentally by independent measurements, or can be estimated theoretically using results from standard mechanical contact theory. The method is tested on a set of nanofibrillated cellulose films with varying roughness levels controlled by pulp fibre content. The surface topography of film samples was measured using laser profilometry, and the method was calibrated experimentally using data from X-ray microtomographic images for one type of film. The intrinsic thickness estimates given by the new method are generally in good accordance with independent results obtained from X-ray microtomography.

  • 171. Mikczinski, M.
    et al.
    Josefsson, G.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Gamstedt, E.K.
    Fatikow, S.
    Introducing an in-situ microrobotic approach for assessing the stiffness properties of microfibrillated cellulose films2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Internationella och nationella kommittéer om ASR i betong2014In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 11-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundgren, Monica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Cement med tillsatsmaterial och risken för ASR i betong2014In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 5-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lundgren, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Hydration of concrete binders blended with ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash and metakaolin2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a study on the effects of ground granulated blast furnace slag, low calcium fly ash and metakaolin on the hydration behavior of different binder pastes blended with these SCM. The study investigated early heat development, phase assemblages at different ages, strength gain, changes in porosity and pore sizes, pore water OH-concentration, development of the microstructure and the micro chemistry of the binder pastes.It was shown that all SCM impact the pore size distribution of pastes of different ages. Compared to a reference paste without SCM, SCM containing pastes shift their pore size range to smaller sizes, the more SCM the pastes contain. The total porosity depends on the type of SCM. With slag, there was a tendency to decrease the total porosity with increasing SCM content. With fly ash, total porosity was increased with increasing fly ash content. The strength development of slag and fly ash containing mortars is under that of a Portland cement reference mortar within the first 28 days. However, after 28 d strength gain, in particular with fly ash is considerable compared to the reference. With metakaolin already at early ages a strong increase in strength was observed. After that, the strength development was parallel the one of the reference mortar. Aluminum containing SCM contribute to the formation of AFm phases. AFm phases increase the chloride binding in seawater or deicing salt exposed concretes. In particular metakaolin and fly ash contribute, due to their high alumina content, to the formation of AFm phases but also increase the aluminum content in the C-S-H phases.

  • 175.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Selander, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Nytt Ramprogram på CBI - Beständighet och hydratation2013In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 3-4, 13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    von Weschpfennig, Dieter
    Anti-Graffiti-Systeme auf Mauerwerk im Bereich der Bundesfernstraßen2011In: Bautechnik, ISSN 0932-8351, Vol. 88, no 7, p. 443–450-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ziegert, C
    Eigenschaften industrieller lehmbauprodukte für den mauerwerksbau und verhalten von lehmsteinmauerwerk2012In: Masonry, ISSN 1432-3427, E-ISSN 1437-1022, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Properties of industrially produced earthen building products for masonry and behaviour of earth block masonry. The contribution gives an overview of the properties of industrially produced earthen building products for masonry. In the meantime the quality of the industrial production of this group of building materials reached a level similar to that of other products for construction. Earth plasters exist as plasters for universal, one or multi layer applications or as lower, upper or finish plasters. Earth blocks are provided in different sizes and with different perforations. The mechanical properties of different earth block types are signified by compressive strength of up to 11 N/mm2 but are typically in a range between 2 and 5 N/mm2. A critical point is the correlation of the strength of earthen materials with their moisture content. Results from earth blocks showed that in a relative humidity window between 40 and 70 % rh the compressive strength of earth blocks is fairly constant. Masonry made from earth block and earth mortar exhibited compressive strength and elastic modules similar to masonry made with aerated autoclaved concrete blocks. The shear strength of earth block masonry, however, is fairly low, due to the weak bond between earth block and earth mortar.

  • 178.
    Mäkelä, P.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Östlund, S.
    Cohesive crack modelling of thin sheet material exhibiting anisotropy plasticity and large-scale damage evolution2012In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, p. 50-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Nordström, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Joffe, R.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mechanical characterization and application of Weibull statistics to the strength of softwood lignin-based carbon fibers2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, no 5, p. 3689-3697Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Nyman, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    ASR- St: Görans gymnasium2014In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Nyman, Bertil
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Avisningsmedel för gator och vägar2009In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Nyman, Bertil
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Johansson, Lars
    Sprickor i golv2010In: CBI nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of thermochromic coatings of VO2 on the fire performance of windows2018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of thermochromic coatings of vanadium dioxide (VO2) on the fire performance of windows was experimentally tested. Prototypes were subjected to radiant heat and the radiation transmitted through the specimens was measured as a function of time. The results indicate that windows coated with VO2 can reduce radiative heat transfer from fires and thereby also reduce or prevent fire spread. The results clearly show that VO2coatings on BK7 substrates hinder approximately 30% of the transmission of radiation from fire sources when compared with the performance of uncoated windows. It is expected that VO2 will not be solely implemented for the purpose of increasing fire performance of windows, but it will rather provide a secondary positive effect if such windows are realized for energy‐saving purposes.

