Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
12345 101 - 150 av 219
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Pramanik, Roshni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, concerns regarding fires in electric vehicles in enclosed spaces such as in road tunnels and parking garages have been raised and there are indications that parking of electric vehicles may be prohibited in some spaces. For the success of electromobility and the transition from fossil to renewable fuels, it is important to understand the risks and consequences of fires in electric vehicles and to provide technical solutions if necessary, so as not to hinder the widespread adoption of electric vehicles.

    In this work, a literature review on fires in vehicles has been conducted. The focus was on fires in enclosed spaces involving electric vehicles. A comprehensive risk assessment of electric vehicle fires was performed using systematic hazard identification. In addition, a workshop with representatives from three Swedish fire and rescue services was carried out to evaluate the emergency rescue sheets/response guides.

    The main conclusions are; That statistics regarding vehicle fires need to be improved, as of today the root causes of fires are missing in the data, which could potentially result in non-fact based regulations; The data studied in this work does not imply that fires in electric vehicles are more common than fires in internal combustion engine vehicles; Fires in electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles are similar in regards to the fire intensity and peak heat release rates. 

    The most effective risk reductions measures on vehicle level, to decrease the number of fires in EVs, could not be defined based on that relevant data on the root causes of fires in EVs are currently not publicly accessible. The most effective risk reduction measures, to limit fire spread, on infrastructure level were the use of fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems (early detection) and increased distance between parked vehicles.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Electric Vehicle Fire Safety in Enclosed Spaces
  • 102.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mallin, Tove
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Analysis of combustion gases and fire water run-offs from passenger vehicle fires2023Ingår i: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the IEA Global EV Outlook 2022, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden were reported to have the highest electric car shares of the new car market: 86%, 72% and 43%, respectively. Electrification of the transport sector has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns. Fires in electric vehicles are reported almost daily in the media and social media channels. However, fires starting in an electric vehicle traction battery (i.e., lithium-ion battery) are rare. If the traction battery catches fire, it can be difficult to extinguish since the battery pack in an electric vehicle is generally well protected and difficult to reach. To cool the battery cells, firefighters must prolong the application duration of suppression agent. This results in the use of large amounts of water, that potentially could carry pollutants into the environment. In this work, the analysis of extinguishing water from passenger vehicle fires are reported. Three large-scale vehicle fire tests were performed, the vehicles used were both conventional petrol fuelled and battery electric. Tests were performed indoors at RISE, Borås and the test setup allowed analysis of both combustion gases and extinguishing water. Results show that all analysed extinguishing water was highly contaminated. Additionally, the ecotoxicity analysis of the extinguishing water showed that the extinguishing water was highly toxic towards the tested aquatic species, independent of the traction energy of the vehicle.

  • 103.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Petra
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of combustion gases from large-scale electric vehicle fire tests2023Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 139, artikel-id 103829Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires involving electric vehicles have attracted considerable attention in the media. In particular, the toxic gases released upon combustion of electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries has been a major concern. In this study, the results of six large-scale vehicle fire tests are presented including three electric vehicles, two internal combustion engine vehicles, and one electric vehicle with the battery pack removed. Additionally, separate battery component tests were performed. In two of the vehicle fire tests a sprinkler system was used to assess the effect of water application on the combustion gases. Furthermore, calculations of the heat release rate, peak heat release rate and total heat release were performed, as well as chemical analysis of gas and soot. Peak heat release rate and total heat release were affected by the fire scenario and vehicle model, but not significantly by the type of powertrain. Regarding the combustion gases, hydrogen fluoride represented the largest difference between electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, battery specific metals such as manganese, nickel, cobalt and lithium were found in higher concentrations in the electric vehicle tests than in the internal combustion vehicle tests, in which larger quantities of lead were found.

  • 104.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Investigation of extinguishing water and combustion gases from vehicle fires2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sales of electric vehicles doubled in 2021 compared to the previous year and nearly 10% of the global new-car sales were electric in 2021. In the recent IEA Global EV Outlook 2022, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden were reported to have the highest electric car shares of the new car market: 86%, 72% and 43%, respectively. Electrification of transport has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns. For example, the use of rare metals and their sourcing are concerns from an environmental perspective, the capacity of the electricity network and the limited number of charging stations has been raised as an implementation barrier, and the new fire and explosion risks of batteries have caused concerns amongst users, property owners and rescue services alike society.Fires starting in the traction batteries (lithium-ion battery) are rare but if the battery catches fire, it can be difficult to extinguish since the battery packs are generally well protected and difficult to reach. To cool the battery cells, firefighters must prolong the application duration of suppression agent. This generally results in use of large amounts of water/fire extinguishing agent, which could carry pollutants into the environment.In this work, extinguishing water from three vehicle fires as well as from one battery pack fire has been investigated. Large-scale fire tests were performed with both conventional and electric vehicles. Tests were performed indoors at RISE, Borås, which also allowed analysis of combustion gases for both inorganic and organic pollutants in the gas and liquid phase.It was found that nickel, cobalt, lithium, manganese and hydrogen fluoride appeared in higher concentrations in the effluents from the battery electric vehicle and lithium-ion battery compared to from the internal combustion engine vehicle. However, lead was found in higher concentrations in the effluents from the internal combustion engine vehicle, both in the combustion gases as well as in the extinguishing water. Ecotoxicity analysis showed that extinguishing water from all vehicle and battery fires analysed in this work were toxic against the tested aquatic species.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Investigation of extinguishing water and combustion gases from vehicle fires
  • 105.
    Håkansson, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Durgun, Özüm
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    “None of us was prepared”—Caring for vulnerable people during the heatwave in Sweden in 20182023Ingår i: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 287-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Climate change is increasing the risk for extreme weather events such as heatwaves, including in northern countries like Sweden, which until recent years has had limited experiences of coping with extreme heat. Based on predictions that Sweden will be more frequently exposed to heatwaves in the future, it is imperative to increase the societal resilience and adaptation measures. This paper presents a qualitative interview study involving 19 participants and their experiences of caring for vulnerable people during the heatwave in 2018. The participants represent four different organizations (working directly or indirectly with vulnerable people) in two municipalities in Sweden, including preschools, homes for the elderly, homecare services, and care homes for people with functional impairments, which were all impacted during the heatwave. This study contributes new empirical insights about the heatwave in 2018 and, in particular, similarities and differences in both experiences and adaptation measures across the four organizations. The findings show how both staff and vulnerable people suffered from the consequences of heat which increased vulnerability, how some organizations lacked enough (qualified) staff to secure routines, and that few evaluations and formal changes were done after the heatwave.

