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  • 101.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Particles from fire: Evaluation of the particulate fraction in fire effluents using the cone calorimeter2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 102.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Particles from fires – a screening over common materials found in buildings2003Inngår i: Fire and Materials, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 295-314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 103.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Låstbom, Lena
    IMM.
    Impact of HCl and PVC-smoke on isolated and perfused guinea pig lungs2006Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 104.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Reconstruction of an arson hospital fire2007Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 225-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 105.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Measurement and simulation of fire smoke BRANDFORSK PROJEKT 702-041 0312005Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 106.
    Hjohlman, Maria
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Fire Safety Engineering of textile buildings following the prescriptive requirements in Sweden2010Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 107. Holmstedt, Göran
    et al.
    van Hees, Patrick
    Yan, Z.
    Bengtson, Staffan
    Dittmer, T.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Validation of CFD codes2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of CFD (computional fluid dynamics) software packages within fire performance based engineering and risk assessment is increasing substantially. An important part in the process is the quality assurance. For this reason the Swedish Rescue Services Agency (SRV) sponsored a unique research project. Within the project different codes for smoke spread and evacuation have been evaluated. This poster will focus on the evaluation of four CFD software codes.

  • 108. Holmstedt, Göran
    et al.
    van Hees, Patrick
    Yan, Zhenghua
    Bengtson, Staffan
    Hägglund, Bengt
    Dittmer, Torkel
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Determination of uncertainty of different CFD codes by means of comparison with experimental fire scenarios2009Inngår i: Proceedings of Fire and Materials 2009, 2009, , s. 403-411Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 109.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Petra
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of combustion gases from large-scale electric vehicle fire tests2023Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 139, artikkel-id 103829Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires involving electric vehicles have attracted considerable attention in the media. In particular, the toxic gases released upon combustion of electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries has been a major concern. In this study, the results of six large-scale vehicle fire tests are presented including three electric vehicles, two internal combustion engine vehicles, and one electric vehicle with the battery pack removed. Additionally, separate battery component tests were performed. In two of the vehicle fire tests a sprinkler system was used to assess the effect of water application on the combustion gases. Furthermore, calculations of the heat release rate, peak heat release rate and total heat release were performed, as well as chemical analysis of gas and soot. Peak heat release rate and total heat release were affected by the fire scenario and vehicle model, but not significantly by the type of powertrain. Regarding the combustion gases, hydrogen fluoride represented the largest difference between electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Additionally, battery specific metals such as manganese, nickel, cobalt and lithium were found in higher concentrations in the electric vehicle tests than in the internal combustion vehicle tests, in which larger quantities of lead were found.

  • 110.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Investigation of extinguishing water and combustion gases from vehicle fires2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sales of electric vehicles doubled in 2021 compared to the previous year and nearly 10% of the global new-car sales were electric in 2021. In the recent IEA Global EV Outlook 2022, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden were reported to have the highest electric car shares of the new car market: 86%, 72% and 43%, respectively. Electrification of transport has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns. For example, the use of rare metals and their sourcing are concerns from an environmental perspective, the capacity of the electricity network and the limited number of charging stations has been raised as an implementation barrier, and the new fire and explosion risks of batteries have caused concerns amongst users, property owners and rescue services alike society.Fires starting in the traction batteries (lithium-ion battery) are rare but if the battery catches fire, it can be difficult to extinguish since the battery packs are generally well protected and difficult to reach. To cool the battery cells, firefighters must prolong the application duration of suppression agent. This generally results in use of large amounts of water/fire extinguishing agent, which could carry pollutants into the environment.In this work, extinguishing water from three vehicle fires as well as from one battery pack fire has been investigated. Large-scale fire tests were performed with both conventional and electric vehicles. Tests were performed indoors at RISE, Borås, which also allowed analysis of combustion gases for both inorganic and organic pollutants in the gas and liquid phase.It was found that nickel, cobalt, lithium, manganese and hydrogen fluoride appeared in higher concentrations in the effluents from the battery electric vehicle and lithium-ion battery compared to from the internal combustion engine vehicle. However, lead was found in higher concentrations in the effluents from the internal combustion engine vehicle, both in the combustion gases as well as in the extinguishing water. Ecotoxicity analysis showed that extinguishing water from all vehicle and battery fires analysed in this work were toxic against the tested aquatic species.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Investigation of extinguishing water and combustion gases from vehicle fires
  • 111.
    Johansson, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Anlagd brand 1998-2007 - Statistik och analys2008Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 112.
    Khalili, Pooria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blinzler, Brina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kádár, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Flammability, smoke, mechanical behaviours and morphology of flame retarded natural fibre/Elium® composite2019Inngår i: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikkel-id 2648Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The work involves fabrication of natural fibre/Elium® composites using resin infusion technique. The jute fabrics were treated using phosphorus-carbon based flame retardant (FR) agent, a phosphonate solution and graphene nano-platelet (GnP), followed by resin infusion, to produce FR and graphene-based composites. The properties of these composites were compared with those of the Control (jute fabric/Elium®). As obtained from the cone calorimeter and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the peak heat release rate reduced significantly after the FR and GnP treatments of fabrics whereas total smoke release and quantity of carbon monoxide increased with the incorporation of FR. The addition of GnP had almost no effect on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide yield. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated that coating jute fabrics with GnP particles led to an enhanced glass transition temperature by 14%. Scanning electron microscopy showed fibre pull-out locations in the tensile fracture surface of the laminates after incorporation of both fillers, which resulted in reduced tensile properties. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 113.
    Khalili, Pooria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blinzler, Brina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kádár, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Liu, Xiaoling
    University of Nottingham Ningbo China, China.
    Ramie fabric Elium® composites with flame retardant coating: Flammability, smoke, viscoelastic and mechanical properties2020Inngår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 137, artikkel-id 105986Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation studied the utilization of intumescent thermal resistive mats to provide surface protection to the core natural fibre-reinforced Elium® composite structural integrity. The intumescent mats contained flame retardant (FR) i.e. expandable graphite (EG) with four different expansion ratios and alumina trihydrate (ATH). All natural fibre thermoplastic composites were fabricated using a resin infusion technique. The impact of char thickness and chemical compositions on the flammability and smoke properties was investigated. It was found that surface protection significantly reduced the peak heat release rate, total smoke release, smoke extinction area and CO2 yield, and substantially enhanced UL-94 rating, time to ignition and residual char network, depending on the EG exfoliation ratio, ATH and mineral wool fibre. The glass transition temperature increased for the FR composites containing EG with lower expansion ratio. Inclusion of intumescent mats increased the strength of the composites while it had a negative effect on the modulus. 

  • 114. Koppejan, Jaap
    et al.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Arshadi, Mehrdad
    Valencia-Reyes, Elizabeth
    Melin, Staffan
    Howes, Pat
    Wheeler, Patrick
    Baxter, David
    Nikolaisen, Lars
    Health and Safety Aspects of Solid Biomass Storage, Transportation and Feeding2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 115. Krämer, Roland
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Fire behaviour of plastics for electrical applications2007Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 116. Krämer, Roland
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Van Hees, Patrick
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Gädde, U. W.
    On the intumescence of ethylene-acrylate copolymers blended with chalk and silicone2007Inngår i: Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 92, nr 10, s. 1899-1910Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 117.
    Kumlin, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mallin, Tove
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Avfallsbränder, emissioner och risker2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 118.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Loren, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Mellander, Bengt Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests2014Inngår i: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 271, nr Dec, s. 414-420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh -1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  • 119.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Undergoing Abuse from External Fire2016Inngår i: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2016, 2016, s. 253-256Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 120.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Mellander, Bengt-Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, nr 1, artikkel-id 10018Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-ion battery fires generate intense heat and considerable amounts of gas and smoke. Although the emission of toxic gases can be a larger threat than the heat, the knowledge of such emissions is limited. This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven different types of commercial lithium-ion batteries. The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF3), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 121.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Medium-scale reference tests and calculations of spontaneous ignition in wood pellets - the LUBA project2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 122.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Measurement of self‐heatingpotential of biomass pellets with isothermal calorimetry2017Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 41, nr 8, s. 1007-1015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess the risk for spontaneous combustion of biomass pellets during storage it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating, i.e. to determine the reactivity. 

    This article presents the results from isothermal calorimetry tests performed on 31 different biomass pellet batches. The purpose of the tests has been to characterize pellets by measuring the reactivity and investigate how the pellet composition influences the heat release rate and thereby the self-heating potential of pellets. 

    The results from the tests clearly indicate that there is a significant difference in reactivity between different types of pellets. The tested high reactive pellet batches reached maximum specific heat release rates (HRRmax) of 0.61-1.06 mW/g while pellet batches with low reactivity showed HRRmax of 0.05-0.18 mW/g. The tested batches were primarily ranked based on HRRmax but an alternative ranking based on specific total heat release rate during the test period was also used for comparison. 

    The test results also indicate that pine/spruce mix pellets are significantly more reactive than all other types of pellets tested and that pellets consisting of 100 % pine are more reactive than pellets consisting of 100 % spruce. Pellets produced from wine pruning/grape pomace (winery wastes), straw or eucalyptus are not very reactive compared to pellets consisting of pine/spruce. 

    The results also show that the reactivity of the pellets can be reduced by either introducing certain kinds of anti-oxidants into the pellets or by extracting lipids from the raw material of pellets.

  • 123.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Bohlén, Haleh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Development of a screening test based on isothermal calorimetry for determination of self-heating potential of biomass pellets2017Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 41, nr 8, s. 940-952Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For the risk for spontaneous combustion in storage of biomass pellets to be assessed, it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating. There are traditional methods that are used to determine self-heating characteristics of fuels, eg, basket heating tests. The results from basket heating tests indirectly give the reactivity from a series of tests at high temperatures. This paper presents a sensitive screening test procedure for biomass pellets using isothermal calorimetry for direct measurement of the heat production rate at typical bulk storage temperatures. This method can be used to directly compare the reactivity of different batches of biomass pellets. The results could be used, eg, by storage security managers to gain better knowledge of their fuels propensity for self-heating and thereby for safer storage. A large number of tests have been performed to develop the test procedure presented. Different parameters, such as temperature, type of the test sample (powder/crushed or pellets), mass of test sample, and preheating time, have been varied. Furthermore, gas concentrations in the sample ampoule have been measured before and after some tests to study the oxygen consumption and the formation of CO and CO2. Three different types of pellets with different characteristics were tested to assess the variation in behaviour. Based on these tests, a screening test procedure is presented with a test temperature of 60°C, a sample size of 4 g, a 15-minute preheating period at the test temperature, and 24-hour test duration.

  • 124.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Assessment of the self-heating potential of wood pellets2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 125.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Small scale screening tests to assess the self-heating potential of wood pellets2013Inngår i: Interflam. London. 2013-06-24--26, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 126.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Zimmermann, Florian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Medium-scale self-heating tests with biomass pellets2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly known problem with storage of biomass pellets is the risk for self-heating. The propensity for self-heating depends on several parameters e.g. type of pellets, humidity, ventilation, temperature, type of storage and handling prior to storage.

    Within the framework of the research project SafePellets (Safety and quality assurance measures along the pellets supply chain) a medium-scale methodology to assess the propensity for self-heating has been developed. In addition, methods to study carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) concentrations as well as different aldehydes have been tested and evaluated in this study.

    Biomass pellets from three different sources, i.e. 100 % pine; a mixture of spruce and pine and a mixture of straw, seed residue and spruce, were tested in a 1 m3 test container. The test container and the pellets were pre-heated and kept at the nominal test temperature until self-heating occurred, or the test was terminated. Temperatures were measured at more than 40 different positions and gas samples were extracted from the test container and analysed.

    Differences were observed as a function of pellet type, but also as a function of nominal test temperature and ventilation. Significant levels of CO and CO2 and a reduced level of O2 were observed direct after the pre-heating, indicating oxidation of the pellets. Ten different tests were made; ignition occurred in four of them. The higher the nominal test temperature, the higher propensity for self-heating. When ignition occurred, the concentrations of CO and CO2 increased rapidly. It was found that the ventilation conditions were important. In some of the tests, natural convection caused the pellet bulk to cool. In other tests, when the test container was closed, the oxygen concentration dropped, and self-heating was reduced.

    Measurements of CO, CO2 and O2 contributed with information about the tests. However, the results from aldehyde measurements were unconcise and the values have only been used as indicative. Identified aldehydes were hexanal, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 127.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Temprature Measurements and Examination of Self-Heating in Large Scale Storage of Wood Pellets2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 128.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Zimmermann, Florian
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Report on medium-scale self-heating experiments2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 129.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Anders lönnermark and pers blomqvist outline two swedish research projects aimed at reducing fire risks in the waste and recycling industry2014Inngår i: Fire Risk Management, ISSN 1757-1324, nr APRIL, s. 28-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 130.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Collective good2014Inngår i: Fire Risk Management, ISSN 1757-1324, nr Apr, s. 28-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anders Lönnermark and Per Blomqvist outline two Swedish research projects aimed at reducing fire risks in the waste and recycling industry.

  • 131.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Emissions from an Automobile Fire2006Inngår i: Chemosphere, Vol. 62, nr 7, s. 1043-1056Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 132.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Emissions from Fires in Electrical and Electronics Waste2005Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 133.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Emissions from Tyre Fires2005Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 134.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Marklund, Stellan
    Emissions from simulated deep-seated fires in domestic waste2008Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 70, nr 4, s. 626-639Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 135.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    larsson, Ida
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Use of small scale methods for assessments of risk for self-heating of biomass pellets2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One major concern when it comes to storage of wood pellets is the risk for self-heating. The propensity for self-heating varies between different types of pellets. It also depends on how the pellets have been handled and on the storage conditions, e.g. the temperature and humidity. Within the framework of the research project “Large scale Utilization of Biopellets for Energy Applications –LUBA” different laboratory-scale methods have been used to study different thermal properties and the propensity for self-heating for different types of pellets. The different methods used include micro calorimetry also called isothermal calorimetry, basket-heating tests and transient plane source (TPS). In total 21 different pellets samples were tested in the micro calorimeter, three in the basket-heating test and three in the TPS. The samples showed significant differences in propensity for self-heating. Differences could be seen both between different types of pellets and depending on the age of the pellets. Comparing the reactivity rates from the basket-heating tests and those from the isothermal calorimetry tests with the same type of pellets, both methods gave the same ranking of reactivity. It was shown that the TPS-method is applicable for the determination of thermal properties both for measurements on single pellets and for measurement on bulk pellet material.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 136.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Arbete påbörjat inom ISO för säker hantering och lagring av träpellets2013Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 49, s. 9-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 137.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Large scale Utilization of Biopellets for energy Applications”, proceedings of the 19th European Biomass Conference2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th European Biomass Conference, 6-9 June, 2011, Berlin., 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 138.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Hogland, William
    Biobränslen och avfall - Brandsäkerhet i samband med lagring2008Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 139.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    larsson, Ida
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Self heating and off-gassing from biomass pellets during storage2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 140.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Trella, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Bergérus Rensvik, Åsa
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Brandsäkerhet vid lagring av avfallsbränslen2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt har varit att ge ökad kunskap kring olika förekommande brandrisker och råd om hur dessa kan reduceras med olika åtgärder, primärt baserat på praktiska erfarenheter från genomfört säkerhetsarbete samt uppkomna bränder ute i olika anläggningar. Målet är att de samlade kunskaperna och erfarenheterna kan komma till nytta för hela branschen, övriga berörda intressenter och myndigheter och på sikt ligga till grund för t.ex. framtida branschrekommendationer.

    Projektet kan delas in metodmässigt i; statistik, workshoppar samt analys av anläggningsspecifik information.

    Analysen av insatsstatistik från Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) pekar på att det inträffar i storleksordningen 60–70 bränder årligen i avfallsanläggningar och att brandorsaken i de flesta fall är självantändning eller okänd anledning. Tittar man på "brand ej i byggnad" med relevanta bränder för avfallsanläggningar så ser man en svagt ökande trend i antal bränder 2012–2015. 

    De vanligaste materialfraktionerna som enligt statistik från MSB är kopplade till bränder i avfallsanläggningar är sopor, kompost, fluff, papper, trädgårdsavfall, däckgranulat, annat, skrot, återvinningscontainrar. Även en del av flisbränderna kan vara relaterade till RT-trä.

    Från avfallsindustrins sida ansågs bark, returträ, flisat material och GROT (grenar och toppar) kunna ge problem med självuppvärmning. Även krossning av avfall angavs som ett generellt problem av flera deltagare.

    Många incidenter och bränder anses bero på felsorterat eller feldeklarerat avfall och kontrollen av inkommande gods är därför väldigt viktig. Det är också viktigt att kommunicera uppströms i leveranskedjan för att öka chanserna att komma tillrätta med problemen. Många deltagare identifierade batterier (speciellt litiumbatterier) som ett växande problem.

    Hanteringen av förorenat släckvatten varierar mycket. Man påpekar att samma krav över hela landet vore bra. Man önskar tydligare riktlinjer för släckvattenanalyser, kunskap om vad vattnet kan innehålla och information om reningsmetoder för släckvatten.

    Det påpekas att det finns många standarder och normer att förhålla sig till så det vore därför bra att ha en lägsta nivå av krav som bestäms i samarbete med branschen som man kan förhålla sig till och någon form av vägledning från myndigheterna för göra hanteringen mer lik över riket.

    Diskussionerna under workshopparna och tillsammans med projektets referensgrupp har lett fram till 33 rekommendationer uppdelade på olika områden. För varje rekommendation ges i rapporten ytterligare förklaringar. Dessa rekommendationer kan ligga till grund för framtida riktlinjer.

  • 141.
    McNamee, Margaret
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Göras, Therese
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Aaxel
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Wetterqvist, Cecilia
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Lundh, Karolina
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Challenges and opportunities for reuse of products and materials with fire safety requirements – A Swedish perspective2023Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, artikkel-id 103857Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is of great importance to the Swedish economy, but its impact on the climate is significant and the sector accounts for about 40% of Sweden's total energy consumption. The sector also generates a significant share of the total material flows and waste quantities in the society. Thus, due to the large impact of the construction sector, there are great opportunities to contribute positively by reducing the climate impact through change and modernization. There are many activities focused on reducing construction waste in various ways and the issue of material and product reuse has received increasing attention in recent years. However, very little work has focused on products associated with fire safety requirements. This paper provides an overview of research on the reuse of materials and products with a focus on products with fire safety requirements. In addition, it provides a review of the Swedish building legislation and its impact on the possibility of reusing materials and products with fire safety requirements. Finally, possible paths are explored for introducing more large-scale reuse of such materials and products. © 2023 The Authors

  • 142.
    Monti, Marco
    et al.
    Proplast Consortium, Italy.
    Tsampas, Spyros
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Cuttica, Fabio
    Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.
    Fina, Alberto
    Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.
    Camino, Giovanni
    Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.
    Fire reaction of nanoclay-doped PA6 composites reinforced with continuous glass fibers and produced by commingling technique2015Inngår i: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 121, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report the development of a glass fiber commingled composite (GFCC) based on a nanoclay-doped polyamide 6 (PA6) and the evaluation of its fire reaction. The preparation of the composite comprised several steps. Firstly, the nanoclay was dispersed in the PA6 matrix. Then, the produced compound was spun in filaments and commingled with continuous glass fibers. Finally, the laminate preform was consolidated. Reference samples based on the neat PA6 were produced as well. As a results, although it is well known that, in the presence of a relevant amount of continuous fibers, the behavior of the material is mainly driven by the fibers themselves (e.g. mechanical, thermal, conductive, and so on), the effect of the clay was interesting, especially in flammability test (UL94 vertical burning test), where the total burning time passes from 227 s to 146 s.

  • 143.
    Månsson, Margret
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Isaksson, Ingrid
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Certifiering.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Sampling and chemical analysis of smoke gas components from the SP industry calorimeter.1994Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 144.
    Månsson, Margret
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Blomqvist, Per
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