  • 184.
    Ollandezos, Pavlos
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ny provningsmetod för impregnering av betong2011In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 185. Pascal, Suer
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Reproducing ten years of road ageing: accelerated carbonation and leaching of EAF steel slag2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 18, p. 5110-5118Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 186. Paulsson-Tralla, Jonatan
    et al.
    Kalinowski, Mariusz
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Alkalisilikaproblem för betong i Sverige: ett växande problem som inte bör negligeras2013In: Bygg &Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 7, p. 49-52Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 187. Powell, Tor
    Viktiga förutsättningar och krav för härdplastbeläggningar i parkeringshus2010In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 102, no 8, p. 66-68Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 188. Rasel, Hannah
    et al.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S
    Johansson, Therese
    RISE, Innventia.
    Newson, William R
    Johansson, Eva
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    New bio-based plastics from a non-edible plant oil side-stream for film extrusion2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189. Rasheed, F.
    et al.
    Hedenqvist, M. S.
    Kuktaite, R.
    Plivelic, T. S.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, E.
    Mild gluten separation - A non-destructive approach to fine tune structure and mechanical behavior of wheat gluten films2015In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 73, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing production of wheat gluten (WG) for industrial use, minor attention has been given to the impact of the separation procedure on the gluten quality. The purpose of the present study was to probe the effect of the separation treatments (harsh vs mild) on gluten structure, morphology, and performance in bio-based films. The harshly separated industrial WG showed aggregated and pre-cross linked structure in the starting material most likely due to shear forces during gluten separation from flour and heat effect during the drying procedures. Further, when the harshly separated WG was processed into films the pre-crosslinked starting material restricted new crosslinks formation and structural rearrangements at nano-scale. The mechanical integrity of the film was also affected resulting in films with low Young's modulus and strength. WG (from cultivars Diskette, Puntari, and Sleipner) recovered from mild separation showed relatively "native" non-destructed crosslinking pattern and not previously observed structural morphology at nano-scale. When processed into films the mildly separated WG showed well polymerized intimately crosslinked proteins both with disulfide and other covalent crosslinks. The nano-scale morphology showed lamellar and hexagonal arrangements, not reported so far in any study. The structural rearrangements among films from mildly separated WG resulted in materials with improved mechanical integrity as compared to films from harshly separated WG. The present study showed that the quality of WG is significantly affected by the separation procedure which also affects protein polymerization, nano-scale morphology, and tensile properties of films

  • 190.
    Raulf, Martin
    et al.
    ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Forschung und Entwicklung.
    Persson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Rolling of Steel2014In: Encyclopedia of Lubricants and Lubrication, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 1663-1680Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel is one of the most widely used construction material. It is extensively applied in building, for automotive and household applications, in packaging, and many other fields. The world steel production reached some 1.55 billion tons in 2012. About half of the that amount is produced as flat steel, which is by definition (DIN EN 10079) a product that is rectangular shaped, where the width is much bigger than its thickness and – it can be added – is formed in a rolling processes. According to DIN 8583, rolling is a forming process under pressure, where the workpiece is formed between two or more rotating tools.

  • 191. Rodionova, G.
    et al.
    Eriksen, Ø.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber films:: effect of surface morphology on water resistance2012In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 192. Rodionova, G.
    et al.
    Hoff, B.
    Lenes, M.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Ø.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    Gas-phase esterification of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) films2013In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 193. Rodionova, G.
    et al.
    Roudot, S.
    Eriksen, Ø.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Männle, F.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    The formation and characterisation of sustainable layered films incorporating microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)2012In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 7, p. 3690-3700Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 194. Rodionova, G.
    et al.
    Saito, T.
    Lenes, M.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Ø.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    Mechanical and oxygen barrier properties of films prepared from fibrillated dispersions of TEMPO-oxidized Norway spruce and Eucalyptus pulps2012In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Peters, Gregory
    Validation of the results from toxicity assessment in LCA using triangulation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission initiative for Product Environmental Footprint is based on life cycle assessment (LCA), with the USEtox consensus model as the recommended impact assessment method for toxicity. The confidence in the scientific robustness will be crucial for the intended users to take actions based on the results. This research work aims to validate the results from toxicity assessment within the context of LCA by benchmarking USEtox with two alternative approaches in a case study. While strictly speaking there can be no experimental validation of environmental damage predicted in an LCA of a generic product, comparison of the results of three different methods can be considered a form of triangulation in LCA which can potentially provide confidence in an individual method. A textile case was chosen as the textile industry is an intense user of chemicals.Three different quantitative or semi-quantitative methods for toxicity assessment were used: the USEtox model chosen for the European PEF work; the Score System presented in the European Commission's Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry; and the Strategy Tool presented by Askham. The results show that the three methods do not give a consistent toxicity assessment of the chemicals in the case study. For USEtox the result also depends on whether the practitioner uses the default method or add more characterization factors. The two semi-quantitative methods give more equal importance to the chemicals while the USEtox scores differ by several orders of magnitude. The Simple Score System and the Strategy Tool are very concerned with persistent pollutants and therefore the chemicals which are not readily biodegradable, receive a high score. The USEtox score on the other hand is relatively low for the persistent organic chemicals. Validation of results using triangulation can be used both to create confidence and/or help identify new challenges that were not previously perceived in the method. In this case we showed that the property of persistence is judged to have lower importance in USEtox compared to the two other methods, which is a finding that can be used to develop the fate modelling in USEtox. On the other hand, USEtox could provide additional advice compared to the two other methods, that one of the substances could be more environmentally problematic than what these semi-quantitative methods signals.