  • 106.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Safety at waste and recycling industry: Detection and mitigation of waste fire accidents2022Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 141, s. 271-281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, NASA’s VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) fire hotspots and data of the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB), collected between 2012 and 2018, was integrated to characterize waste fire incidents that were detected by VIIRS and reported to MSB (DaR), detected by VIIRS but not reported to MSB (DbNR) and that are reported to MSB but not detected by VIIRS (RbND). Results show that the average number of open waste fire incidents per million capita per year (AFIPMC) in Sweden, for the period 2012–2018, ranges from 2.4 to 4.7. Although a weak correlation exists (r = 0.44, P = 0.1563, one tailed) between years and number of fire incidents (MSB + VIIRS fires), a continuous increase in number of fire incidents was recorded between 2014 and 2018. It is concluded that the use of satellite data of fire anomalies, in-combination with the use of incident reports, will help in formalizing more reliable and comprehensive waste fire statistics. Another focus area of the article is to consolidate the recommendations and routines for safe storage of waste and biofuels and to present the lessons that can be learnt from past fire incidents. The article also discusses the technical, political, economic, social, and practical aspects of waste fires and provide a baseline for future research and experimentation.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 107.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Branddynamik i oventilerade väg- och järnvägstunnlar2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the fire dynamic conditions in natural ventilated tunnels. A summary of the today’s knowledge about the dynamic fire conditions in nonventilated road or railway tunnel is given. The concept of fire dynamic conditions includes the variation of different parameters in length and height at different ventilation conditions. This primarily applies to parameters such as fire development, heat and smoke gas dispersion, gas temperatures, heat radiation towards objects and surrounding wall construction, flame lengths and sight length and toxic conditions in the smoke gases.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 108.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blom, Joel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brandförsök med ventilationstub i en tunnel: Beteckning: TUSC-rapport 20202020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs genomförande av försök med en ventilationstub i tunnel i reducerad skala (1:3). Försöken är genomförda i en tunnel som byggts av fyra 40 ”fot” stålcontainrar i rad med en total längd på 49 m. Tunneln var öppen i ena ändan och stängd i den andra (stuff). Ventilationstuben var upphängd i taket och kopplad till ett plåtrör som i sin tur var kopplad till en axialfläkt placerad 2 m utanför tunneln. Den totala längden på tuben var 32 m därav 30 m inne i tunneln. Syftet med försöken var att undersöka effektiviteten hos ventilationstuber gjorda av en flamskyddad polyesterväv med PVC-beläggning som utsatts för en brand med flammor underifrån. Tunneln som användes var 2,7 m hög och 2,6 m bred. Diametern på ventilationstuben var 0,6 m. Genom att multiplicera alla längder med 3 så uppnås motsvarande dimensioner i fullskala. Till exempel motsvarar försökstunneln en 147 m lång tunnel med stuff och en ventilationstub på 1,8 m i diameter. Tilluftsflödet i ventilationskanalen var 2,3 m3/s vilket motsvarar 36 m3/s i fullskala. Brandens dimensionerade storlek var 0,8 MW respektive 1,9 MW vilket motsvarar 12 respektive 30 MW i fullskala. Det i sin tur motsvarar brandeffekter från en stor hjullastare och en borrigg [1]. Försöken kombinerade med beräkningar visar att för en 30 MW brand kommer ventilationstuben inom 7 m (på varje sida) att antändas och brinna bort. Tuben kommer att påverkas av brandgaserna genom att den delvis krymper eller smälter och därmed ramlar ner inom 90 m (på varje sida). Alla siffror är uppräknade till fullskala. Beräkningar visar att för en 20 MW brand kommer tuben med 3 m (på varje sida) att antändas och brinna bort. Tuben kommer att påverkas av brandgaserna genom att den delvis krymper eller smälter och därmed ramlar ner inom 60 m (på varje sida). För en 15 MW brand kommer förmodligen enbart tuben ovanför branden att antändas av flamman och brinna bort och tuben kommer att påverkas av brandgaserna inom 40 m (på varje sida). För en 10 MW brand kommer förmodligen enbart tuben ovanför branden att antändas, medan den kommer att påverkas av branden inom 20 m på varje sida. Det är också möjligt att ventilationstuben ovanför flamman smälter utan att den antänds. Alla de beräknade siffrorna är beroende på tunnelhöjden då den påverkar temperaturen inne i tunneln. Ett fortsatt luftflöde genom tuben kommer att inträffa om fläkten är i funktion hela tiden. Om fläkten stängs av under perioden finns det risk för att luftflödet igenom inte kan återupptas. Orsaken till detta är att änden på tuben som brinner av smälter ihop (stängs). En observation från försöken är att om gastemperaturen i taket ligger mellan smälttemperaturen (180 oC) och självantändningstemperaturen (500 oC), kommer tuben i första hand krympa ihop för att sedan även smälta. Det inkluderar även väven i tuben. Tuben kan smälta om temperaturen är hög (över 260 oC för polyesterväven). För temperaturer över 500 oC kommer tuben att brinna bort helt och hållet. Ovan angivna värden är konservativa för de scenarier som beaktas. Flamman som sprids genom tuben har inte inkluderats och därmed kan skadeintervallet vara större än de observerade. Försöken indikerar dock ingen flamspridning i ventilationstuben förutom i det område där flamman finns. Även om försöken är gjorda i skala 1:3 uppfyller de kraven om rimlighet när det gäller geometri, ventilation, brandstorlek och inverkan av branden på ventilationstuben. I skalmodeller kan man inte alltid uppfylla kraven på alla skalparametrar, till exempel strålning, men eftersom den reducerade skalan är så pass stor (1:3) kan vi anta att resultaten representerar väl vad som kan inträffa i en verklig skala. Ett fullskaletest är alltid att föredra men det kräver mycket resurser, speciellt när det gäller brandeffekten som kan bli hög. Istället för att göra försök i skala 1:3 med 1–3 MW, som presenteras i denna rapport, kräver det 10–30 MW i fullskala. Temperaturerna bör dock vara ungefär de samma som i fullskalan och därför bedömer vi att resultaten ger oss ett underlag för att kunna gå vidare för bedömning av resultaten i en fullskalig anläggning. I följande delar av rapporten presenteras bakgrunden till projektet, metoderna, resultaten och de slutsatser som dras.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 109.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Jiang, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire tests with automatic sprinklers in an intermediate scale tunnel2022Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 129, artikel-id 103567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of 1:3 intermediate scale tunnel fire tests was performed to investigate the performance of a fully automatic sprinkler system in a road tunnel. The experiments were carried in a container tunnel with scaled geometry, using wood pallets as the fire source to simulate HGV fires. The activation of the sprinklers was simulated by using thermocouples that corresponded to a given Thermal Response Index (RTI) of a sprinkler bulb or a link. A total of 12 tests were carried out with varying longitudinal velocities (0.8–1.7 m/s), sprinkler activation temperatures (68–141 °C), water densities (2.9–8.7 mm/min) and types of arrangement of the fuel. The activation times, number of activated sprinklers, maximum heat release rates and other key parameters are presented and analyzed. The results show that the water density plays a key role in the performance of the automatic sprinkler systems tested. A high tunnel ventilation velocity, low water density and low sprinkler activation temperature are not recommended. © 2022 The Authors

  • 110.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Nordlöf, Beatrice
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Multifunktionella klimatanpassningsåtgärder -Ansvar, arbetssätt och utmaningar2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Multifunctional climate adaptation measures – Responsibilities, cooperation and challenges Climate adaptation measures within already built-up urban environments is complex, due to several factors. A large number of actors are required for success, but both the responsibility of each actor and the distribution of responsibility between these actors are unclear. Success depends to a large extent on the ability to cooperate between the various actors operating in an area. This project uses interviews, co-production and literature studies to describe the challenges, identify blockages and support the collaboration between the various parties. The project identified uncertainties regarding the laws required to manage climate adaptation measures in built-up urban environments that we needed to address. This resulted in an expansion of the project with a focus on the law around climate risks regarding socially important activities which is presented in Climate adaptation of socially important activities – legal challenges, RISE report 2024:14, ISBN 978-91- 89896-59-8 written by Jenny Lundahl (2024). A newly created collaboration model is presented here focusing on the startup phase. It is supplemented with tips on methods and tools that can facilitate the work, and a description of different ways to sort how to single out responsibilities and where the cost for the measures taken will be localized.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 111.
    Jiang, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Use of mobile fans during tunnel fires2020Ingår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 106, artikel-id 103618Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoke control is a key issue in tunnel fire accidents. While jet fans have been widely used in road tunnels, mobile fans provide a good complement, due to its flexibility to operate, especially if there are no fixed jet fans present. To confirm the feasibility of a mobile fan system, full scale fire tests were conducted in Kalldal tunnel in Sweden, with fire size in the range of 1–2.6 MW and a mobile fan placed at the tunnel portal. In the tests, it takes about 4–5 min to establish full flow in the opposite direction and the final flow velocity can reach 1.5–1.9 m/s. To describe the transient behavior of flow development inside tunnel, a one-dimensional lumped theoretical model has been developed. The model takes into account the pressure losses of external wind, the stack effect of fire and friction losses over tunnel walls and two portals. The model is validated using the data from Kalldal tunnel fire tests. Results show that the model can well predict the initial and final steady state velocity, but underestimates the flow development. The model gives prediction on the safe side.

  • 112.
    Jiang, Lei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Ningbo University, China.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Effect of opening geometries on fire development in a ro-ro space2023Ingår i: Ships and Offshore Structures, ISSN 1744-5302, E-ISSN 1754-212X, s. 272-284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of model scale experiments were conducted to study the fire development in a ro-ro deck with various opening geometries. The experiments were performed in a 1/8 reduced scale model with a heptane pool fire as fire source. Experimental results show that both the ventilation factor and the opening position affect the fire development. The critical opening ratio for the fire to self-extinguish is 4%, with the opening locating at the bottom of the side walls while no self-extinction is found for other tests. A higher opening position and a larger opening height provide better flow exchange between the deck and the ambient, but this effect is only obvious for 4% opening. Numerical study shows that Fire Dynamic Simulator used with default simple settings underestimates the fire development and yields an early extinction when fire self-extinction occurs. For freely developed fire with large openings, FDS gives more close results to experiments.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 113.
    Jiménez-Ruano, A.
    et al.
    University of Zaragoza, Spain; University of Lleida, Spain.
    Mimbrero, M. R.
    University of Zaragoza, Spain; University of Lleida, Spain.
    Urdíroz, F. A.
    University of Lleida, Spain.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Marrs, C.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Ribeiro, L. M.
    Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal.
    Palaiologou, P.
    Agricultural University of Athens, Greece.
    Chuvieco, E.
    University of Alcalá de Henares, Greece.
    Gelabert, P. J.
    University of Lleida, Spain.
    Vega-García, C.
    University of Lleida, Spain.
    Assessing human-caused wildfire ignition likelihood across Europe2023Ingår i: Int. Conf. Smart Sustain. Technol., SpliTech, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire ignition probability is an essential component of most fire risk assessment frameworks. This study, framed within the H2020 project FirEUrisk, features a cohesive modelling approach in a set of representative regions (pilot sites; PS) in terms of fire activity across the European territory. These PS encompass different wildfire regimes in contrasting environmental settings: PS-1 Northern Europe, Kalmar Iän (South-East Sweden); PS-2 Central Europe, Southern Brandenburg and Eastern Saxony (Germany), North Bohemia (Czechia), and Lower Silesia (Poland); PS-3 Central Portugal; PS-4 Barcelona province (Spain); and PS-5 Attica region (Greece). Our main goal was to develop a common approach to model human-caused ignitions at a fine-grained spatial resolution (100 meters). For each pilot site we: (i) ascertain which factors influence ignition, hence, addressing potential differences in driving forces and, (ii) provide a spatial-explicit depiction of the patterns of ignition probability. For that propose, we fitted a Random Forest (RF) model in each PS from historical fire records (compiled by local fire agencies) and geospatial layers for land cover, accessibility, and population related factors. All models attained a high predictive accuracy, with AUCs that ranging from 0.69 (Northern Europe) to 0.89 (Attica Region). In turn, the most relevant explanatory variable was the population density that ranked most influential in four out of the five PS, followed by the fuel type, distance to roads, distance to the WUI, and percent cover of forest and wildlands. These findings are a valuable product to upscale future solutions at regional level (beyond NUTS3-type areas), conduct fire behavior modelling simulations, and enrich the science-based decisions which come from the forest and fire management agents at national and European level. © 2023 University of Split, FESB.

