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  • 101.
    Dexe, Jacob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ledendal, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An Empirical Investigation of the Right to Explanation Under GDPR in Insurance2020Inngår i: 17th International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Digital Business, TrustBus 2020 (Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 12395)), Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2020, s. 125-139Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The GDPR aims at strengthening the rights of data subjects and to build trust in the digital single market. This is manifested by the introduction of a new principle of transparency. It is, however, not obvious what this means in practice: What kind of answers can be expected to GDPR requests citing the right to “meaningful information”? This is the question addressed in this article. Seven insurance companies, representing 90–95% of the Swedish home insurance market, were asked by consumers to disclose information about how premiums are set. Results are presented first giving descriptive statistics, then characterizing the pricing information given, and lastly describing the procedural information offered by insurers as part of their answers. Overall, several different approaches to answering the request can be discerned, including different uses of examples, lists, descriptions of logic, legal basis as well as data related to the process of answering the requests. Results are analyzed in light of GDPR requirements. A number of potential improvements are identified—at least three responses are likely to fail the undue delay requirement. The article is concluded with a discussion about future work.

  • 102.
    Dey, Debargha
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Löcken, Andreas
    Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Germany.
    Wintersberger, Philipp
    Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Germany.
    Pfleging, Bastian
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; LMU Munich, Germany.
    Riener, Andreas
    Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Germany.
    Martens, Marieke
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; TNO, Netherlands .
    Terken, Jaques
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Taming the eHMI jungle: A classification taxonomy to guide, compare, and assess the design principles of automated vehicles' external human-machine interfaces2020Inngår i: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 100174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of research in the field of interaction between automated vehicles and other road users in their vicinity. To facilitate such interactions, researchers and designers have explored designs, and this line of work has yielded several concepts of external Human-Machine Interfaces (eHMI) for vehicles. Literature and media review reveals that the description of interfaces is often lacking in fidelity or details of their functionalities in specific situations, which makes it challenging to understand the originating concepts. There is also a lack of a universal understanding of the various dimensions of a communication interface, which has impeded a consistent and coherent addressal of the different aspects of the functionalities of such interface concepts. In this paper, we present a unified taxonomy that allows a systematic comparison of the eHMI across 18 dimensions, covering their physical characteristics and communication aspects from the perspective of human factors and human-machine interaction. We analyzed and coded 70 eHMI concepts according to this taxonomy to portray the state of the art and highlight the relative maturity of different contributions. The results point to a number of unexplored research areas that could inspire future work. Additionally, we believe that our proposed taxonomy can serve as a checklist for user interface designers and researchers when developing their interfaces. © 2020 The Authors

  • 103.
    Dey, Debargha
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Pfleging, Bastian
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Martens, Marieke
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Terken, Jacques
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Color and Animation Preferences for a Light Band EHMI in Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Pedestrians2020Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery , 2020Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report user preferences regarding color and animation patterns to support the interaction between Automated Vehicles (AVs) and pedestrians through an external Human-Machine-Interface (eHMI). Existing concepts of eHMI differ – among other things – in their use of colors or animations to express an AV’s yielding intention. In the absence of empirical research, there is a knowledge gap regarding which color and animation leads to highest usability and preferences in traffic negotiation situations. We conducted an online survey (N=400) to investigate the comprehensibility of a light band eHMI with a combination of 5 color and 3 animation patterns for a yielding AV. Results show that cyan is considered a neutral color for communicating a yielding intention. Additionally, a uniformly flashing or pulsing animation is preferred compared to any pattern that animates sideways. These insights can contribute in the future design and standardization of eHMIs.

  • 104.
    Dolins, Sigma
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Strömberg, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wong, Yale Z.
    University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    Karlsson, MariAnne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sharing Anxiety Is in the Driver’s Seat: Analyzing User Acceptance of Dynamic Ridepooling and Its Implications for Shared Autonomous Mobility2021Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 14, artikkel-id 7828Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As connected, electric, and autonomous vehicle (AV) services are developed for cities, the research is conclusive that the use of these services must be shared to achieve maximum efficiency. Yet, few agencies have prioritised designing an AV system that focuses on dynamic ridepooling, and there remains a gap in the understanding of what makes people willing to share their rides. However, in 2017, the Australian transport authority Transport for New South Wales launched over a dozen trials for on-demand, shared public transport, including AVs. In this paper, we investigate the user willingness-to-share, based on experiences from one of these trials. Four focus groups (19 participants in total) were held in New South Wales with active users of either the trialled on-demand dynamic ridepooling service (Keoride) or commercial ridepooling (UberPool). Through thematic analysis of the focus group conversations, the cost, comfort, convenience, safety, community culture, and trust in authority emerged as factors that influenced the willingness-to-share. When presented with driverless scenarios, the focus group participants had significant concerns about the unknown behaviour of their co-passengers, revealing sharing anxiety as a significant barrier to the adoption of shared AVs. This paper identifies previously disregarded factors that influence the adoption of AVs and dynamic ridepooling and offers insights on how potential users’ sharing anxiety can be mitigated.

  • 105.
    Dolins, Sigma
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Wong, Yale
    University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    Nelson, John
    University of Sydney Business School, Australia.
    The ‘sharing trap’: A case study of societal and stakeholder readiness for on-demand and autonomous public transport in New South Wales, Australia2021Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 17, artikkel-id 9574Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus groups on shared, autonomous vehicles (SAVs) in New South Wales expressed “sharing anxiety”—an intense concern about the prospect of sharing their mobility journey with strangers, without a driver or authority figure present. This presents a significant barrier to the acceptance of SAVs, particularly autonomous public and on-demand transport (ODT), which is a major focus for Transport for New South Wales (TfNSW). Given this potential barrier, we interviewed (N = 13) operators, academics, and regulators with TfNSW to assess their role and abilities in overcoming sharing anxiety. However, our findings revealed a relative lack of awareness from experts in the mobility industry about the existence of sharing anxiety in users, suggesting additional barriers to adoption. We make suggestions for policy considerations for stakeholders that could mitigate sharing anxiety: promoting dynamic ridepooling products in commercial services, using tax breaks as incentivization; requiring ODT services and operators in jurisdiction to use a standardized, unified interface for users (“single-app”); shared, on-demand transport services likely need longer incubation/pilot periods in order for the sharing behavior to become culturally established. We conclude with a reflection on how COVID-19 has impacted the development of shared mobility and suggest further exploration in policy implementation. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 106.
    Ebadi, Hamid
    et al.
    Infotiv AB, Sweden.
    Helali Moghadam, Mahshid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Gay, Gregory
    Chalmers and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fontes, Afonso
    Chalmers and the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Socha, Kasper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Efficient and Effective Generation of Test Cases for Pedestrian Detection - Search-based Software Testing of Baidu Apollo in SVL2021Inngår i: 2021 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Testing (AITest), 2021, s. 103-110Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing capabilities of autonomous vehicles, there is a higher demand for sophisticated and pragmatic quality assurance approaches for machine learning-enabled systems in the automotive AI context. The use of simulation-based prototyping platforms provides the possibility for early-stage testing, enabling inexpensive testing and the ability to capture critical corner-case test scenarios. Simulation-based testing properly complements conventional on-road testing. However, due to the large space of test input parameters in these systems, the efficient generation of effective test scenarios leading to the unveiling of failures is a challenge. This paper presents a study on testing pedestrian detection and emergency braking system of the Baidu Apollo autonomous driving platform within the SVL simulator. We propose an evolutionary automated test generation technique that generates failure-revealing scenarios for Apollo in the SVL environment. Our approach models the input space using a generic and flexible data structure and benefits a multi-criteria safety-based heuristic for the objective function targeted for optimization. This paper presents the results of our proposed test generation technique in the 2021 IEEE Autonomous Driving AI Test Challenge. In order to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach, we also report the results from a baseline random generation technique. Our evaluation shows that the proposed evolutionary test case generator is more effective at generating failure-revealing test cases and provides higher diversity between the generated failures than the random baseline.