  • 196. Saadatmand, S.
    et al.
    Edlund, U.
    Albertsson, A.-C.
    Danielsson, S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Dahlman, O.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Karlström, K.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Turning hardwood dissolving pulp polysaccharide residual material into barrier packaging2013In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, no 8, p. 2929-2936Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 197. Schienle, Stefanie
    et al.
    Al-Ahmad, Ali
    Kohal, Ralf Joachim
    Bernsmann, Falk
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Montanaro, Laura
    Palmero, Paola
    Fürderer, Tobias
    Chevalier, Jérôme
    Hellwig, Elmar
    Karygianni, Lamprini
    Microbial adhesion on novel yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) implant surfaces with nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:N) coatings2016In: Clinical Oral Investigations, ISSN 1432-6981, E-ISSN 1436-3771, p. 1719-1732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    Biomaterial surfaces are at high risk for initial microbial colonization, persistence, and concomitant infection. The rationale of this study was to assess the initial adhesion on novel implant surfaces of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans upon incubation.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS:

    The tested samples were 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) samples with nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:N) coating (A) and 3Y-TZP samples coated with ceria-stabilized zirconia-based (Ce-TZP) composite and a-C:H:N (B). Uncoated 3Y-TZP samples (C) and bovine enamel slabs (BES) served as controls. Once the surface was characterized, the adherent microorganisms were quantified by estimating the colony-forming units (CFUs). Microbial vitality was assessed by live/dead staining, and microbial-biomaterial surface topography was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    RESULTS:

    Overall, A and B presented the lowest CFU values for all microorganisms, while C sheltered significantly less E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans than BES. Compared to the controls, B demonstrated the lowest vitality values for E. coli (54.12 %) and C. albicans (67.99 %). Interestingly, A (29.24 %) exhibited higher eradication rates for S. aureus than B (13.95 %).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Within the limitations of this study, a-C:H:N-coated 3Y-TZP surfaces tended to harbor less initially adherent microorganisms and selectively interfered with their vitality.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE:

    This could enable further investigation of the new multi-functional zirconia surfaces to confirm their favorable antimicrobial properties in vivo.

  • 198. Schlegel, M C
    et al.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Spatially resolved investigation of complex multi-phase systems using μxRF, SEM-EDX and high resolution SyXRD2013In: Cement & Concrete Composites, ISSN 0958-9465, E-ISSN 1873-393X, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 241-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatially resolved analysis of complex multi-phase systems can be validated through different analytical methods. This study compares investigations by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis and high resolution X-ray diffraction. The studied sulfate attacked cement paste containing fly ashes consists of different interacting crystalline and amorphous phases. The complementary methods revealed in detail changes in phase composition due to the chemical attack. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed and suggestions are given for combining them with additional methods to maximize the information content.

  • 199. Schlegel, M C
    et al.
    Stroh, J
    Pathway of a damaging mechanism-Analyzing chloride attack by synchrotron based X-ray diffraction2015In: Solid State Sciences, ISSN 1293-2558, E-ISSN 1873-3085, Vol. 44, p. 45-54Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Typically, the changes of the phase compositions due to the chemical attack are studied in-situ only by chemical analysis or microscopy. In this study, the chloride transport and binding in the cement matrix in different cementitious materials was analyzed by synchrotron based X-ray diffraction (SyXRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Sample materials consisting of cement paste were embedded in high concentrated sodium chloride solution over different time spans. Afterwards, the phase and chemical compositions were determined. The high spatial resolution and the information about the chloride distribution offer a detailed view of chloride binding in the cement matrix and allow the conclusions about the degradation mechanisms. The results are discussed related to the influence of different supplementary cementitious materials on the damaging mechanism.

  • 200.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    100-miljonersprojektet I-STONE om natursten nu färdigt.2009In: CBI nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
123456 151 - 200 of 294
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