  • 114.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    SMART HOUSING SMÅLAND : Optimizing the fire protection of massive timber structures2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A research project to optimize gypsum protection of CLT or other mass timber materials was performed by RISE. The project included 5 intermediate scale furnace fire tests of CLT protected with a fire rated gypsum board. The pattern of the gypsum screws was varied in the tests to allow for a comparative study. The comparisons indicated that fall-off of gypsum boards can be delayed significantly by changing positions of screws and the spacing between them.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 115.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Nurk, Jane Liise
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Improved fire design model for cross-laminated timber and glulam2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesives state the essential prerequisite for manufacturing large timber construction elements from rigidly bonded solid wood boards of growth and processing bound limited dimensions. In the first two decades after the invention of glulam up to the 1930s, adhesives based on natural organic substances like blood and proteins were used. Such adhesives can have high dry strength but are weak when applying water or temperature. These adhesives were then replaced by synthetic ones, firstly in the early 1930s by (phenol )-resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF/PRF) adhesives and then by urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives. Numerous tests have shown that the boiling water resistant duroplastic RF/PRF adhesives are very stable at high temperatures up to/beyond the charring of wood (Dorn and Egner, 1967; Klippel 2014). Contrary hereto, the UF adhesives later classified in Europe as type II adhesives have significantly reduced water resistance (e.g. Raknes (1997) and are less temperature stable and fire resistant, although the latter was not communicated sufficiently. The RF-, PRF- and UF- adhesives were exclusively used up until the 1980s when the presently existing timber standards for “cold” and fire design were being developed. From the 1980s onwards, adhesives with various chemical compositions have been added to the market. Firstly the duroplastic melamine-urea-formaldehyde and pure melamine formaldehyde (MUF/MF) adhesives, followed in the mid-90s by the moisture-hardening one-component polyurethane (1C-PUR) adhesives, then followed by the emulsion-polymer isocyanate (EPI) adhesives. In order to speed up curing times, being of utmost high economic importance, significant amounts of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) have been added to the hardeners of MUF adhesives with drawbacks on temperature stability. Each of the developed adhesives has its advantages and disadvantages regarding strength, water and/or temperature resistance, application robustness and price. According to EN 1995-1-2:2004, chapter 3.5, the behaviour of a bond line in fire may not be considered explicitly if the bond line is made of phenol-formaldehyde and aminoplastic, Type I adhesives, according to EN 301. Regarding the general principle that adhesives shall produce joints of such strength that the integrity of the bond is maintained in the assigned fire resistance period, a footnote hints at the point that some adhesives show softening considerably below the charring temperature of wood.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 116.
    Kauniste, Maarja
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia; Arro and Agasild Inseneribüroo OÜ, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Tuhkanen, Eero
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Kalamees, Targo
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Assessment on Strength and Stiffness Properties of Aged Structural Timber2024Ingår i: Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering, ISSN 2029-9990, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 62-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the growing popularity of wood and wood-based products in the construction industry, there has been insufficient focus on assessing the condition, preservation, and potential reuse of existing timber. While numerous standards evaluate the quality of freshly sawn timber, there is currently no standardized system for assessing the strength properties of aged and reused timber. The lack of these guidelines is also one of the reasons the results obtained in numerous research are often fluctuating, and we cannot draw clear conclusions. The matter is further complicated by the lack of data on old in-situ wood and its exploitation, which would help to evaluate its condition. Consequently, there is a real practical need to assess the condition of old timber to avoid unnecessary demolition and the loss of valuable and structurally sound building material. What sets this study apart from others is that, in addition to destructive testing, the 4-point non-destructive (ND) bending tests were conducted on all four faces of test specimens. This provided an opportunity to assess the wood visually and then find connections to associate external characteristics with real properties. This methodology aimed to determine whether it is feasible to visually assess the most practical way to use wooden elements in construction. If this question arises, which face of the beam would be better suited for the tension side and which for the compression side? The old timber used in testing originated from an old library building located on Vaksali Street, Tartu, Estonia and is estimated to be about 120 years old. This paper investigates and compares the collected data with a Nordic standard for grading fresh-sawn timber and two established Italian standards for visually assessing aged timber. This comparison contributes to developing a standardized framework for future visual assessments. ND and destructive four-point bending tests were performed to validate and find appropriate visual characteristics to determine the strength and stiffness of the timber elements. The primary goals of this study were first to compare the results obtained from existing ND methods with actual results and secondly to provide guidelines for better visual grading of wood in the future, based on Nordic Standard INSTA 142 (2010) and Italian standards UNI 11119 (2004) and UNI 11035 (2010) Contrary to previous research conclusions, the visual assessment results yielded unexpected outcomes. The results show that the grading standards significantly underestimated the real strength of the wood, and even more, none of the visual assessments overestimated the real strength of the specimens. Therefore, based on prior research and the findings derived from this study, there is evident a substantial potential for extensive development and optimization within this field.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 117.
    Kjølsen Jernæs, Nina
    et al.
    NIKU, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    In the Heat of the Moment: Testing Fire-Protective Covers for Mitigating Damage to Large Historic Inventories2023Ingår i: Studies in Conservation, ISSN 0039-3630, E-ISSN 2047-0584Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s, the Norwegian management for cultural heritage has increased its focus on finding effective solutions for protecting Norway?s wooden cultural heritage from fire damage. The medieval churches in general, including the wooden stave churches, with their interiors and inventories, are of special interest. However, the usefulness of protecting valuable interiors and inventories when fighting fire has been questioned. An experiment was carried out to find manageable solutions for protecting large inventories by using fire covers in case of fire. An experiment using seven commercially available products was conducted by fire fighters to investigate whether these products could protect historic interiors from water and fire. The preliminary results show that it is possible to find manageable, large format covers for the protection of large, immovable historic inventories.

  • 118.
    Kumlin, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mallin, Tove
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Avfallsbränder, emissioner och risker2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 119.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Storm, Artur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Hådell, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Räddningsinsatser med och utan säker tillgång till släckvatten i spårtunnlar2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten avses att utgöra ett stöd för planering och riskbedömning inför och vid räddningsinsatser i spårtunnlar. Rapporten sammanfattar tidigare forskning och kunskap avseende branddynamik i tunnlar, räddningstjänstens förflyttning vid insats, brandsläckning i fordon samt insatshöjande åtgärder i form av såväl bärbar teknik och utrustning som permanenta installationer i tunneln.

    Räddningsinsatser i tunnlar har traditionellt innefattat samtidig slanguppbyggnad, baserat på tolkningen av arbetsmiljöföreskrifterna för rökdykning (AFS 2007:7) samt förfarandet vid rökdykarinsatser vid brand i byggnad. Förhållandena vid bränder i byggnader och vid bränder i tunnlar skiljer väsentligt. I en byggnad är tillgången till säker vattenförsörjning en förutsättning för rökdykarens säkerhet. I en tunnel, där ytskikten är obrännbara, brandgaserna inte ansamlas i ett begränsat utrymme och berget kyler brandgaserna längre bort från branden, är inte alltid tillgången till säker vattenförsörjning det som bäst tillgodoser säkerheten för räddningstjänstens personal när arbetsmoment som inte innefattar släckning genomförs. Detta innebär inte att kraven på säkerhet ska sänkas, utan att andra åtgärder som bibehåller eller höjer säkerhetsnivån behöver vidtas. Sådana åtgärder kan vara utökad användning av värmekamera, utökad övervakning av luftförsörjningen, tekniska installationer som stödjer orientering och vägledning samt utrustning, exempelvis spårbundna räddningstrallor, som medför snabbare förflyttning och minskad luftförbrukning.

    I rapporten föreslås en indelning i fyra zoner, som direkt kopplar till de branddynamiska förhållanden som råder i respektive zon. Förenklat innebär zonindelningen följande:

    • Kall zon – Ingen risk för rökfyllnad. Ingen risk för värmepåverkan från branden.
    • Sval zon – Viss risk för rökfyllnad. Ingen risk för värmepåverkan från branden.
    • Varm zon – Delvis eller helt rökfylld tunnel, men liten risk för värmepåverkan från branden.
    • Het zon – Direkt påverkan från branden. Brand eller risk för brand.

    Till respektive zon kopplas sedan relevanta skyddsnivåer och det arbete som bedöms kunna genomföras beskrivs. I varm zon bedöms arbete kunna genomföras utan tillgång till säkert vatten, utom i de fall syftet med arbetet är att bygga upp vattenförsörjning för senare arbete i het zon. I het zon ska alltid säker tillgång till vattenförsörjning finnas.