  • 107.
    Enerbäck, Oscar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Dolins, Sigma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    S3 – Shared Shuttle Services: Fas 1 (2017-05-03 – 2019-12-31)2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    S3-projektet handlar om att testa delade, elektrifierade och automatiserade skyttelbussar för att demonstrera hur dessa nya transportlösningar kan stimulera och stödja en förtätning av staden.Inom projektet har stadsutvecklare, näringsliv, akademi och offentlig sektor samlats för att gemensamt utforma och prova nya mobilitetskoncept för den första- och sista kilometern av resan. Rapporten beskriver den första fasen av projektet, från maj 2017 till och med december 2019, där skyttelbussarna testats vid Lindholmen Science Park, Chalmers campus Johanneberg samt i Härryda centrum. För att stärka projektet har arbete även utförts kring kompletterande mobilitetstjänster, öppen innovation, utvärdering, affärsmodell, färdplan, molninfrastruktur samt event och kommunikation kopplat till initiativet. Efter utmanande processer av projektering och tillståndsansökan lyckades testerna genomföras på vad som av teknik- och fordonsleverantörerna ansågs vara den mest utmanande rutten i världen som dessa fordon hittills kört på. Samtidigt är mognadsgraden för teknik och helhetstjänst fortfarande relativt låg, och kombinerat med givna säkerhetsprioriteringar lämnas en del att önska vad gäller grundläggande parametrar som hastighet och komfort. Dessutom innebär nuvarande tillståndskrav på säkerhetsoperatör ombord på fordonen begränsningar vad gäller till exempel hållbara affärsmodeller och möjligheten att studera vissa användarförhållanden. Tack till medverkande parter och finansiärer med ett särskilt tack till Vinnova, Drive Sweden och Lindholmen Science Park som gjort detta projekt möjligt. Tack till Transportstyrelsen, Trafikkontoret, Polisen och Chalmersfastigheter för snabba beslutsvägar och till Atrium Ljungberg för lånet av garageplats. Slutligen önskar projektet rikta ett stort tack till samtliga som varit med och testat skyttlarna.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 108.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Aksoy, Eren E.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Cooney, Martin D.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    AI Perspectives in Smart Cities and Communities to Enable Road Vehicle Automation and Smart Traffic Control2021Inngår i: Smart Cities, ISSN 2624-6511, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 783-802Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart cities and communities (SCC) constitute a new paradigm in urban development. SCC ideate a data-centered society aimed at improving efficiency by automating and optimizing activities and utilities. Information and communication technology along with Internet of Things enables data collection and with the help of artificial intelligence (AI) situation awareness can be obtained to feed the SCC actors with enriched knowledge. This paper describes AI perspectives in SCC and gives an overview of AI-based technologies used in traffic to enable road vehicle automation and smart traffic control. Perception, smart traffic control and driver modeling are described along with open research challenges and standardization to help introduce advanced driver assistance systems and automated vehicle functionality in traffic. To fully realize the potential of SCC, to create a holistic view on a city level, availability of data from different stakeholders is necessary. Further, though AI technologies provide accurate predictions and classifications, there is an ambiguity regarding the correctness of their outputs. This can make it difficult for the human operator to trust the system. Today there are no methods that can be used to match function requirements with the level of detail in data annotation in order to train an accurate model. Another challenge related to trust is explainability: models can have difficulty explaining how they came to certain conclusions, so it is difficult for humans to trust them.

  • 109.
    Eriksson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Cederstav, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Ranäng, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Lyrberg, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Einarson Lindvall, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    von Wieding, Sönke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Slutrapport inom Gothenburg Green City Zone (GGCZ): Metodik för analys och införande av klimatneutrala mobilitets- och transportlösningar i städer2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är ett arbetsdokument som har efterfrågats i arbetet inom Gothenburg Green City Zone (GGCZ), där det pågår en process för att ta fram en mer detaljerad planering för en övergång till helt fossilfria transporter i Göteborg. Rapporten resonerar först kring zonbegreppet, vilken forskning som tidigare gjorts, vilka slags zoner som redan finns och som implementerats i Sverige och Europa. Rapporten föreslår sedan en metodik för hur zoner kan definieras och hur en generell zonindelning skulle kunna upprättas som skulle kunna användas som mall för både Göteborg och andra städer. Arbetet är inte färdigt utan kommer att fortsätta under kommande år både inom RISE och tillsammans med övriga samarbetspartners. Det som kvarstår är att definiera i detalj vilka parametrar och egenskaper som gör en viss zon unik, exempelvis genom mätetal som stadsdelars täthet, demografi, socioekonomiska förhållanden, infrastruktur samt befintlig framkomlighet. Målet med arbetet har varit att utveckla och förbättra kunskapen om zonmetodiken, visa på dess möjliga fördelar och utveckla ett verktyg för att användas i omställningen och att hjälpa Göteborg och andra städer att lyckas med omställningen mot klimatneutrala transporter till år 2030.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    DIVA_RISE-Rapport_GGCZ
  • 110.
    Eriksson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    von Wieding, Sönke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Lyrberg, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Ranäng, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Carlén, Vanja
    Closer, Sweden.
    Hansson, Marcus
    Closer, Sweden.
    REDIG- Regionala godshubbar i Göteborg: FÖRSTUDIE – DRIVE SWEDEN2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är ett resultat av en förstudie kring en logistik- och transportlösning (som kan realiseras i form av en gemensam hubb) för aktörer som är placerade i evenemangsstråket i Göteborg. Rapporten svarar på frågor kring nulägesanalys av aktörernas logistiklösningar, leveranstrafik inom evenemangsstråket, samt hur leveranstrafik kan se ut under 2030+ om inga förändringar i leverans/logistikupplägget görs. En viktig slutsats som framgår är att det krävs åtgärder som minskar leveranstrafiken, eftersom elektrifiering av fordon inte kan eliminera trängsel och buller som står för den största delen av de samhällsekonomiska kostnaderna. Utan förändringar i logistikupplägget och fordonsflottan förväntas de samhällsekonomiska kostnaderna öka med cirka 30%. Förändringar i logistikupplägget kan nås genom ett optimerad trafikflöde, vilket i sin tur kan realiseras genom en gemensam samlastningshubb för små och fragmenterade flöden som kan minska antalet anlöp och fordonstrafiken i området. Baserat på intervjuer med aktörerna, studiebesök, studerande av underlag, workshops och analys av logistikbehoven, kan det sammanfattas att verksamheterna, utmaningar och logistikbehoven i stort sett är ganska lika. En gemensam extern hubb kan frigöra yta hos verksamheterna som kan användas för att skapa nya affärsmöjligheter. En möjlighet för att upphandla en tredjeparts logistik- och transportlösning är att bygga ett konsortium där alla aktörer delar på kostnaden för terminalhantering samt samlastning/samkörning. Det finns stora möjligheter att hitta lösningar för logistikhubb som uppfyller kraven på geografisk närhet och säkra leveranser i trafiksystemet – och det är klokt att anpassa leveranstider för att undvika trängsel. Det finns en vilja hos aktörerna att minska transporterna, anpassa sin verksamhet för effektivisering vid mottagning och förvaring, ställa om mot fossilfrihet och på det sättet bidra till transporteffektivitet som krävs för att nå mål inom klimatneutralitet 2030. Det finns stora behov för förändring i trafikflödet inom GGCZ och det finns en stor potential att optimera det genom att konsolidera och styra leveranser.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 111.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Olsson, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    The role of middle actors in electrification of transport in Swedish rural areas2022Inngår i: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 1706-1714Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use the middle-out perspective to analyze the diffusion of electric cars and plug-in hybrids in Swedish rural areas and small towns. In Sweden, electrification of the transport system is a priority, particularly in car-dependent rural areas. However, the transition to electromobility mainly takes place in major urban areas. To understand the dynamics of the transition to electrified transport and identify how it may be facilitated, we identify top actors, bottom actors, and middle actors and analyze how middle actors exert influence. Our case study is based on in-depth interviews with civil servants who work with energy and transport issues in rural areas throughout Sweden and with representatives of energy companies and government agencies. We show that three middle actors are important: municipalities, local energy companies, and local car dealers. The municipalities and local energy companies mainly exert influence by knowledge diffusion and by contributing to projects such as charging infrastructure development. The car dealers are examples of middle actors who could play a central role by influencing consumers, but who currently often obstruct electric vehicle diffusion. We find that the support of top actors is very important for middle actors to be able to facilitate diffusion of electric cars and plug-in hybrids. Municipalities are in a unique position to use their knowledge, local networks, and sideways and upwards connections to strengthen the agency and capacity of citizens and small businesses (bottom actors). However, as small Swedish municipalities often have limited resources, long-term support from government agencies (top actors) is crucial. As middle actors are so important for the diffusion of electric vehicles, especially in the rural context where market forces are weaker than in the urban context, national policy for electrification of transport should support them.

