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  • 151.
    Backlund, Birgit
    RISE, Innventia.
    Towards increased closure and energy efficiency2009In: Pulping Chemistry and Technology, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, p. 363-390Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Baker, Darren A.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bäckström, Marie
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Schweinebarth, Hannah
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Opportunities in lignin based carbon fibre2015In: NWBC 2015: The 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference, Espoo: VTT , 2015, p. 244-251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innventia AB's LignoBoost process enables the extraction of high purity lignin efficiently from the black liquor in kraft mills. A stream of black liquor is taken from the evaporation plant and the lignin is precipitated by acidification and filtered. The filter cake is redispersed and acidified and the resulting slurry is filtered and washed. High purity lignin can be produced at several scales, namely 10g, 1kg, 10kg and over 1,000kg. Innventia has invested significantly to demonstrate the potential of lignin as a viable feedstock for carbon fibre manufacture. Initially, the fibre melt spinning performance of the lignin is assessed using single filament melt extrusion and then melt spinning is performed at the multifilament scale, where fine fibres can be produced for conversion to carbon fibre. Oxidative thermostabilisation of the lignin fibres is carried out so that carbonisation can proceed. The effects of thermal treatment programmes and tensioning have been studied by using either thermomechanical analysis or by using test equipment specially designed to monitor carbonisation profiles with either stress or strain control. In addition, continuous processes for the conversion of lignin fibre to carbon fibre are being developed.

  • 153.
    Baker, Darren A
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Sedin, Maria
    Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening, Sweden.
    Landmer, Alice
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Friman, Linda
    Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening, Sweden.
    Echardt, Linda
    Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening, Sweden.
    Structural carbon fibre from kraft lignin2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 65-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The GreenLight consortium is working to demonstrate a biobased, renewable and economically viable carbon fibre from lignin. The aim is to provide a basis for commercial production of lignin, lignin filaments, carbon fibre and carbon fibre composites. The most difficult boundary to success in the developing lignin as a precursor for continuous filament carbon fibre has been identified as melt extrusion of lignin. The consortium is working to develop a robust melt spinning platform for use up to the 1,000 filament scale. Methodical studies have been performed to examine lignin separation from differing black liquors derived from both softwood and hardwood and assess their viability in terms of thermal, compositional and structural properties. The move will then be made to pilot scale melt spinning at the 100 filament scale. The characteristics of some kraft lignin fractions obtained from the same Sodra Monsteras softwood kraft black liquor have been studied. The lignins were manufactured in quantities of approximately 10-20kg. Several variations of the LignoBoost process were used to provide lignins with improved melt spinning properties. The lignins were of high purity, each having low carbohydrate, extractives and inorganic contents. All four lignins could be melt spun and converted to carbon fibre.

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  • 154.
    Baker, Darren
    et al.
    Baker Consulting, USA.
    Hosseinaei, Omid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Sedin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Echardt, Linda
    Södra skogsägarna ekonomisk förening, Sweden.
    Capanema, Ewellyn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Lignin-based carbon fiber: effect of softwood kraft lignin separation method on multifilament melt-spinning performance and conversion2019In: 20th International symposium on wood, fiber, and pulping chemistry, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A reference lignin separated from an industrial softwood kraft black liquor via an improved LignoBoost process was compared to four other lignins derived from the same liquor. The four lignins were produced by using a) pH-fractionation within the LignoBoost process, b) ultrafiltration of black liquor prior to the LignoBoost process, and c) solvent leaching of the reference lignin using methanol and d) ethanol.Lignin compositional characteristics and thermal properties were compared, and monofilament extrusion used to assess their potential for successful melt spinning at the 24 filament scale. The lignin prepared by ethanol leaching of the reference lignin was found to be most appropriate for potential pilot scale fibre production. This was owing to a high purity, lower comparative glass transition temperature (Tg), and good spinning performance.Thermal pretreatments of the ethanol leached lignin gave a selection of enhanced lignins which were characterized for comparison, and melt spun on pilot multifilament equipment. The enhanced lignins could be continuously melt spun giving filaments with diameters as low as 10 μm and with minimal defects. Conversion of selected filaments provided carbon fibres with a tensile strength of 1259 ± 159 MPa, tensile modulus of 67 ± 3 GPa and diameter of 7.3 ± 0.5 μm.

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  • 155.
    Balakshin, Mikhail
    et al.
    BOKU, Austria.
    Capanema, Ewellyn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy.
    New opportunities in the valorization of technical lignins2017In: 19th International symposium on wood, fibre and pulping chemistry, August 28 - September 1, 2017, Porto Seguro, Brazil, 2017, p. 178-182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercialization of lignins for high-value products should dramatically improve the biorefinery economy and help the growing industry to overcome current economical challenges. However, this requires lignin engineering to obtain products with optimized characteristics for specific applications. This paper reviews important issues of lignin engineering, such as developments in lignin structural analysis, application of small-scale high throughput methods to evaluate lignin performance as well as new achievements in valorization of biorefinery lignins (lignin-cellulose synergism, green and cost efficient methods to upgrade crude biorefinery lignins). These recent developments allow a reconsideration of biorefinery lignins as highvalue products for different applications.

  • 156.
    Balakshin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Capanema, Ewellyn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Huang, Zeen
    FP Innovations, Cananda.
    Sulaeva, Irina
    BOKU, Austria.
    Rojas, Orlando
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Feng, Martin
    FP Innovations, Canada.
    Rosenau, Thomas
    BOKU, Austria.
    Potthast, Antje
    BOKU, Austria.
    Recent achievement in the valorization of technical lignins2018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo, 2018, p. 151-156Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157. Barbier, C.
    et al.
    Rättö, Peter
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hornatowska, Joanna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Coating models for an analysis of cracking behavior between folded paper and creased board2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Bardage, Stig
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Performance of buildings2017In: Performance of Bio-based Building Materials, Elsevier Inc. , 2017, p. 335-383Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter deals with different aspects on the use and performance of bio-based building materials in constructions and buildings.

  • 159.
    Bardet, Raphael
    et al.
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France; CNRS, France.
    Reverdy, Charlène
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France; CNRS, France.
    Belgacem, Naceur
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France; CNRS, France.
    Leirset, Ingebjørg
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Bardet, Michel
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France; CEA, France.
    Bras, Julien
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France; CNRS, France.
    Substitution of nanoclay in high gas barrier films of cellulose nanofibrils with cellulose nanocrystals and thermal treatment2015In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 1227-1241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to design a nanocellulose based barrier film. For this purpose, cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are used as a matrix to create an entangled nanoporous network that is filled with two different nanofillers: nanoclay (reference), i.e. the mineral montmorillonite (MMT) and the bio-based TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanocrystal (CNC-T), to produce different types of nanocelluloses and their main physical and chemical features were assessed. As expected, films based on neat CNFs exhibit good mechanical performance and excellent barrier properties at low moisture content. The introduction of 32.5 wt% of either nanofiller results in a significant improvement of barrier properties at high moisture content. Finally, thermal treatment of a dried CNF/CNC-T film results in a decrease of the oxygen permeability even at high moisture content (>70 %). This is mainly attributed to the hornification of nanocellulose. A key result of this study is that the oxygen permeability of an all-nanocellulose film in 85 % relative humidity (RH), is similar to CNF film with mineral nanoclay (MMT), i.e. 2.1 instead of 1.7 cm3 µm m−2 day−1 kPa−1, respectively.

  • 160.
    Barman, Sandra
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fager, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of G.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of G.
    von Corswant, Christian
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of G.
    Bolin, David
    King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia.
    Rootzén, Holger
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    New characterization measures of pore shape and connectivity applied to coatings used for controlled drug release2021In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, ISSN 0022-3549, E-ISSN 1520-6017, Vol. 110, no 7, p. 2753-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pore geometry characterization-methods are important tools for understanding how pore structure influences properties such as transport through a porous material. Bottlenecks can have a large influence on transport and related properties. However, existing methods only catch certain types of bottleneck effects caused by variations in pore size. We here introduce a new measure, geodesic channel strength, which captures a different type of bottleneck effect caused by many paths coinciding in the same pore. We further develop new variants of pore size measures and propose a new way of visualizing 3-D characterization results using layered images. The new measures together with existing measures were used to characterize and visualize properties of 3-D FIB-SEM images of three leached ethyl-cellulose/hydroxypropyl-cellulose films. All films were shown to be anisotropic, and the strongest anisotropy was found in the film with lowest porosity. This film had very tortuous paths and strong geodesic channel-bottlenecks, while the paths through the other two films were relatively straight with well-connected pore networks. The geodesic channel strength was shown to give important new visual and quantitative insights about connectivity, and the new pore size measures provided useful information about anisotropies and inhomogeneities in the pore structures. The methods have been implemented in the freely available software MIST. 

  • 161.
    Barnett, M.R.
    et al.
    Deakin University.
    Ghaderi, A.
    Deakin University.
    Sabirov, I.
    Deakin University.
    Hutchinson, Bevis
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Role of grain boundary sliding in the anisotropy of magnesium alloys2009In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 277-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plastic anisotropy of magnesium alloy sheet drops rapidly with test temperature. It has previously been suggested that this may be due to an increase in the activity of 〈c+a〉 dislocations. The present note points out that the phenomenon may result, instead, from the action of grain boundary sliding. This can explain the strong effect of grain size on anisotropy. Furthermore, it points to a new avenue for alloy development. © 2009 Acta Materialia Inc.

  • 162.
    Battestini Vives, Mariona
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Thuvander, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arkell, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Lipnizki, Frank
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Low-Molecular-Weight Lignin Recovery with Nanofiltration in the Kraft Pulping Process2022In: Membranes, ISSN 2077-0375, E-ISSN 2077-0375, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 310-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft lignin is an underutilized resource from the pulp and paper industry with the potential of being a key raw material for renewable fuels and chemicals. The separation of high-molecular-weight lignin from black liquor by ultrafiltration has been widely investigated, while the permeate containing low-molecular-weight lignin has received little attention. Nanofiltration can concentrate the low-molecular-weight lignin. This work, therefore, evaluates nanofiltration for the separation and concentration of low-molecular-weight lignin from the ultrafiltration permeate. For this study, eight flat polymeric sheet membranes and one polymeric hollow fiber membrane, with molecular weight cut-offs ranging from 100 to 2000 Da, were tested. A parametric study was conducted at 50 °C, 2.5–35 bar, and crossflow velocity of 0.3–0.5 m/s. At a transmembrane pressure of 35 bar, the best performing membranes were NF090801, with 90% lignin retention and 37 L/m2·h, and SelRO MPF-36, with 84% lignin retention and 72 L/m2·h. The other membranes showed either very high lignin retention with a very low flux or a high flux with retention lower than 80%. Concentration studies were performed with the two selected membranes at conditions (A) 50 °C and 35 bar and (B) 70 °C and 15 bar. The NF090801 membrane had the highest flux and lignin retention during the concentration studies. Overall, it was shown that the nanofiltration process is able to produce a concentrated lignin fraction, which can be either used to produce valuable chemicals or used to make lignin oil.

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  • 163.
    Bažant, Zdeněk P
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Physical model for corrosion of steel in concrete1978Report (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Bažant, Zdeněk P.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Viscoelasticity of solidifying porous material: concrete1977Report (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Becker, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Pellé, J.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Rioual, S.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Lescop, B.
    Univ Brest, France.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Atmospheric corrosion of silver, copper and nickel exposed to hydrogen sulphide: a multi-analytical investigation approach2022In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 209, article id 110726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of two concentrations of H2S (0.5 and 2.5 ppm), in controlled laboratory conditions (20 °C, 75%RH), on the atmospheric corrosion of pure Ag, Cu and Ni was investigated in this study. The corrosion product morphology and composition were analysed through a multi-technique approach including SEM/EDX, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and XRD. Different corrosion products were identified depending on the type of characterisations providing a better overview of the effect of H2S on the atmospheric corrosion of pure Ag, Cu and Ni. Possible mechanisms involved in the formation of these corrosion products are also discussed in this work. © 2022 The Authors

  • 166.
    Beijer, Oscar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Energiåtgång för betongkonstruktioner1974Report (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Beijer, Oscar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Fasadelement av betong1976Report (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Beijer, Oscar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Infärgning av betongytor med vattenlösliga metallsalter1982Report (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Beijer, Oscar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Långtidsretardering av betong1985Report (Refereed)
  • 170.
    Beijer, Oscar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Rörelser hos fasadelement av betong1977Report (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Beijer, Oscar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Temperatur- och fuktrörelser i fasadskivor av betong1976Report (Refereed)
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    CBI_forskning_76_8
  • 172.
    Beijer, Oscar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Uttorkning av betongprovkroppar vid övertemperatur1976Report (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Beijer, Oscar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Weathering on external walls of concrete1980Report (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Beijer, Oscar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Johansson, Arne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Slagregn mot betongfasader1976Report (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Beijer, Oscar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Johansson, Arne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Vattenabsorption hos fasadytor av betong1976Report (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Bekhta, Pavlo
    et al.
    Ukrainian National Forestry University, Ukraine.
    Sedliacik, Jan
    Technical University in Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Effect of short-term thermomechanical densification of wood veneers on the properties of birch plywood2017In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 549-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels made from pre-compressed birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) veneer were evaluated. Veneer sheets underwent short-term thermo-mechanical (STTM) compression at temperatures of 150 or 180 °C and at pressures of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 or 3.5 MPa for a period of 1 min prior to adhesive being applied and pressed into panels using phenol formaldehyde adhesive at 100 g/m2 spread rate; this was one-third less than the adhesive spread used for the control panels (150 g/m2). The pressing pressure was 1.0 MPa, which was almost half of the pressure used for the control panels (1.8 MPa); and pressing time was 3 min, also half of the pressing time used for the control panels (6 min). The results showed that surface roughness of compressed veneer, water absorption and thickness swelling of plywood panels made from compressed veneer were significantly improved. The shear strength values of plywood panels made from compressed birch veneer even with reduced adhesive spread were higher than those of plywood panels made from uncompressed veneer. The findings in this study indicated that compression of birch veneer could be considered as an alternative to produce more eco-friendly (owing to smaller adhesive spread) value-added material with enhanced properties.

  • 177.
    Bellander, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    A quality control system1977Report (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Bellander, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Arbetsmiljö och produktionsteknik1980Report (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Bellander, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Hållfasthet i färdig konstruktion. D. 2, Oförstörande metoder.: Litteraturstudie.1977Report (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Bellander, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Hållfasthet i färdig konstruktion. D. 3, Oförstörande metoder.: Laboratorie- och fältförsök.1977Report (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Bellander, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Hållfasthet i färdig konstruktion. D.1, Förstörande metoder.: Rimliga kravnivåer1976Report (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Bellander, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Kontrollsystem vid dokumentation av betonghållfasthet.: Kvalitetskriterier och provningsfrekvens1976Report (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Bellander, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Kvalitetsdokumentation av betonghållfasthet1975Report (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Bellander, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Kvalitetskriterier och provningsfrekvens för betongs hållfasthet vid elementtillverkning1974Report (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Bellander, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Occupational environment in building, concrete construction and ready-mixed concrete industry1980Report (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Bellander, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Strength in concrete structures1978Report (Refereed)
  • 187.
    Bellander, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Utprovning av observationsmetod avsedd för fältundersökning av samverkan mellan TT-däck och pågjuten överbetong1975Report (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Bellander, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Beijer, Oscar
    Buller och bullerdämpning vid byggelementtillverkning.: Alternativa lösningar1978Report (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Bellander, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Gregorsson, Mats
    Betongytors porighet: Symptom och medicin1980Report (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Bellander, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Gregorsson, Mats
    Varm betong för gjutning i kall väderlek och snabb formrivning1981Report (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Bellander, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Johansson, Arne
    Formvibrering av flytbetong i tunnelform1981Report (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Bellander, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Johansson, Arne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Hantering av betong1981Report (Refereed)
  • 193.
    Bellander, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Thorsén, Anders
    Samverkan mellan TT-element och pågjuten överbetong.: En fältundersökning1976Report (Refereed)
  • 194. Bellani, G.
    et al.
    Lundell, F.
    Söderberg, L. Daniel
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Experimental study of the forming process: Fluid velocity and fluid-fiber interaction measurements2008In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon '08, TAPPI Press, 2008, Vol. 2, p. 1145-1176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the flow in the direct vicinity of a forming wire and a fiber network during forming is reported. The measurements are performed with Particle Image Velocimetry in a scaled system. Index-of-refraction matching is used to gain optical access to the flow. Time resolved measurements of the flow velocity in the vertical and horizontal direction is obtained in a plane with a size of 60 × 40 fiber diameters. The spatial resolution is 2 fiber diameters. Data is obtained for three drainage velocities and two different lengths of the fibers. The relative level of the velocity fluctuations are found to decrease with drainage velocity and is higher in the flow above a network mat of shorter fibers compared to the network made of longer fibers. The size of the flow structures is obtained by spectral analysis and compared for the six cases.

  • 195.
    Bellqvist, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Ångström, Sten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Magnusson, Marcel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Nordhag, Love
    Stena Recycling International AB, Sweden.
    Falk, Ola
    Stena Aluminium AB, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    SSAB Europe, Sweden.
    Closing the loop - Processing of waste by-product from aluminum recycling into useful product for the steel industry2015In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, ISSN 1974-9791, E-ISSN 2283-9216, Vol. 45, p. 661-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During melting of aluminum scrap a slag residue is formed. The slag residue, called black dross, has no industrial use and has to be landfilled. The work presented herein aims at developing a novel treatment process for the slag, converting it into a useful product for the steel industry and thereby replacing commercially available products made from virgin material. The concept consists of flash melting black dross and lime to form a synthetic slag former for treatment of high quality steel. Results from the modelling work indicate that the overall energy savings for an extended use of the developed product at the SSAB Europe Luleå site amounts to 31 GWh/y corresponding to 8 kt CO2/y, in addition to the process removing the need for landfill of around 20 kt of black dross per year with subsequent risk of leakage of toxic compounds.

  • 196.
    Belov, Ilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Payandeh, Mustafa
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019). Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Wessén, Magnus
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Effect of fillets on heat transfer in a rheocast aluminium heatsink2016In: 2016 17th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE), 2016, article id 7463320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of fillets formed between the base and plate fins of rheocast aluminium heatsinks on the thermal resistance of the heatsinks has been quantified by simulation. Simulation methodology, including sequential optimization has been developed in order to determine hotspot distributions where the fillets have the maximum effect. Combination of different fillet dimensions with various base thickness levels and aluminium alloys having inhomogeneous thermal conductivity have been investigated. For the studied cases, the effect of fillets on heatsink thermal resistance differs from negligible to 6%. The results would guide thermal designers on contribution of fillets to the heat transfer in multi-fin heatsinks for natural convection.

  • 197.
    Belov, Ilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Edström, Curt
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Simulation based investigation of silver plating process parameters and their effect on throwing power2015In: EAST Forum 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 198.
    Bengtson, Arne
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Hildebrand, L.
    Technical University of Dortmund.
    Expert systems for prediction of corrosion properities of Zn-based coatings from the chemical analysis2012In: Yejin Fenxi/Metallurgical Analysis, ISSN 10007571, Vol. 32, no 4, p. s.1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [zh]

    The purpose of the work is to develop a general method, to predict the corrosion resistance of Zn-based coatings, expressed as total mass loss in an accelerated salt spray test. The method is to be based on just three analytical parameters; the total coating weights of Zn, Al and Mg. The reason for this restriction is that determination of these three parameters is possible in on-line analysis. The predicted corrosion resistance could then be included in a process/quality control system. Accelerated corrosion tests have been carried out by Swerea KIMAB IC (Institut de Corrosion) in Brest, and CRM in Belgium. Test were run according to the Renault ECC1 test D172028/-C (12 weeks), and with an accelerated cyclic corrosion test developed by CRM. The materials were divided into four corrosion classes according to total mass loss. All corrosion experiments show clearly the well documented positive influence of magnesium and aluminium. In relation to the masses of these elements in the coatings, the influence of both elements is considerably higher than the influence of zinc alone. For this reason, a new quantity is introduced, called "equivalent Zn coating weight". This quantity is a linear combination of the coating weights of zinc, aluminium and magnesium. A model for prediction of corrosion resistance was developed with the expert system, based on a combination of regression analysis and a "decision tree" algorithm. The model was able to correctly classify 25 out of 27 materials based on just the three analytical parameters mentioned above: the total coating weights of zinc, aluminium and magnesium. In conclusion, the approach shows that an accurate prediction of the corrosion behaviour is possible even on-line. For purposes of material development, the expert system can also be expanded to include additional analytical parameters.

  • 199.
    Bengtson, Arne
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Randelius, Mats
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Further Development of GD-OES for Surface and Depth Profile Analysis2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GD-OES) is a well established technique for Compositional Depth Profiling (CDP), very useful for in-depth elemental analysis of surface layers from 10 nm to 100 µm. It is fast, sensitive and fully quantitative. However, there are a few artefacts requiring further study to improve the accuracy and trueness of the method further, primarily for near-surface applications. Outgassing of volatile compounds present inside the source, mainly water and hydrocarbons, has been established to be a major cause of such artefacts. The most “problematic” element is hydrogen, for the following two reasons: 1) it “cools” the plasma even when present in small quantity and thereby affects the intensities of the emission from almost all other elements; 2) it is very reactive and forms molecular species with other light elements e.g. CH, NH and OH, having emission spectra overlapping several atomic analytical lines; causing “false” or exaggerated surface peaks of the corresponding elements. In this work, methods to reduce the outgassing of volatile compounds have been studied. Attempts to dry and clean the argon gas flowing into the source by means of a chemical filter gave no significant improvement. On the other hand, replacing the “standard” anode made of a copper-beryllium alloy with a pure copper anode was shown to reduce the outgassing significantly. To be more specific, the background signal from atomic hydrogen and associated artefacts are reduced, it is still possible that the amount of molecular hydrogen remains almost constant, without observable effects on the analytical signals. Since molecular emission can originate from the sputtered material of the sample itself, particularly organic coatings, an in-depth study of molecular emission in GD-OES was carried out. It was shown that background signals from such emission can be significantly reduced, provided that the instrument has spectral channels for the emitting molecular species installed. With such channels available, conventional “line interference correction” methods was found to be effective in reducing false elemental signals from molecular emission. Application of the pure copper anode and reduction of molecular background techniques to a heat treated zinc-base coating showed expected improvements in the near-surface part of the depth profile. However, for the major elements of technical importance, the difference compared with the original anode and analytical method was marginal. This is reassuring, since it means that the near-surface artefacts normally do not cause major analytical errors. The element that is most difficult to establish the “trueness” of depth profiles is nitrogen, especially if the surface layer is slightly porous. There are samples where an elevated signal from nitrogen in the top surface cannot be correlated to a vacuum leak, trapped air or molecular emission (CO). Investigations where samples are measured for total nitrogen with conventional techniques are very difficult, since the surface layers showing an elevated content are very thin. Further investigation of such samples with high vacuum techniques, e.g. SIMS, would be of interest. A second part of the project deals with advanced evaluation of depth profile data by means of “expert systems”. An expert system is a computer application that is able to perform tasks which are normally performed by human experts; in this case the aim is to be able to perform e.g. quality control with GD-OES without the need for a qualified human expert to interpret the data. There are several types of “computational statistics” methods that can be employed for such purposes, the most well known is probably multivariate analysis. Other methods can evaluate both numerical and other types of input related to classification based on technical properties, e.g. paint adhesion, scratch resistance etc. The objective of this work is to be able to classify samples according to such technical properties. All such systems need a “training set” of samples with known technical properties. In this work, a relatively large set of steel sheet samples with various zinc-based coatings were classified according to corrosion resistance. Form the GD-OES depth profiles, the coating weights of zinc, aluminium and magnesium were extracted in a data pre-treatment step. Using the rule-based classification algorithm “decision tree” 25 out 29 samples was correctly classified. This “proof of concept” work has shown that it is possible to predict certain technical properties based on a multi-element depth profile. This opens up the possibility for e.g. automated quality inspection of complex coating systems, but also the possibility to use GD-OES depth profiling more effectively as a tool in product development.

  • 200.
    Bengtson, Arne
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Sedlakova, Miroslava
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Investigation of computational statistics for evaluation of PDA-OES data – final report of the project Innestyr 32014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to investigate the potential of applying computational statistics (“data mining”) methods to PDA – OES data to find correlation to defects in the final products as well as changes of parameters during the steelmaking process. The computational methods used were multivariate (MVA) data analysis and the rule-based methods “decision trees” and “neural nets”. The project was carried out in close cooperation with Outokumpu Stainless Avesta and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). PDA – OES data from sheet samples with and without surface defects were processed by all three methods, all showing statistically significant and consistent correlation. The formation of surface defects is positively correlated to the number of “medium” to “large” inclusions of the classes AlCaMg and AlCa i.e. mixed oxides of these elements. The second part of the research was an evaluation of variations in inclusion characteristics in different process stages using synthetic slags. A large number of samples were collected from experimental trials with two types of synthetic slags, and the conventional process without slag addition for reference. The samples were taken in the ladle furnace at three stages, and in the tundish in connection with the final test sample before casting. PDA – OES data from these samples were evaluated with MVA and decision tree methods. The results showed that the different process stages can be identified from the PDA-OES data with rather good certainty. No significant difference between the use of synthetic slags and the conventional process was detected. In the course of the evaluation work, it was also found that the computational statistics methods must be used with caution. The reason is that data due to “statistical noise” can be identified as significant, giving misleading results. Further work to reduce this problem will be necessary.

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