    En viktig del av en säker insats i tunnlar, med eller utan säkert vatten, är den kunskap som både den enskilde rökdykaren och de befäl som beslutar om operativa eller strategiska åtgärder behöver besitta. Rapporten ger därför både en vetenskaplig grund för beslut och pekar på indikatorer som kräver övervakning i syfte att säkerställa rökdykarnas arbetsmiljö.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 120.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Johansson, Richard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Förstudie – Provningsmetod fysisk säkerhet för säkerhetskänslig verksamhet2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redovisar resultaten från en förstudie som har genomförts under 2023 inom ramen för CFORT Centrum för fortifikatorisk kompetens. CFORT är en kompetensplattform med syfte att bygga upp och upprätthålla nationell fortifikatorisk kompetens för hela totalförsvarets behov. CFORT drivs i samverkan mellan Fortifikationsverket, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden och Försvarsmakten och där 15 myndigheter finns representerade i plattformens referensgrupp. Förstudien bygger på de resultatet från REINFORCE-projektet, som drivits inom CFORT och i huvudsak finansierats av EU:s fond för inre säkerhet ISF. Inom förstudien har befintliga standarder för fysisk säkerhet studerats och utvärderats med avseende på motståndsförmåga mot mer kvalificerade angrepp. Förstudiens slutsats är att en ny sammanhållen standard för fysisk säkerhet som tar höjd för hoten mot säkerhetskänslig verksamhet bör utformas och upprättas. Rapporten beskriver också övergripande hur en sådan standard och provmetod skulle kunna vara uppbyggd samt vilka utmaningar och möjligheter ett sådant arbete står inför. Slutligen ger rapporten vägledning till och förslag på det fortsatta arbetet.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 121.
    Kvarnlöf, Linda
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Filling the void: Rural disaster volunteerism during the Swedish wildfires of 20182024Ingår i: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 105, artikel-id 104393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the summer of 2018, both fire and rescue services and volunteers fought against the extensive wildfires that spread over the northern parts of Sweden. The challenges were many and one of the most obvious was the lack of resources provided by the state, both material and human. This lack of official resources, together with the long distances that characterize the rural northern parts of Sweden, have been highlighted in subsequent evaluations as one of the main reasons for the widely spread fires. The lack of official resources in itself can be understood as a consequence of several years of dismantling and centralization of the Swedish fire and rescue service. However, the responses from the local community were enormous. Local volunteers, spontaneous as well as organized, assisted in firefighting; in providing food and services; in offering shelter for evacuated, and many other things. In disaster research, volunteer activities have often been described as something that “fills the void” when official resources are scarce. This seems to be particularly true in rural contexts. This paper applies a critical perspective on rural disaster volunteerism by framing it as an expression of rural vulnerability and peripheralization: as something that is performed as a compensatory act in rural communities affected by social dismantling. In other words, both place and politics are central in understanding rural voluntary activity. Inspired by the theoretical concept geographies of voluntarism, this paper argues that people make sense of volunteer initiatives in relation to both the place where these activities take place and in relation to the power relations associated with this place. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore how rural disaster volunteerism intersects with structural conditions of rurality. © 2024 The Authors

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 122.
    Lein Aalberg, Asbjørn
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Holen, Siri Mariane
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Learning from fires in Norway : Preconditions, barriers and enabling factors2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires are devastating events that may harm humans, properties and the environment. Authorities, organisations, companies and societies should be able to learn from fire incidents to reduce the probability and impact of future fires. To achieve a reduction in fires and their consequences, an effort is needed from multiple actors and both technical, organisational and individual changes would be necessary. Importantly, we therefore consider change as a prerequisite for learning. So how can we as a society change or modify our efforts for prevention and mitigation of fires? A learning approach often starts with some form of inquiry about the occurred accidents – an investigation. This investigation can take many forms: the fire services’ own evaluations of the response to a fire, an authority’s assessments of the compliance and fit of their regulations, a company’s analysis of internal rules and organisation, and the police’s investigation of criminal issues. Investigations require highly skilled professionals using often multidisciplinary skills such as knowledge in human behaviour, fire dynamics, electrical systems, mechanical processes and many more. A fire investigator may use many different techniques and tactics, to figure out how the fire started, what fault led to the fire, what made the fire develop the way it did and, also what factors and measures that worked well in the fire. The investigator can work for the fire service, the police, insurance companies, hired private fire investigators or in larger companies, to mention a few. However, not all fires are investigated in Norway, and there is also a large number of incidents that is concluded with an unknown fire cause. The aim of our research has been to increase the society’s capacity to learn from fires. We have two main objectives contributing to the aim: 1. Obtain knowledge on the preconditions for learning from fires in Norway. 2. Provide recommendations to increase learning from fires in Norway. Leading to these main objectives, we shed light on investigations, examinations, databases and routines related to the different actors, and importantly, the actors’ beliefs, collaboration and practices related to fire prevention and learning. The main corpus of material in this study is interviews with actors relevant for learning from fires in Norway. The informants were from the fire service, the police, educational system, insurance, authorities and organisations with interest in fire safety. The interviews were related to themes like cooperation inside and outside the organisation, resources and databases, how the interviewees see the fire investigation area today and how it should be improved. The findings were then divided into the Pentagon model’s five categories: • formal structure • technology and infrastructure • culture • interaction • relations and network The findings from the interviews and the reasons behind them are extensive and are elaborated upon in the report, but the main points are summarised here. Generally, we see clearly that learning from fires is a complex issue. It does not only encompass obtaining the correct technical insights from a fire scene, but also informal aspects like the personal relations and how the fire services are organised. Further, we see that fire investigation in Norway lack both the quality and quantity needed to obtain sufficient knowledge on fires that occur. The approaches, mandates and focus vary greatly with each actor, and this affects the coordination, cooperation, and systematic work of learning from investigations. High variation can also be found in the fire services’ own evaluations of their own fire-fighting efforts, which leads to regionally different methodology and terminology. This has an additional negative impact on the cooperative work even between fire departments. The cooperation is also varying when it comes to the sharing of knowledge which is prevalent between all actors involved in fire investigation. Little cooperation is formalised and therefore most cooperation on investigation and learning, as well as the sharing of knowledge and experiences, are done through individual and personal relations. This is also true inside the fire services where personal experiences and social learning is preferred to more systematic evaluation of fires and formal education. This creates a potential conflict with efforts of standardising work and learning processes. Lastly the lack of resources in preventive work in fire and rescue services and the police, especially in the investigation phase, hinders the possibility to learn effectively from fires and to convey the experiences from them. The difference in status between preventive and preparedness efforts in these public services is still relevant today.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 123.
    Lein Aalberg, Asbjørn
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Holen, Siri Mariane
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    FRIC webinar: LEARNING FROM FIRES IN NORWAY: Preconditions, barriers and enabling factors2022Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
    Ladda ner fulltext (mp4)
    fulltext
  • 124.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Performance of various water-based fire suppression systems in tunnels with longitudinal ventilation2024Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 146, artikel-id 104141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low pressure, medium pressure and high pressure water-based fire suppression systems were tested in a medium scale tunnel (scale 1:3). The primary objective was to investigate which of these systems are most effective in the suppression or control of different types of tunnel fires. The default low, medium and high pressure systems refer to full scale water flow rates of 10 mm/min, 6.8 mm/min and 3.7 mm/min, respectively. Some other water densities were also tested to investigate the effects, as well as different ventilation velocities and activation criteria. Several series of fire tests were conducted for different fire scenarios. The fire scenarios considered included idle wood pallet fires, loosely packed wood crib fires, loosely packed wood and plastic crib fires, and pool fires, with or without a top cover on the fuel load. Comparisons of the three default systems based on the three parameters: heat release rate, energy released and possibility of fire spread, show that the performance of the default low pressure system is usually the most effective based on the parameters studied. The default high pressure system usually yields results less effective in comparison to the default low pressure system. The performance of the default medium pressure system usually lies in between them. The high pressure system behaves very differently in comparison to the others, in terms of tunnel ventilation velocity, water density, operating pressure, and the presence of the top cover. © 2024 The Authors