  • 112.
    Fabricius, Victor
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Habibovic, Azra
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Rizgary, Daban
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Wärnestål, Pontus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Interactions Between Heavy Trucks and Vulnerable Road Users—A Systematic Review to Inform the Interactive Capabilities of Highly Automated Trucks2022Inngår i: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 818019Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates interactive behaviors and communication cues of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and vulnerable road users (VRUs) such as pedestrians and cyclists as a means of informing the interactive capabilities of highly automated HGVs. Following a general framing of road traffic interaction, we conducted a systematic literature review of empirical HGV-VRU studies found through the databases Scopus, ScienceDirect and TRID. We extracted reports of interactive road user behaviors and communication cues from 19 eligible studies and categorized these into two groups: 1) the associated communication channel/mechanism (e.g., nonverbal behavior), and 2) the type of communication cue (implicit/explicit). We found the following interactive behaviors and communication cues: 1) vehicle-centric (e.g., HGV as a larger vehicle, adapting trajectory, position relative to the VRU, timing of acceleration to pass the VRU, displaying information via human-machine interface), 2) driver-centric (e.g., professional driver, present inside/outside the cabin, eye-gaze behavior), and 3) VRU-centric (e.g., racer cyclist, adapting trajectory, position relative to the HGV, proximity to other VRUs, eye-gaze behavior). These cues are predominantly based on road user trajectories and movements (i.e., kinesics/proxemics nonverbal behavior) forming implicit communication, which indicates that this is the primary mechanism for HGV-VRU interactions. However, there are also reports of more explicit cues such as cyclists waving to say thanks, the use of turning indicators, or new types of external human-machine interfaces (eHMI). Compared to corresponding scenarios with light vehicles, HGV-VRU interaction patterns are to a high extent formed by the HGV’s size, shape and weight. For example, this can cause VRUs to feel less safe, drivers to seek to avoid unnecessary decelerations and accelerations, or lead to strategic behaviors due to larger blind-spots. Based on these findings, it is likely that road user trajectories and kinematic behaviors will form the basis for communication also for highly automated HGV-VRU interaction. However, it might also be beneficial to use additional eHMI to compensate for the loss of more social driver-centric cues or to signal other types of information. While controlled experiments can be used to gather such initial insights, deeper understanding of highly automated HGV-VRU interactions will also require naturalistic studies. Copyright © 2022 Fabricius, Habibovic, Rizgary, Andersson and Wärnestål.

  • 113.
    Fallahi, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Jersler Fransson, Cajsa
    Sjöfartsverket, Sweden.
    Sandberg Jadaan, Taline
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Nordström, Eva
    Sjöfartsverket, Sweden.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Lindberg, Jouni
    Sjöfartsverket, Sweden.
    Recruitment Equality & Diversity Opportunities: Slutrapport för forskningsprojektet ’Rekrytering till sjöfarten – måste sjömän vara män?’2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    När #metoo-rörelsen svepte över världen startade kvinnor i sjöfarten i Sverige ett eget upprop som lyfte ett stort antal frågor rörande den sociala arbetsmiljön ombord, detta blev under 2018 startskottet för initiativet Vågrätt.

    Vågrätt är ett samarbete mellan branschföreningar/arbetsgivarorganisationer, fackföreningar, akademi, myndigheter, studentföreningar och ideella organisationer inom den svenska sjöfartssektorn med målet att skapa en sjöfartssektor med arbetsmiljö i världsklass, med en nollvision om trakasserier och diskriminering för alla som arbetar inom sjöfartssektorn i Sverige.

    Med grund i detta startades forskningsprojektet REDO (Recruitment Equality & Diversity Opportunities) i januari 2020 som ett samarbetsprojekt mellan RISE Research Institutes of Sweden och Sjöfartsverket med en vision att förbättra den sociala arbetsmiljön ur ett jämställdhetsperspektiv.

    Syftet med REDO är att skapa en trygg och inkluderande sjöfartsindustri där fler kvinnor ska vilja söka jobb till sjöss, samt känna sig motiverade och inspirerade att stanna kvar. Detta är ett förhållningssätt som behöver omfatta alla, från högsta ledningen till varje medarbetare.

    I detta projekt har vi använt Design Thinking som den övergripande, användarcentrerade problemformuleringen och lösningsmetoden. För att identifiera drivkrafter och hinder för ökad mångfald och rekrytering av fler kvinnor inom sjöfarten har vi genomfört undersökningar, intervjuer och workshops med kvinnor som arbetar eller har arbetat i sjöfartsbranschen i olika roller. En benchmarkstudie av andra mansdominerade branscher och deras mångfaldsstrategier genom marknadsföring och kommunikation, mentorskap och nätverksinitiativ, samt förändring av befintliga normer och arbetskulturer, har gett inspiration till hur sjöfartsnäringen kan hantera jämlikhet och mångfald för att förbättra den sociala arbetsmiljön ombord.

    Denna rapport avser att sammanfatta de resultat och insikter som genererats genom detta projekt och att ge rekommendationer för hur sjöfartsnäringen kan fortsätta att främja mångfald genom att erbjuda en social arbetsmiljö som är byggd på tre hörnstenar av trygghet, inkludering och motivation. Mer detaljerad dokumentation av resultat från olika genomförda studier kompletterar denna rapport som fyra bilagor.

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    Slutrapport
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    Bilaga A
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    Bilaga B
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    Bilaga C
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    Bilaga D
  • 114.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Algorithmic Fairness, Risk, and the Dominant Protective Agency2023Inngår i: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441, Vol. 36, artikkel-id 76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing use of automated algorithmic decision-making, issues of algorithmic fairness have attracted much attention lately. In this growing literature, existing concepts from ethics and political philosophy are often applied to new contexts. The reverse—that novel insights from the algorithmic fairness literature are fed back into ethics and political philosophy—is far less established. However, this short commentary on Baumann and Loi (Philosophy & Technology, 36(3), 45 2023) aims to do precisely this. Baumann and Loi argue that among algorithmic group fairness measures proposed, one—sufficiency (well-calibration) is morally defensible for insurers to use, whereas independence (statistical parity or demographic parity) and separation (equalized odds) are not normatively appropriate in the insurance context. Such a result may seem to be of relatively narrow interest to insurers and insurance scholars only. We argue, however, that arguments such as that offered by Baumann and Loi have an important but so far overlooked connection to the derivation of the minimal state offered by Nozick (1974) and thus to political philosophy at large.

  • 115.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Algorithmic Political Bias—an Entrenchment Concern2022Inngår i: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441, Vol. 35, nr 3, artikkel-id 75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This short commentary on Peters (Philosophy & Technology 35, 2022) identifies the entrenchment of political positions as one additional concern related to algorithmic political bias, beyond those identified by Peters. First, it is observed that the political positions detected and predicted by algorithms are typically contingent and largely explained by “political tribalism”, as argued by Brennan (2016). Second, following Hacking (1999), the social construction of political identities is analyzed and it is concluded that algorithmic political bias can contribute to such identities. Third, following Nozick (1989), it is argued that purist political positions may stand in the way of the pursuit of all worthy values and goals to be pursued in the political realm and that to the extent that algorithmic political bias entrenches political positions, it also hinders this healthy “zigzag of politics”. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 116.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Algorithmic Transparency, Manipulation, and Two Concepts of Liberty2024Inngår i: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441, Vol. 37, artikkel-id 22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As more decisions are made by automated algorithmic systems, the transparency of these systems has come under scrutiny. While such transparency is typically seen as beneficial, there is a also a critical, Foucauldian account of it. From this perspective, worries have recently been articulated that algorithmic transparency can be used for manipulation, as part of a disciplinary power structure. Klenk (Philosophy & Technology 36, 79, 2023) recently argued that such manipulation should not be understood as exploitation of vulnerable victims, but rather as indifference to whether the information provided enhances decision-making by revealing reasons. This short commentary on Klenk uses Berlin’s (1958) two concepts of liberty to further illuminate the concept of transparency as manipulation, finding alignment between positive liberty and the critical account.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 117.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Cybersäkerhet för en uppkopplad ekonomi2020Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 118.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Dags för cybersäkerhetsekonomi2022Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 71-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 119.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    First- and Second-Level Bias in Automated Decision-making2022Inngår i: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441, Vol. 35, nr 2, artikkel-id 21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in artificial intelligence offer many beneficial prospects. However, concerns have been raised about the opacity of decisions made by these systems, some of which have turned out to be biased in various ways. This article makes a contribution to a growing body of literature on how to make systems for automated decision-making more transparent, explainable, and fair by drawing attention to and further elaborating a distinction first made by Nozick (1993) between first-level bias in the application of standards and second-level bias in the choice of standards, as well as a second distinction between discrimination and arbitrariness. Applying the typology developed, a number of illuminating observations are made. First, it is observed that some reported bias in automated decision-making is first-level arbitrariness, which can be alleviated by explainability techniques. However, such techniques have only a limited potential to alleviate first-level discrimination. Second, it is argued that second-level arbitrariness is probably quite common in automated decision-making. In contrast to first-level arbitrariness, however, second-level arbitrariness is not straightforward to detect automatically. Third, the prospects for alleviating arbitrariness are discussed. It is argued that detecting and alleviating second-level arbitrariness is a profound problem because there are many contrasting and sometimes conflicting standards from which to choose, and even when we make intentional efforts to choose standards for good reasons, some second-level arbitrariness remains. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 120.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    How Much Should You Care About Algorithmic Transparency as Manipulation?2022Inngår i: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441, Vol. 35, nr 4, artikkel-id 92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wang (Philosophy & Technology 35, 2022) introduces a Foucauldian power account of algorithmic transparency. This short commentary explores when this power account is appropriate. It is first observed that the power account is a constructionist one, and that such accounts often come with both factual and evaluative claims. In an instance of Hume’s law, the evaluative claims do not follow from the factual claims, leaving open the question of how much constructionist commitment (Hacking, 1999) one should have. The concept of acts in equilibrium (Nozick, 1981) is then used to explain how different individuals reading Wang can end up with different evaluative attitudes towards algorithmic transparency, despite factual agreement. The commentary concludes by situating constructionist commitment inside a larger question of how much to think of our actions, identifying conflicting arguments. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 121.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    IT service outage cost: case study and implications for cyber insurance2020Inngår i: Geneva papers on risk and insurance. Issues and practice, ISSN 1018-5895, E-ISSN 1468-0440, Vol. 45, s. 760-784Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, almost all enterprises are highly dependent on IT services. Thus, high availability IT services and the cost of downtime have received a lot of attention in recent years. One increasingly used tool for cyber risk management and transfer is cyber insurance, which typically offers some form of business interruption coverage. However, cost structures of IT service outages are still poorly understood, as costs are often just reported as lump sums. This article contributes a multiple case study of IT service outage cost in three sectors in Sweden: transport companies (N= 11), food companies (N= 9) and government agencies (N= 19). The contribution is three-fold: (i) the measurement instrument itself, (ii) the insights into different cost structures gained, and (iii) the implications of different cost structures on availability investment strategies. Whereas some enterprises incur only a fixed outage cost, some incur (almost) only lost productivity or almost only lost revenue. In the public sector, lost revenue is often negligible. The results are further contextualised by a discussion of cyber insurance implications.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 122.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Lärdomar från 18632021Inngår i: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, nr 4, s. 72-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay uses the quandary facing Swedish security policy decision-makers in 1863 as a starting point to discuss a few timeless topics of national strategy. Affected by pan-Scandinavian sentiments, in July 1863 Charles XV made a declaration of solidarity with Denmark, which faced a military threat from the German Confederation, promising Swedish troops to help defend the southern border of the Duchy of Schleswig. However, the King had not secured the support of his cabinet, which refused to back the King’s policy, so that despite intense diplomatic activity, no military assistance to Denmark was given when the Second Schleswig War eventually started. Using this historical experience as a case-study, observations and reflections are made about the security policy of small states, about the need to coordinate and de-conflict policy initiatives within the core executive, and about what is required for a declaration of solidarity to be credible.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 123.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Rawls’s Original Position and Algorithmic Fairness2021Inngår i: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441, Vol. 34, s. 1803-1817Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern society makes extensive use of automated algorithmic decisions, fueled by advances in artificial intelligence. However, since these systems are not perfect, questions about fairness are increasingly investigated in the literature. In particular, many authors take a Rawlsian approach to algorithmic fairness. This article aims to identify some complications with this approach: Under which circumstances can Rawls’s original position reasonably be applied to algorithmic fairness decisions? First, it is argued that there are important differences between Rawls’s original position and a parallel algorithmic fairness original position with respect to risk attitudes. Second, it is argued that the application of Rawls’s original position to algorithmic fairness faces a boundary problem in defining relevant stakeholders. Third, it is observed that the definition of the least advantaged, necessary for applying the difference principle, requires some attention in the context of algorithmic fairness. Finally, it is argued that appropriate deliberation in algorithmic fairness contexts often require more knowledge about probabilities than the Rawlsian original position allows. Provided that these complications are duly considered, the thought-experiment of the Rawlsian original position can be useful in algorithmic fairness decisions. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 124.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Two Metaverse Dystopias2024Inngår i: Res Publica, ISSN 1356-4765, E-ISSN 1572-8692Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the metaverse—some form of immersive digital extension of the physical world—has received much attention. As tech companies present their bold visions, scientists and scholars have also turned to metaverse issues, from technological challenges via societal implications to profound philosophical questions. This article contributes to this growing literature by identifying the possibilities of two dystopian metaverse scenarios, namely one based on the experience machine and one based on demoktesis—two concepts from Nozick (Anarchy, State, and Utopia, Basic Books, 1974). These dystopian scenarios are introduced, and the potential for a metaverse to evolve into either of them is explained. The article is concluded with an argument for why the two dystopian scenarios are not strongly wedded to any particular theory of ethics or political philosophy, but constitute a more general contribution.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 125.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Andreasson, A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Artman, H.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Brynielsson, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Varga, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Vilhelm, N.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Norwegian National Security Authority, Norway.
    Cyber situational awareness issues and challenges2022Inngår i: Cybersecurity and Cognitive Science, Elsevier , 2022, s. 235-265Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, most enterprises are increasingly reliant on information technology to carry out their operations. This also entails an increasing need for cyber situational awareness—roughly, to know what is going on in the cyber domain, and thus be able to adequately respond to events such as attacks or accidents. This chapter argues that cyber situational awareness is best understood by combining three complementary points of view: the technological, the socio-cognitive, and the organizational perspectives. In addition, the chapter investigates the prospects for reasoning about adversarial actions. This part also reports on a small empirical investigation where participants in the Locked Shields cyber defense exercise were interviewed about their information needs with respect to threat actors. The chapter is concluded with a discussion regarding important challenges to be addressed along with suggestions for further research. 

  • 126.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Friberg, Even
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Bahşi, Hayretdin
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Maritime cyber-insurance: The Norwegian case2022Inngår i: International Journal of Critical Infrastructures, ISSN 1475-3219, E-ISSN 1741-8038, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 267-286Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Major cyber incidents such as the Maersk case have demonstrated that the lack of cyber security can induce huge operational losses in the maritime sector. Cyber-insurance is an instrument of risk transfer, enabling organisations to insure themselves against financial losses caused by cyber incidents and get access to incident management services. This paper provides an empirical study of the use of cyber-insurance in the Norwegian maritime sector, with a particular emphasis on the effects of the General Data Protection Regulation and the Directive on Security of Network and Information Systems. Norway constitutes a significant case as a country having a highly mature IT infrastructure and well-developed maritime industry. Interviews were conducted with supplier- and demand-side maritime actors. Findings point to a widespread lack of knowledge about cyber-insurance. Furthermore, neither GDPR nor NIS were found to be significant drivers of cyber-insurance uptake among maritime organisations. 

  • 127.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hoxell, Amanda
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Länsförsäkringar, Sweden.
    Observable cyber risk on cournot oligopoly data storage markets2020Inngår i: Risks, E-ISSN 2227-9091, Vol. 8, nr 4, artikkel-id 119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the emergence of global digital service providers, concerns about digital oligopolies have increased, with a wide range of potentially harmful effects being discussed. One of these relates to cyber security, where it has been argued that market concentration can increase cyber risk. Such a state of affairs could have dire consequences for insurers and reinsurers, who underwrite cyber risk and are already very concerned about accumulation risk. Against this background, the paper develops some theory about how convex cyber risk affects Cournot oligopoly markets of data storage. It is demonstrated that with constant or increasing marginal production cost, the addition of increasing marginal cyber risk cost decreases the differences between the optimal numbers of records stored by the oligopolists, in effect offsetting the advantage of lower marginal production cost. Furthermore, based on the empirical literature on data breach cost, two possibilities are found: (i) that such cyber risk exhibits decreasing marginal cost in the number of records stored and (ii) the opposite possibility that such cyber risk instead exhibits increasing marginal cost in the number of records stored. The article is concluded with a discussion of the findings and some directions for future research. © 2020 by the authors. 

  • 128.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wernberg, Joakim
    Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum Stockholm, Sweden.
    A survey of cyber security in the Swedish manufacturing industry2020Inngår i: 2020 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment, Cyber SA 2020, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore cyber security practices in Swedish manufacturing firms. Manufacturing is being transformed by new technologies under the label of smart industry or industry 4.0. Most of these technologies are either digital themselves or depend on digital connectivity. Their use is made possible by electronic sensors, actuators, and other devices as well as by data-driven analysis. This technological change entails a fundamental shift in risk and security as devices become interconnected, making information and control transmissible both within and to varying degree outside the firm's organization. These issues must be addressed to prevent both unintentional and intentional security incidents. Thus, there will be no smart industry without cyber security. Based on a sector-wide survey with 649 respondents (17% response rate) carried out in collaboration with the Association of Swedish Engineering Industries, we map risk perception and the controls put in place to address these risks across firms. We present three primary findings: (i) Compared to how firms value further investments in digitalization, risk perception related to cyber security issues is fairly low and business interruption is a greater cause for worry than data breach, (ii) there is a gap between the anticipated impact of digitalization and the perceived need for cyber security measures across business functions within firms, and (iii) the implementation of cyber security measures is still in its infancy with a significant bias towards technological measures, leaving organizational and social cyber security measures underrepresented. The paper is concluded with the identification of a few interesting follow-up questions for future work.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 129.
    García Lozano, Marianela
    et al.
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Rosell, Magnus
    FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Tjörnhammar, Edward
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Varga, Stefan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces Headquarters, Sweden.
    Vlassov, Vladimir
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Veracity assessment of online data2020Inngår i: Decision Support Systems, ISSN 0167-9236, E-ISSN 1873-5797, Vol. 129, artikkel-id 113132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fake news, malicious rumors, fabricated reviews, generated images and videos, are today spread at an unprecedented rate, making the task of manually assessing data veracity for decision-making purposes a daunting task. Hence, it is urgent to explore possibilities to perform automatic veracity assessment. In this work we review the literature in search for methods and techniques representing state of the art with regard to computerized veracity assessment. We study what others have done within the area of veracity assessment, especially targeted towards social media and open source data, to understand research trends and determine needs for future research. The most common veracity assessment method among the studied set of papers is to perform text analysis using supervised learning. Regarding methods for machine learning much has happened in the last couple of years related to the advancements made in deep learning. However, very few papers make use of these advancements. Also, the papers in general tend to have a narrow scope, as they focus on solving a small task with only one type of data from one main source. The overall veracity assessment problem is complex, requiring a combination of data sources, data types, indicators, and methods. Only a few papers take on such a broad scope, thus, demonstrating the relative immaturity of the veracity assessment domain. © 2019 The Authors

  • 130.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Queen’s University Belfast, UK.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Oivo, Markku
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Practical relevance of software engineering research: synthesizing the community’s voice2020Inngår i: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 1687-1754Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering (SE) research should be relevant to industrial practice. There have been regular discussions in the SE community on this issue since the 1980’s, led by pioneers such as Robert Glass. As we recently passed the milestone of “50 years of software engineering”, some recent positive efforts have been made in this direction, e.g., establishing “industrial” tracks in several SE conferences. However, many researchers and practitioners believe that we, as a community, are still struggling with research relevance and utility. The goal of this paper is to synthesize the evidence and experience-based opinions shared on this topic so far in the SE community, and to encourage the community to further reflect and act on the research relevance. For this purpose, we have conducted a Multi-vocal Literature Review (MLR) of 54 systematically-selected sources (papers and non peer-reviewed articles). Instead of relying on and considering the individual opinions on research relevance, mentioned in each of the sources, the MLR aims to synthesize and provide the “holistic” view on the topic. The highlights of our MLR findings are as follows. The top three root causes of low relevance, discussed in the community, are: (1) Researchers having simplistic views (or wrong assumptions) about SE in practice; (2) Lack of connection with industry; and (3) Wrong identification of research problems. The top three suggestions for improving research relevance are: (1) Using appropriate research approaches such as action-research; (2) Choosing relevant (practical) research problems; and (3) Collaborating with industry. By synthesizing all the discussions on this important topic so far, this paper aims to encourage further discussions and actions in the community to increase our collective efforts to improve the research relevance. Furthermore, we raise the need for empirically-grounded and rigorous studies on the relevance problem in SE research, as carried out in other fields such as management science.

  • 131.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Slutrapport för Detaljering i tidtabellsplanering: mikro och makro (MIMA)2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens kapacitetstilldelningsprocess konstrueras en tidtabell i TrainPlan baserat på en datamodell som ligger på så kallad makro-nivå. Likaså är många av de optimeringsmetoder för tidtabellkonstruktion som tagits fram inom KAJT-projekt baserade på makro-modeller. Framtidens planeringssystem, TPS, har däremot en mer detaljerad datamodell, en modell på så kallad mikro-nivå. Målet med projektet MIMA var att undersöka och kartlägga vilka olika sorters detaljeringsnivåer som behövs och finns inom Trafikverkets planeringsverksamhet. Projektet fokuserade särskilt på (1) vilken detaljeringsgrad som efterfrågas i olika delar av planeringsprocessen och (2) hur detaljeringsgraden påverkar möjligheterna för framtida stödsystem med automatisk tidtabellsgenerering.

    Resultaten av ett flertal intervjuer och studier av forskningspublikationer och annan teknisk dokumentation visar att det finns flera olika datamodeller inom Trafikverket och att dessa inte alltid är kompatibla med varandra. Det finns också behov på Trafikverket av att kunna planera på både mikro- och makro-nivå. Förenklat kan man säga att om planeringen ska gå snabbt och kunna hantera större ändringar krävs en makro-modell, men om t.ex. påverkan av små infrastrukturförändringar ska analyseras är en mikro-modell nödvändig. När det kommer till möjligheterna för framtida stödsystem med automatisk tidtabellsgenerering så är de flesta modeller som utvecklats makro-modeller. Det finns dock vetenskapliga publikationer som presenterar metoder för att iterativt anpassa en makro-lösning så att den blir kompatibel även med en mikro-modell, samt för hur man kan konstruera en makro-modell som ger lösningar som är kompatibla med en underliggande mikro-modell.

    En intressant iakttagelse är att mikro-modeller företrädelsevis används vid strategisk planering och utbildning, medan man i operativ drift använder grövre modeller (undantaget EBICOS Trafikbilder). Detta väcker frågeställningar om vilken information det egentligen är som fjärrtågklarerare har behov av i det operativa skedet, och om tidtabellsprocessen är anpassat för att ta fram denna. Vi har i MIMA inte haft möjlighetatt intervjua driftledningspersonal, och detta är således en viktig uppgift för framtiden. Likaså vore det värdefullt om Trafikverket skapade en enad modellflora med både mikrooch makro-modeller för planering.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    MIMA_slutrapport
  • 132.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Slutrapport i projektet Processtöd för framtagning av tågplanerna T21 och T22 - TP2122: Den centraliserade Nya pricklistan version 12021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter en problematisk kapacitetstilldelningsprocess inför T20 genomfördes ett antal insatser för att förbättra långtidsprocessen för T21. En av dessa insatser var att uppdatera och centralisera den så kallade Pricklistan. Då tiden mellan projektstart och planeringsstart var kort, gjordes några riktade utvecklingar av den gamla pricklistan som bedömdes vara genomförbara och värdefulla. Den Nya pricklistan verkar ha gett gott resultat, då Processtöd kunde följa upp planeringsarbetet bättre än året tidigare och därmed få en bättre överblick av processen som helhet. Dessutom framskred planeringsarbetet i snabbare takt (mätt i antalet färdiga tåglägen), och antalet synpunkter och tvister minskade. Huruvida dessa senare effekter beror på Nya pricklistan eller annat förbättringsarbete är dock svårt att avgöra. Vi har med Nya pricklistan genomfört de ”mest lättplockade frukterna” med gott resultat. Detta bör ses som ett första steg mot att utveckla bättre stödverktyg för ärendehantering i långtidsprocessen. Även Nya pricklistan saknar många värdefulla funktioner så som automatisk uppdatering av varianter, prognoser för överlämningar och arbetstoppar samt möjligheten att följa upp KPI:er baserade på hur mycket skogstid ett tåg har fått. Dessutom kommer övergången till TPS innebära att processerna och arbetssätten för varianthantering behöver ses över, och nya rutiner kan behöva implementeras. Det är också viktigt att veta att TPS i dagsläget inte tillhandahåller något ärendehanteringssystem för den årliga kapacitetstilldelningsprocessen, och att funktionalitet liknande den i Nya pricklistan således är en typ av stödsystem som behöver utvecklas separat. En annan sorts problem som projektet stött på rör processen snarare än pricklistan. För att konstruera en tågplan behöver många planerare samarbeta för att lösa ett svårt problem under tidspress, vilket ställer höga krav på arbetsprocessens utformning. En rekommendation är att undersöka hur processen för att ta fram förslaget till tågplan kan utvecklas för att bättre stötta planerarna och ge en ökad samsynen på planeringsarbetet. En förebild kan vara de processramverk som används inom mjukvaruutveckling, såsom t.ex. SCRUM.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 133.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Flexibilitet för ökad kapacitet på Malmbanan2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    I denna rapport undersöks förutsättningar för LKAB att trafikera Malmbanan med större flexibilitet än vad dagens hantering och processer medger. Syftet att säkerställa leveranser och utnyttja transportresurser effektivt – utan att försämra förutsättningarna för annan trafik. Ett antal åtgärder har identifierats som avses förbättra flexibiliteten och anpassningsförmågan. Analys av dagens trafikering visar att trafikledningen redan idag har god förmåga att hantera trafiken flexibelt i avseendet att trafiken ofta avviker från tidtabellen, även om det saknas rutiner och stödsystem för att nyttja flexibiliteten på ett strukturerat sätt. Experiment med ett verktyg för tidtabellsoptimering visar att om man ger andra tåg möjlighet att ändra mellanliggande passagetider med 10 minuter så skapas möjlighet att både senarelägga och tidigarelägga avgångar samt möjlighet att addera kvalitativa tåglägen - utan att påverka andra tågs leveransåtaganden. Detta visar att nyttjande av tidtabellens inneboende flexibilitet skapar möjligheter för ytterligare flexibilitet i t.ex. form av ändrade avgångstider eller tillagda tåg.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 134.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Malmbanan 2025 - Slutrapport2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna genomföra optimeringarna krävdes viss utveckling av M2. Indata tillhandahölls dels av Trafikverket, dels av LKAB. För att hitta en bra lösning tillräckligt snabbt byggdes först en tidtabell upp genom att fler och fler tåg lades in iterativ, och sedan optimerades den giltiga tidtabellen utifrån flera olika målfunktioner. Denna metod beskrivs i ”Metod”.Resultaten var att flödena som lagts in kunde genomföras samtidigt som banarbetena fick den tid som krävdes. När LKAB utvärderade tidtabellen visade det sig dock att malmtågen flyttat på sig på ett sätt som innebär att det skulle krävas fler lok än dagens trafik. För att stoppa optimeringen från att göra sådana omflyttningar krävs nya villkor, vilka beskrivs i ”Framtida arbete”. Även villkor för att modellera hastighetsnedsättningar vore bra. Den sista men kanske viktigaste insikten från projektet är att ett närmare iterativt samarbete, där LKAB och Trafikverket i större utsträckning är med och analyserar olika optimerade tidtabeller och bestämmer hur optimeringsparametrarna ska justeras, nog hade resulterat i ett bättre slutresultat.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 135.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Kjellin, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Backman, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Association, Sweden.
    Slutrapport for Grafiska Prognostidtabeller2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver det arbete som utfördes i projektet Grafiska Prognostidtabeller (GRAPRO). Projektets mål var att undersöka om optimering kan vara ett stöd för kapacitetsanalytiker när en tidtabell ska konstrueras utifrån prognostiserade trafikdata. Rapporten inleds med en genomgång av analysmetoder som Trafikverket använder för att bedöma vilken trafik en viss infrastrukturutveckling kan hantera, och beskriver hur optimering passar in bland dessa metoder. Sedan presenteras den metodutveckling som gjorts inom projektet, och databehov och tillgång diskuteras. Metoden testas på ett exempelfall med infrastrukturförändringar i Skåne, och de resulterande tidtabellerna analyseras. Under projektet gång, och under arbetet med exempelfallet, identifierades ett flertal områden där ytterligare utveckling behövs för att den presenterade metoden ska kunna användas av en kapacitetsanalytiker, och rapporten avslutas med att dessa utvecklingsbehov diskuteras.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 136.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Timetable quality from the perspective of a railway infrastructure manager in a deregulated market: An interview study with Swedish practitioners2020Inngår i: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 100202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway capacity allocation in a deregulated market requires planners to solve a mathematically complex optimization problem while simultaneously arbitrating the wants and needs of different stakeholders. This paper analyses timetable quality from the perspective of timetable planners working for the Swedish infrastructure manager Trafikverket. Seven quality aspects are discussed: feasibility, disturbance resistance, competition management, capacity safeguarding, application fulfilment, attractiveness and compatibility with surrounding planning areas. Each aspect is introduced, including references to legal documents, development projects, and research literature. Further, an interview study with eight practitioners gives insight into the current state of practice in Sweden. The practitioners consider feasibility to be both most important and easiest to handle. Capacity safeguarding is considered least important, despite its prevalence in legal documents and envisioned process developments, and is also considered hardest to handle. In general, formal rules and guidelines seem important for emphasising the importance of a quality aspect in the planning process. To better support the planners in their arbitrating role, timetable planning tools based on mathematical optimization models could be implemented. For example, support tools could be used to analyse different solutions, and could unburden the planner from working with feasibility aspects by providing automatic conflict identification and resolution.

  • 137.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lind, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Multi-grounded action research2020Inngår i: Information Systems and E-Business Management, ISSN 1617-9846, E-ISSN 1617-9854, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 121-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The research approach of multi-grounded action research (MGAR) is presented and analyzed. This is based on a review of issues and concerns in information systems action research. MGAR builds on the epistemological principles of multi-grounding. This combines empirical, theoretical and internal grounding. The multi-grounded approach builds on elements from grounded theory; i.e. building theory inductively from data through coding procedures, but it also comprises an abductive use of extant theory. MGAR is described through six knowledge contributions: (1) the MGAR process model, (2) the MGAR knowledge model, (3) the MGAR theory model, (4) the principle of the multi-grounded change outcome, (5) the principle of the multi-grounded theory outcome and (6) the principle of mutuality of purposes. MGAR has been applied in an IT service management (ITSM) case, which serves an illustration and a validation of MGAR. In this MGAR case, the improvement of ITSM has been conducted and studied through a multi-organizational setting. In the case, there was a special focus on the service quality of IT services and the relations between service providers and customers. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 138.
    Grauers, Anders
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Enerbäck, Oscar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Total cost of ownership model and significant cost parameters for the design of electric bus systems2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 12, artikkel-id 3262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Without experiences of electric buses, public transport authorities and bus operators have faced questions about how to implement them in a cost-effective way. Simple cost modelling cannot show how costs for different types of electric buses differ between different routes and timetables. Tools (e.g., HASTUS, PtMS, and optibus) which can analyse such details are complicated, time consuming to use, and provide insufficient insights into the mechanisms that influence the cost. This paper therefore proposes a method for how to calculate total cost of ownership, for different types of electric buses, in a way which can predict how the cost varies based on route and timetable. The method excludes factors which cause minor cost variations in an almost random manor, in order to better show the fundamental mechanisms influencing different costs. The method will help in finding ways to reduce the cost and help to define a few cases which deserve a deep analysis with more complete tools. Testing of the method in a Swedish context showed that the results are in line with other theoretical and practical studies, and how the total cost of ownership can vary depending on the variables. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 139.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Alfredsson, Hampus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Börjesson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Jelica, Darijan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Sundelin, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Johnsson, Filip
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taljegård, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Halse, Askill Harkjerr
    Norwegian Institute of Transport Economics, Norway.
    Lina, Nordin
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Käck, Andreas
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Research & Innovation Platform for Electric Road Systems2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government has prioritized achieving a fossil fuel-independent vehicle fleet by 2030 which will require radical transformation of the transport industry. Electrifying the vehicle fleet forms an important part of this transformation. For light vehicles, electrification using batteries and charging during parking is already well advanced. For city buses, charging at bus stops and bus depots is being developed, but for heavy, long-distance road transport, batteries with enough capacity to provide sufficient range would be too cumbersome and too much time would have to be spent stationary for charging.

    One solution might be the introduction of electric roads, supplying the moving vehicle with electricity both to power running and for charging. In the longer term, this approach could also be used for light vehicles and buses.

    The objective of the Research and Innovation Platform for Electric Roads was to enhance Swedish and Nordic research and innovation in this field, this has been done by developing a joint knowledge base through collaboration with research institutions, universities, public authorities, regions, and industries.

    The work of the Research and Innovation Platform was intended to create clarity concerning the socioeconomic conditions, benefits, and other effects associated with electric roads. We have investigated the benefits from the perspectives of various actors, implementation strategies, operation and maintenance standards, proposed regulatory systems, and factors conducive of the acceptance and development of international collaborative activities.

    The project commenced in the autumn of 2016 and the main research continued until December 2019, the work during year 2020 has been focused on knowledge spread and coordination with the Swedish-Germany research collaboration on ERS (CollERS). The results of the Research and Innovation Platform have been disseminated through information meetings, seminars, and four annual international conferences. Reports have been published in the participating partners’ ordinary publication series and on www.electricroads.org. The project was funded by Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation (FFI) and the Swedish Transport Administration.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 140.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Maturity of power transfer technologies for electric road systems2020Inngår i: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, April 27-30, 2020, Helsinki, Finland, Finnish Transport and Communications Agency , 2020Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the method associated with Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and previous efforts, this article provides a maturity assessment of several electric road system (ERS) technologies with focus on the power transfer technology subsystem, and the transition context is also discussed. ERS involves electric power transfer from the road to the vehicle while the vehicle is in motion and could be achieved through different technologies such as rail, overhead line, and wireless solutions. ERS is a technology area with immense potential to reduce fossil fuel dependency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce air pollution as well as reduce noise in urban environments, while increasing energy efficiency in the transport sector. There are numerous promising ERS development and demonstration projects globally since several years. However, the investment cost for large-scale deployment of ERS is considerable and decision makers will require knowledge about how mature different solutions are compared to other transportation solutions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    TRA2020_Gustavsson_Lindgren_Maturity_ERS
  • 141.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Mottschall, Moritz
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Real-world experiences of ERS: Best practices from demonstration projects in Sweden and Germany2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Demonstration projects currently underway will test Electric Road Systems (ERS) along public roads and in real-life environments, addressing various legal, political, economic, and efficiency aspects of ERS. Public road tests provide decision makers and investors with a foundation for further investments that would bring ERS to commercial operation. 

    At the time of writing, Sweden and Germany together represent the largest collection of real-world experiences in ERS: The Swedish Transport Administration has funded four demonstration projects along public roads in Sweden, and has also initiated planning of a full-scale ERS pilot. Similarly, in Germany there are two ongoing demonstration projects along public roads and the German federal government is funding the construction of one additional demonstration project.

    The purpose of this report is to report best practices from

    • demonstrations of ERS technologies along public roads in Sweden, and
    • procurement and the start of ERS demonstration projects in Germany.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Real-world_expericences_of_ERS-CollERS-20200924
  • 142.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Mottschall, Moritz
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Hacker, Florian
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Jöhrens, Julius
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Johnsson, Filip
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taljegård, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bernecker, Tobias
    Heilbronn University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Almestrand Linné, Philip
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Key Messages on Electric Roads: Executive Summary from the CollERS Project2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric road systems (ERS) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. The market-ready ERS drive systems are characterised by high energy efficiency and low operational costs compared to fossil fuels and biofuels for combustion engines.

    The introduction of ERS will depend on governmental support, balancing the overall need for GHG-reduction with the business perspectives of the transport market and the energy market.

    There is an urgent need to establish standards for core components and important interfaces in order to build confidence among potential ERS users.

    Since ERS will take time to scale up, we should begin to transform the electricity system to meet the demand for ERS while also meeting GHG reduction goals aligned with strong climate policies.

    There is a need to clarify whether an ERS system is part of the road infrastructure market or the energy market, and to define the role of the public sector in ERS deployment.

    Since a significant part of long-haul road freight transport is international, ERS deployment will benefit from cross-country cooperation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    CollERS_Key_Messages_on_ERS_20210326
  • 143.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI, Sweden.
    Forsknings- och innovationsplattform för elvägar: Resultat från samarbete mellan forskning, industri och myndigheter2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att lyckas uppnå en fossilbränsleoberoende fordonsflotta och minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser krävs en radikal omvandling av transportbranschen. Att elektrifiera fordon är en viktig del i omvandlingen. En del av en sammansatt lösning kan vara elektriska vägar som förser fordon med el, för både framdrift och laddning, medan de kör. Med elvägar kan våra personbilar ha mindre batterier än i dagsläget, men ändå köra långt. Elbussar i stadstrafik behöver inte stanna och ladda på hållplatser. Utöver detta möjliggör elvägar elektrifiering av tunga långväga godstransporter, för vilka batterikapaciteten annars kan vara en utmaning. Forsknings- och innovations-plattform för elvägar Hur tar vi steget från att testa elvägsteknik till storskalig drift? Hur ser affärsekosystemet ut och hur kan gränssnitten standardiseras? Vilka är fördelarna för samhället? Aktörer från forskning, industri och myndigheter har samarbetat i ett gemensamt projekt för att tillsammans undersöka dessa frågor – och mycket mer. I det här dokumentet presenterar vi kortfattat projektets resultat per forskningsområde.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 144.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI, Sweden.
    Research & Innovation Platform for Electric Road Systems: Results from collaboration between research organizations, industry, and public authorities2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving a fossil fuel-independent vehicle fleet and reducing greenhouse gas emissions will require a radical transformation of the transport industry. Electrifying the vehicle fleet forms an important part of this transformation. One part of a complete, socieTy-wide solution could be electric roads that supply vehicles with electricity, to both power them and charge them as they drive. With electric roads, cars can have smaller batteries than at present, but still drive long distances. Electric buses in cities would not need to stop to charge at bus stops. Of equal significance, electric roads facilitate the electrification of heavy long-distance road freight, for which battery capacity would otherwise be a challenge. Research & Innovation Platform for Electric Road Systems How do we take the step from testing electric road technology to large-scale deployment? What does the business ecosystem look like and how can interfaces be standardized? What are the benefits to society? Actors from research organizations, industry, and public authorities have collaborated on a joint project to investigate these questions and much more. In this document, we briefly present the project’s results in each research area.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 145.
    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fordon och automatisering.
    Svenningstorp, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fordon och automatisering.
    Olausson, Ellen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Ljungberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fordon och automatisering.
    Almqvist, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fordon och automatisering.
    Miljanovic, Danijel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fordon och automatisering.
    SEEL – The New Test Centre for Research and Development on Electromobility2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    SEEL Swedish Electric Transport Laboratory is being established as a new independent test centre for research and development in the field of electromobility including batteries. The aim is to enhance knowledge development and to improve collaboration between enterprises and researchers. Electrification of the transport sector is to be speeded up at SEEL’s facilities in Borås, Gothenburg and Nykvarn in Sweden. SEEL works together with companies from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy and Poland in an important project of common European interest for batteries, IPCEI Batteries.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Full text
  • 146.
    Gutkin, Renaud
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Wirje, Anders
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Essvik, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Enebog, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Andersson, Oscar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Safe to circulate: public report2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 147.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Connected Automated Vehicles: Technologies, Developments, and Trends2021Inngår i: International Encyclopedia of Transportation / [ed] Roger Vickerman, Elsevier, 2021, s. 180-188Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 148.
    Hacker, Florian
    et al.
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Mottschall, Moritz
    Öko-Institut eV, Germany.
    Jöhrens, Julius
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Helms, Hinrich
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Kräck, Jan
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    Rücker, Julius
    ifeu Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Germany.
    National and EU freight transport strategies: Status quo and perspectives and implications for the introduction of electric road systems (ERS)2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    National and international freight transport in Europe is significantly influenced by both, national and the European Union (EU) strategies and regulations. The successful market launch of Electric Road Systems (ERS) can only succeed with knowledge of the current state of the European freight transport system and its framework conditions. Within the framework of the collERS project, a possible ERS corridor between Sweden and Germany via Denmark is being investigated. The present paper therefore examines the current strategic orientation of freight transport in the affected countries and at EU level with a view to a possible introduction of ERS. The aim is to identify barriers and opportunities for ERS on a national and European level as well as potential fields of governmental action and possible conflicts with regard to a successful international market ramp-up of ERS.

     

    After an overview of the economic and ecological importance of the European transport sector, the following section first deals with the development of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transport and especially in road freight transport at national and European level. In this context, strategies for reducing GHG emissions in transport that have been adopted so far will also be discussed.

     

    Subsequently, an overview of the socio-economic conditions in the countries considered and their logistics markets is given and possible opportunities and risks for the use of ERS are discussed.

     

    A look at the status and perspectives of freight transport in the countries under consideration and at the available transport infrastructure provides further indications of the importance that alternative drive technologies could have for road freight transport in the future.

     

    The analysis of the framework in terms of policy measures in the transport sector provides an overview of the conditions already existing or to be expected at EU and national level for the use of alternative propulsion technologies in road freight transport.

     

    Finally, based on the preceding analyses, the possible implications of the existing framework conditions in the transport sector for the introduction of ERS are discussed and potential fields of action are defined.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    CollERS_Freight_Transport_Strategies_ERS_20200603
  • 149.
    Hagman, Jens
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Hao Chen, Bobby
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Carlson, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Teknisk utveckling och beteende och påverkan på behov av infrastruktur2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna slutrapport är resultatet av ett direktuppdrag som tilldelades RISE Research Institute of Sweden AB, efter avrop från ramavtal, av Energimyndigheten i maj 2023. Direktuppdraget är en delmängd av regeringsuppdraget ”Handlingsprogram för laddinfrastruktur och tankinfrastruktur för vätgas”. Uppdraget har genomförts av tre forskare från RISE under perioden juni till augusti år 2023 med en total budget på 250 029 kr. Det huvudsakliga syftet har varit att belysa sex teknik- och användartrender inom elektromobilitet som har potential att påverka utbyggnadsbehovet av laddinfrastruktur och tankinfrastruktur för vätgas. De sex teknik- och användartrenderna som identifierats är: Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X), batteribyten, laddhybrider 2.0, batteristorlek, bilpooler och vätgas. Teknik- och användartrenderna har analyserats individuellt genom omvärldsanalys där marknads- och teknikmognad, ledande länder/regioner och företag samt aktuell forskning är huvudsakliga källor. Vidare har varje teknik- och användartrend analyserats utifrån deras möjliga påverkan på utbyggnadsbehovet av laddinfrastruktur eller tankinfrastruktur för vätgas. I rapporten används begreppen DC snabbladdning och AC destinationsladdning. DC snabbladdning utgår ifrån EU:s definition vilket inkluderar DC laddning över 50 kW, i denna rapport innefattas även DC laddning över 150 kW vilket av EU benämns som Ultrasnabbladdning1. AC destinationsladdning syftar i denna rapport på AC laddning på upp till 22 kW, vilket av EU klassificeras som långsam (upp till 7,4 kW) och mediumsnabb AC laddning2. Arbetet bör ses som en övergripande nulägesbild över hur dessa teknik- och användartrender har utvecklats och en preliminär kvalitativ bedömning av dess möjliga påverkan på Sveriges framtida behov av infrastruktur för laddning och vätgas. För huvuddelen av teknik- och användartrenderna råder alltjämt stor osäkerhet kring framtida utveckling och den möjliga påverkan på utbyggnadsbehovet av laddinfrastruktur och tankinfrastruktur för vätgas. Området har hittills fått lite uppmärksamhet i den vetenskapliga litteraturen. Rapporten är uppdelad i sex kapitel, ett kapitel per teknik- och användartrend.

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    fulltext
  • 150.
    Hagström, Björn
    et al.
    Hagström Consulting, Sweden.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Östling, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Hjelmestam, Eric
    Axell, Mattias
    Kolsjö, Magnus
    Popp Larsen, Claus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Rapport och rekommendationer från NSÖD2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom Nationell Skalning Öppna Data (NSÖD) har vi både genererat kunskap men också analyserat dokumenterade erfarenheter och råd från genomförda projekt och andra organisationer. I denna rapport har vi sammanställt dessa samlade erfarenheter och gör rekommendationer till andra om hur resultatet kan och bör hanteras vidare. De två huvudsakliga tilltänkta mottagarna av resultatet från NSÖD är DIGG och projektet Nationell dataverkstad för kommunal och regional datadelning (Dataverkstad) som samordnas av Västra Götalandsregionen (VGR). Det finns andra mindre användare av resultatet (t.ex. enskilda kommuner) och det kommer troligtvis finnas ännu fler längre fram men det är också troligt att DIGG och Dataverkstaden då har utvecklat arbetet och stödet ännu mer. Den viktigaste anledningen till att DIGG är mottagare är att undvika “projektdöden”, d.v.s. att projektets resultat riskerar bli bortglömt samt oförändrat efter projekttiden (och med tiden därför blir allt mindre relevant). Genom att DIGG tar emot material från NSÖD och gör det till en del av sitt befintliga stöd kan det leva vidare och uppdateras (särskilt vägledningar och rekommendationer). DIGG och NSÖD har dessutom arbetat nära tillsammans kring flera viktiga projektleveranser så att resultatet direkt ägs och förvaltas av DIGG. Leveranserna från NSÖD har alltså varit anpassade för att enkelt kunna tas över och förvaltas av DIGG. Den främsta anledningen till Dataverkstaden som mottagare är att det projektet kan och bör fortsätta det mer praktiska arbete som NSÖD har bedrivit. Det finns praktiska lärdomar och erfarenheter som är direkt relevanta för Dataverkstaden. I viss mån finns också formellt stöd som VGR borde ta över och förvalta och utveckla. Det gäller framför allt vägledningar och specifikationer för hur specifika mängder av öppna data bör formateras och publiceras.

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