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  • 151.
    Fellers, C.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Östlund, S.
    Mäkelä, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Evaluation of the Scott bond test method2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 2, p. 231-236Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Fellers, Christer
    RISE, Innventia.
    Laminate Theory for Papermakers2009In: Paper Products Physics and Technology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 287-314Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Fellers, Christer
    RISE, Innventia.
    Paper physics2009In: Paper Products Physics and Technology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 25-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Fellers, Christer
    RISE, Innventia.
    The structure of paper and its modelling2009In: Paper Products Physics and Technology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 1-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 155. Forsman, M.
    et al.
    Bernmark, E.
    Nilsson, B.
    Pousette, S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mathiassen, S.E.
    Participative development of packages in the food industry: Evaluation of ergonomics and productivity by objective measurements2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, no SUPPL.1, p. 1751-1755Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 156. Francey, S.
    et al.
    Tran, H.
    Berglin, N.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Global survey on lime kiln operation energy consumption and alternative fuel usage2011In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, no 8, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 157. Francey, S.
    et al.
    Tran, H.
    Berglin, Niklas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Global survey on lime kiln operation, energy consumption and alternative fuel usage2010In: 2010 TAPPI PEERS Conference and 9th Research Forum on Recycling, 2010, Vol. 2, p. 1004-1069Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey on lime kiln operation and fuel usage was conducted through questionnaires distributed to pulp mills in nine countries in late 2008. Responses were received from 67 lime kilns at 59 pulp mills. This paper discusses the key findings from the survey with respect to kiln design parameters, operating data, control strategies, fuel types, energy consumption and operating issues; and where possible, compares them to the findings obtained from a similar survey conducted in 1991. Many improvements have been made over the past two decades to kiln design and operations, including the increased number of kilns that are equipped with product coolers and lime mud dryers, and the higher mud solids content. However, ring formation and dusting/high dust load remain the major operational issues amongst the respondents. Although few kilns have used alternative fuels to date, there is considerable industry interest in their use in the future. About two-thirds of the kilns have plans for implementing alternative fuels within the next five years.

  • 158.
    Galland, Sylvain
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Prakobna, Kasinee
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Swedenk.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Holocellulose Nanofibers of High Molar Mass and Small Diameter for High-Strength Nanopaper2015In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 2427-2435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) based on bleached pulp are different from the cellulose microfibrils in the plant cell wall in terms of larger diameter, lower cellulose molar mass, and modified cellulose topochemistry. Also, CNF isolation often requires high-energy mechanical disintegration. Here, a new type of CNFs is reported based on a mild peracetic acid delignification process for spruce and aspen fibers, followed by low-energy mechanical disintegration. Resulting CNFs are characterized with respect to geometry (AFM, TEM), molar mass (SEC), and polysaccharide composition. Cellulose nanopaper films are prepared by filtration and characterized by UV-vis spectrometry for optical transparency and uniaxial tensile tests. These CNFs are unique in terms of high molar mass and cellulose-hemicellulose core-shell structure. Furthermore, the corresponding nanopaper structures exhibit exceptionally high optical transparency and the highest mechanical properties reported for comparable CNF nanopaper structures. (Graph Presented).

  • 159.
    Gamelas, José A. F.
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Pedrosa, Jorge
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Lourenco, Ana F.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Mutjo, Peré
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Gonzalez, Israel
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Singh, Gurvinder
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ferreira, Paulo J. T.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    On the morphology of cellulose nanofibrils obtained by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and mechanical treatment2015In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 72, p. 28-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphological properties of cellulose nanofibrils obtained from eucalyptus pulp fibres were assessed. Two samples were produced with the same chemical treatment (NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) oxidation), but distinct mechanical treatment intensities during homogenization. It was shown that the nanofibrils production yield increases with the mechanical energy. The effect of mechanical treatment on the yield was confirmed by laser profilometry of air-dried nanocellulose films. However, no significant differences were detected regarding the nanofibrils width as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) of air-dried films. On the other hand, differences in size were found either by laser diffraction spectroscopy or by dynamic light scattering (DLS) of the cellulose nanofibrils suspensions as a consequence of the differences in the length distribution of both samples. The nanofibrils length of the more nanofibrillated sample was calculated based on the width measured by AFM and the hydrodynamic diameter obtained by DLS. A length value of ca. 600. nm was estimated. The DLS hydrodynamic diameter, as an equivalent spherical diameter, was used to estimate the nanofibrils length assuming a cylinder with the same volume and with the diameter (width) assessed by AFM. A simple method is thus proposed to evaluate the cellulose nanofibrils length combining microscopy and light scattering methods.

  • 160.
    Gard Timmerfors, Jessica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Blomberg, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Sjölund, Torbjörn
    MoRE Research, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Leif J
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Impregnation of wood chips for acidic processes and the influence of wood chip length2018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference:  NWBC 2018: proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland , 2018, p. 195-195Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 161. Gebremeskel, G G
    et al.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Determination of lignin content in kraft black liquors using capillary zone electrophoresis2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Gellerstedt, G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Axegård, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Backlund, B.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lignin recovery and lignin-based products2013In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, p. 180-210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Biorefinery lignins: A feedstock for chemicals and materials2008In: 2008 Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference - Proceedings: NWBC 2008, 2008, p. 111-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid expansion of bioethanol production will, in addition to fermentation of sugar and starch sources, also involve a conversion of lignocellulosic materials. In addition to carbohydrates, this will result in large amounts of lignin which can be used as process fuel but also serve as a feedstock for chemicals. Modern kraft mills constitute a second source of lignin since the energy balance is such that a partial outtake of lignin can be permitted. Irrespective of source, technical lignins must be upgraded, e.g. by purification in order to acquire properties which make them suitable as feedstock in value-added products.

  • 164.
    Geng, Lihong
    et al.
    South China University of Technology, China; Stony Brook University, USA.
    Peng, Xiangfang
    South China University of Technology, China.
    Zhan, Chengbo
    Stony Brook University, USA.
    Naderi, Ali
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Sharma, Priyanka R.
    Stony Brook University, USA.
    Mao, Yimin
    University of Maryland, USA; National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Hsiao, Benjamin S.
    Stony Brook University, USA.
    Structure characterization of cellulose nanofiber hydrogel as functions of concentration and ionic strength2017In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 5417-5429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carboxylated cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), having an average width of 7 nm and thickness of 1.5 nm, were produced by TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation method. The fiber cross-sectional dimensions were determined using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques, where the rheological properties under different concentration and ionic strength were also investigated. The formation of hydrogel was evidenced by increasing the CNF concentration or ionic strength of the solvent (water), while the gel structure in ion-induced CNF hydrogels was found to be relatively inhomogeneous. The gelation behavior was closely related to the segmental aggregation of charged CNF, which could be quantitatively characterized by the correlation length (Ο) from the low-angle scattering profile and the scattering invariant (Q) in SAXS.

  • 165. Ghose, A.
    et al.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Environmental Aspects of Norwegian production of pulp fibres and printing paper2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Gimaker, M.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Östlund, M.
    Östlund, S.
    Wågberg, L.
    Influence of beating and chemical additives on residual stresses in paper2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 4, p. 445451-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Gimåker, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, Lars
    Östlund, Sören
    Shear strength development between couched paper sheets during drying2011In: / [ed] Hirn, U., 2011, , p. 3Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 168. Girlanda, O.
    et al.
    Fellers, Christer
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Delamination position in multiply paperboard achieved by different testing methods2008In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 107-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination properties of nine commercial multiply board grades, both coated and uncoated, were measured using four testing methods, the Z-Directional Tensile Strength test (ZDTS), the Scott Bond Test (SBT), the Wheel Delamination Test (WDT), and the IGT method. The positions of delamination failure in the thickness direction were then recorded and compared. For the IGT tests, failure profiles and the final failure positions were evaluated. The results showed that the failures in the ZDTS, WDT and SBT tests mainly occur in the middle ply, whereas failure in the IGT tests occurs in the top plies as well as in the middle ply. Some boards presented also more than one failure position for the same type of test. The correlations between the different delamination resistances were also investigated. The WDT and SBT method showed a good correlation, whereas no correlation could be found between the other methods.

  • 169. Girlanda, O.
    et al.
    Fellers, Christer
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Modelling of delamination in paperboard during sheet offset printing2008In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delamination of multiply paperboard during offset printing is caused by the ink tack induced forces applied on the surface of the board. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the influence of mechanical properties of the plies and interface resistance on the delamination behaviour of the paperboard. Paperboard was modelled as a four-ply sandwich structure. A user-defined interface model described the mechanical behaviour of the interfaces between the plies. The results in terms of critical ink tack length and stress conditions in the interfaces at delamination initiation were defined for different ply structures. The delamination process in multiply paperboard was highly dependent on the stress concentration caused by the ink tack. The delamination always occurred in the interface between top and middle ply. The main stress component causing delamination was tensile stress in the thickness direction, whereas the interlaminar shear was less relevant. Bending stiffness and in-plane tensile stiffness influenced the critical ink tack length, but did not affect the stress situation at the delamination point.

  • 170. Gonzalez, I
    et al.
    Alcalá, M
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Vilaseca, F
    Boufi, S
    From paper to nanopaper: evolution of mechanical and physical properties2014In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 171. Gorski, D.
    et al.
    Kure, K-A.
    Mörseburg, Kathrin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    On the relationship between improved energy efficiency in high-consistency refining, fibre and fines properties and critical paper properties2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 172. Gorski, D.
    et al.
    Mörseburg, Kathrin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Axelsson, P.
    Engstrand, P.
    Peroxide-based ATMP refining of Spruce: Energy efficiency, fibre properties and pulp quality2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, p. 47-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 173. Gorski, D.
    et al.
    Mörseburg, Kathrin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Johansson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Role of equipment configuration and process chemicals in peroxide-based ATMP refining of spruce2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, p. 233-247Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 174. Gorski, D.
    et al.
    Mörseburg, Kathrin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Olson, J.
    Luukkonen, A.
    Fibre and fines quality development in pilot scale high and low consistency refining of ATMP2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, p. 872-881Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Béland, Marie-Claude
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindberg, Siv M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wickholm, Kristina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    It’s a bird! It’s a plane! It’s a super multimaterial!2015In: Paper Conference and Trade Show (PaperCon 2015), TAPPI Press, 2015, Vol. 1, p. 492-504Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Matching market demands and technological solutions is not always straightforward. In this article, we report on one material, a cellulose-PLA multimaterial, which was made on a full-scale pilot paper machine and adapted to five different market applications having specialized and often conflicting demands. The material can be injection molded, 3D-printed, hot pressed, treated as a textile, used in a laminate, or converted as a paper board, giving it a wide range of possible properties depending on how it is processed.The five application areas presented here were identified as gaps in the marketplace where seemingly conflicting needs were desired: opacity and transparency; compact for transport but having an expanded size during use; stiffness and flexibility; strength and light-weight; and durability and degradability. These properties are exemplified in a number of material and product demonstrators, illustrating how tailored solutions can give products with distinctly different personalities. The material can be made flexible and given movement as graceful as the wing of a bird or be processed to be strong and light-weight enough to be used in vehicles like airplanes. By having one material that is produced on a large scale, but then processed according to specific market demands and expectations, the gap between needing scale and needing scope is bridged.

  • 176.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Loading and deformation of cigarette packages2017In: 28th IAPRI Symposium on Packaging 2017: Proceedings / [ed] Martine E, 2017, p. 409-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has been undertaken to investigate the deformation properties of cigarette packages subjected to different loads. Numerical simulation enables a hypothetical package produced from a hypothetical paperboard to be tested. A finite element model was implemented in the Abaqus system in order to calculate stresses and strains in the deformed packages. The model behaves as expected up to deformations with limited damage. The calculated initial slopes of the reaction force responses were generally in good agreement with the corresponding measured slopes, although the model had a nonlinear force response that was not found in the experimental data. Incorporating cohesive behaviour into the model would allow the elements to disconnect from each other. Statistical analysis of the couplings between the initial process responses and the material properties of the paperboards revealed that only the initial yield stress parameter significantly affected the slope.

  • 177.
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hale, Sarah
    NGI Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    NGI Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway; NMBU Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Activated carbon from kraft lignin: A sorbent for in situ remediation of contaminated sediments2017In: Environmental technology and innovation, ISSN 23521864, Vol. 7, p. 160-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new type of activated carbon derived from Kraft lignin, separated from black liquor in the paper pulp process, was evaluated for its use as an alternative sorbent to commercial powdered activated carbons (AC) from anthracite (ACCOAL) or coconut (ACBIO) for remediation in situ of contaminated sediments. Two types of kraft lignins (KL): (1) softwood (SKL), (2) hardwood (HKL) were first evaluated for their sorption to PAHs using assays in water with passive samplers (POMs). Results showed that without further chemical modifications the two kraft lignins tested had lower sorption coefficients than commercial ACCOAL or ACBIO and are not good sorbents for remediation. Following these initial tests a new type of AC derived from softwood (ACSKL) was produced in the lab using activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) (lignin:KOH, 1:3 by dry weight) and pyrolysis at 700 °C. Sorption properties of the new ACSKL was compared to the other ACs in water spiked with PAHs and in water with PAH-contaminated sediment. Sorption results were also compared to bioavailability measurements, using digestive fluid extraction (DFE) in vitro, a method that mimics the solubilization of contaminants that occurs in the gut of a sediment-ingesting invertebrate. ACSKL was found to have similar surface area, pore volume and sorption coefficients as ACCOAL and ACBIO and thus offers a new potential sorbent for remediation, based on a more renewable biomass-derived source than AC from coal. Sediment amendment with 1% AC-SKL reduced the bioavailability of larger PAHs on average by 54% (measured by DFE), and reduced pore water concentrations of ΣPAH by 80% (measured with passive samplers). Our results show that a new type of AC based on softwood kraft lignin, a renewable and locally produced biomass material, could be used as an alternative sorbent for sediment and water remediation provided it is produced in sufficient amount and at a competitive price compared to other traditional ACs.

  • 178.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    SIG Combibloc, Switzerland.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, Therese
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Newson, William R.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Film extrusion of Crambe abyssinica/wheat gluten blends2017In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, Journal of Visualized Experiments, Vol. 2017, no 119, article id e54770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crambe abyssinica is a plant with potential for use in industrial (non-food) plant oil production. The side stream from this oil production is a high-protein crambe meal that has limited value, as it is not fit for food or feed use. However, it contains proteins that could potentially make it a suitable raw material for higher-value products. The purpose of this study was to find methods of making this side stream into extruded films, showing that products with a higher value can be produced. The study mainly considered the development of material compositions and methods of preparing and extruding the material. Wheat gluten was added as a supportive protein matrix material, together with glycerol as a plasticizer and urea as a denaturant. The extrudate was evaluated with respect to mechanical (tensile testing) and oxygen barrier properties, and the extrudate structure was revealed visually and by scanning electron microscopy. A denser, more homogeneous material had a lower oxygen transmission rate, higher strength, and higher extensibility. The most homogeneous films were made at an extruder die temperature of 125-130 °C. It is shown here that a film can be extruded with promising mechanical and oxygen barrier properties, the latter especially after a final compression molding step.

  • 179.
    Hagman, Anton
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Evaluation of moulded pulp trays using compression test and novel twist test2019In: 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2019: Serving society innovative perspectives on packaging, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the industry there exists great experience of producing moulded pulp trays,this includes adjusting process parameters to achieve a consistent output from thetray making machines. However, the evaluation of the results is at this point based onhands on methods that ultimately relies on subjective opinions of what makes a goodtray. This includes visual inspection of the trays, as well as a twisting the trays by handto evaluate stiffness. Such methods might suffice to achieve a consistent output, butare not suited for structured development work, which requires objective measures.One obvious measurement is a compression test, like a box compression test. However, this test does not tell the whole story, and differs from the hands-on tests usedtoday. Because of this a twist test was developed to emulate the hands-on testingpresently used to assess the quality of moulded pulp trays. The test is performed in atensile tester, by putting the tray in a sample holder which supports two diagonal bottom corners while a beam is pressing against the opposite upper diagonal corners.This forces the tray to bend.Plotting the results from these two tests against each other, results in a practicalgraph that can be used to evaluate both pulp and process properties, as well as trayweights. This plot reveals that some information remains hidden if only compressiontests are performed.Finally, such a graph lends itself to define boundaries for what is an acceptable tray.

  • 180.
    Hagman, Anton
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; BiMaC Innovation, Sweden.
    Considine, J M
    USDA Forest Service, USA.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. BiMaC Innovation, Sweden.
    Stiffness heterogeneity of multiply paperboard examined with VFM2017In: Residual Stress, Thermomechanics & Infrared Imaging, Hybrid Techniques and Inverse Problems. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series (CPSEMS) vol. 9, 2017, 2017, Vol. 9, p. 151-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical heterogeneity of a multiply paperboard was characterized in uniaxial tension using DIC and VFM. The specimen was divided into three subregions based on axial strain magnitude. VFM analysis showed that the subregions had stiffnesses and Poisson’s ratio’s that varied in a monotonically decreasing fashion, but with the stiffness differences between subregions increasing with applied tensile stress. An Equilibrium Gap analysis showed improved local equilibrium when comparing a homogeneous analysis with the subregion analysis. Although only a single specimen was examined, results suggest that high stiffness regions provide only marginal improvement of mechanical behavior. The analysis also showed that even though the subregions themselves were non-contiguous, their mechanical behavior was similar.

  • 181.
    Hagman, Anton
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Short compression testing of multi-ply paperboard, influence from shear strength2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 123-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the through-thickness shear strength profiles on the short span compression test was examined. This was done both with experiments and finite element simulations on five industrial produced paperboards. It was concluded that the short span compression test is governed by in-plane stiffness and through thickness delamination. The delamination damage was in turn dependent on the local transverse shear strength and in-plane stiffness gradients. Furthermore, it was concluded that the pre-delamination mechanisms were elastic. Finally it was possible to alter the results from the test by altering the shear strength of the paperboard; this should be done uniformly over the entire middle ply of the board if an increased SCT value was what was sought after.

  • 182.
    Hagman, Anton
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Thermographical Analysis of Paper During Tensile Testing and Comparison to Digital Image Correlation2017In: Experimental mechanics, ISSN 0014-4851, E-ISSN 1741-2765, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 325-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal response in paper has been studied by thermography. It was observed that an inhomogeneous deformation pattern arose in the paper samples during tensile testing. In the plastic regime a pattern of warmer streaks could be observed in the samples. On the same samples digital image correlation (DIC) was used to study local strain fields. It was concluded that the heat patterns observed by thermography coincided with the deformation patterns observed by DIC. Because of its fibrous network structure, paper has an inhomogeneous micro-structure, which is called formation. It could be shown that the formation was the cause of the inhomogeneous deformations in paper. Finite element simulations was used to show how papers with different degrees of heterogeneity would deform. Creped papers, where the strain at break has been increased, were analysed. For these paper it was seen that an overlaid compaction of the paper was created during the creping process. During tensile testing this was recovered as the paper network structure was strained.

  • 183.
    Hagman, Anton
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. BiMaC Innovation, Sweden.
    Timmermann, Brita
    Holmen-Iggesund, Sweden.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. BiMaC Innovation, Sweden.
    Lundin, Andreas
    Barbier, Christophe
    Billerud-Korsnäs, Sweden.
    Fredlund, Mats
    Stora Enso, Sweden.
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH Royal Institute or Technology, Sweden.
    Experimental and numerical verification of 3D forming2017In: 16th Fundamental research symposium, 2017, p. 3-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Hagman, Anton
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Trost, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Perforations on boxes: some fundamental facts2019In: 29th IAPRI Symposium on packaging, 2019: Serving society innovative perspectives on packaging, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The grocery retail industry is striving with low margins and an ever-increasing competition from e-commerce applications. Therefore, as a mean to save time, money andincrease the efficiency in the supply chain, perforated shelf-ready packages (SRP) hassince a long time been used. However, there is also problems related to this perforation; it weakens the transport packaging and makes it more sensitive to damage onthe way to the shelf. The current guidelines are focused on appearance of the box onthe shelf, e.g. how much of the product is seen and evenness of perforate edge, andnot on the mechanical properties of the box.Today there exist much knowledge about perforations inhouse in the die cutting industry. This knowledge is however unattainable for outsiders. Further the questionarises about how well founded said knowledge is. The scientific literature offers littleinformation about the basics of perforation and how it affects the mechanical properties of the board and box. This study is an attempt to build knowledge, useful toconverters and industrial users, in a systematic way.In this paper several different perforations patterns have been studied from a mechanical point of view. The experiments were designed to answer some basic questionsabout how different nick lengths and distances affects the strength of the perforatione.g. at different cut/uncut ratios. Among methods studied were tensile testing, bending stiffness, compression testing and edge compression test. The different methodswere compared regarding sensitivity to discriminate between different perforationpatterns and give a useful classification of the perforation.

  • 185.
    Hammar, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Sandberg, C.
    Sundström, L.
    The effect of process conditions on pulp quality development at low consistency refining of mechanical pulp - TMP2009In: 2009 International Mechanical Pulping Conference : proceedings: IMPC 2009, 2009, p. 182-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low consistency refining (LC) as a second refining stage, after a HC-defibration is an energy-efficient process solution. This HC-LC concept has for some time been explored in pilot scale and shown promising results. However it is clear that in order to obtain an optimal development of pulp properties the LC-refining has to be optimized with regard to process conditions. In this study the effects of temperature, pH, and specific edge load in the LC-refining on the pulp quality were investigated. For this purpose a mobile LC refiner rig placed after a primary stage HC mill refiner in the Braviken Paper mill, Holmen Paper was used. The trials show that energy savings are possible with preserved properties in the production of mechanical pulp. High temperature, high pH and low specific edge load were indicated to be preferable for both the tensile index development and for preserving the fibre length of the pulp. An increased degree of refining developed as expected the tensile index but too high specific energy resulted in some fibre shortening.

  • 186.
    Hammar, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sandberg, C.
    Sundström, L.
    The effect of process conditions on pulp quality development in low consistency refining of mechanical pulp - TMP2010In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 377-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High consistency (HC) defibration followed by secondary stage low consistency refining (LC) is an energy efficient process in mechanical pulping that has been explored for some time. In this study the effects of temperature, pH, specific edge load and specific energy on pulp quality have been investigated for LC refining using a mobile LC refiner rig placed after a primary stage HC refiner In the Braviken Paper mill. The trials showed that the specific energy consumption in production of mechanical pulp can be reduced with at least 15% with preserved pulp properties. High temperature, pH over 7 and low specific edge load were advantageous both for tensile index development and for preserving the fibre length of the pulp. The development of other pulp properties such as shives content and light scattering coefficient, as a function of freeness, were comparable for the second stage LC- and HC-refining.

  • 187.
    Hansen, Peter H F
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Johansson, Klas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Monitoring cross-thickness distributions of fines and CMF by dyeing and optical measurement2018In: PaperCon 2018: Shaping the future through innovation, TAPPI , 2018, article id FF3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology has been verified where the ZD-distribution of a component of the furnish (fines or CMF) can bemonitored. The component to be monitored was dyed using a direct azo-dye before addition to the furnish. Theproduced sheets were sectioned in cross-thickness direction by sequential heat-seal lamination and splitting, usingplastic pouches. The amount of dyed material in a split was monitored using thea* and L* parameters of the CIELabcolor space and the opacity, all measured simultaneously with a spectrophotometer. The value on the green-redaxis,a*, the lightness, L, and the opacity were combined into a new parameter, -a*L/opac. Two mechanisms forfines retention was observed by laboratory studies, mechanical retention by filtering process in the formed fiber weband chemical retention by agglomeration to the fibers.The methodology has recently been applied for monitoring cross-thickness distributions of either CMF or fines inpaper produced in pilot scale trials. For example, it was demonstrated, that the machine settings affected themechanisms for retention of fines in the fiber web during sheet forming and dewatering, with different distributionsof fines in the cross-thickness direction as result.

  • 188.
    Hedlund, Artur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Structure of cellulose coagulated from different EmimAc-DMSO solutions2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Hedlund, Artur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Untersuchungen zur Koagulation von Celluloselösungen / Investigations of coagulation of cellulose solutions2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Hedlund, Artur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Coagulation of cellulose solutions and controlling properties of regenerated cellulose materials2017In: Cellulosic material Properties and industrial potential: Final meeting in COST FP1205 / [ed] Monica Ek, 2017, p. 64-66Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Hedlund, Artur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE, Swerea, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Coagulation of cellulose-EmimAc-DMSO solutions studied in order to control properties of wet-spun cellulose fibers2016In: The 7th Workshop on cellulose, regenerated cellulose and cellulose derivatives, 2016, p. 49-52, article id 15Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 192.
    Hedlund, Artur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers.
    Coagulation Values of Cellulose-EmimAc-DMSO solutions and their precipitation-dissolution disparity2014In: Proceedings of the  4th Avancell conference: Creating Value from the Swedish Forest Resources, 2014, p. 15-21Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Hedlund, Artur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University.
    Measurements of mass transport during coagulation of cellulose-EmimAc-DMSO solutions2015In: Proceedings of the 4th EPNOE international Polysaccharide Conference, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Hedlund, Artur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Structure of cellulosematerials coagulated from different EmimAc-DMSO solutions2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Strand, Berit L.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Sundby, Kristin W.
    Borregaard, Norway.
    Simon, Sebastien
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Viscoelastic properties of nanocellulose based inks for 3D printing and mechanical properties of CNF/alginate biocomposite gels2019In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, no 1, p. 581-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inks for 3D printing based on cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) or mixtures of CNFs and either cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or alginate were assessed by determining their viscoelastic properties i.e. complex viscosity and storage and loss moduli (G′ and G″). Two types of alginates were used, i.e. from Laminaria hyperborea stipe and Macrocystis pyrifera. Shape fidelity of 3D printed grids were qualitatively evaluated and compared to the viscoelastic properties of the inks. The biocomposite gels containing alginate were post stabilized by crosslinking with Ca2+. Mechanical properties of the crosslinked biocomposite gels were assessed. The complex viscosity, G′ and G″ of CNF suspensions increased when the solid content was increased from 3.5 to 4.0 wt%, but levelled off by further increase in CNF solid content. The complex viscosity at low angular frequency at 4 wt% was as high as 104 Pa·s. This seemed to be the necessary viscosity level for obtaining good shape fidelity of the printed structures for the studied systems. By replacing part of the CNFs with CNCs, the complex viscosity, G′ and G″ were reduced and so was also the shape fidelity of the printed grids. The changes in complex viscosity and moduli when CNFs was replaced with alginate depended on the relative amounts of CNFs/alginate. The type of alginate (from either L. hyp. stipe or M. pyr.) did not play a role for the viscoelastic properties of the inks, nor for the printed grids before post stabilization. Replacing CNFs with up to 1.5 wt% alginate gave satisfactory shape fidelity. The effect of adding alginate and subsequent crosslinking with Ca2+, strongly affected the strength properties of the gels. By appropriate choice of relative amounts of CNFs and alginate and type of alginate, the Young’s modulus and rupture strength could be controlled within the range of 30–150 kPa and 1.5–6 kg, respectively. The deformation at rupture was around 55%. The alginate from L. hyp. stipe yields higher Young’s modulus and lower syneresis compared to M. pyr. This shows that the choice of alginate plays a significant role for the mechanical properties of the final product, although it does not influence on the viscoelastic properties of the ink. The choice of alginate should be L. hyp. stipe if high strength is desired.

  • 196. Henriksson, M.
    et al.
    Berglund, L. A.
    Isaksson, P.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Nishino, T.
    Cellulose nanopaper structures of high toughness2008In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Biomacromolecules, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 1579-1585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils offer interesting potential as a native fibrous constituent of mechanical performance exceeding the plant fibers in current use for commercial products. In the present study, wood nanofibrils are used to prepare porous cellulose nanopaper of remarkably high toughness. Nanopapers of different porosities and from nanofibrils of different molar mass are prepared. Uniaxial tensile tests are performed and structure - property relationships are discussed. The high toughness of highly porous nanopaper is related to the nanofibrillar network structure and high mechanical nanofibril performance. Also, molar mass correlates with tensile strength. This indicates that nanofibril fracture controls ultimate strength. Furthermore, the large strain-to-failure means that mechanisms, such as interfibril slippage, also contributes to inelastic deformation in addition to deformation of the nanofibrils themselves. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  • 197. Hii, C.
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öjvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Rosén, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Quantification of the web structure in relation to process conditions during wet pressing and furnish composition2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 198. Hii, C.
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The effect of MFC on the pressability and paper properties of TMP and GCC based sheets2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, p. 388-396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 199. Hii, C.
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The effect of Newsprint furnish composition and sheet structure on wet pressing efficiency2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, p. 790-797Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 200. Hii, C.
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The web structure in relation to the furnish composition and shoe press pulse profiles during wet pressing2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, p. 798-805Article in journal (Refereed)
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