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 125.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blom, Joel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mechanisms and performance of different fixed fire fighting systems in tunnels – summary of laboratory and tunnel fire tests2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents both small scale laboratory tests and tunnel fire tests carried out in a FORMAS project. Four series of small scale laboratory tests were conducted to obtain the material properties, burning properties, water spray distributions, and spray droplet size distributions. The main efforts were, by adopting the Froude scaling, seven series of tests conducted in a about 50 m long container tunnel with a scale of 1 to 3. This report presents results on the influence of low pressure, medium pressure and high pressure water-based fixed fire fighting systems (FFFSs) on fire development, fire spread to adjacent vehicles, structural protection, tenability, smoke control, spray deflection and spray resistances. The focus is to compare the performance of three default FFFSs and to evaluate the efficiency of each of the FFFS. The results show that the default low pressure FFFS performs well in term of suppressing the fire development, preventing the fire spread to nearby vehicles, providing tenable conditions for evacuation and rescue service, protecting tunnel structure and easing the problem with spray deflection due to tunnel ventilation. The default high pressure FFFS is usually on the opposite side while the default medium pressure FFFS usually lie in between.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 126.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lönnermark, AndersRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.Gehandler, JonatanRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.Ingason, HaukurRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Proceedings from the Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security2023Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication includes the Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Stavanger, Norway, April 26-28, 2023. The Proceedings include 45 papers and 16 posters. The papers were presented in 16 different sessions, i.e., Keynote sessions, Alternative Fuel Vehicle Safety, Risk Management & Explosion, Digitization, Explosion, Poster Corner, Ventilation 1&2, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems, Tenability and Evacuation, Emergency Management, Evacuation, Safety Management, Fire Dynamics and Resistance. Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total five) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Ove Njå (University of Stavanger, Norway), Vladimir Molkov (Ulster University, UK), Ulf Lundström (Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden), Mirjam Nelisse (TNO, The Netherlands), and Gunnar Jenssen (SINTEF, Norway). We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Full text
  • 127.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Svensson, Robert
    Wahlqvist, Jonathan
    Van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Numerical modelling of water sprays and fire suppression in tunnels2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims to validate numerical modelling of water sprays against experiments carried out in this project. The focus has been on the influence of ventilation on water distributions on the tunnel floor, the influence of water sprays on control of smoke flow, and the modelling of pool fires and crib fires. Besides, full scale tunnel fires with FFFS in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation and point extraction ventilation systems are simulated and compared, as well recommendations for numerical modelling of such scenarios.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 128.
    Luu, Tien Duc
    et al.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Zhang, Jingyuan
    NTNU, Norway.
    Gärtner, Jan W.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Meng, Shiqi
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Kronenburg, Andreas
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Løvås, Terese
    NTNU, Norway.
    Stein, Oliver T.
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Single particle conversion of woody biomass using fully-resolved and Euler–Lagrange coarse-graining approaches2024Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 368, artikel-id 131600Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The conversion of woody biomass is studied by means of a layer-based model for thermally-thick biomass particles (Thunman et al. 2002, Ström et al. 2013). The model implementation is successfully validated against experiments that study particle conversion in a drop tube reactor. After this validation step, this work focuses on the well-known problem of grid dependence of two-phase numerical simulations using the standard Euler–Lagrange (EL) framework. This issue is addressed and quantified by comparing EL data that models the particle boundary layers to corresponding simulations which fully resolve these boundary layers (fully-resolved, FR, simulations). A comparison methodology for the conceptually different FR and EL approaches by extracting the heat transfer coefficient from the detailed FR simulations is proposed and confirms that the EL results are strongly grid-dependent. This issue is overcome by applying a set of coarse-graining methods for the EL framework. Two coarse-graining methods are evaluated, a previously suggested diffusion-based method (DBM) and a new approach based on moving averages referred to as MAM. It is shown that both DBM and MAM can successfully recover the detailed FR data for pure particle heating for a case where the grid size is half the particle diameter, i.e. when the standard EL method fails. Both coarse-graining methods also give improved results for an EL simulation that considers the more complex combined physics of particle heating, drying and devolatilisation, given that the CG model parameters that scale the corresponding CG interaction volumes are sufficiently large. Based on the available FR data, recommended model parameter ranges for DBM and MAM are provided as a function of normalised boundary layer thickness. The novel MAM approach is shown to be significantly more efficient than the DBM and therefore suitable for future EL simulations with multiple particles. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 129.
    Lägermo, Caroline
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sokoti, Hasan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lindström, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Forsmark – Laboratory tests in borehole KFM24 : Thermal properties by TPS method and indirect tensile strength tests with strain measurements of intact rock2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The density, thermal and mechanical properties were determined on water-saturated specimens from borehole KFM24 in the Forsmark site investigation area. The rock type was granite to granodiorite (101057). All specimens had a more or less foliated rock structure. The cores were sampled from depths ranging between 65–526 m. The specimens were water-saturated using tap water and all subsequent measurements were conducted at this moisture condition. The density was determined on 25 specimens followed by measuring the thermal properties of 9 pairs of specimens. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity were measured and the volumetric heat capacity was calculated from the thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The testing ended with 21 indirect tensile tests yielding the indirect tensile strength. The strain was measured using strain gauges during the indirect tensile tests. The density at a water-saturated condition was 2648–2694 kg/m3 . Thermal properties were measured at ambient temperature (23°C) and under water-saturated conditions. The determination of the thermal properties is based on a direct measurement method, the so called “Transient Plane Source Method” (TPS). Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity at 23°C were in the range of 3.1–3.8 W/(m, K) and 1.8–2.0 mm2 /s, respectively. The volumetric heat capacity, which was calculated from the thermal conductivity and diffusivity, ranged between 1.8 and 2.3 MJ/(m3 , K). The indirect tensile tests were conducted with the diametrical compression across the foliation planes. The indirect tensile strength was in the range 9.7–16.5 MPa

  • 130.
    McNamee, Margaret
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Göras, Therese
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Aaxel
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Wetterqvist, Cecilia
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Lundh, Karolina
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Challenges and opportunities for reuse of products and materials with fire safety requirements – A Swedish perspective2023Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, artikel-id 103857Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is of great importance to the Swedish economy, but its impact on the climate is significant and the sector accounts for about 40% of Sweden's total energy consumption. The sector also generates a significant share of the total material flows and waste quantities in the society. Thus, due to the large impact of the construction sector, there are great opportunities to contribute positively by reducing the climate impact through change and modernization. There are many activities focused on reducing construction waste in various ways and the issue of material and product reuse has received increasing attention in recent years. However, very little work has focused on products associated with fire safety requirements. This paper provides an overview of research on the reuse of materials and products with a focus on products with fire safety requirements. In addition, it provides a review of the Swedish building legislation and its impact on the possibility of reusing materials and products with fire safety requirements. Finally, possible paths are explored for introducing more large-scale reuse of such materials and products. © 2023 The Authors

  • 131.
    McNamee, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brandspjälkning hos tunnelbetong – Fenomen och testmetoder2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire spalling of concrete is a complex phenomenon with many influencing factors. The concrete mix, geometry and cross section, stress state, fire exposure, age, pre-conditioning, moisture state and the amount of spalling reducing polypropylene fibres added all influences in different ways if a fire exposed concrete structure is prone to spalling or not. During fire testing of concrete structures for tunnels it is in practice difficult to do fire test on real designs with real boundary conditions. Therefore, more or less representative test methods are used. If small test specimens are used, around 600 x 500 x 200 mm3, these tests are in general only indicative and shall mainly be used as “screening tests”, i.e. to optimise the mix before scaling up to more realistic sizes. Further on, the small test specimen size is not suitable for evaluating the fire resistance including heat penetration for longer duration of fire exposure as the geometrical and boundary effects are not representative for larger specimens.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 132.
    McNamee, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    The development of façade fire testing in Sweden2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Façade fire testing has been high on the agenda worldwide due to the increased hazard of many occurrences of severe fire spread on façades. There is also international work going on to create a European standard for façade fire testing. In this context it is interesting to clarify what different national test methodologies are based on. This report is a review of the development that led to the Swedish standard for assessing fire performance of façades, SP Fire 105. The review starts from the development in the 1950s with assessing fire exposure from compartment fires and follows further development until 1990s. The fire exposure in the first edition of SP Fire 105 published 1985 was based on two test campaigns including external flames from room fires performed at Lund University during the late 70-ties and early 80-ties. In the early 90-ties the geometry of the air intake in the combustion chamber and the opening under the test specimen was slightly reduced leading to a lower effective thermal exposure of the façade than in the first edition of SP Fire 105. An important observation done already in the 1950s at the Swedish fire laboratory in Stockholm and in the late 1970s at Lund University was that the wind is influencing the test results when doing experiments outside.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 133.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Car Park Fires: A Review of Fire Incidents, Progress in Research and Future Challenges.2023Ingår i: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, 2023, s. 7-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires in road vehicles are common, but a large part is associated with crashes. Of all vehicle fires registered in the USA between 2013 and 2017, 16% have occurred in a parking area and only a fraction of these involved vehicles parked in car parks. Furthermore, car park fires often involve few cars only and do not lead to fatalities. However, major car park fire incidents in the last years have shown that fires can lead to significant property and environmental damage if the fire can spread to a large enough number of adjacent vehicles. Large-scale experiments conducted in the 2000-10s have shown that it can take between 10 to 20 minutes before a car fire spreads to an adjacent car. Essential factors for the fire development are ventilation conditions within the car park, air supply to the burning car’s interior (i.e., breaking windows), and fuel involvement (i.e., breaking fuel tanks, a thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries or gas releases from pressure release devices). Recent large-scale experiments involving a battery electric vehicle showed fire spreading 5 minutes after the first car was ignited. Thus, early detection and a quick response to the fire are essential to prevent a fire from spreading to multiple cars. Modern cars have become bigger, are thus parked closer to adjacent cars and contain more combustible material, especially plastics. A larger plastic content can increase the fire size of car fires, while an increased share of combustible material on the exterior and a decreased distance between cars may aid a faster fire spread. The increasing share of alternative fuel cars introduces new fire and explosion hazards and poses challenges for extinguishing efforts. However, early detection and quick response time still play an essential role in mitigating the associated risks

