Change search
Refine search result
12345 151 - 200 of 244
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 151.
    Marciani, L.
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Maurten AB, Sweden.
    Pettersson, S.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hoad, C.
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Abrehart, N.
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Ahnoff, M.
    Ström, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Alginate and HM-pectin in sports-drink give rise to intra-gastric gelation in vivo2019In: Food & Function, ISSN 2042-6496, E-ISSN 2042-650X, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 7892-7899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of gelling polysaccharides to sport-drinks may provide improved tolerability of drinks with high concentration of digestible carbohydrates (CHO), otherwise known to increase the risk of gastro-intestinal complaints among athletes under prolonged exercise. The physico-chemical properties of a drink containing 14 wt% of digestible CHO (0.7:1 fructose and maltodextrin-ratio), 0.2 wt% of HM-pectin/alginate and 0.06 wt%. sodium chloride were examined under in vitro gastric conditions using rheology and large deformation testing. The in vivo gelling behaviour of the drink was studied using magnetic resonance imaging of subjects at rest together with blood glucose measurements. The in vivo results confirm gelation of the test drink, with no gel remaining in the stomach at 60 min and blood glucose values were similar to control. The physico-chemical characterisation of the acidified test drink confirms the formation of a weak gel through which low Mw CHO can diffuse. 

  • 152.
    Maringer, Marcus
    et al.
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Van'T Veer, Pieter
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Klepacz, Naomi
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Verain, Muriel C. D.
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ekman, Susanne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Timotijevic, Lada
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Raats, Monique M.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Geelen, Anouk
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    User-documented food consumption data from publicly available apps: An analysis of opportunities and challenges for nutrition research2018In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The need for a better understanding of food consumption behaviour within its behavioural context has sparked the interest of nutrition researchers for user-documented food consumption data collected outside the research context using publicly available nutrition apps. The study aims to characterize the scientific, technical, legal and ethical features of this data in order to identify the opportunities and challenges associated with using this data for nutrition research. Method: A search for apps collecting food consumption data was conducted in October 2016 against UK Google Play and iTunes storefronts. 176 apps were selected based on user ratings and English language support. Publicly available information from the app stores and app-related websites was investigated and relevant data extracted and summarized. Our focus was on characteristics related to scientific relevance, data management and legal and ethical governance of user-documented food consumption data. Results: Food diaries are the most common form of data collection, allowing for multiple inputs including generic food items, packaged products, or images. Standards and procedures for compiling food databases used for estimating energy and nutrient intakes remain largely undisclosed. Food consumption data is interlinked with various types of contextual data related to behavioural motivation, physical activity, health, and fitness. While exchange of data between apps is common practise, the majority of apps lack technical documentation regarding data export. There is a similar lack of documentation regarding the implemented terms of use and privacy policies. While users are usually the owners of their data, vendors are granted irrevocable and royalty free licenses to commercially exploit the data. Conclusion: Due to its magnitude, diversity, and interconnectedness, user-documented food consumption data offers promising opportunities for a better understanding of habitual food consumption behaviour and its determinants. Non-standardized or non-documented food data compilation procedures, data exchange protocols and formats, terms of use and privacy statements, however, limit possibilities to integrate, process and share user-documented food consumption data. An ongoing research effort is required, to keep pace with the technical advancements of food consumption apps, their evolving data networks and the legal and ethical regulations related to protecting app users and their personal data.

  • 153.
    Martín-Alfonso, Jose
    et al.
    University of Huelva, Spain.
    Cuadri, Antonio
    University of Huelva, Spain.
    Berta, Marco
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Relation between concentration and shear-extensional rheology properties of xanthan and guar gum solutions2018In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 181, p. 63-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of concentration on the shear and extensional rheology properties of aqueous solutions of xanthan and guar gums was studied in this work. Shear rheology involved small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS), flow curves and transient flow, while the extensional rheology was analyzed using hyperbolic contraction flow. In addition, the mechanical properties during solutions manufacture were monitored in situ through the evolution of torque with processing time by mixing rheometry. The results showed that the hydrocolloids exert a great influence on the process rheokinetics and on the resulting rheological response. SAOS tests showed that the xanthan gum solutions behaved as weak gels, whereas guar gum solutions suggest the presence of entanglement and the formation of a viscoelastic, gel-like structure. All the systems exhibited shear-thinning behaviour. Guar gum solutions obeyed the Cox-Merz rule, with some divergence at high rates for the more concentrated solutions, while the Cox-Merz rule was not followed for xanthan gum in the range of concentration studied. The extensional viscosity exhibited an extensional-thinning behaviour within the strain range used and all solutions were characterized by a high Trouton ratio.

  • 154.
    Mateva, Gergana
    et al.
    Bulgarian Food Safety Agency, Bulgaria.
    Pedersen, K.
    National Veterinary Institute, Sweden.
    Sörensen, G.
    Statens Serum Institut, Denmark.
    Torpdahl, M.
    Statens Serum Institut, Denmark.
    Daskalov, H.
    National Diagnostic Research Veterinary Institute, Bulgaria.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Alexandar, I.
    Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria.
    Genetic polymorphism and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonellaenterica serovar Enteritidis isolates from veterinary and food sourcesin Bulgaria2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Salmonellosis is one of the most frequent food-borne infections. It iscaused by contaminated food mainly of animal origin, although humanto human transmission and numerous environmental contaminationsmay also be inflicted. Between 30 and 60% of the reported food-borneoutbreaks in the EU are caused by Salmonella and this is the secondmost commonly reported food-borne infection causing gastroenteritis.Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the mostwidespread serovar in Europe and other parts of the world.

    Methods:In this study we analysed forty-nine S. Enteritidis isolates from veterinaryand food sources in Bulgaria obtained during the period of eight years.We used multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis(MLVA) genotyping and the classical antimicrobial resistance (AMR) discdiffusion method to test the diversity of the isolates.

    Results:Results showed that isolates were divided into twenty-four MLVA andnine AMR profiles. The calculated Simpsons diversity index was 0.956for MLVA and 0.754 for AMR, respectively. The AMR testing revealed that47% of the isolates were resistant to one and 4% to ≥4 antimicrobials.The most frequent resistotypes were resistance to sulphonamides (n=21)and sensitive to all compounds (n=9). The most frequent MLVA profileswere 3-5-3-3-11 (n=6); 5-13-2-3-11 (n=5); 5-9-2-3-8 (n=5); 6-12-2-3-11(n=4); 5-10-2-3-11 (n=3); 4-5-3-3-9 (n=3). MLVA profiles are presentedaccording to the order of the loci sequenced: SE1, SE2, SE9, SE3 and SE5.We searched for similar S. Enteritidis MLVA profiles in published data. Apartial match was found for some profiles only.

    Conclusions:It could be concluded that the MLVA profiles of S. Enteritidis obtained inthis study (the first ones for Bulgaria) have not been frequently isolatedin other counties.

  • 155.
    Mateva, Gergana
    et al.
    National Diagnostic Research Veterinary Institute, Bulgaria.
    Pedersen, Karl
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Gitte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Asseva, Galina
    National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Bulgaria.
    Daskalov, Hristo
    National Diagnostic Research Veterinary Institute, Bulgaria.
    Petrov, Petar
    National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Bulgaria.
    Kantardjiev, Todor
    National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Bulgaria.
    Alexandar, Irina
    Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Use of multiple-locusvariable-numberof tandem repeatsanalysis (MLVA) to investigate genetic diversity of Salmonellaenterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates fromhuman, food, and veterinary sources2018In: MicrobiologyOpen, ISSN 2045-8827, E-ISSN 2045-8827, Vol. 7, no 1, article id e00528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most common zoonotic pathogen in Bulgaria. To allow efficient outbreak investigations and surveillance in the food chain, accurate and discriminatory methods for typing are needed. This study evaluated the use of multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and compared results with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinations for 100 S. Typhimurium strains isolated in Bulgaria during 2008–2012 (50 veterinary/ food and 50 human isolates). Results showed that isolates were divided into 80 and 34 groups using MLVA and AMR, respectively. Simpson’s index of diversity was determined to 0.994 ± 0.003 and 0.945 ± 0.012. The most frequently encountered MLVA profiles were 3-11-9-NA-211 (n = 5); 3-12-9-NA-211 (n = 3); 3-12-11-21-311 (n = 3); 3-17-10-NA-311 (n = 3); 2-20-9-7-212 (n = 3); and 2-23-NA-NA-111 (n = 3). No clustering of isolates related to susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobials, source of isolation, or year of isolation was observed. Some MLVA types were found in both human and veterinary/food isolates, indicating a possible route of transmission. A majority (83%) of the isolates were found to be resistant against at least one antimicrobial and 44% against ≥4 antimicrobials. Further studies are needed to verify MLVA usefulness over a longer period of time and with more isolates, including outbreak strains.

  • 156.
    Mayers, Joshua J.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Albers, Eva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flynn, Kevin J.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Nutrients from anaerobic digestion effluents for cultivation of the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. — Impact on growth, biochemical composition and the potential for cost and environmental impact savings2017In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 26, p. 275-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microalgal biotechnology has yielded a range of products for different consumer markets, but large scale production for bulk commodities is limited by the cost and environmental impact of production. Nutrient requirements for large-scale production contribute significantly to the cost and environmental impact of microalgal biomass production and should subsequently be addressed by more careful sourcing of nutrients. This study assessed the use of nitrogen and phosphorus contained in effluents from anaerobic digestion of food waste to cultivate the marine microalga Nannochloropsis sp. With suitable dilution, effluent could replace 100% of nitrogen demands and 16% of required phosphorus, without significant impacts on growth or biomass productivity. Additional phosphorus requirements could be decreased by increasing the N:P molar ratio of the media from 16:1 to 32:1. Nannochloropsis sp. accumulated lipid up to 50% of dry weight under N-stress, with significant increases in the content of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Using empirical data generated in this study, the cost and environmental impact of nitrogen and phosphorus supply was assessed versus the use of fertilizers for biomass and biodiesel production. Nutrient requirements predicted by the Redfield Ratio overestimating impacts by as much as 140% compared to empirical data. By utilising residual nutrients and optimising nutrient supply, the cost and environmental impact of nitrogen and phosphorus were decreased by > 90% versus the use of artificial fertilizers. This study demonstrates the importance of using empirical data for process evaluation and how anaerobic digestate effluent derived nutrients can contribute to the sustainability of algal biomass production.

  • 157.
    McCann, Thu H.
    et al.
    CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia.
    Homer, Stephen. H.
    CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia.
    Øiseth, Sofia K.
    CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia.
    Day, Li
    CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia ; AgResearch Ltd., New Zealand.
    Newberry, Marcus
    CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia.
    Regina, Ahmed
    CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia.
    Lundin, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia.
    High amylose wheat starch increases the resistance to deformation of wheat flour dough2018In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 79, p. 440-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High amylose wheat (HAW) starch has been the focus of a number of nutritional studies, but there is limited information around its effect on the mechanical properties of wheat flour dough. This study investigated the size, shape and packing volume of HAW starch and their effect on the microstructure and rheology of dough. Four flour blends were formulated by adding vital wheat gluten and either HAW or commercial wheat starch to HAW flour to achieve a constant 14% protein content, but varied amounts of HAW starch. A large number of small and irregularly shaped HAW starch granules resulted in a high packing volume per gram of starch. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of optimally mixed doughs correlated the degree of starch granule aggregation with the level of HAW starch in the bi-continuous dough network. Small deformation rheology demonstrated that increased quantities of HAW starch in the dough increased the elastic modulus G′ values. Uniaxial extension measurements highlighted a synergy between HAW starch and sources of gluten proteins resulting in increased strain hardening. The impact of HAW starch on dough rheology was attributed to its irregular shape and large number of small granules leading to greater granule-granule interactions.

  • 158.
    Meacci, Valentino
    et al.
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Matera, Riccardo
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ricci, Stefano
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Real-time in-line industrial fluids characterization using multiple pulse repetition frequency2019In: Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 512), 2019, p. 73-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characterization of fluids flowing in industrial pipes is of paramount importance to optimize the production process and guarantee the final product quality in most industries. Rheological parameters of the fluid can be efficiently calculated starting from the Pressure Drop (PD) along a tract of the pipe, and the velocity profile that the flow develops along the pipe diameter, which can be assessed through Ultrasounds Pulsed Wave Doppler (PWD). Unfortunately, in PWD the maximum detectable velocity is restricted by the aliasing limit related to the Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF). The use of PRF sequences at different rate can recover de-aliased velocities by combining the aliased data. In this work, we extend the capabilities of an embedded PWD ultrasound system used to characterize industrial fluids by implementing, in real-time, the multi-PRF method.

  • 159.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Aleixandre-Tudó, José Luis
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Kidd, Martin
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    du Toit, Wessel
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Basic In-Mouth Attribute Evaluation: A Comparison of Two Panels.2019In: Foods (Basel, Switzerland), ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 8, no 1, article id E3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Astringency is often difficult to evaluate accurately in wine because of its complexity. This accuracy can improve through training sessions, but it can be time-consuming and expensive. A way to reduce these costs can be the use of wine experts, who are known to be reliable evaluators. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the sensory results and the panel performance obtained using trained panelists versus wine experts (winemakers). Judges evaluated twelve red wines for in-mouth basic perception (sweet, sour, bitter, astringent, and burning sensation) following the same tasting protocol and with the samples being presented in two different tasting modalities. Panels' performance and relationship between the chemical composition and the sensory perception were investigated. Both panels showed similar consistency and repeatability, and they were able to accurately measure the astringency of the wines. However, the significant correlations between sensory scores and chemical composition varied with the panel and the tasting modality. From our results, we could see that winemakers tended to discriminate better between the samples when the differences were very small.

  • 160.
    Mogren, Lars
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Alsanius, Beatrix
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Håll bevattningsrören rena2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 161.
    Moore, Helene A.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marucci, MariaGrazia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Härdelin, Linda
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hjärtstam, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    von Corswant, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anette
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    New insights on the influence of manufacturing conditions and molecular weight on phase-separated films intended for controlled release2018In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 536, no 1, p. 261-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate how manufacturing conditions influence phase-separated films of ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) with different molecular weights of HPC. Two HPC grades, SSL and M, with weight average molecular weights (Mw) of 30 × 103 g/mol and 365 × 103 g/mol, respectively, were combined with EC 10 cps (70:30 w/w EC/HPC) and spray-coated from ethanol solutions onto a rotating drum under well-controlled process conditions. Generally, a low spray rate resulted in a more rapid film drying process and, consequently, in smaller HPC-rich domains in the phase-separated film structure. For EC/HPC films with the low Mw HPC (SSL) the most rapid drying process resulted in a shift from a HPC-discontinuous to a partly bicontinuous structure and an increase in the permeability for water. In contrast, films containing the high Mw HPC (M) all showed bicontinuous structures, which resulted in overall higher water permeabilities and polymer release compared to the low Mw films. Interestingly, a maximum in permeability was observed for the high Mw films at intermediate spray rates. Below this spray rate the permeability decreased due to a lower amount of polymer released and at higher spray rates, the permeability decreased due to a loss of pore connectivity (or increased tortuosity). To conclude, this study shows that different Mw systems of EC/HPC can respond differently to variations in manufacturing conditions.

  • 162.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. RISE Urban Water Management.
    Användning av recirkulerade fosforprodukter från avlopp – gödslingseffekt och upplägg av odlingstester2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the strategic work at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden to generate andspread knowledge on recovery and reuse of nutrients in Sweden. The aim of the report is to help ensure that high-quality products which are attractive for agricultural use emerge from Swedish wastewater treatment plants. The findings can be useful in further work on quality assurance of attractive recovered phosphorus products as fertilisers. Over 200 000 tons of dry matter sludge are produced annually at Swedish wastewater treatment plants, containing in total around 5400 tons of phosphorus that could potentially be reused inagriculture. Apart from direct spreading of bio-sludge on farmland, many different extraction technologies have been developed to recover and thus recycle phosphorus and other nutrients from wastewater and sludge. These different technologies extract phosphorus in different compounds with varying properties as a fertiliser in agriculture. The report reflects on and describes the properties of compounds produced by existing extraction technologies and estimates their value as fertilisers based on fertiliser experiments described in the literature.Two phosphorus compounds that appear particularly interesting are 1) phosphoric acid, a rawmaterial in the production of N-P-K and N-P products and certain forms of superphosphate, and 2) struvite, which has a fertiliser effect comparable to that of super-phosphate. However, it is difficult to assess and compare the fertiliser effect, or plant availability, of recovered phosphorus compounds in a fair manner. As soon as the compound touches the soil,all kinds of processes commence releasing phosphorus in plant-available forms or perhaps binding it in even stronger ways to soil minerals. The pH of the soil, but also its texture,composition of minerals, redox potential and current phosphorus concentration, are factors influencing the actual processes that take place. Other contextual factors such as climate also affect the complicated turnover of phosphorus in soil. However, once applied to farmland, all phosphorus compounds contribute to the pool of plant-available phosphorus in either the shortor long term. Phosphorus compounds that become available in the long term are valuable froma nutrient storage point of view. However, for a highly phosphorus-demanding crop on a phosphorus-deficient soil, rapid delivery of plant-available phosphorus is required. The variation between different types of soil is often great, but an attempt is made in this report to present amore general ranking of different recovered compounds from wastewater or sludge extraction(based on their function as a phosphorus fertiliser according to the literature). The table below summarises the compounds and provides a rough estimate of their general function as phosphorus fertiliser, where 1 indicates good fertilising effect and 4 indicates weak fertilising effect.

    [table, see fulltext]

    It is not only the fertiliser effect that determines the attractiveness of a product to farmers. Other decisive factors are competitive price, physical properties of the product that are compatible with modern cultivation techniques and machinery, and a well-defined nutrient content that is homogeneous and stable over time.Tests to assess and evaluate the fertiliser properties of recovered phosphorus products are currently based on varying and often simplified methodologies, meaning that data from different producers are difficult to compare. This report highlights the need for developing comparable and applicable tests for recovered phosphorus products. It also considers relevant parameters to analyse and suggests an appropriate test set-up. The plant availability and effect of nutrients in (recovered) fertiliser products can be assessed in three steps:

    1. Chemical determination and content quantification of phosphorus forms and environmental toxins.
    2. Greenhouse cultivation experiments.
    3. Field cultivation tests.
  • 163.
    Nilebäck, Linnea
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedin, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Widhe, Mona
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Floderus, Lotta S
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Krona, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bysell, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Self-Assembly of Recombinant Silk as a Strategy for ChemicalFree Formation of Bioactive Coatings – a Real-Time Study2017In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 846-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functionalization of biomaterials with biologically active peptides can improve their performance after implantation. By genetic fusion to self-assembling proteins, the functional peptides can easily be presented on different physical formats. Herein, a chemical-free coating method based on self-assembly of the recombinant spider silk protein 4RepCT is described and used to prepare functional coatings on various biomaterial surfaces. The silk assembly was studied in real-time, revealing occurrence of continuous assembly of silk proteins onto surfaces and formation of nanofibrillar structures. The adsorbed amounts and viscoelastic properties were evaluated, and the coatings were shown to be stable against wash with hydrogen chloride, sodium hydroxide, and ethanol. Titanium, stainless steel, and hydroxyapatite were coated with silk fused to an antimicrobial peptide or a motif from fibronectin. Human primary cells cultured on the functional silk coatings show good cell viability and proliferation, implying potential to improve implant performance and acceptance by the body.

  • 164.
    Nilsson, F.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Göransson, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Båth, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Models and technologies for the enhancement of transparency and visibility in food supply chains2019In: Sustainable Food Supply Chains: Planning, Design, and Control through Interdisciplinary Methodologies, Elsevier , 2019, p. 219-236Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased pressure and challenges of economic, environmental, and social character, the need for innovations (including both the generation and adoption of innovations) that can be implemented in supply chains increases. A number of novel concepts focusing on intelligent logistics and packaging systems are being developed and tested in the food industry, all over the world. Several of these concepts predict quality and product safety of foods for use along the food supply chain (FSC) by the food industry, distributors, and retailers, as well as consumers. In this chapter, the focus is set on models and technologies related to increased transparency and visibility in FSCs for the purpose of lowering food waste, increasing food safety, and increasing overall resource efficiency. An overview of models and concepts for transparency with specific emphasis on food monitoring systems and technologies is presented, together with an in-depth field study of an industry case. The field study covers a whole supply chain in which all actors were provided with real-time data on time and temperature of a product from production until consumption. It is concluded that the use of new technologies holds great potential and huge value in collecting and sharing quality data. However, the main challenges are found in the business relationships where the risks and willingness to share information, i.e., of being more nable food supply chains.© 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 165.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Göransson, Malin
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Bååth, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Models and technologies for theenhancement of transparency and visibilityin food supply chains: Chapter 152019In: Sustainable Food Supply Chains : Planning, Design, and Control through Interdisciplinary Methodologies / [ed] Riccardo Accorsi et al, Elsevier , 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Nordborg, Maria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Cederberg, Christel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Freshwater ecotoxicity impacts from pesticide use in animal and vegetable foods produced in Sweden2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 581-582, p. 448-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical pesticides are widely used in modern agriculture but their potential negative impacts are seldom considered in environmental assessments of food products. This study aims to assess and compare the potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts due to pesticide use in the primary production of six food products: chicken fillet, minced pork, minced beef, milk, pea soup, and wheat bread. The assessment is based on a detailed and site-specific inventory of pesticide use in the primary production of the food products, all of which are produced in Sweden. Soybeans, used to produce the animal-based food products, are grown in Brazil. Pesticide emissions to air and surface water were calculated using PestLCI v. 2.0.5. Ecotoxicity impacts were assessed using USEtox v. 2.01, and expressed in relation to five functional units. The results show that the animal-based food products have considerably larger impact potentials than the plant-based food products. In relation to kg pea soup, impact potentials of bread, milk, minced beef, chicken fillet and minced pork are ca. 2, 3, 50, 140 and 170 times larger, respectively. All mass-based functional units yield the same ranking. Notably, chicken fillet and minced pork have larger impacts than minced beef and milk, regardless of functional unit, due to extensive use of pesticides, some with high toxicity, in soybean production. This result stands in sharp contrast to typical carbon footprint and land use results which attribute larger impacts to beef than to chicken and pork. Measures for reducing impacts are discussed. In particular, we show that by substituting soybeans with locally sourced feed crops, the impact potentials of minced pork and chicken fillet are reduced by ca. 70 and 90%, respectively. Brazilian soybean production is heavily reliant on pesticides. We propose that weak legislation, in combination with tropical climate and agronomic practices, explains this situation.

  • 167.
    Normann, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sustainable fruit consumption: The influence of color, shape and damage on consumer sensory perception and liking of different apples2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 17, article id 4626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable food production and consumption are currently key issues. About one third of food produced for human consumption is wasted. In developed countries, consumers are responsible for the largest amount of food waste throughout the supply chain. The unwillingness to purchase and consume suboptimal food products is an important cause of food waste, however, the reasons behind this are still insufficiently studied. Our research addresses the question of how combinations of color, shape and damage of apples influence consumer liking and perceived sensory attributes. In a laboratory study based on factorial design of visual appearance (color, shape and damage varied from optimal to suboptimal) a total of 130 consumers evaluated sensory perception of flavor and texture attributes in apple samples. Liking was also evaluated. The results showed a significant difference in liking between an optimal apple and all apple categories with at least two out of three suboptimal properties. Further, it was a clear trend that the optimal apple was perceived as sweeter, crispier, less bitter, and less earthy than all the other apples by the participating consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. A suboptimal appearance, therefore, had a negative effect on both perception and liking..

  • 168.
    Notarnicola, Bruno
    et al.
    University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Sala, Serenella
    European Commission Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Italy.
    Assumpcio, Anton
    IRTA Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology, Spain.
    McLaren, Sarah J.
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Saouter, Erwan
    European Commission Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Italy.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    The role of life cycle assessment in supporting sustainable agri-food systems: A review of the challenges2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, p. 399-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle thinking is increasingly seen as a key concept for ensuring a transition towards more sustainable production and consumption patterns. As food production systems and consumption patterns are among the leading drivers of impacts on the environment, it is important to assess and improve food-related supply chains as much as possible. Over the years, life cycle assessment has been used extensively to assess agricultural systems and food processing and manufacturing activities, and compare alternatives “from field to fork” and through to food waste management. Notwithstanding the efforts, several methodological aspects of life cycle assessment still need further improvement in order to ensure adequate and robust support for decision making in both business and policy development contexts. This paper discusses the challenges for life cycle assessment arising from the complexity of food systems, and recommends research priorities for both scientific development and improvements in practical implementation. In summary, the intrinsic variability of food production systems requires dedicated modelling approaches, including addressing issues related to: the distinction between technosphere and ecosphere; the most appropriate functional unit; the multi-functionality of biological systems; and the modelling of the emissions and how this links with life cycle impact assessment. Also, data availability and interpretation of the results are two issues requiring further attention, including how to account for consumer behaviour.

  • 169.
    Nyberg, Magda
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Linnaeus University, Sweden; Oslo and Akershus University, Norway; Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Håkan S
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Blucher, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Lindborg, Ann-Louise
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    The meal as a performance: food and meal practices beyond health and nutrition2018In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 83-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing, presenting a number of new challenges in society. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how elderly persons with motoric eating difficulties perceive and perform their food and meal practices in everyday life. By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were carried out with 11 of these people. Participants were found to manage food and meal practices by continuously adjusting and adapting to the new conditions arising as a result of eating difficulties. This was displayed by conscious planning of what to eat and when, avoiding certain foods and beverages, using simple eating aids, but also withdrawing socially during the meals. All these adjustments were important in order to be able to demonstrate proper food and meal behaviour, to maintain the façade and to act according to the perceived norms. As well as being a pleasurable event, food and meals were also perceived in terms of being important for maintaining health and as ‘fuel’ where the main purpose is to sustain life. This was strongly connected to the social context and the ability to enjoy food and meals with family members and friends, which appeared to be particularly crucial due to the impending risk of failing the meal performance.

  • 170.
    Nyström, Magda
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tamaddon Jahromi, HR
    Swansea University, UK.
    Webster, MF
    Swansea University, UK.
    Hyperbolic contraction measuring systems for extensional flow2017In: Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials, ISSN 1385-2000, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 55-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an experimental method for extensional measurements on medium viscosity fluids in contraction flow is evaluated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. This measuring technique measures the pressure drop over a hyperbolic contraction, caused by fluid extension and fluid shear, where the extensional component is assumed to dominate. The present evaluative work advances our previous studies on this experimental method by introducing several contraction ratios and addressing different constitutive models of varying shear and extensional response. The constitutive models included are those of the constant viscosity Oldroyd-B and FENE-CR models, and the shear-thinning LPTT model. Examining the results, the impact of shear and first normal stress difference on the measured pressure drop are studied through numerical pressure drop predictions. In addition, stream function patterns are investigated to detect vortex development and influence of contraction ratio. The numerical predictions are further related to experimental measurements for the flow through a 15:1 contraction ratio with three different test fluids. The measured pressure drops are observed to exhibit the same trends as predicted in the numerical simulations, offering close correlation and tight predictive windows for experimental data capture. This result has demonstrated that the hyperbolic contraction flow is well able to detect such elastic fluid properties and that this is matched by numerical predictions in evaluation of their flow response. The hyperbolical contraction flow technique is commended for its distinct benefits: it is straightforward and simple to perform, the Hencky strain can be set by changing contraction ratio, non-homogeneous fluids can be tested, and one can directly determine the degree of elastic fluid behaviour. Based on matching of viscometric extensional viscosity response for FENE-CR and LPTT models, a decline is predicted in pressure drop for the shear-thinning LPTT model. This would indicate a modest impact of shear in the flow since such a pressure drop decline is relatively small. It is particularly noteworthy that the increase in pressure drop gathered from the experimental measurements is relatively high despite the low Deborah number range explored.

  • 171.
    Oliveira, G.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ehrnell, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Höglund, Evelina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Andlid, T.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Alminger, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tailoring bilberry powder functionality through processing: Effects of drying and fractionation on the stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins2019In: Food Packaging and Shelf Life, ISSN 1475-3324, E-ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1017-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilberries are a rich natural source of phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins. The press cake obtained during the processing of bilberry juice is a potential source of phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to evaluate different drying techniques and the fractionation of bilberry press cake powder toward obtaining phenolic-rich ingredients for incorporation into value-added food products. The derived powders were dispersed in water and dairy cream, to investigate the effects of drying and fractionation on the dispersibility and solubility of phenolic compounds. The drying techniques, hot air drying and microwave drying, applied on bilberry press cake reduced the content of total phenolics and anthocyanins. The degradation was, however, consistently small and similar for both techniques. The major anthocyanins detected in the samples were stable during drying and fractionation treatments. Fractionation of the press cake powder affected the total apparent phenolic content and composition of the different fractions. The highest phenolic content (55.33 +/- 0.06 mg g(-1) DW) and highest anthocyanin content (28.15 +/- 0.47 mg g(-1) DW) were found in the fractions with the smallest particle size (<500 mu m), with delphinidin-3-O-galactoside being the most abundant anthocyanin. Dispersibility of all dried powder samples was higher in dairy cream than water, and the highest level of anthocyanins was measured in samples from the powder with the smallest particle size (<500 mu m), dispersed in cream. The application of drying, milling and fractionation was found to be a promising approach to transform bilberry press cake into stable and deliverable ingredients that can be used for fortification of food products with high levels of phenolic compounds.

  • 172.
    Oliveira, Gabriel
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ehrnell, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Höglund, Evelina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Andlid, Thomas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Alminger, Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tailoring bilberry powder functionality through processing: Effects of drying and fractionation on the stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins2019In: Food Packaging and Shelf Life, ISSN 1475-3324, E-ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1017-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilberries are a rich natural source of phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins. The press cake obtained during the processing of bilberry juice is a potential source of phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to evaluate different drying techniques and the fractionation of bilberry press cake powder toward obtaining phenolic-rich ingredients for incorporation into value-added food products. The derived powders were dispersed in water and dairy cream, to investigate the effects of drying and fractionation on the dispersibility and solubility of phenolic compounds. The drying techniques, hot air drying and microwave drying, applied on bilberry press cake reduced the content of total phenolics and anthocyanins. The degradation was, however, consistently small and similar for both techniques. The major anthocyanins detected in the samples were stable during drying and fractionation treatments. Fractionation of the press cake powder affected the total apparent phenolic content and composition of the different fractions. The highest phenolic content (55.33 ± 0.06 mg g −1 DW) and highest anthocyanin content (28.15 ± 0.47 mg g −1 DW) were found in the fractions with the smallest particle size (&lt;500 μm), with delphinidin-3-O-galactoside being the most abundant anthocyanin. Dispersibility of all dried powder samples was higher in dairy cream than water, and the highest level of anthocyanins was measured in samples from the powder with the smallest particle size (&lt;500 μm), dispersed in cream. The application of drying, milling and fractionation was found to be a promising approach to transform bilberry press cake into stable and deliverable ingredients that can be used for fortification of food products with high levels of phenolic compounds. © 2019 The Authors.

  • 173.
    Olsson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Eriksson, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Askåterföring och biogasuppgradering med träbränsleaska2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood fuel ash is a resource that should be used for nutrient recycling to forest land andwhich also has the potential to be used for small-scale upgrading of biogas into CNG foruse as vehicle fuel. In the biogas upgrading process, carbon dioxide is fixed through acarbonation process. The carbonation process is also an important part of theconventional ash recycling process, since ash to be returned to forest is usually stabilizedby storing in a pile for a significant period of time to allow the carbon dioxide of the airto act on the ash. This project has explored the possibilities of developing a technicalsystem and business models that can lead to ash filter technology being used to processbiogas into vehicle fuel while at the same time contributing to more wood fuel ash beingreturn to forest land. Work has shown that the preconditions are good for the ashproducers existing infrastructure to be well suited for use in a future system where thebiogas plant replaces the role of the ash terminal for stabilizing the ash. Desirableproperties for ash used for biogas upgrading is that it has a high content of CaO and anability to hold water without creating backpressure in the ash bed, and that the biogasstabilized ash meets the limit values for heavy metals and nutrients for return to forest.Within the project tests were carried out with 10 tonnes of moistened ash involving shortterm storage of fresh ash, ash stabilization in biogas upgrading filters and subsequentreturn to forest land. The biogas stabilized ash had a very low conductivity in relation tothe limit value, showed a lowering of the pH value from close to 13 to below 10 and metthe limit values for heavy metals and plant nutrients for spreading on forest land. Thespreading trail with biogas stabilized ash to forest land showed an acceptable distributionpattern and did not cause any damage to the trees. A slightly higher moisture contentprobably would have further improved the distribution pattern. The tests were successfuland showed that there is good potential for biogas stabilized ashes to be spread with ashrecycling technology currently in use.

    In a system where biogas upgrading with ash filter technology is integrated into the ashrecycling chain, the biogas plant will act as a micro-terminal, where ash is handled closerto the ash producer and the distribution site compared to a conventional terminal. Inorder for this to be effective, one partner must be able to coordinate transportation ofash and ensure the ash quality, which in many cases can be an ash contractor. It is alsoof the utmost importance that forest operators and landowners are involved to secureend-users for the stabilized wood fuel ash. The economic calculations show that the costfor ash producers and forest owners would be in the same order of magnitude as for thecurrent ash recycling system. However, there is a potential that ash filter technology cancreate a product of a more uniform and higher quality while at the same time upgradingthe biogas to vehicle gas quality. The system will also contribute to local production ofvehicle fuel and an increased supply of biofuel in rural areas. Revenues from theupgraded biogas are expected to cover a large part of the costs incurred at the biogasplant linked to ash management. However, the cost of handling ash at a biogas plant isdependent on local conditions such as whether the ash is supplied dry or moistened andwhat carbon dioxide uptake capacity it has.

    In order to be able to handle ashes from smaller biomass energy plants and other ashproducers that currently deliver dry ash to end-users, it would be desirable to continuework on cost-effective methods for dust-free reception at biogas plants. Furthermore,there is a need for continued work linked to the storage of fresh ash. From a logisticalperspective there is a need to store the ash for shorter periods to get more efficienttransport and to be able to store ash from the winter season for use during the summer.For a long-term successful implementation of the developed system, it is important tocontinue to address the challenge linked to the forest owners’ interest in spreading ashin the future. For a smaller biogas plant that handles 500 tonnes / year of dry ash, acollaboration with up to 200-300 forest owners may be needed to find the distributionarea for the ash over time. The challenge of finding end users for the stabilized ash isshared by other players in the ash value chain and the project group sees opportunitiesthat local use of ash for production of vehicle gas to the community could provide apositive local connection that will aid in the work for increased ash recycling.

  • 174.
    Ottosson, Jakob
    et al.
    Livsmedelsverket, Sweden.
    Dryselius, Rikard
    Livsmedelsverket, Sweden.
    Egervärn, Mia
    Livsmedelsverket, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Karin
    Livsmedelsverket, Sweden.
    Svanström, Åsa
    Livsmedelsverket, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mats
    FOI, Sweden.
    Ahlinder, Jon
    FOI, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Moa
    FOI, Sweden.
    Schönning, Caroline
    Folkhälsomyndigheten, Sweden.
    Carlander, Anneli
    Folkhälsomyndigheten, Sweden.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kjellen, Jimmy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Elving, Josefine
    SVA, Sweden.
    Alsanius, Beatrix
    SLU, Sweden.
    Mogren, Lars
    SLU, Sweden.
    Bevattningsvatten: kunskapsunderlag2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetable products such as berries, leafy greens and sprouts pose a particular risk of transmittinginfectious diseases since they are eaten raw. Irrigation using faecally contaminated water is the mostlikely source of infectious agents but wild animal faeces and manure can also contaminate the productsfrom soil. The purpose of this project was to provide an overview of irrigation water quality inSweden, link it to microbiological risks and, based on this information, develop data for nationalguidelines with the aim of safe production of edible berries and vegetables that better prevent diseaseoutbreaks.The quality of both water and crops was generally good at the farms included in the project. Pathogensand ESBL-producing E. coli were occasionally found in water. However, these were only isolatedfrom surface water samples that were more polluted with respect to faecal indicators. Only a few cropsamples showed higher faecal contamination. The majority of these samples were from one farmerusing pond water for irrigation. No pathogens were detected on the crops. However, one cabbagesample tested positive for ESBL-producing E. coli.A quantitative risk assessment of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) from iceberg lettuce showedthat even low faecal contamination and the absence of detected pathogens in irrigation water can stillpose a risk of gastrointestinal infection. This risk assessment can provide the basis for microbiologicalcriteria, for example, with regard to water quality. However, the uncertainties associated with the riskassessment need to be taken into account. The main uncertainties were 1: the excretion andpathogenicity of STEC from infected cattle, 2: the proportion of these that adhere to the irrigated crop,3: the likelihood of being infected at low doses (single STEC bacterium) and 4: the importance of soilcontamination.Various measures that can reduce the likelihood of foodborne outbreaks and disease cases are 1:criteria for water quality, 2: purification of water not achieving these criteria, 3: residence timebetween irrigation and harvest and 4: consumers rinsing the produce. It is also important for farmers tokeep equipment such as pipes and nozzles clean to avoid contamination and bacterial growth.

    If surface water is used for irrigation (for example, in the absence of a safe groundwater supply),during the two weeks prior to harvest, a sampling programme should be implemented to ensure lowfaecal contamination and the absence of Salmonella. However, only water of drinking water qualityshould be used two days prior to harvest. It would be preferable for surface water to undergopurification before irrigation. This can be achieved, for example, by photocatalysis, UV light orfiltration.In a future with decreasing groundwater levels, drier summers and rainier winters, there is a need tocollect water for irrigation during the autumn rains, spring floods and wintertime to be stored inreservoirs for later use. Water from reservoirs may need purification before being used for irrigation,depending on how protected the reservoir is from contamination.

  • 175.
    Palm, Ola
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Granholm, K
    Norman Haldén, A
    Briukhanov, A
    Surovtsev, VN
    Ponomarev, S
    Subbotin, I
    Melnalksne, Z
    The ultimate challenge or just common sense : The present practices and future opportunities to increase the utilization of livestock manure as organic fertilizer in North West Russia2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimate challenge or just common sense

    The present practices and future opportunities to increase the utilization of livestock manure as organic fertilizer in North West Russia

    The risk of nutrient contamination of surface- and groundwater’s from livestock farming has been one of the issues to address in international cooperation initiatives in the Baltic Sea Region during the recent decade. In particular, international initiatives targeting North West Russia in the 2000-2010’s by HELCOM and NEFCO and as bilateral cooperation with Russia by Finland and Sweden have assessed the severity of the threat, have introduced technical solutions to process livestock manure and have explored the market potential for fertilizer products made through processing of livestock manure. However, a comprehensive resolution to the growing problem still remains a long term goal and many of the barriers to increase manure processing and organic fertilization – poor economic incentives and lack of proven cost-efficient technologies – still prevail.

    In Russia, ongoing adaptation of state support to agriculture as part of the WTO membership brings about indirect area-based farm support and increased share of support to investments in farm infrastructure, rural development and in management of health, hygienic and environmental aspects. These represent positive opportunities for increasing sustainable manure management and the proportion of manure-based fertilization. The Technological Regulations (TR) instrument introduced in 2008, enhanced enforcement and systematic introduction of BAT in Russian agriculture, provide a set of management tools which has good potential to be effective for the administration and be accepted by the agricultural companies. At the same time, there is a risk that the increasing concentration of livestock, in particular poultry production in Leningrad Oblast narrows alternative paths for sustainable manure management and is leading to a situation in which only large scale technological solutions may prove to be viable in order to solve the issue on the regional scale.

    This report reviews the current environment in North West Russian Federation to advance sustainable animal manure management and reflects this against the EU context with related examples from Latvia. The report concludes that a sustainable future for North West Russian agriculture relies on the overall sustainability of the enterprises and that regulative and subsidy measures should reinforce the positive link between economic and environmental benefit. Spatial aspects on the territorial level should be

    addressed as the location of agricultural enterprises both relative to each other and relative to human settlements have increasing importance from the perspective of environmental, health and biosecurity implications. Thirdly, Russia’s adaptation to the WTO framework, the process of implementing BAT in agriculture and the TR instrument to support holistic farm specific solutions provide a range of interesting topics for future international cooperation on both technical and policy levels.

  • 176.
    Pari, Luigi
    et al.
    CREA-IT, Italy.
    Scarfone, Antonio
    CREA-IT, Italy.
    Lundin, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bergonzoli, Simone
    CREA-IT, Italy.
    Alfano, Vincenzo
    CREA-IT, Italy.
    Lazar, Sandu
    CREA-IT, Italy.
    Suardi, Alessandro
    CREA-IT, Italy.
    Combined harvesting of chaff and straw for bioethanol production: The first experience on wheat in Sweden2018In: European Biomass Conf. Exhib. Proc., 2018, no 26thEUBCE, p. 289-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work is the evaluation of a harvest chain aimed at incorporating the chaff into the straw bales as consequence of wheat harvest operation. The test was performed in August 2017 in Uppsala, Sweden, using a commercial hybrid combine harvester equipped with a modified chaff spreader and a tractor with round baler. In particular, the chaff spreader was used as chaff recovery system to redirect the chaff into the straw flow during its fall on the ground and get the product admixed in the straw swath. The combine was also used with the recovery systems in “spreading mode” to be experimented as control. A few companies are approaching this engineering challenge, however, as the market of agricultural residues for fuel production is growing, simple and affordable solutions should be identified and commercialized. This paper can be considered as a primary attempt to find a simplified and affordable solution in this direction. The results show different harvesting performances according to machine settings. Indeed, when the recovery system was used, the material falling into the swath and baled was about 340 kg (14%) higher per ha (dry basis). However, respect the amount of biomass potentially available for baling, high harvest losses were identified and indicated the need to repeat the test with other machineries and find further adjustments.

  • 177.
    Parodi, A.
    et al.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Leip, A.
    European Commission, Italy.
    De Boer, I. J. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Slegers, P. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Temme, E. H. M.
    RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Netherlands.
    Herrero, M.
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Tuomisto, H.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Valin, H.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Van Middelaar, C. E.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Van Loon, J. J. A.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Van Zanten, H. H. E.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    The potential of future foods for sustainable and healthy diets2018In: Nature Sustainability, ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 1, no 12, p. 782-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altering diets is increasingly acknowledged as an important solution to feed the world’s growing population within the planetary boundaries. In our search for a planet-friendly diet, the main focus has been on eating more plant-source foods, and eating no or less animal-source foods, while the potential of future foods, such as insects, seaweed or cultured meat has been underexplored. Here we show that compared to current animal-source foods, future foods have major environmental benefits while safeguarding the intake of essential micronutrients. The complete array of essential nutrients in the mixture of future foods makes them good-quality alternatives for current animal-source foods compared to plant-source foods. Moreover, future foods are land-efficient alternatives for animal-source foods, and if produced with renewable energy, they also offer greenhouse gas benefits. Further research on nutrient bioavailability and digestibility, food safety, production costs and consumer acceptance will determine their role as main food sources in future diets.

  • 178.
    Patel, M.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Hessle, A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Upgrading plant amino acids through cattle to improve the nutritional value for humans: effects of different production systems2017In: Animal, ISSN 1751-7311, E-ISSN 1751-732X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 519-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficiency in animal protein production can be defined in different ways, for example the amount of human-digestible essential amino acids (HDEAA) in the feed ration relative to the amount of HDEAA in the animal products. Cattle production systems are characterised by great diversity and a wide variety of feeds and feed ration compositions, due to ruminants’ ability to digest fibrous materials inedible to humans such as roughage and by-products from the food and biofuel industries. This study examined the upgrading of protein quality through cattle by determining the quantity of HDEAA in feeds and animal products and comparing different milk and beef production systems. Four different systems for milk and beef production were designed, a reference production system for milk and beef representing typical Swedish production systems today and three alternative improved systems: (i) intensive cattle production based on maize silage, (ii) intensive systems based on food industry by-products for dairy cows and high-quality forage for beef cattle, and (iii) extensive systems based on forage with only small amounts of concentrate. In all four production systems, the quantity of HDEAA in the products (milk and meat) generally exceeded the quantity of HDEAA in the feeds. The intensive production models for beef calves generally resulted in output of the same magnitude as input for most HDEAA. However, in beef production based on calves from dairy cows, the intensive rearing systems resulted in lower output than input of HDEAA. For the extensive models, the amounts of HDEAA in meat were of the same magnitude as the amounts in the feeds. The extensive models with beef calves from suckler cows resulted in higher output in meat than input in feeds for all HDEAA. It was concluded that feeding cattle plants for production of milk and meat, instead of using the plants directly as human food, generally results in an upgrading of both the quantity and quality of protein, especially when extensive, forage-based production models are used. The results imply that the key to efficiency is the utilisation of human-inedible protein by cattle and justifies their contribution to food production, especially in regions where grasslands and/or forage production has comparative benefits over plant food production. By fine-tuning estimation of the efficiency of conversion from human-edible protein to HDEAA, comparisons of different sources of protein production may be more complete and the magnitude of amino acid upgrading in plants through cattle more obvious.

  • 179.
    Peeters, Elien
    et al.
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Hooyberghs, Geert
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Robijns, Stijn
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    De Weerdt, Ami
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Kucharíková, Sona
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Tournu, Helene
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Braem, Annabel
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Čeh, Katerina
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Majdic, Gregor
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Španič, Tanja
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Pogorevc, Estera
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Claes, Birgit
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Dovgan, Barbara
    Educell Ltd, Slovenia.
    Girandon, Lenart
    Educell Ltd, Slovenia.
    Impellizzeri, Frederic
    Biotech International, France.
    Erdtmann, Martin
    Hemoteq AG, Germany.
    Krona, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Vleugels, Jef
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Fröhlich, Mirjan
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Garcia-Forgas, Jordi
    Alhenia AG, Switzerland.
    De Brucker, Katrijn
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Cammue, Bruno
    VIB Center for Plant Systems Biology, Belgium; KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Thevissen, Karin
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Van Dijck, Patrick
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Vanderleyden, Jozef
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Van der Eycken, Erik
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Steenackers, Hans
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    An antibiofilm coating of 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazole covalently attached to a titanium surface2019In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B - Applied biomaterials, ISSN 1552-4973, E-ISSN 1552-4981, Vol. 107, no 6, p. 1908-1919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilms, especially those formed by Staphylococcus aureus, play a key role in the development of orthopedic implant infections. Eradication of these infections is challenging due to the elevated tolerance of biofilm cells against antimicrobial agents. In this study, we developed an antibiofilm coating consisting of 5-(4-bromophenyl)-N-cyclopentyl-1-octyl-1H-imidazol-2-amine, designated as LC0024, covalently bound to a titanium implant surface (LC0024-Ti). We showed in vitro that the LC0024-Ti surface reduces biofilm formation of S. aureus in a specific manner without reducing the planktonic cells above the biofilm, as evaluated by plate counting and fluorescence microscopy. The advantage of compounds that only inhibit biofilm formation without affecting the viability of the planktonic cells, is that reduced development of bacterial resistance is expected. To determine the antibiofilm activity of LC0024-Ti surfaces in vivo, a biomaterial-associated murine infection model was used. The results indicated a significant reduction in S. aureus biofilm formation (up to 96%) on the LC0024-Ti substrates compared to pristine titanium controls. Additionally, we found that the LC0024-Ti substrates did not affect the attachment and proliferation of human cells involved in osseointegration and bone repair. In summary, our results emphasize the clinical potential of covalent coatings of LC0024 on titanium implant surfaces to reduce the risk of orthopedic implant infections.

  • 180.
    Persson, T.
    et al.
    NIBIO Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway .
    Bergjord Olsen, A. K.
    NIBIO Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway .
    Nkurunziza, L.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sindhöj, E.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Eckersten, H.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Estimation of Crown Temperature of Winter Wheat and the Effect on Simulation of Frost Tolerance2017In: Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, ISSN 0931-2250, E-ISSN 1439-037X, Vol. 203, no 2, p. 161-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate estimation of winter wheat frost kill in cold-temperate agricultural regions is limited by lack of data on soil temperature at wheat crown depth, which determines winter survival. We compared the ability of four models of differing complexity to predict observed soil temperature at 2 cm depth during two winter seasons (2013-14 and 2014-15) at Ultuna, Sweden, and at 1 cm depth at Ilseng and Ås, Norway. Predicted and observed soil temperature at 2 cm depth was then used in FROSTOL model simulations of the frost tolerance of winter wheat at Ultuna. Compared with the observed soil temperature at 2 cm depth, soil temperature was better predicted by detailed models than simpler models for both seasons at Ultuna. The LT50 (temperature at which 50 % of plants die) predictions from FROSTOL model simulations using input from the most detailed soil temperature model agreed better with LT50 FROSTOL outputs from observed soil temperature than what LT50 FROSTOL predictions using temperature from simpler models did. These results highlight the need for simpler temperature prediction tools to be further improved when used to evaluate winter wheat frost kill. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  • 181.
    Philis, Gaspard
    et al.
    NUTU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gansel, Lars
    NUTU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Jansen, Mona
    Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Norway.
    Gracey, Erik
    BioMar Group, Norway.
    Stene, Anne
    NUTU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Comparing life cycle assessment (LCA) of salmonid aquaculture production systems: Status and perspectives2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector worldwide, mostly driven by a steadily increasing protein demand. In response to growing ecological concerns, life cycle assessment (LCA) emerged as a key environmental tool to measure the impacts of various production systems, including aquaculture. In this review, we focused on farmed salmonids to perform an in-depth analysis, investigating methodologies and comparing results of LCA studies of this finfish family in relation to species and production technologies. Identifying the environmental strengths and weaknesses of salmonid production technologies is central to ensure that industrial actors and policymakers make informed choices to take the production of this important marine livestock to a more sustainable path. Three critical aspects of salmonid LCAs were studied based on 24 articles and reports: (1) Methodological application, (2) construction of inventories, and (3) comparison of production technologies across studies. Our first assessment provides an overview and compares important methodological choices. The second analysis maps the main foreground and background data sources, as well as the state of process inclusion and exclusion. In the third section, a first attempt to compare life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) data across production technologies was conducted using a single factor statistical protocol. Overall, findings suggested a lack of methodological completeness and reporting in the literature and demonstrated that inventories suffered from incomplete description and partial disclosure. Our attempt to compare LCA results across studies was challenging due to confounding factors and poor data availability, but useful as a first step in highlighting the importance of production technology for salmonids. In groups where the data was robust enough for statistical comparison, both differences and mean equalities were identified, allowing ranking of technology clusters based on their average scores. We statistically demonstrated that sea-based systems outperform land-based technology in terms of energy demand and that sea-based systems have a generally higher FCR than land-based ones. Cross-study analytics also strongly suggest that open systems generate on average more eutrophying emissions than closed designs. We further discuss how to overcome bottlenecks currently hampering such LCA meta-analysis. Arguments are made in favor of further developing cross-study LCA analysis, particularly by increasing the number of salmonid LCA available (to improve sample sizes) and by reforming in-depth LCA practices to enable full reproducibility and greater access to inventory data. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 182.
    Pihl, Maria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kolman, Krzysztof
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lotsari, Antiope
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schüster, Erich
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bordes, Romain
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Silica-based diffusion probes for use in FRAP and NMR-diffusometry2019In: Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, ISSN 0193-2691, E-ISSN 1532-2351, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 555-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of multi-purpose probes for mass transport measurements is of importance to gain knowledge in diffusional behaviour in heterogeneous structures such as food, hygiene or pharamceuticals. By combining different techniques, such as Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Diffusometry (NMR-d), information of both local and global diffusion can be collected and used to gain insights on for example material heterogeneities and probe-material interactions. To obtain a FRAP-responsive probe, fluorescent silica particles were produced using fluorescent preconjugates added in a modified Stöber process. A NMR-d responsive moiety was introduced by derivatizing the fluorescent silica particles with polyethylene glycol. The particle size distributions were determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy and these measurements were compared to value extrapolated from diffusion measurements using FRAP and NMR-d. The good agreement between the FRAP and NMR-d measurements demonstrates the potential of multi-purpose probes for future applications concerning mass transport at local and global scale simultaneously. © 2018, © 2018 The Author(s).

  • 183.
    Qasi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shear and extensional rheology of commercial thickeners used for dysphagia management2017In: Journal of texture studies, ISSN 0022-4901, E-ISSN 1745-4603, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 507-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People who suffer from swallowing disorders, commonly referred to as dysphagia, are often restricted to a texture-modified diet. In such a diet, the texture of the fluid is modified mainly by the addition of gum or starch-based thickeners. For optimal modification of the texture, tunable rheological parameters are shear viscosity, yield stress, and elasticity. In this work, the flow properties of commercial thickeners obtained from major commercial suppliers were measured both in shear and extensional flow using a laboratory viscometer and a newly developed tube viscometry technique, termed Pulsed Ultrasound Velocimetry plus Pressure Drop (PUV+PD). The two methods gave similar results, demonstrating that the PUV+PD technique can be applied to study flow during the swallowing process in geometry similar to that of the swallowing tract. The thickeners were characterized in relation to extensional viscosity using the Hyperbolic Contraction Flow (HCF) method, with microscopy used as a complementary method for visualization of the fluid structure. The gum-based thickeners had significantly higher extensional viscosities than the starch-based thickeners. The rheological behavior was manifested in the microstructure as a hydrocolloid network with dimensions in the nanometer range for the gum-based thickeners. The starch-based thickeners displayed a granular structure in the micrometer range. In addition, the commercial thickeners were compared to model fluids (Boger, Newtonian and Shear-thinning) set to equal shear viscosity at 50s−1 and it was demonstrated that their rheological behavior could be tuned between highly elastic, extension-thickening to Newtonian. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 184.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekberg, Olle
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Incipientus Ultrasound Flow Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Kotze, Reinhardt
    Incipientus Ultrasound Flow Technologies AB, Sweden.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessment of the Food-Swallowing Process Using Bolus Visualisation and Manometry Simultaneously in a Device that Models Human Swallowing2019In: Dysphagia (New York. Print), ISSN 0179-051X, E-ISSN 1432-0460, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 21-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of the flows of boluses with different consistencies, i.e. different rheological properties, through the pharynx have not been fully elucidated. The results obtained using a novel in vitro device, the Gothenburg Throat, which allows simultaneous bolus flow visualisation and manometry assessments in the pharynx geometry, are presented, to explain the dependence of bolus flow on bolus consistency. Four different bolus consistencies of a commercial food thickener, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Pa s (at a shear rate of 50 s −1 )—corresponding to a range from low honey-thick to pudding-thick consistencies on the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) scale—were examined in the in vitro pharynx. The bolus velocities recorded in the simulator pharynx were in the range of 0.046–0.48 m/s, which is within the range reported in clinical studies. The corresponding wall shear rates associated with these velocities ranged from 13 s −1 (pudding consistency) to 209 s −1 (honey-thick consistency). The results of the in vitro manometry tests using different consistencies and bolus volumes were rather similar to those obtained in clinical studies. The in vitro device used in this study appears to be a valuable tool for pre-clinical analyses of thickened fluids. Furthermore, the results show that it is desirable to consider a broad range of shear rates when assessing the suitability of a certain consistency for swallowing. © 2019, The Author(s).

  • 185.
    Qazi, Waqas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    In vitro models for simulating swallowing2019In: Dysphagia: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2019, p. 549-562Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives an overview of the in vitro models that are currently used for studying swallowing. The focus is on the construction, geometry, and performance of mechanical models. Swallowing simulations and mathematical modeling are also considered. The in vitro models that are concerned with the oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases of swallowing linked to bolus properties are discussed. The pharyngeal phase is given special consideration, as it is involved in both food transport to the stomach and air transport to the lungs, and therefore constitutes the most critical phase of swallowing.

  • 186.
    Raaholt, Birgitta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Continuous in-flow microwave processing for food preservation applications2017In: 16th International Conference on Microwave and High Frequency Heating, AMPERE 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of particulate pumpable foods, designed and implemented at RISE Research Institute of Sweden [1], was studied for heat treatment of a particulate, viscous model food at high temperature conditions at 2450 MHz. In this paper, the technology will be discussed as an alternative high-temperature short-time (HTST) processing method for a high-concentrated particulate model product. The technology combines TM 020 and TM 120 microwave mode heating. The rapidness in heating the product will be illustrated for selected time-temperature conditions after tubular microwave heating. The latter corresponds to the required microbiological inactivation, for a product intended for storage at ambient conditions or cool storage, respectively. As will be exemplified, the microwave HTST system studied results in large process flexibility. Additionally, it offers advantages in product quality.

  • 187.
    Raaholt, Birgitta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Isaksson, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Continuous tubular microwave heating of particulate foods at high temperatures2017In: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of particulate pumpable foods, designed and implemented at RISE Agrifood and Bioscience, was evaluated for heat treatment of a particulate, viscous model food at high-temperature conditions at 2450 MHz. The microwave system has three consecutive cavities, one excited by the TM020 microwave mode that heats primarily in the centre of the tube, and two cavities fed by TM120 modes that heat primarily in the tube periphery. In this paper, combined TM020 and TM120 tubular microwave heating is evaluated as an alternative to high-temperature short-time (HTST) processing for a high-concentrated particulate model product. Rapidness in heating of the product was evaluated after tubular microwave heating for different time-temperature conditions, corresponding to the required microbiological inactivation for a model product intended for storage at ambient conditions. Moreover, the effects on product quality of the microwave heated model soup were investigated in terms of texture, piece integrity and colour. Microstructural analysis was used to gain an understanding of the effects of heating at a microscopic scale. It was found that the microwave-assisted HTST system results in large process flexibility. Additionally, it offers advantages in product quality in terms of piece integrity and texture.

  • 188.
    Rahman, Mashuqur
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kotzé, Reinhardt
    CPUT Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa.
    Håkansson, Ulf
    Skanska AB, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yield stress of cement grouts2017In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 61, p. 50-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheology of cement grout is complex due to its thixotropic nature and the presence of a yield stress. Despite the importance of the yield stress for grouting design, no standard methods are yet available to determine the yield stress. Most common methods are based on using conventional rheometers, but the results are subjective due to the measurement techniques, applied shear history and hydration. In this work, measurement of the yield stress of cement grout was performed with different measurement techniques using a conventional rheometer. In addition, in-line measurements using an ultrasound based technique were made in order to visualize the flow profile and perform a direct measurement of the yield stress. Two ranges of yield stress, static and dynamic yield stress, were measured. These results should be used for design purposes depending on the prevailing shear rate. The ultrasound based Flow Viz industrial rheometer was found capable of performing direct in-line measurement of the yield stress and providing a detailed visualization of the velocity profile of cement grout.

  • 189.
    Ricci, Stefano
    et al.
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Meacci, Valentino
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Birkhofer, Beat
    Sika Services AG, Switzerland.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Embedded system for In-line characterization of industrial fluids2017In: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 2017, p. 43-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The in-line assessment of the rheological properties of fluids in chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries is fundamental for process optimization and product quality. The rheology of a fluid in a process pipe can be investigated by combining the measured pressure difference over a fixed distance of pipe, and the velocity distribution of the fluid along the diameter. The latter data can be measured by Pulsed Ultrasound Velocimetry (PUV), which is a non-invasive Doppler technique. Till now, the few systems available need cumbersome electronics or computer for data post-processing and are not suitable for industrial applications. In this work we present a compact (10 × 12 cm), fully programmable and low cost system that embeds the ultrasound front-end and all of the digital electronics necessary for the signal processing. The board produces, in real time, 512-point velocity profiles at 45 Hz rate and is integrated in the Flow-VizTM platform (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden).

  • 190.
    Ricci, Stefano
    et al.
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Meacci, Valentino
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Birkhofer, Beat
    Sika Services AG, Switzerland.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    FPGA-based system for in-line measurement of velocity profiles of fluids in industrial pipe flow2017In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 3997-4005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheology of a fluid flowing in an industrial process pipe can be calculated by combining the pressure drop and the velocity profile that the fluid develops across the tube diameter. The profile is obtained noninvasively through an ultrasound Doppler investigation. Unfortunately, at present, no system capable of real-time velocity profile assessment is available for in-line industrial rheological measurements, and tests are operated by manually moving fluid specimens to specialized laboratories. In this work, we present an embedded system capable of in-line and real-time measurement of velocity profile and pressure drop, which enables the automatic rheological characterization of non-Newtonian fluids in process pipes. The system includes all the electronics for the ultrasound front-end, as well as the digital devices for the real-time calculation of the velocity profile. The proposed system is highly programmable, low-noise, and specifically targeted for industrial use. It is shown capable of producing, for example, 512-point velocity profiles at 45 Hz rate. An application is presented where a sludge fluid, flowing at 600 L/min in a 48 mm diameter high-grade stainless steel pipe, is characterized in real-time with a ±5% accuracy.

  • 191.
    Ricci, Stefano
    et al.
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Meacci, Valentino
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Real-time staggered PRF for in-line industrial fluids characterization2017In: IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS, IEEE Computer Society , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern industries need to monitor every step of the production process for a better efficiency and product quality. However, important parameters, like the rheological indexes of the fluids involved in the process, cannot easily be inspected inline, as they are typically analyzed through off-line laboratory tests on specimens. Recently, electronics sensors have been introduced capable to characterize in-line the fluids by acquiring the velocity profile of the fluid flowing in a pipe, and the pressure drop. These sensors are based on Pulsed Wave Doppler (PWD), where ultrasound energy bursts are transmitted at Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) rate. The fluid maximum velocity that can be safely investigated in PWD is constrained by the PRF, which is limited by the investigation depth. Unfortunately, in large industrial pipes, the fluid velocity can be easily beyond the Nyquist limit, preventing a correct ultrasound investigation. Staggered PRF is a technique typically used in Doppler radar that, by exploiting PRF sequences at different rate, can recover the right velocity even if beyond the Nyquist limit. In this work, an embedded ultrasound system for in-line rheological investigation is updated by implementing in its Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) the staggered PRF technique. Experiments show the system capable of detecting velocity profiles at 25 Hz rate beyond the Nyquist limit.

  • 192.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Alverbäck, Adam
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Åtgärder för att minimera växthusgasutsläpp från lager med rötad och orötad gödsel2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring low emissions of greenhouse gases from both undigested and digested animal slurry in storage requires a knowledge of effective, functional and economic measures. This three-year project has studied various potential measures for use in slurry storage. The greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide have been measured under summer conditions. Measures such as extended digestion time and acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid have been evaluated in a RISE pilot-scale plant for slurry storage. Measures to reduce nitrous oxide emissions formed in floating crust in a full-scale storage have been studied at farm level. Complementary theoretical calculations have been carried out to assess the effect of covering slurry stores. The impact of temperature on methane emissions has been studied in the laboratory.

    The fundamental point demonstrated on the laboratory scale is that the temperature is highly significant. As the temperature rose, methane production increased exponentially for digested slurry. For undigested slurry, the increase was considerably less. Most of the heat gained by the slurry can be attributed to solar radiation. Theoretical thermal balance calculations for slurry in storage indicated that it should be possible to reduce this heating significantly in spring by shading the slurry surface or provide the storage with a white roof.

    The studies in years 1 and 3 showed that methane emissions were significantly greater from digested than from undigested slurry. The total loss of methane from digested slurry was 2.5 and four times higher, respectively, during summer storage (approx. four months). It is therefore particularly important to implement measures to limit methane emissions from digested slurry in storage, thereby reducing the impact on the climate.

    One way to achieve lower methane emissions from digested slurry is to extend the duration of digestion, i.e. the hydraulic retention time in the digester. The studies in year 1 showed that doubling the retention time from 24 to 48 days reduced methane emissions from storage by 30 percent. At farms with digestion plants, a gas-tight roof with biogas collection is also an effective way to make the plant more efficient and prevent emissions of greenhouse gases from storage.

    Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is practiced in Denmark, to reduce ammonia emissions from slurry in housing, in storage and during spreading. The results show that it is also a very effective method for minimizing methane emissions from storage, with a reduction of more than 90 percent for both undigested and digested slurry. Acidification may be of interest as a way of reducing emissions of both ammonia and methane, particularly for types of slurry that do not naturally form a floating crust.

    Measures such as acidification of the floating crust to reduce nitrous oxide emissions did not prove to have effect because nitrous oxide emissions were relatively low, despite the floating crust being nearly half a metre thick. The chopped straw used for litter formed a smooth and dense floating crust on the surface of the slurry, and probably inhibited nitrous oxide formation because air was unable to penetrate the layer. Chopped straw litter in itself could therefore be a potential measure. This might also reduce straw consumption.

    Methane production from a digester is often difficult to measure and is therefore often calculated indirectly from the electricity produced. An example of key indicator for the climatic efficiency of the plant is given. For storage in summer, 10.2% of the methane produced was emitted during one-stage digestion over 24 days, and 5.5% during two-stage digestion over 48 days. The annual percentages are considerably lower because of low emissions in winter.

  • 193.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ammonia emissions from storage: non-digested and digested cattle slurry, with and without acid2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study concerns acidification at the beginning of storage to reduce ammonia emissions during storage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction of ammonia emissions by the acidification of cattle slurry, digested and non-digested, in storage under summer conditions.

    Cattle slurry (CS) and digested cattle slurry (DCS) were taken from a dairy farm with a digester plant. The sulphuric acid required for acidification to pH 5.5 was determined by titration before the pilot-scale experiment began. In the pilot-scale experiment, each slurry type was divided into two containers. One batch was acidified to pH<5.5 by adding sulphuric acid (96%) slowly with gentle mixing. The other batch was not acidified. During acidification, the pH was measured frequently and the total amounts of acid added were noted. Temperatures were measured during the four-month storage period with loggers at 0.1 m from the bottom and 0.1 m from the surface of each container. Data were continuously recorded hourly.

    Ammonia emissions were measured using a micrometeorological mass balance method with passive flux samplers. There were five measuring periods during the warm storage period from May to August. The length of the measuring periods ranged from 3 to 14 days, with the shortest period at the start of storage.

    On a pilot scale, the acid consumption for reaching pH< 5.5 was 1.1 L/m3 for CS and 6.2 L/m3 for DCS. The change in pH after acidification was rather limited and the pH stayed <6 throughout the four-month storage period for both CS and DCS.

    On a laboratory scale, more acid was needed to reach pH 5.5, and the pH increased more, with less buffering, than on a pilot scale. The reasons for this could be higher temperatures, frequent mixing, small volumes, and the use of diluted acid on a laboratory scale compared with on a pilot scale. On a laboratory scale, it was possible to show differences in acid demand between slurry types, but the amounts of acid needed seem to be different (higher) compared with pilot scale.

    The estimated cumulative NH3-N emissions corresponded to about 19% of total-N for CS and about 26% of total-N for DCS. The estimated cumulative NH3-N emissions were about the same as a percentage of TAN for CS and for DCS (57.8 and 53.9% respectively).

    Emissions from the acidified batches of slurry were overall negligibly low. The addition of acid decreased ammonia emissions very effectively, for both CS and DCS.

  • 194.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kalinowski, Mariusz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Slurry acidification: Micro-structural analyses of concrete after exposure in acidified and non-acidified slurry2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of three different concrete qualities were prepared and hardened, before exposure in cattle slurry without sulphuric acid (A) and with sulphuric acid added until pH<5.5 (B). The samples were exposed for two years in containers with about 45 L slurry. The boxes with slurry and concrete samples were placed in a ventilated room at 20 °C. The slurry and air temperatures were recorded continuously with temperature loggers, data being recorded every third hour. The slurry level in the boxes and the slurry pH were checked regularly during the experiment. Slurry or acid was added, if necessary, to maintain the level and pH<5.5. Before pH measurements, the slurry was stirred gently in both boxes. To restrict evaporation, the containers had non-airtight plastic covers between measurements.

    Half-way through exposure, the old slurry was replaced with fresh slurry (acidified and non-acidified treatments) to mimic conditions in farm storage where fresh slurry is added continuously during storage. After two years’ storage, the experiment was finalised. The concrete samples were taken out of the slurry, washed gently with water and put into labelled plastic bags.

    The samples were delivered to RISE CBI’s concrete laboratory, where the structural analyses were performed. These used petrographic microscopy techniques to examine the effects of exposure to two potentially aggressive environments, non-acidified and acidified cattle slurry, on concrete with three different mixes. The studied surfaces in the concrete samples were oriented vertically in the plastic containers. Polished sections were evaluated with a stereo microscope, and thin sections were evaluated using a polarising microscope and sources for visible and UV light.

    The results of the study show that the acidified slurry is more chemically aggressive to the cement paste in all the concrete mixes analysed. This can be explained by the solution’s lower pH.

    The extent of the chemical attack correlates with the initial quality of the concrete mix (water-powder ratio and type of binder). The deepest chemical attacks were observed in samples A1 and B1 consisting of “regular” concrete mix with w/c 0.59. The “long lasting quality” (LLC) concrete with a binder specially developed for low-pH environments shows markedly better resistance to chemical attack.

    The effects of the chemical attack on concrete after two years’ exposure can be classified as weak, consisting mainly of an increase in the capillary porosity of the cement paste in the outer layer of the concrete. The increase in porosity is considered to be due to the partial leaching of calcium hydroxide.

  • 195.
    Rohm, Harald
    et al.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Oostindjer, Marije
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Symmank, Claudia
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    L Almli, Valérie
    Nofima AS, Norway.
    de Hooge, Ilona E
    Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Karantininis, Kostas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS): Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction.2017In: Foods (Basel, Switzerland), ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 6, no 12, article id E104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for a significant fraction of food waste which, for a large part, could be avoided if they were willing to accept food that is suboptimal, i.e., food that deviates in sensory characteristics (odd shape, discoloration), or that has a best-before date which is approaching or has passed, but that is still perfectly fine to eat. The choice to accept or discard suboptimal food is taken either before or after purchase (hence, in the retail store or in the household). The aim of the European research project COSUS (Consumers in a sustainable food supply chain) was to increase consumer acceptance of suboptimal food, before and after purchase, by implementing targeted strategies that are based on consumer insights, and that are feasible for and acceptable by the food sector. To reach this aim, different methodological approaches were applied to analyze this issue, to experiment with different aspects, and to test the resulting interventions. Each of these approaches was undertaken by competent consortium partners from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands. The project finally provides validated strategies to promote the distribution and consumption of suboptimal foods, thereby improving resource efficiency in the food chain and contributing to a more sustainable food supply.

  • 196.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Effective diffusivity in lattices of impermeable superballs2018In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics: Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, ISSN 1063-651X, E-ISSN 1095-3787, Vol. 98, no 5, article id 052908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Granular materials constitute a broad class of two-phase media with discrete, solid par-ticles i.e. granules surrounded by a continuous void phase. They have properties that arekey for e.g. separation and chromatography columns, cathode materials for batteries, andpharmaceutical coatings for controlled release. Controlling mass transport properties suchas effective diffusivity is crucial for these applications and the subject of targeted designand optimization. The prototypical granule is a sphere, but current manufacturingtechniques allow for more complicated shapes to be produced in a highly controlled manner,including ellipsoids, cubes, and cubes with rounded edges and corners. The impactof shape for self-assembly, phase transitions, crystallization, and random close packing hasalso been studied for these shapes

  • 197.
    Röding, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Shape-dependent effective diffusivity in packings of hard cubes and cuboids compared with spheres and ellipsoids2017In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 13, no 46, p. 8864-8870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed computational screening of effective diffusivity in different configurations of cubes and cuboids compared with spheres and ellipsoids. In total, more than 1500 structures are generated and screened for effective diffusivity. We studied simple cubic and face-centered cubic lattices of spheres and cubes, random configurations of cubes and spheres as a function of volume fraction and polydispersity, and finally random configurations of ellipsoids and cuboids as a function of shape. We found some interesting shape-dependent differences in behavior, elucidating the impact of shape on the targeted design of granular materials.

  • 198.
    Röding, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Billeter, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Massively parallel approximate Bayesian computation for estimating nanoparticle diffusion coefficients, sizes and concentrations using confocal laser scanning microscopy2018In: Journal of Microscopy, ISSN 0022-2720, E-ISSN 1365-2818, Vol. 271, no 2, p. 174-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We implement a massively parallel population Monte Carlo approximate Bayesian computation (PMC-ABC) method for estimating diffusion coefficients, sizes and concentrations of diffusing nanoparticles in liquid suspension using confocal laser scanning microscopy and particle tracking. The method is based on the joint probability distribution of diffusion coefficients and the time spent by a particle inside a detection region where particles are tracked. We present freely available central processing unit (CPU) and graphics processing unit (GPU) versions of the analysis software, and we apply the method to characterize mono- and bidisperse samples of fluorescent polystyrene beads.

  • 199.
    Röding, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gaska, Karolina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Kádár, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Computational Screening of Diffusive Transport in Nanoplatelet-Filled Composites: Use of Graphene To Enhance Polymer Barrier Properties2017In: ACS Applied Nano Materials, ISSN 2574-0970, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 160-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the substantial interest in various fillers to enhance the barrier properties of polymeric films, especially graphene derivatives, we perform a computational screening of obstructed diffusion to explore the design parameter space of nanoplatelet-filled composites synthesized in silico. As a model for the nanoplatelets, we use circular and elliptical nonoverlapping and impermeable flat disks, and diffusion is stochastically simulated using a random-walk model, from which the effective diffusivity is calculated. On the basis of ∼1000 generated structures and diffusion simulations, we systematically investigate the impact of different nanoplatelet characteristics such as orientation, layering, size, polydispersity, shape, and amount. We conclude that the orientation, size, and amount of nanoplatelets are the most important parameters and show that using nanoplatelets oriented perpendicular to the diffusion direction, under reasonable assumptions, with approximately 0.2% (w/w) graphene, we can reach 90% reduction and, with approximately 1% (w/w) graphene, we can reach 99% reduction in diffusivity, purely because of geometrical effects, in a defect-free matrix with perfect compatibility. Additionally, our results suggest that the existing analytical models have some difficulty with extremely large aspect ratio (extremely flat) nanoplatelets, which calls for further development.

  • 200.
    Röding, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lacroix, Leander
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Krona, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gebäck, Tobias
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A Highly Accurate Pixel-Based FRAP Model Based on Spectral-Domain Numerical Methods2019In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 116, no 7, p. 1348-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a new, to our knowledge, numerical model based on spectral methods for analysis of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data. The model covers pure diffusion and diffusion and binding (reaction-diffusion) with immobile binding sites, as well as arbitrary bleach region shapes. Fitting of the model is supported using both conventional recovery-curve-based estimation and pixel-based estimation, in which all individual pixels in the data are utilized. The model explicitly accounts for multiple bleach frames, diffusion (and binding) during bleaching, and bleaching during imaging. To our knowledge, no other fluorescence recovery after photobleaching framework incorporates all these model features and estimation methods. We thoroughly validate the model by comparison to stochastic simulations of particle dynamics and find it to be highly accurate. We perform simulation studies to compare recovery-curve-based estimation and pixel-based estimation in realistic settings and show that pixel-based estimation is the better method for parameter estimation as well as for distinguishing pure diffusion from diffusion and binding. We show that accounting for multiple bleach frames is important and that the effect of neglecting this is qualitatively different for the two estimation methods. We perform a simple experimental validation showing that pixel-based estimation provides better agreement with literature values than recovery-curve-based estimation and that accounting for multiple bleach frames improves the result. Further, the software developed in this work is freely available online.

12345 151 - 200 of 244
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.35.9