  • 134.
    Meraner, Christoph
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    BRAVENT – Storskala branntester (del 2): Effekten av ventilasjonsstrategi på røykspredning og trykkontroll i en mock-up skolebygning2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    BRAVENT – Large-scale fire tests (part 2): The effect of the ventilation strategy on smoke dispersion and pressure control in a mock-up school building In the overall BRAVENT project, the goal is to generate answers and documentation on current issues related to ventilation and fire by examining these with experimental fire tests. The present study aimed to evaluate how different failure mechanisms identified in sub-report 1, "Fire performance for non-fire rated ventilation components" [5], affect the pressure conditions and possible smoke spread in the building. In order to investigate the ventilation system's ability to control pressure balance and smoke spread in the event of a fire, 14 large-scale fire tests with different fuel types were carried out. The tests were conducted in a test building with several rooms representing a classroom, an office and a corridor. The fire tests were designed to investigate relevant fire scenarios for school buildings, but the findings from the tests may also be relevant for other purpose-built buildings. The building was equipped with a full-fledged damper-optimized ventilation system which was sized to serve a total of 450 m2 and thus provide a realistic basis for the fire tests. In sub-report 1, a number of component failures were uncovered when the system was exposed to hot smoke. The failure mechanisms led to the system losing its status and control over the dampers, thus also losing the overview of which air volumes passed through the dampers. The failure of the dampers then led to an imbalance in the ventilation system, also in rooms other than the fire room. In the extreme, this can lead to challenges in connection with escape by making it difficult or impossible to open doors. Smoke spread via the supply air ducts can occur due to smoke backflow if the pressure in the fire compartment exceeds the pressure in the supply air duct. In the experiments, the ventilation system increased to the maximum design airflow rate (Vmax) upon fire detection, and no smoke spread due to backflow of fire smoke in the supply air ducts was observed. It was not tested whether a backflow of smoke could have also been prevented at lower airflow rates than Vmax. Whether the ventilation system maintains sufficiently high pressure in the supply air duct to prevent backflow depends on, among other things, the capacity of the supply air fans, the density of the fire compartment and how quickly the fire develops. The smoke from the fire caused the filter in the unit to gradually clog. In three tests, the filter was clogged so much that the air handling unit could not extract enough air, which created an imbalance in the ventilation system. The new BRAVENT tests show that the size of the fire in relation to the air handling unit's capacity plays an important role in how long the exhaust airflow can be maintained. An air handling unit serving several small fire cells with limited available fuel will be able to maintain the required exhaust air volume longer than an aggregate serving a few large fire cells as the ratio between smoke volume and total air volume changes. Other factors that affect how long the unit can compensate for filter clogging are: • whether the air handling unit is designed for 100% or less simultaneity, i.e. the proportion of rooms that can have the maximum amount of airflow at the same time, • the condition of the filter at the start of the fire, completely new filters were used in each of the fire tests, • whether the ventilation system operates with Vmax or less airflow when a fire alarm is triggered. No smoke spread between the rooms via the exhaust duct was observed. However, since the exhaust airflow rate in one of the tests was significantly reduced to around 50% of the maximum design airflow rate, it is concluded that gradual clogging of the exhaust filter will increase the risk of smoke spreading via the exhaust duct. Clogging of the filters can be avoided by establishing a bypass. Nevertheless, it must then still be documented that all other functions of the ventilation system are safeguarded in the event of a fire. The tests carried out showed that the failure mechanism of some components (measurement errors in dampers, short circuits and clogging of the exhaust filters) can lead to the whole system no longer being able to maintain its function.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 135.
    Meraner, Christoph
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sarp Arsava, Kemal
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brannsikkerhet i naturlig ventilerte parkeringshus2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire safety in naturally ventilated car parks This study investigates fires in car parks, and is financed by the Norwegian Directorate for CivilProtection (DSB) and the Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK).The main objective of the study is to collect knowledge in order to evaluate whether it is safe to reducethe fire resistance of main load-bearing systems in car parks in fire classes 1 and 2 to R 15 A2-s1,d0[incombustible material], provided that more than 1/3 of the wall area is open and that the buildingdesign is such that good ventilation is ensured. Reduced fire resistance is indicated as a pre-acceptedsolution in the guideline to the Regulations on technical requirements for construction works(TEK17).The results of this study indicate that the fire resistance of the load-bearing structures shouldnot be reduced from R30 - R60 to R15, even if the wall surfaces have more than 1/3 open areafraction.Relevant regulations in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland have been surveyed. The followingmain rules apply to load-bearing systems in car parks in these Nordic countries:• Car park with two floors : R 30 – R 60• Car park with three and four floors : R 60• Car park with more than four floors : R 60 – R 90 – R 120In Norway and Sweden, subject to different prerequisites, the fire resistance may be reduced to R 15.In Denmark and Finland, however, the use of R 15 for the load-bearing system in car parks is notallowed. Sweden and Finland require the installation of an automatic sprinkler system if the fireresistance is reduced. This requirement applies to car parks with two floors in Sweden (from R 30 toR 15 with sprinklers) and for car parks with a height above 28 m, which is around eight floors, (fromR 120 A2-s1,d0 to R 90 A2-s1,d0 with sprinklers). Of the four Nordic countries, only Norway uses theopen area fraction in wall surfaces as a basis for reducing the fire resistance.Under the pre-accepted solutions in the guideline to TEK17, car parks with open wall surfaces will inpractice often need to have sprinkler systems, either because each floor is defined as a separate firecell, or because the total gross area in a fire cell with open connection across several floors exceeds800 m2, or because the fire section size demands it. In these cases, the design will be morecommensurable with Sweden, i.e. a reduction in fire resistance, but with the installation of a sprinklersystem.In order to be able to assess the effect of wall surfaces with a different open area fraction, a total of tenfire simulations with different wind conditions (direction and force) were carried out. Two generic carparks, one with 21 % open area fraction and one with 41 % open area fraction, were examined. Thecar parks have one floor and a floor area of 1 797 m2, three «open» sides and one side closed by afirewall.It is emphasized that the CFD simulations and structural analysis involve a number of uncertaintiesand limitations. Absolute values for fire spread and collapse time therefore only provide some2© RISE Research Institutes of Swedenindications and no final answers. The focus is therefore on a comparison of car parks with a differentopen area fraction.In a car park with 41 % open area fraction, i.e. more than 1/3 open wall area, the main load-bearingsystem may under certain conditions be constructed with a fire resistance of minimum R 15 A2-s1,d0[incombustible material]. For a car park with 21 % open area fraction, the fire resistance must beminimum R 30 or R 60 depending on the number of floors.In this study, only one floor was simulated. The fire simulations are based on a simple spreadingmodel and are well suited for a comparative study. Owing to model uncertainty, spreading progresscannot be directly used for the analysis of other car parks.The fire simulations have shown that a larger open area fraction, and thus better ventilation, can limitthe extent of fire spread, i.e. the number of cars to which the fire spreads.The difference between a closed (less than 1/3 open area fraction) and an open (more than 1/3 openarea fraction) car park in terms of the number of cars that are burning, is most visible after 40 minutes– 60 minutes, when the fire has reached a certain size. This is because the difference in the time ittakes the fire to spread between cars is accumulated over time, and because the ventilation conditionsassume greater importance when the fire becomes so large as to make it ventilation controlled.For very high wind velocities (e.g. 11 m/s), the open area fraction plays a smaller role, since this leadsto good ventilation also when the open area fraction is lower (21 % in this study).Increased ventilation and thus increased wind velocity in car parks, leads to the fire spreading faster inthe wind direction, downstream of cars that are already burning. This is because the fire and smoke aredriven to one side, and thus closer to adjacent cars. In major fires, increased ventilation will also givethe fire increased access to oxygen.A faster spread of fire in the wind direction may result in more cars burning simultaneously, comparedwith a more closed car park, where the flow rate is lower. Several cars burning simultaneously maycause greater thermal stress on the support system, and potentially an earlier collapse of the structure.The extent of stress will depend significantly on the wind direction, layout of the car park, location ofthe fire start relative to the location of other cars, and so on.A simplified structural analysis showed that an increased open area fraction both entails a positive anda negative effect on the structure’s load-bearing ability in a fire, depending on whether windconditions are favorable or not.Regardless of wind conditions, the structural analysis showed that expanding the open area fractionfrom 21 % (i.e. less than 1/3) to 41 % (more than 1/3), has a smaller effect on the collapse time thanreducing the fire resistance from R 30 to R 15. The difference is even more pronounced in a reductionfrom R 60 to R 15. By using R 60 none of the beams collapsed. The results of this study indicatetherefore that the fire resistance for load-bearing structures should not be reduced even if the wallsurfaces have more than 1/3 open area fraction.For all the fire simulations visibility conditions were examined after 15 minutes. For very low or veryhigh wind velocities little difference in visibility conditions is expected, depending on the open areafraction. At moderate wind velocities, statistically the most common, it turned out

    In what way open wall surfaces impact a car park fire is highly dependent on the fire scenario andwind conditions. These two factors cannot be controlled. Dimensioning the fire resistance to the mainload-bearing system in a car park based on the open area fraction of wall surfaces (more than 1/3 ofthe area) is therefore considered unreliable. Open wall surfaces contribute in some cases to improvingvisibility conditions in car parks, which may extend the available escape time. For this reason, openwall constructions are nevertheless considered advantageous.This study did not examine the effect of sprinkler systems in combination with a reduction in fireresistance, such as is allowed in Sweden. Nevertheless, a sprinkler system, which is little affected bywind conditions, is generally considered better suited as a compensatory measure if the fire resistanceis reduced.It is, therefore, our recommendation that the possibility of reducing the fire resistance in open carparks in fire classes 1 and 2 be reconsidered. This option should be considered removed, or othercriteria could be employed to reduce the fire resistance, such as e.g. sprinkler systems (as in Sweden).Sprinkler systems are considered better suited as a compensatory measure if the fire resistance isreduced.As a basis for such reassessment experiments (fire tests) should be carried out. This is becauseCFD simulations have some limitations, especially regarding the interaction between sprinkler/dropsof water and solid fuel.In addition to the wall design, other factors may also impact the spread of fire, such as e.g. ceilingheight, the design of the floor slab, and the distance between cars. These factors were not examined inthis study. E.g., simulations show that a ribbed floor slab (floor slab with underlaying beams) mayhave a large impact on local flow conditions and thus the spread of fire. To examine these parametersit is recommended that the existing fire spreading model be used, and if relevant validated throughexperimental research.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 136.
    Meraner, Christoph
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sarp Arsava, Kemal
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    On the effect of ventilation conditions in naturally ventilated car parks on fire safety2023Ingår i: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023, s. 240-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventilation conditions are an essential factor in the development of car park fires. This study investigates if larger open wall areas can affect fires in naturally ventilated car parks such that a reduction of the fire resistance of the main load-bearing system is warranted. A set of ten fire simulations with different wind conditions (direction and force) were carried out. Two generic car parks were examined, one with a 21 % open area fraction and one with a 41 % open area fraction. A simplified structural analysis for all scenarios was, furthermore, conducted to investigate the effect of different open area fractions on the collapse time of individual steel beams. The results of this study indicate that the fire resistance of the main load-bearing structure should not be reduced from R30 or R60 to R15, even if the wall surfaces have a larger open area fraction.

  • 137.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    et al.
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Colic, Antonela
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Morrisset, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Mindeguia, Jean-Christophe
    University of Bordeaux, France.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    University of Liège, Belgium.
    Zehfuss, Jochen
    IBMB, Germany.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Bisby, Luke
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE PROTECTION OF CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER DURING STANDARD FURNACE TESTS AND NATURAL FIRES2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign designed to compare and understand the performance of passive protection under exposure to standard furnace tests and natural fires. As part of this campaign, five natural fire experiments were performed with partially protected cross-laminated timber (CLT) compartments under a range of ventilation conditions. In all the tests, only one side wall was left completely unprotected, and all other timber surfaces were protected with either two layers of 18 mm standard gypsum boards (GB) or two layers of 25 mm standard GBs. The structural CLT ceilings were subjected to a superimposed dead load of 1.35 kN/m² during the natural fire tests, and the fire load was (on average) 950 MJ/m²; chosen to represent the Eurocode 1991-1-2 characteristic value for dwellings. The performance of the passive protection was mainly evaluated with regards to the time to reach a protected timber surface temperature of 250°C. The testing confirms that the resulting fire protection performance of a given gypsum board layout depends on the ventilation conditions of the fire compartment, with more severe (and closest to ISO testing) outcomes when testing under ventilation-controlled scenarios. This paper provides data that sheds light on the co-dependency of the passive protection design and compartment fire dynamics and underlines the importance of considering the safety objectives of a building when defining the performance criteria of its structural elements.

  • 138.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Wikner, Alfred (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Masonite Beams, Sweden.
    Improved fire design model for walls and floors with I-joists2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wooden I-joists, being factory-made ultra-light and highly optimised products, are typically used as the load-bearing elements in timber frame assemblies (TFA), which consist of a combination of material layers – sheeting boards (claddings) and cavities which may be partially or completely filled with insulation. The materials used in conjunction with a timber member in a TFA affect the heating of the timber member. The joists consist of flanges (made of sawn wood, LVL or glulam) and a web (made of a wood - based board). Fire resistance of such wooden structural products is a complex matter. However, the current European design standard for timber structures in fire – Eurocode 5 Part 1-2 (2004) provides no guidance for I-joists. The fire resistance of wooden I-joists has been previously investigated by König (2006) and Schmid et al. (2011), who developed calculation models to analyse the load-bearing capacity of wooden I-joists exposed to fire for floors. There have been significant changes in the variety and types of materials used in conjunction with I-joists. Therefore, the application of these models is limited nowadays. Additionally, they focus on the reduced properties method. Only the effective cross-section method will be included in the revised Eurocode 5 Part 1-2. This report describes the unified model for wooden I-joists in both wall and floor assemblies which follows the philosophy of the effective cross-section method. Additionally, it should be used with all types of cavity insulation and fire protection systems. The unified I-joists model aims to be introduced to the new revised Eurocode 5 Part 1-2. Two phenomena have to be considered according to the ECSM: charring and mechanical resistance. It is assumed that the charring of wood is a material characteristic which is not dependent on the orientation of the structure (wall or floor). The charring of the flanges is primarily dependent on the cladding material and thickness. After the failure of the claddings, the charring is influenced by cavity insulation. Gypsum plasterboards as cladding and stone and glass wool as cavity insulation have been tested and analysed. A large number of thermal simulations have been analysed to investigate the influence of various factors (e.g. flange size, cavity insulation material, protective boards) on the charring behaviour of the fire-exposed flange and the web. The combination of different materials and the slender nature of I-joists makes their fire resistance a complicated issue. The thin web is very sensitive to elevated temperatures and charring. Additionally, adhesives used in finger joints in the flanges and the joint between the flanges and the web influences the load-bearing capacity. The loss of strength and stiffness were seen in wood at elevated temperatures is considered in the ECSM by a zero-strength layer. The zero-strength layer (ZSL) is an additional reduction of the cross-section to compensate for the decrease in strength and stiffness properties. The development of the expressions to calculate the ZSL depths for compression elements is discussed in this paper.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 139.
    Nadjai, Ali
    et al.
    University of Ulster, Ireland.
    Alam, Naveed
    FireSERT, Ireland.
    Charlier, Mariaon
    Arcelormittal Global RD, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Olivier
    ArcelorMittal Inc, Luxembourg.
    Dai, Xu
    University of Edinburgh, UK; NIST, USA.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Universite de Liege, Belgium.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Travelling fire in full scale experimental building subjected to open ventilation conditions2023Ingår i: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, ISSN 2040-2317, E-ISSN 2040-2325, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 149-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In the frame of the European RFCS TRAFIR project, three large compartment fire tests involving steel structure were conducted by Ulster University, aiming at understanding in which conditions a travelling fire develops, as well as how it behaves and impacts the surrounding structure. Design/methodology/approach: During the experimental programme, the path and geometry of the travelling fire was studied and temperatures, heat fluxes and spread rates were measured. Influence of the travelling fire on the structural elements was also monitored during the travelling fire tests. Findings: This paper provides details related to the influence of travelling fires on a central structural steel column. Originality/value: The experimental data are presented in terms of the gas temperatures recorded in the test compartment near the column, as well as the temperatures recorded in the steel column at different levels. Because of the large data, only fire test one results are discussed in this paper.

  • 140.
    Nadjai, Ali
    et al.
    Ulster University, UK.
    Naveed, Alam
    Ulster University, UK.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Vassart, Olivier
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Welsh, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Glorieux, Antoine
    ArcelorMittal, Luxembourg.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Large scale fire test: The development of a travelling fire in open ventilation conditions and its influence on the surrounding steel structure2022Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 130, artikel-id 103575Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the frame of the European RFCS-TRAFIR project, natural fire tests in large compartment were conducted by Ulster University, involving steel structure and aiming at understanding the conditions in which a travelling fire develops, how it behaves and impacts the surrounding structure. During the experimental programme, the path and geometry of the travelling fire was studied and temperatures, heat fluxes and spread rates were measured. The experimental data is presented in terms of gas temperatures recorded in the test compartment at different positions and levels. The influence of the travelling fire on the surround structure is presented in terms of the temperatures recorded in the selected steel columns and beams. The temperatures in the test compartment were dependent on the positioning of the travelling fire band as well as the height from the floor level. The non-uniform temperatures in the compartment lead to transient heating of the nearby structural steel elements, resulting in a reduction of their resistance which may influence the global structural stability. The results obtained will help to understand the behaviour of travelling fires and their influence on the structural members. This knowledge will help to reduce the travelling fire associated risks in future. 

  • 141.
    Olofsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Millgård, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Gregersson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    ReliS – Reliable Sprinkler : Förstudie som samlar in kunskap gällande tillförlitlighet av drenchersystem i rorolastutrymme.2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    ReliS – Reliable Sprinkler, är en förstudie som undersökt sprinklersystem (gruppaktiveringssystem) i rorolastutrymmen på rorofartyg, även kallade drenchersystem. Det övergripande målet med projektet var att ta fram förslag på tekniska och operativa förbättringar, för att undvika felfunktion och göra systemen mer tillförlitliga. Den huvudsakliga funktionen för ett drenchersystem är densamma som för ett delugesystem: när en deluge sektion är aktiverad ska vatten tömmas ut från alla öppna munstycken i deluge ("drencher") sektionen. Dessa fyra tillvägagångssätt för att samla in kunskap och erfarenhet om drenchersystemen användes i studien: - Litteraturstudie för att granska föreskrifter och andra vägledande dokument för drenchersystemet. - Intervjustudie för att få förståelse för goda exempel, frågeställningar, skeppsspecifika applikationer m.m. - Fältstudie för att undersöka systeminstallationen tillsammans med besättningsrepresentanter ombord och för att delta i flödestester av drenchersystem. - Systemgruppsworkshops efter en strukturerad metod för att hitta innovativa lösningar. De framtagna förslagen till förbättringar av drenchersystemens tekniska och operativa design utvecklades under Workshop #3 av Systemgruppen. Idéerna Rörmaterial och Undvik havsvatten vid testning valdes för att vidareutveckla. Användningen av havsvatten ökar korrosionshastigheten i stålrörssystem. Vattnets salthalt har också en effekt på korrosionshastigheten. För de fartyg som ingick i denna förstudie var det skillnad mellan besättningarnas upplevelse av igensatta munstycken och korrosion om fartyget trafikerade den svenska västkusten eller östkusten. Besättningsmedlemmar på fartyg som trafikerar östkusten, som har lägre salthalt i vattnet, verkade inte ha erfarenhet av igensatta munstycken och korrosion i samma utsträckning som de på fartygen som trafikerar västkusten. Besättningsmedlemmar på fartyg som trafikerade östkusten var mer oroade över att uppfylla kraven och att faktiskt dämpa en brand, vilket också var en uttryckt oro från de intervjuade inspektörerna. Problem med intern korrosion i rör är inte unikt för drenchersystem på fartyg, det är även problematiskt för landbaserade applikationer, som i vägtunnlar och i byggnader. Resultatet av projektet kommuniceras direkt till sjöfartsnäringen via de referens- och systemgrupper som upprättats för projektet samt till Transportstyrelsen för vidare anmälan till IMO för utveckling av säkerhetsregler för fartyg.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 142.
    Olofsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Millgård, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Gregersson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technologty, Sweden.
    ReliS – Reliable Sprinkler. Förstudie som samlar in kunskap gällande tillförlitlighet av drenchersystem i rorolastutrymme.2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    ReliS – Reliable Sprinkler, är en förstudie som undersökt sprinklersystem (gruppaktiveringssystem) i rorolastutrymmen på rorofartyg, även kallade drenchersystem. Det övergripande målet med projektet var att ta fram förslag på tekniska och operativa förbättringar, för att undvika felfunktion och göra systemen mer tillförlitliga. Den huvudsakliga funktionen för ett drenchersystem är densamma som för ett delugesystem: när en deluge sektion är aktiverad ska vatten tömmas ut från alla öppna munstycken i deluge ("drencher") sektionen. Dessa fyra tillvägagångssätt för att samla in kunskap och erfarenhet om drenchersystemen användes i studien: - Litteraturstudie för att granska föreskrifter och andra vägledande dokument för drenchersystemet. - Intervjustudie för att få förståelse för goda exempel, frågeställningar, skeppsspecifika applikationer m.m. - Fältstudie för att undersöka systeminstallationen tillsammans med besättningsrepresentanter ombord och för att delta i flödestester av drenchersystem. - Systemgruppsworkshops efter en strukturerad metod för att hitta innovativa lösningar. De framtagna förslagen till förbättringar av drenchersystemens tekniska och operativa design utvecklades under Workshop #3 av Systemgruppen. Idéerna Rörmaterial och Undvik havsvatten vid testning valdes för att vidareutveckla. Användningen av havsvatten ökar korrosionshastigheten i stålrörssystem. Vattnets salthalt har också en effekt på korrosionshastigheten. För de fartyg som ingick i denna förstudie var det skillnad mellan besättningarnas upplevelse av igensatta munstycken och korrosion om fartyget trafikerade den svenska västkusten eller östkusten. Besättningsmedlemmar på fartyg som trafikerar östkusten, som har lägre salthalt i vattnet, verkade inte ha erfarenhet av igensatta munstycken och korrosion i samma utsträckning som de på fartygen som trafikerar västkusten. Besättningsmedlemmar på fartyg som trafikerade östkusten var mer oroade över att uppfylla kraven och att faktiskt dämpa en brand, vilket också var en uttryckt oro från de intervjuade inspektörerna. Problem med intern korrosion i rör är inte unikt för drenchersystem på fartyg, det är även problematiskt för landbaserade applikationer, som i vägtunnlar och i byggnader. Resultatet av projektet kommuniceras direkt till sjöfartsnäringen via de referens- och systemgrupper som upprättats för projektet samt till Transportstyrelsen för vidare anmälan till IMO för utveckling av säkerhetsregler för fartyg.

  • 143.
    Olofsson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Wikner, Alfred (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Masonite Beams, Sweden.
    Loaded fire tests with I-joists2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the tests was to evaluate the potential reduction of the moment capacity of I-joists caused by bondline integrity of the finger joints. Each I-joist was made with 11 different adhesives in the finger joints in tension flange. All the adhesives were from Firenwood selection. Finger joints in tension may show a lower load-bearing capacity in the fire situation depending of the bond line integrity in fire. I-joists were loaded in bending with the tension flange being closer to the fire. I-joists were protected with gypsum plasterboard during the entire fire test. Cavities of the test assembly were filled with stone wool.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 144.
    Olofsson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Model scale fire tests with cross-laminated timber2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the fire tests presented in this report was to measure the mass loss and the charring depth of CLT (cross-laminated timber) elements with different types of adhesives when exposed to fire from below. CLT elements may heat delaminate when exposed to heat. If this occurs, it depends, among other things, on the temperature of the adhesive and on the adhesive’s ability to retain its adhesive properties. Eleven adhesives are used in FIRENWOOD project in order to compare properties in fire. Adhesives originate from four different chemical backgrounds and represent the state of the art of adhesives used in timber structures. Adhesives are manufactured by 4 leading European adhesive manufacturers, and all 11 adhesives have passed requirements in European standards for load-bearing timber structures. Adhesives are marked with numbers 1 to 12 (adhesive no 10 is not included in this Work Package). Not all adhesives were tested for this method and is therefore not presented in the results.However, some additional adhesives were used in the tests presented in this report and are marked 21, 22, 23 and 24. The same numbers are used for all adhesives in all tests throughout FIRENWOOD project.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 145.
    Olofsson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Persson, Tommy (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Masonite Beams, Sweden.
    Wikner, Alfred (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Masonite Beams, Sweden.
    Large-scale fire tests of engineered wood systems2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the four large-scale fire tests performed within the FIRENWOOD project. The aim of the tests was to verify the improved fire design models for the I-joists and crosslaminated timber. The results of the loaded floor test with cross-laminated timber were also compared with results from an unloaded model-scale test with similar lamella thicknesses and adhesive. The aim of the compartment fire test was to study the behaviour of I-joists in physically based fire compared to the behaviour in standard fire. The second aim was to compare the fire behaviour of the compartment made of timber frame assemblies with I-joists and the previously performed similar compartments made with CLT. All large-scale tests reported here were performed with engineered wood structures using adhesive No.9

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 146.
    Otxoterena Af Drake, Paul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Sven
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Two Dimensional Measurements of Soot Size and Concentration in Diesel Flames by Laser Based Optical Methods2022Ingår i: SAE Technical Paper Issue 202229 March 2022, SAE International , 2022, nr 2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soot particle size, particle concentration and volume fraction were measured by laser based methods in optically dense, highly turbulent combusting diesel sprays under engine-like conditions. Experiments were done in the Chalmers High Pressure, High Temperature spray rig under isobaric conditions and combusting commercial diesel fuel. Laser Induced Incandescence (LII), Elastic Scattering and Light Extinction were combined quasi-simultaneously to quantify particle characteristics spatially resolved in the middle plane of a combusting spray at two instants after the start of combustion. The influence that fuel injection pressure, gas temperature and gas pressure exert on particle size, particle concentration and volume fraction were studied. Probability density functions of particle size and two-dimensional images of particle diameter, particle concentration and volume fraction concerning instantaneous single-shot cases and average measurements are presented. High injection pressure led to a reduction in the mean particle size, total number of particles and total amount of soot compared to a low injection pressure. Higher gas pressure resulted in larger amount of soot and larger soot particle size, with higher gas temperature having similar effects. 

  • 147.
    Otxoterena Af Drake, Paul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Measurements of droplet size and velocity for three selected nozzles2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sprays produced by injecting water into quiescent air by three different types of nozzles were characterised by optical methods. The droplet velocities and droplet size distributions were assessed by the use of high speed shadowgraphs.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 148.
    Palm, Anders
    et al.
    Greater Stockholm Fire Brigade, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Storm, Artur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Breathing air consumption during different firefighting methods in underground mining environment2022Ingår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 133, artikel-id 103661Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses the breathing air consumption among participating firefighters during full-scale tests performed in the Tistbrottet mine in Sweden 2013. The availability of breathing air during firefighting has in earlier work been identified as a critical tactical factor in underground firefighting. Results from the tests show that there are differences in the breathing air consumption and that this depends on the methods used, equipment and the workload. The use of BA-teams, i.e. firefighters equipped with breathing apparatuses, is a complex group activity where the largest breathing air consumer will set the limits for the whole team. Light equipment and a structured command and control during the activities will enhance the endurance and the firefighting performance. Equipment and methods affect both firefighting performance and the durability of the firefighting activities. Examples of tested methods and equipment during the test series are: different variations of conventional hose lay-out; CAFS; cutting extinguisher; and trolley for equipment and complementary air. The aid of additional air supply and the use of trolleys will support the activities but is dependent on a large degree of preparation and training to function properly. Based on the tests, it is concluded that the larger model of air bottles should be considered for distances longer than 75 m. © 2022 The Authors

  • 149.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Silo fire guideline 13 measures and 4 warnings2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a guideline about silo fires, based on the handbook “Silo Fires”. The guideline summarizes 13 measures and decisions needed in connection with a suspected or confirmed silo fire and 4 warnings on what to avoid.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 150.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Veileder silobrann 13 tiltak og 4 advarsler2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a guideline about silo fires, based on the handbook “Silo Fires”. The guideline summarizes 13 measures and decisions needed in connection with a suspected or confirmed silo fire and 4 warnings on what to avoid.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
12345 101 - 150 av 219
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf