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  • 101.
    Murase, Kohei
    et al.
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Peter
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Palmquist, Anders
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Three-dimensional modeling of removal torque and fracture progression around implants.2018Inngår i: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 29, nr 7, artikkel-id 104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, a model for simulations of removal torque experiments was developed using finite element method. The interfacial retention and fracturing of the surrounding material caused by the surface features during torque was analyzed. It was hypothesized that the progression of removal torque and the phases identified in the torque response plot represents sequential fractures at the interface. The 3-dimensional finite element model fairly accurately predicts the torque required to break the fixation of acid-etched implants, and also provides insight to how sequential fractures progress downwards along the implant side.

  • 102.
    Murugan, A.
    et al.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    de Huu, M.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Sweden.
    Bacquart, T.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    van Wijk, J.
    VSI, Netherlands.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    te Ronde, I.
    NEN, Netherlands.
    Hemfrey, D.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Measurement challenges for hydrogen vehicles2019Inngår i: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Uptake of hydrogen vehicles is an ideal solution for countries that face challenging targets for carbon dioxide reduction. The advantage of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles is that they behave in a very similar way to petrol engines yet they do not emit any carbon containing products during operation. The hydrogen industry currently faces the dilemma that they must meet certain measurement requirements (set by European legislation) but cannot do so due to a lack of available methods and standards. This paper outlines the four biggest measurement challenges that are faced by the hydrogen industry including flow metering, quality assurance, quality control and sampling.

  • 103.
    Nilebäck, Linnea
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedin, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Widhe, Mona
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Floderus, Lotta S
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Krona, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bysell, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Self-Assembly of Recombinant Silk as a Strategy for ChemicalFree Formation of Bioactive Coatings – a Real-Time Study2017Inngår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 846-854Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Functionalization of biomaterials with biologically active peptides can improve their performance after implantation. By genetic fusion to self-assembling proteins, the functional peptides can easily be presented on different physical formats. Herein, a chemical-free coating method based on self-assembly of the recombinant spider silk protein 4RepCT is described and used to prepare functional coatings on various biomaterial surfaces. The silk assembly was studied in real-time, revealing occurrence of continuous assembly of silk proteins onto surfaces and formation of nanofibrillar structures. The adsorbed amounts and viscoelastic properties were evaluated, and the coatings were shown to be stable against wash with hydrogen chloride, sodium hydroxide, and ethanol. Titanium, stainless steel, and hydroxyapatite were coated with silk fused to an antimicrobial peptide or a motif from fibronectin. Human primary cells cultured on the functional silk coatings show good cell viability and proliferation, implying potential to improve implant performance and acceptance by the body.

  • 104.
    Nilebäck, Linnea
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Widhe, Mona
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Seijsing, Johan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Bysell, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Sharma, Prashant K
    University of Groningen, Netherlands; University Medical Center of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bioactive Silk Coatings Reduce the Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus while Supporting Growth of Osteoblast-like Cells.2019Inngår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthopedic and dental implants are associated with a substantial risk of failure due to biomaterial-associated infections and poor osseointegration. To prevent such outcomes, a coating can be applied on the implant to ideally both reduce the risk of bacterial adhesion and support establishment of osteoblasts. We present a strategy to construct dual-functional silk coatings with such properties. Silk coatings were made from a recombinant partial spider silk protein either alone (silkwt) or fused with a cell-binding motif derived from fibronectin (FN-silk). The biofilm-dispersal enzyme Dispersin B (DspB) and two peptidoglycan degrading endolysins, PlySs2 and SAL-1, were produced recombinantly. A sortase recognition tag (SrtTag) was included to allow site-specific conjugation of each enzyme onto silkwt and FN-silk coatings using an engineered variant of the transpeptidase Sortase A (SrtA*). To evaluate bacterial adhesion on the samples, Staphylococcus aureus was incubated on the coatings and subsequently subjected to live/dead staining. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a reduced number of bacteria on all silk coatings containing enzymes. Moreover, the bacteria were mobile to a higher degree, indicating a negative influence on the bacterial adhesion. The capability to support mammalian cell interactions was assessed by cultivation of the osteosarcoma cell line U-2 OS on dual-functional surfaces, prepared by conjugating the enzymes onto FN-silk coatings. U-2 OS cells could adhere to silk coatings with enzymes and showed high spreading and viability, demonstrating good cell compatibility.

  • 105.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Moyassari, Ali
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bautista, Angela
    E2F Electroficación y Estudios Ferroviarios, Spain.
    Castro, Abraham
    E2F Electroficación y Estudios Ferroviarios, Spain.
    Arbeloa, Ignacio
    Amayuelas SL, Spain.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Lundgren, Urban
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Johansson, Kenth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Modelling anti-icing of railway overhead catenary wires by resistive heating2019Inngår i: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, ISSN 0017-9310, E-ISSN 1879-2189, Vol. 143, artikkel-id 118505Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aggregation of ice on electrical cables and apparatus can cause severe equipment malfunction and is thus considered as a serious problem, especially in arctic climate zones. In particular, cable damage caused by ice accumulation on railway catenary wires is in wintertime a common origin for delayed trains in the northern parts of Europe. This study examines how resistive heating can be used for preventing formation of ice on metallic, non-insulated electrical cables. The heat equation and the Navier Stokes equations were solved simultaneously with FEM in 3D in order to predict the cable temperature as function of external temperature, applied voltage, wind speed, wind direction, and heating time. An analytical expression for the heat transfer coefficient was derived from the FEM simulations and it was concluded that the influence of wind direction can typically be neglected. Experimental validation measurements were performed on Kanthal cables in a climate chamber, giving temperature increase results in good agreement with the simulation predictions. The resistive heating efficiency, i.e. the ratio between applied electrical energy and resulting thermal energy, was found to be approximately 68% in this particular study.

  • 106.
    Nuzzo, Marine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sloth Overgaard, Jakob
    GEA Process Engineering AS, Denmark.
    Bergenståhl, Bjorn
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    The morphology and internal composition of dried particles from whole milk—From single droplet to full scale drying2017Inngår i: Food Structure, ISSN 2213-3291, Vol. 13, s. 35-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Powder structure and functionality are expected to be closely linked to the composition and drying process. In order to understand the optimization of the quality of a powder, e.g. encapsulation efficiency, or wetting and dispersion properties, monitoring of the particle microstructure is an attractive concept. However, to study the impact of different parameters in formulation and drying process on full scale is complicated and expensive, hence, studies on smaller scale, even single particle drying, is a potentially useful complement, as long as the results are comparable. The aim of this study is to compare morphology and internal composition of whole milk particles produced at different dryer scales to assess the development of internal structure in powder formed by spray drying. Whole milk was spray dried in the single particle dryer, laboratory dryer, pilot plant dryer and full scale dryer. The morphology and composition of the particles obtained were analyzed by low vacuum-SEM, confocal Raman microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Phenomena such as adsorption of surface active compounds at the particle surface and phase segregation are observed to different extent, depending on particle size and drying time. The scale of drying influences the internal microstructure and distribution of components in the particles, and to a small extent also the external morphology. These effects are proposed to be related to the drying times for different droplet sizes, although mechanical handling effects and agglomeration in the full scale dryer may also influence the final morphology of these particles, as well as the surface composition.

  • 107.
    Oorni, Katariina
    et al.
    Wihuri Research Institute, Finland.
    Lehti, Satu
    Wihuri Research Institute, Finland.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Kovanen, Petri T.
    Wihuri Research Institute, Finland.
    Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins as a Source of Proinflammatory Lipids in the Arterial Wall2019Inngår i: Current Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0929-8673, E-ISSN 1875-533X, Vol. 26, nr 9, s. 1701-1710Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Apolipoprotein B -containing lipoproteins include triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and their remnants, and very low-density lipoproteins and their remnants) and cholesterol-rich low-density lipoprotein particles. Of these, lipoproteins having sizes below 70-80 nm may enter the arterial wall, where they accumulate and induce the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. The processes that lead to accumulation of lipoprotein-derived lipids in the arterial wall have been largely studied with a focus on the low-density lipoprotein particles. However, recent observational and genetic studies have discovered that the triglyceriderich lipoproteins and their remnants are linked with cardiovascular disease risk. In this review, we describe the potential mechanisms by which the triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins can contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions, and highlight the differences in the atherogenicity between low-density lipoproteins and the remnant lipoproteins.[on SciFinder (R)]

  • 108.
    Pansch, Christian
    et al.
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Per R.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Pinori, Emiliano
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    A new flow-through bioassay for testing low-emission antifouling coatings2017Inngår i: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 33, nr 8, s. 613-623Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Current antifouling (AF) technologies are based on the continuous release of biocides into the water, and consequently discharge into the environment. Major efforts to develop more environmentally friendly coatings require efficient testing in laboratory assays, followed by field studies. Barnacles are important fouling organisms worldwide, increasing hydrodynamic drag on ships and damaging coatings on underwater surfaces, and thus are extensively used as models in AF research, mostly in static, laboratory-based systems. Reliable flow-through test assays for the screening of biocide-containing AF paints, however, are rare. Herein, a flow-through bioassay was developed to screen for diverse low-release biocide paints, and to evaluate their effects on pre- and post-settlement traits in barnacles. The assay distinguishes between the effects from direct surface contact and bulk-water effects, which are crucial when developing low-emission AF coatings. This flow-through bioassay adds a new tool for rapid laboratory-based first-stage screening of candidate compounds and novel AF formulations.

  • 109.
    Pedersen, Emma
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Fant, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Guidance Document on Good In Vitro Method Practices (GIVIMP): Series on Testing and Assessment No. 2862018Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 110.
    Persson, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Royen, Hugo
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Filipsson, Staffan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    A Photocatalytic Membrane: for Treatment of Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Toxic organics, pharmaceuticals and antibiotics are currently only partially or not at all removed from wastewater, as today’s wastewater treatment will only partly degrade those substances. Therefore, those substances will be found in the effluent from wastewater treatment plants and this can be a threat to both human health and aquatic species.

    Photocatalytic membranes show great promise as a method to combat the challenge of toxic organics in wastewater. The novel photocatalytic membrane developed in the project was shown to photocatalytically decompose organic compounds such as pharmaceutical residues and dyes in both tap water and treated effluent from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment process. Several parameters affecting the affinity of the pharmaceuticals to the membrane surface, such as the hydrophobicity and pKa of the pharmaceuticals and the pH of the water, were shown to affect the efficacy of the removal.

    Finally, when irradiated with UV light the photocatalytic membrane showed promise of keeping high flux and reducing downtime by lengthening the cleaning cycle.

  • 111.
    Petersen, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Enebro, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Solid-state organo-modification of montmorillonite for manufacturing of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) nanocomposites2018Inngår i: Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, ISSN 1083-5601, Vol. 24, s. E146-E153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The preparation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites via direct melt processing is still posing problems mainly because of the lack of availability of suitable commercial organoclays and because of the low thermal stability of PVC. A new type of organic compounds for modifying montmorillonite (MMT), which is suitable for use in plasticized PVC, has been found earlier. The current study shows that it is possible to achieve partially exfoliated PVC nanocomposites with greatly improved mechanical properties using a method of liquid-solid–state intercalation of MMT when using tributyl citrate and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) plasticizers as organic modifiers. It is also shown that liquid mixed metal stabilizers have the ability to intercalate the clay at least when DINP is used. The observation raises questions regarding how this phenomenon can affect the thermal stability of PVC composites. J. VINYL ADDIT. TECHNOL., 24:E146–E153, 2018. © 2017 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  • 112.
    Pettersson, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sven
    Babcock & Wilcox Vølund AB, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bäfver, Linda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Investigation of the Collection Efficiency of a Wet Electrostatic Precipitator at a Municipal Solid Waste-Fueled Combined Heat and Power Plant Using Various Measuring Methods2019Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 5282-5292Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports results from measurements of mainly submicrometer particles at the inlet and outlet of a newly designed industrial wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) in a combined heat and power plant fueled with municipal solid waste. The measurements were carried out with dual electric low-pressure impactors in parallel at the precipitator inlet and outlet. In addition, measurements were carried out with traditional total dust filters, low-pressure impactors, a scanning mobility particle sizer, and an aerodynamic particle sizer. The measurements aimed to characterize the aerosol particles and measure the efficiency of the WESP with special attention to fine and ultrafine particles. In general, the WESP performance and response to varying conditions was found to be in line with predictions made for the design. The WESP featured a cooled collector surface, but based on the limited results, no conclusion could be drawn regarding any possible improvement from collector cooling. The characterization of the aerosol particulate matter was challenging because of fast fluctuations in particle concentration. Methodological considerations are pointed out, mainly regarding the SMPS and ELPI measuring systems.

  • 113.
    Pilkington, Georgia A.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Harris, Kathryn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergendal, Erik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Reddy, Akepati Bhaskar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Palsson, Gunnar K.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vorobiev, Alexei
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Antzutkin, Oleg N.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden ; Ghent University, Belgium.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Electro-responsivity of ionic liquid boundary layers in a polar solvent revealed by neutron reflectance2018Inngår i: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 148, nr 19, artikkel-id 193806Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using neutron reflectivity, the electro-responsive structuring of the non-halogenated ionic liquid (IL) trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium-bis(mandelato)borate, [P6,6,6,14][BMB], has been studied at a gold electrode surface in a polar solvent. For a 20% w/w IL mixture, contrast matched to the gold surface, distinct Kiessig fringes were observed for all potentials studied, indicative of a boundary layer of different composition to that of the bulk IL-solvent mixture. With applied potential, the amplitudes of the fringes from the gold-boundary layer interface varied systematically. These changes are attributable to the differing ratios of cations and anions in the boundary layer, leading to a greater or diminished contrast with the gold electrode, depending on the individual ion scattering length densities. Such electro-responsive changes were also evident in the reflectivities measured for the pure IL and a less concentrated (5% w/w) IL-solvent mixture at the same applied potentials, but gave rise to less pronounced changes. These measurements, therefore, demonstrate the enhanced sensitivity achieved by contrast matching the bulk solution and that the structure of the IL boundary layers formed in mixtures is strongly influenced by the bulk concentration. Together these results represent an important step in characterising IL boundary layers in IL-solvent mixtures and provide clear evidence of electro-responsive structuring of IL ions in their solutions with applied potential.

  • 114.
    Raj, Akanksha
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Min
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Liu, Chao
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ali, Liaquat
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Niclas G.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi, material och ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dėdinaitė, Andra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi, material och ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Molecular synergy in biolubrication: The role of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in surface-structuring of lubricin2017Inngår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 495, s. 200-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypothesis Synovial surfaces are lubricated by biomolecular aggregates that act in synergy, and lubricin is one key biolubricant. Its molecular structure allows extensive hydration and this is conducive to its lubrication performance. However, in order to fullfil its lubrication function it needs to be anchored and oriented on the surface in a proper way. We suggest that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is one of the biomolecules that promotes anchoring of lubricin in a fashion that facilitates lubrication. Experiments Weakly hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces were coated by COMP and lubricin, individually and in combinations. Adsorption was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance, and friction between the biopolymer-coated surfaces was determined by employing the atomic force microscope-colloidal probe technique. Findings It was found that COMP facilitated firm directed attachment of lubricin in a manner that resulted in low friction forces, significantly lower than what was achieved when lubricin was directly adsorbed to PMMA. Evidently, COMP provides means for lubricin to attach strongly and in a favourable conformation for efficient lubrication of this surface. We suggest that our findings can be extrapolated to cartilage surfaces, where co-localization of COMP and lubricin has been demonstrated.

  • 115.
    Raj, Akanksha
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Min
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zander, Thomas
    Institute for Materials Research, Germany.
    Wieland, D. C. Florian
    Institute for Materials Research, Germany.
    Liu, Xiaoyan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An, Junxue
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Garamus, Vasil M.
    Institute for Materials Research, Germany.
    Willumeit-Römer, Regine
    Institute for Materials Research, Germany.
    Fielden, Matthew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi, material och ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dėdinaitė, Andra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi, material och ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lubrication synergy: Mixture of hyaluronan and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles2017Inngår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 488, s. 225-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Phospholipids and hyaluronan have been implied to fulfil important roles in synovial joint lubrication. Since both components are present in synovial fluid, self-assembly structures formed by them should also be present. We demonstrate by small angle X-ray scattering that hyaluronan associates with the outer shell of dipalmitoylphophatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles in bulk solution. Further, we follow adsorption to silica from mixed hyaluronan/DPPC vesicle solution by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation measurements. Atomic Force Microscope imaging visualises the adsorbed layer structure consisting of non-homogeneous phospholipid bilayer with hyaluronan/DPPC aggregates on top. The presence of these aggregates generates a long-range repulsive surface force as two such surfaces are brought together. However, the aggregates are easily deformed, partly rearranged into multilayer structures and partly removed from between the surfaces under high loads. These layers offer very low friction coefficient (<0.01), high load bearing capacity (≈23 MPa), and self-healing ability. Surface bound DPPC/hyaluronan aggregates provide a means for accumulation of lubricating DPPC molecules on sliding surfaces.

  • 116.
    Rissler, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. Lund University, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nicklasson, Hanna
    SUS, Sweden.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wollmer, Per
    SUS, Sweden.
    Löndahl, Jacob
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Deposition efficiency of inhaled particles (15-5000 nm) related to breathing pattern and lung function: An experimental study in healthy children and adults2017Inngår i: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, ISSN 1743-8977, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikkel-id 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to airborne particles has a major impact on global health. The probability of these particles to deposit in the respiratory tract during breathing is essential for their toxic effects. Observations have shown that there is a substantial variability in deposition between subjects, not only due to respiratory diseases, but also among individuals with healthy lungs. The factors determining this variability are, however, not fully understood. Method: In this study we experimentally investigate factors that determine individual differences in the respiratory tract depositions of inhaled particles for healthy subjects at relaxed breathing. The study covers particles of diameters 15-5000 nm and includes 67 subjects aged 7-70 years. A comprehensive examination of lung function was performed for all subjects. Principal component analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to explore the relationships between subject characteristics and particle deposition. Results: A large individual variability in respiratory tract deposition efficiency was found. Individuals with high deposition of a certain particle size generally had high deposition for all particles <3500 nm. The individual variability was explained by two factors: breathing pattern, and lung structural and functional properties. The most important predictors were found to be breathing frequency and anatomical airway dead space. We also present a linear regression model describing the deposition based on four variables: tidal volume, breathing frequency, anatomical dead space and resistance of the respiratory system (the latter measured with impulse oscillometry). Conclusions: To understand why some individuals are more susceptible to airborne particles we must understand, and take into account, the individual variability in the probability of particles to deposit in the respiratory tract by considering not only breathing patterns but also adequate measures of relevant structural and functional properties.

  • 117.
    Rissler, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. Lund University, Sweden .
    Nicklasson, Hanna
    SUS, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Wollmer, Per
    SUS, Sweden.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Löndahl, Jakob
    Lund University, Sweden .
    A set-up for respiratory tract deposition efficiency measurements (15–5000 nm) and first results for a group of children and adults2017Inngår i: Aerosol and Air Quality Research, ISSN 1680-8584, E-ISSN 2071-1409, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 1244-1255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter is associated with a number of negative health effects ranging from respiratorydiseases to systemic effects and cancer. One important factor for understanding the health effects is the individual variationin the respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles. In this study, we describe an experimental set-up for size-resolvedmeasurements of the lung deposited fraction of airborne particles, covering the diameter range from 15 to 5000 nm. Theset-up includes a system for generating a stable aerosol with a sufficiently broad size distribution. We used a scanningmobility particle sizer and an aerodynamic particle sizer to determine particle number and size. The set-up was used toinvestigate individual differences in the deposition fraction (DF) of particles in the respiratory tract for a group of 67subjects of both sexes aged 7–70 years. The measured DF was applied to two model aerosols, one representing an urbanenvironment and one a rural environment, and the particle deposition rates were derived (i.e., the deposited amount ofparticles per unit time). Furthermore, the deposition rates were normalized to lung surface area and body mass – two dosemeasures that are considered relevant for the health effects of airborne particles. In addition to validation of the set-up, weshow that there is a large individual variation in DF, with some subjects having a DF that is more than twice as high as thatof others. Although we observe differences in the DF between different subgroups, most individual variation wasexplained neither by age nor by gender. When normalizing the deposition rates to lung surface area or body mass, thedeposition rates of children become significantly higher than those of adults. Furthermore, the individual variability islarger for the lung surface area or body mass normalized deposition rates than for DF

  • 118.
    Rouhi, Mohammad
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Juntikka, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Landberg, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Assessing models for the prediction of mechanical properties for the recycled short fibre composites2019Inngår i: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 38, nr 10, s. 454-466Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing of polymer fibre composites has a remarkable influence on their mechanical performance. These mechanical properties are even more influenced when using recycled reinforcement. Therefore, we place particular attention on the evaluation of micromechanical models to estimate the mechanical properties and compare them against the experimental results of the manufactured composites from recycled carbon fibre material. For the manufacturing process, an epoxy matrix and carbon fibre production cut-offs as reinforcing material are incorporated using a vacuum infusion process. In addition, continuous textile reinforcement in combination with the epoxy matrix is used as reference material to evaluate the degradation of mechanical performance of the recycled composite. The experimental results show higher degradation of the composite strength compared to the stiffness properties. Observations from the modelling also show the same trend as the deviation between the theoretical and experimental results is lower for stiffness comparisons than the strength calculations. Yet still, good mechanical performance for specific applications can be expected from these materials.

  • 119.
    Rouhi, Mohammad
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    SIMULATION OF 3D PREPREG CONSOLIDATIONPROCESS USING SOLID SHELL ELEMENTS2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In process simulation of composite materials, 3D simulation of manufacturing processes is desirableconsidering the manufacturing trend where parts became more complex leading to complex3D stress-strain states. Moreover, coupling of sub-processes that are happening simultaneouslysuch as macro-scale preform processes, micro-infiltration and solid and fluid interactionrequires full 3D description of the problem.The development is exemplified considering compression moulding process of prepregs wherethe main focus of the modeling will be on the compression and compaction of directionalprepreg laminate and flow consolidation. To this end, the theory of two phase porous mediais used along with assuming hyper-elastic material response for the laminate to formulatethe problem. A finite element formulation and implementation of the two-phase problem is developedfor incompressible constituents and is implemented in a user defined element (UEL)to be used with Abaqus.

  • 120.
    Rozenbaum, Rene
    et al.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Su, Linzhu
    University of Groningen, Netherlands; Nankai University, China.
    Umerska, Anita
    Université Bretagne, France.
    Eveillard, Matthiou
    Université de Nantes, France.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Mahlapuu, Margit
    Promore Pharma, Sweden.
    Huang, Fan
    Peking Union Medical College, China.
    Liu, Jian feng
    Peking Union Medical College, China.
    Zhang, Zhenkun
    Nankai University, China.
    Shi, Linqi
    Nankai University, China.
    van der Mei, Henny
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Busscher, Henk
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Sharma, Prashant
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Antimicrobial synergy of monolaurin lipid nanocapsules with adsorbed antimicrobial peptides against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in vitro is absent in vivo2019Inngår i: Journal of Controlled Release, ISSN 0168-3659, E-ISSN 1873-4995, Vol. 293, s. 73-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial infections are mostly due to bacteria in their biofilm-mode of growth, while penetrability of antimicrobials into infectious biofilms and increasing antibiotic resistance hamper infection treatment. In-vitro, monolaurin lipid nanocapsules (ML-LNCs) carrying adsorbed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) displayed synergistic efficacy against planktonic Staphylococcus aureus, but it has not been demonstrated, neither in-vitro nor in-vivo, that such ML-LNCs penetrate into infectious S. aureus biofilms and maintain synergy with AMPs. This study investigates the release mechanism of AMPs from ML-LNCs and possible antimicrobial synergy of ML-LNCs with the AMPs DPK-060 and LL-37 against S. aureus biofilms in-vitro and in a therapeutic, murine, infected wound-healing model. Zeta potentials demonstrated that AMP release from ML-LNCs was controlled by the AMP concentration in suspension. Both AMPs demonstrated no antimicrobial efficacy against four staphylococcal strains in a planktonic mode, while a checkerboard assay showed synergistic antimicrobial efficacy when ML-LNCs and DPK-060 were combined, but not for combinations of ML-LNCs and LL-37. Similar effects were seen for growth reduction of staphylococcal biofilms, with antimicrobial synergy persisting only for ML-LNCs at the highest level of DPK-060 or LL-37 adsorption. Healing of wounds infected with bioluminescent S. aureus Xen36, treated with ML-LNCs alone, was faster when treated with PBS, while AMPs alone did not yield faster wound-healing than PBS. Faster, synergistic wound-healing due to ML-LNCs with adsorbed DPK-060, was absent in-vivo. Summarizing, antimicrobial synergy of ML-LNCs with adsorbed antimicrobial peptides as seen in-vitro, is absent in in-vivo healing of infected wounds, likely because host AMPs adapted the synergistic role of the AMPs added. Thus, conclusions regarding synergistic antimicrobial efficacy, should not be drawn from planktonic data, while even in-vitro biofilm data bear little relevance for the in-vivo situation. © 2018

  • 121.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Chemical physics of electroactive materials: Concluding remarks2017Inngår i: Faraday discussions (Online), ISSN 1359-6640, E-ISSN 1364-5498, Vol. 199, s. 615-630Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is an honour to be charged with providing the concluding remarks for a Faraday Discussion. As many have remarked before, it is nonetheless a prodigious task, and what follows is necessarily a personal, and probably perverse, view of a watershed event in the Chemical Physics of Electroactive materials. The spirit of the conference was captured in a single sentence during the meeting itself. "It is the nexus between rheology, electrochemistry, colloid science and energy storage". The current scientific climate is increasingly dominated by a limited number of global challenges, and there is thus a tendency for research to resemble a football match played by 6 year olds, where everyone on the field chases the (funding) ball instead of playing to their "discipline". It is thus reassuring to see how the application of rigorous chemical physics is leading to ingenious new solutions for both energy storage and harvesting, via, for example, nanoactuation, electrowetting, ionic materials and nanoplasmonics. In fact, the same language of chemical physics allows seamless transition between applications as diverse as mechano-electric energy generation, active moisture transport and plasmonic shutters-even the origins of life were addressed in the context of electro-autocatalysis!.

  • 122.
    Schweitzer, Mary
    et al.
    North Carolina State University, USA; North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, USA; Lund University, Sweden.
    Zheng, Wenxia
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Moyer, Alison
    Drexel University, USA.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Preservation potential of keratin in deep time2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple fossil discoveries and taphonomic experiments have established the durability of keratin. The utility and specificity of antibodies to identify keratin peptides has also been established, both in extant feathers under varying treatment conditions, and in feathers from extinct organisms. Here, we show localization of feather-keratin antibodies to control and heat-treated feathers, testifying to the repeatability of initial data supporting the preservation potential of keratin. We then show new data at higher resolution that demonstrates the specific response of these antibodies to the feather matrix, we support the presence of protein in heat-treated feathers using ToF-SIMS, and we apply these methods to a fossil feather preserved in the unusual environment of sinter hot springs. We stress the importance of employing realistic conditions such as sediment burial when designing experiments intended as proxies for taphonomic processes occurring in the fossil record. Our data support the hypothesis that keratin, particularly the β-keratin that comprises feathers, has potential to preserve in fossil remains.

  • 123.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Parenteau, Mary
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA.
    Jahnke, Linda
    NASA Ames Research Center, USA.
    Cady, Sherry
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA.
    A comparative ToF-SIMS and GC–MS analysis of phototrophic communities collected from an alkaline silica-depositing hotspring2017Inngår i: Organic Geochemistry, ISSN 0146-6380, E-ISSN 1873-5290, Vol. 109, s. 14-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of few techniques that is able to spatially resolve chemical data, including organic molecules, to morphologicalfeatures in modern and ancient geological samples, is time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry(ToF-SIMS). The ability to connect chemical data to morphology is key for interpreting thebiogenicity of preserved remains in ancient samples. However, due to the lack of reference data for geologicallyrelevant samples and the ease with which samples can be contaminated, ToF-SIMS data may bedifficult to interpret. In this project, we aimed to build a ToF-SIMS spectral database by performing parallelToF-SIMS and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses of extant photosyntheticmicrobial communities collected from an alkaline silica-depositing hot spring in Yellowstone NationalPark, USA. We built the library by analyzing samples of increasing complexity: pure lipid standards commonlyfound in thermophilic phototrophs, solvent extracts of specific lipid fractions, total lipid extracts,pure cultures of dominant phototrophic community members, and unsilicified phototrophic streamercommunities.The results showed that important lipids and pigments originating from phototrophs were detected byToF-SIMS (e.g., wax esters, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, sufloquinovosyldiaglycerol,alkanes, etc.) in the streamer lipid extracts. Many of the lipids were also detected in situin the unsilicified streamer, and could even be spatially resolved to individual cells within the streamercommunity. Together with the ToF-SIMS database, this mapping ability will be used to further exploreother microbial mats and their fossilized counterparts in the geological record. This is likely to expandthe geochemical understanding of these types of samples.

  • 124.
    Sjövall, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Pomerantz, Andrew E.
    Schlumberger-Doll Research, USA.
    Lu, Xiaohu
    Nynäs AB, Sweden.
    Mullins, Oliver C.
    Schlumberger-Doll Research, USA.
    Time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) study of diverse asphaltenes2018Inngår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 220, s. 638-644Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass spectrometry has been used to elucidate a large variety of properties of asphaltenes. Here, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is used to probe three diverse asphaltene types with wide ranging fractions of alkyl carbon to the sum of alkyl plus aromatic carbon (Rc), immature source rock asphaltenes (ISA with Rc ∼ 0.75); petroleum asphaltenes (PA with Rc ∼ 0.5); and coal-derived asphaltenes (CDA with Rc ∼ 0.25). In addition, the asphaltenes from a commercial bitumen are examined. Primary ion surface bombardment using the Bi3 + ion yields high energy density of deposition and significant molecular fragmentation with secondary ion formation. Formation of free radical cation fragments is generally suppressed especially for smaller fragments except for specific cases. Possible structures, especially cations of common aromatic compounds, are suggested for fragments with relatively large cross section of formation. Principal component analysis of the fragmentograms allows identification of key properties of the complex fragmentation patterns for the different samples. Comparisons of TOF-SIMS fragmentograms show a fundamental difference for small fragments between CDAs and all petroleum derived asphaltenes with CDAs being dominated by aromatic carbon fragments whereas all petroleum derived asphaltenes show a large fraction of fragments from alkyl carbon. However, the type of alkyl carbon fragments did not exhibit systematic trends with Rc, nor with the extent of chemical reaction or chemical processing of the materials. Consequently, it appears that having an appreciable alkane fraction is a basic property of petroleum derived asphaltenes, but the exact type of alkane carbon for differing samples of these asphaltenes is more idiosyncratic than systematic. 

  • 125.
    Sjövall, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Skedung, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Yta, process och formulering.
    Gregoire, Sébastien
    L’OREAL Research and Innovation, France.
    Biganska, Olga
    L’OREAL Research and Innovation, France.
    Clément, Franck
    L’OREAL Research and Innovation, France.
    Luengo, Gustavo S
    L’OREAL Research and Innovation, France.
    Imaging the distribution of skin lipids and topically applied compounds in human skin using mass spectrometry2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikkel-id 16683Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The barrier functions of skin against water loss, microbial invasion and penetration of xenobiotics rely, in part, on the spatial distribution of the biomolecular constituents in the skin structure, particularly its horny layer (stratum corneum). However, all skin layers are important to describe normal and dysfunctional skin conditions, and to develop adapted therapies or skin care products. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to image the spatial distribution of a variety of molecular species, from stratum corneum down to dermis, in cross-section samples of human abdominal skin. The results demonstrate the expected localization of ceramide and saturated long-chain fatty acids in stratum corneum (SC) and cholesterol sulfate in the upper part of the viable epidermis. The localization of exogenous compounds is demonstrated by the detection and imaging of carvacrol (a constituent of oregano or thyme essential oil) and ceramide, after topical application onto ex vivo human skin. Carvacrol showed pronounced accumulation to triglyceride-containing structures in the deeper parts of dermis. In contrast, the exogenous ceramide was found to be localized in SC. Furthermore, the complementary character of this approach with classical ex vivo skin absorption analysis methods is demonstrated.

  • 126.
    Skedung, Lisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    El Rawadi, Charles
    L Oreal Research and Innovation, France.
    Arvidsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Farcet, Celine
    L Oreal Research and Innovation, France.
    Luengo, Gustavo S
    L Oreal Research and Innovation, France.
    Breton, Lionel
    L Oreal Research and Innovation, France.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mechanisms of tactile sensory deterioration amongst the elderly2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikkel-id 5303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that roughness-smoothness, hardness-softness, stickiness-slipperiness and warm-cold are predominant perceptual dimensions in macro-, micro- and nano- texture perception. However, it is not clear to what extent active tactile texture discrimination remains intact with age. The general decrease in tactile ability induces physical and emotional dysfunction in elderly, and has increasing significance for an aging population. We report a method to quantify tactile acuity based on blinded active exploration of systematically varying micro-textured surfaces and a same-different paradigm. It reveals that elderly participants show significantly reduced fine texture discrimination ability. The elderly group also displays statistically lower finger friction coefficient, moisture and elasticity, suggesting a link. However, a subpopulation of the elderly retains discrimination ability irrespective of cutaneous condition and this can be related to a higher density of somatosensory receptors on the finger pads. Skin tribology is thus not the primary reason for decline of tactile discrimination with age. The remediation of cutaneous properties through rehydration, however leads to a significantly improved tactile acuity. This indicates unambiguously that neurological tactile loss can be temporarily compensated by restoring the cutaneous contact mechanics. Such mechanical restoration of tactile ability has the potential to increase the quality of life in elderly. 

  • 127.
    Skoglund, Sara
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi, material och ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallinder, Inger O.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Grillo, Isabelle
    Institut Laue Langevin, France.
    Pedersen, Jan S.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Bergström, L Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A novel explanation for the enhanced colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles in the presence of an oppositely charged surfactant2017Inngår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 19, nr 41, s. 28037-28043Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural behavior in aqueous mixtures of negatively charged silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) together with the cationic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), respectively, has been investigated using SANS and SAXS. From our SANS data analysis we are able to conclude that the surfactants self-assemble into micellar clusters surrounding the Ag NPs. We are able to quantify our results by means of fitting experimental SANS data with a model based on cluster formation of micelles with very good agreement. Based on our experimental results, we propose a novel mechanism for the stabilization of negatively charged Ag NPs in a solution of positively charged surfactants in which cluster formation of micelles in the vicinity of the particles prevents the particles from aggregating. Complementary SAXS and DLS measurements further support this novel way of explaining stabilization of small hydrophilic nanoparticles in surfactant-containing solutions.

  • 128.
    Skoglund, Sara
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yunda, Elena
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia.
    Godymchuk, Anna
    National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia; National University of Science and Technology, Russia.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Difficulties and flaws in performing accurate determinations of zeta potentials of metal nanoparticles in complex solutions - Four case studies2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikkel-id e0181735Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The zeta potential (ZP) is a parameter commonly used to characterize metal nanoparticles (NPs) in solution. Such determinations are for example performed in nanotoxicology since the ZP influences e.g. the interaction between cells and different biomolecules. Four case studies on different metal NPs (Cu and Zn NPs, and citrate capped Ag NPs) are presented in this study in order to provide guidance on how to accurately interpret and report ZP data. Solutions of high ionic strength (150 mM NaCl) induce a higher extent of particle agglomeration (elucidated with Ag NPs) when compared with conditions in 10 mM NaCl, which further complicates the prediction of the ZP due to e.g. sedimentation and broadening of the zeta potential distribution. The particle size is seldom included specifically in the standard ways of determining ZP (Hückel and Smoluchowski approximations). However corrections are possible when considering approximations of the Henry function. This was seen to improve the analysis of NPs, since there are cases when both the Hückel and the Smulochowski approximations are invalid. In biomolecule-containing cell media (BEGM), the signal from e. g. proteins may interfere with the measured ZP of the NPs. The intensity distribution of the ZP of both the blank solution and the solution containing NPs should hence be presented in addition to the mean value. Due to an increased ionic strength for dissolving of metal NPs (exemplified by Zn NPs), the released metal ions must be considered when interpreting the zeta potential measurements. In this work the effect was however negligible, as the particle size was several hundred nm, conditions that made the Smoluchowski approximation valid despite an increased ionic strength. However, at low ionic strengths (mM range) and small-sized NPs (tens of nm), the effect of released metal ions can influence the choice of model for determining the zeta potential. Sonication of particle dispersions influences not only the extent of metal release but also the outermost surface oxide composition, which often results in an increased ZP. Surface compositional changes were illustrated for sonicated and non-sonicated Cu NPs. In all, it can be concluded that accurate measurements and interpretations are possible in most cases by collecting and reporting complementary data on characteristics such as particle size, ZP distributions, blank sample information, and particle oxide composition. © 2017, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

  • 129.
    Spezzati, Guilia
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Fant, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Lundin Johnson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Hensen, Emiel J. M.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Langermans, Harm
    DSM ChemTech Center, The Netherlands.
    Hofmann, Jan P.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization, and Cytotoxicity Assessment of CeO2 Nanoparticles with Different Morphologies2017Inngår i: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-1948, E-ISSN 1099-1948, Vol. 2017, nr 25, s. 3184-3190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing use of nanomaterials, it is essential to carefully determine whether they represent a risk for potential users. So far, validated stand-alone methods that allow a proper risk assessment are still rare. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of CeO2 nanoparticles has been assessed. For this purpose, a variety of well-defined CeO2 nanoparticles has been prepared by using either hydrothermal synthesis or flame spray pyrolysis (FSP), resulting in nanoparticles of different morphologies and sizes. The FSP technique is known to produce particles of a very small size (in the range of nanometers), which can easily become airborne. We employed a characterization procedure that makes use of physicochemical techniques, comprising N2 physisorption, XRD, TEM, as well as ζ-potential and surface-charge measurements. The cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was evaluated in vitro on two different human lung cell lines (A549 and MRC-5). The tests showed that, despite the differences in surface properties, size, and morphologies, neither of the CeO2 samples gave rise to a cytotoxic response.

  • 130.
    Steele, A.
    et al.
    Carnegie Institution for Science, USA.
    Benning, L. G.
    German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany; Free University of Berlin, Germany; University of Leeds, UK.
    Wirth, R.
    German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Fries, M. D.
    NASA, USA.
    Hauri, E.
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA.
    Conrad, P. G.
    Carnegie Institution for Science, USA.
    Rogers, K.
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    Eigenbrode, J.
    NASA, USA.
    Schreiber, A.
    German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany.
    Needham, A.
    USRA, USA.
    Wang, J. H.
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA.
    McCubbin, F. M.
    NASA, USA.
    Kilcoyne, D.
    Advanced Light Source, USA.
    Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Organic synthesis on Mars by electrochemical reduction of CO<sub>2</sub>2018Inngår i: Science Advances, Vol. 4, nr 10, artikkel-id eaat5118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sources and nature of organic carbon on Mars have been a subject of intense research. Steele et al. (2012) showed that 10 martian meteorites contain macromolecular carbon phases contained within pyroxene- and olivine-hosted melt inclusions. Here, we show that martian meteorites Tissint, Nakhla, and NWA 1950 have an inventory of organic carbon species associated with fluid-mineral reactions that are remarkably consistent with those detected by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. We advance the hypothesis that interactions among spinel-group minerals, sulfides, and a brine enable the electrochemical reduction of aqueous CO2 to organic molecules. Although documented here in martian samples, a similar process likely occurs wherever igneous rocks containing spinel-group minerals and/or sulfides encounter brines.

  • 131.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials Cell Therapy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Trobos, Margarita
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials Cell Therapy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials Cell Therapy, Sweden .
    Brånemark, Rickard
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials Cell Therapy, Sweden ; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Peter
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials Cell Therapy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Palmquist, Anders
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials Cell Therapy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effect of load on the bone around bone-anchored amputation prostheses2017Inngår i: Journal of Orthopaedic Research, ISSN 0736-0266, E-ISSN 1554-527X, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 1113-1122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Osseointegrated transfemoral amputation prostheses have proven successful as an alternative method to the conventional socket-type prostheses. The method improves prosthetic use and thus increases the demands imposed on the bone-implant system. The hypothesis of the present study was that the loads applied to the bone-anchored implant system of amputees would result in locations of high stress and strain transfer to the bone tissue and thus contribute to complications such as unfavourable bone remodeling and/or elevated inflammatory response and/or compromised sealing function at the tissue-abutment interface. In the study, site-specific loading measurements were made on amputees and used as input data in finite element analyses to predict the stress and strain distribution in the bone tissue. Furthermore, a tissue sample retrieved from a patient undergoing implant revision was characterized in order to evaluate the long-term tissue response around the abutment. Within the limit of the evaluated bone properties in the present experiments, it is concluded that the loads applied to the implant system may compromise the sealing function between the bone and the abutment, contributing to resorption of the bone in direct contact with the abutment at the most distal end. This was supported by observations in the retrieved clinical sample of bone resorption and the formation of a soft tissue lining along the abutment interface. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1113–1122, 2017.

  • 132.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Simultaneous chemical vapor deposition and thermal strengthening of glass2018Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 669, nr 1, s. 487-493Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current paper we present a concept combining metal organic chemical vapor deposition with thermal strengthening process of flat glass. As the flat glass is heated to be thermally strengthened, which takes up to 20 minutes, there is an opportunity for performing a surface modification. We describe the application of transparent and amorphous Al2O3 thin films during the thermal strengthening process. Al2O3 was chosen due to the following desirable properties: increased surface mechanical properties and increased chemical durability, the latter has not been investigated in the current paper. The residual surface compressive stresses after performed strengthening of the coated glasses were quantified to be in the range of 80–110 MPa. The Al2O3 content in the surface was measured using the Surface Ablation Cell employed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and found to be at least doubled at the surface and having an increased Al2O3 content at least 0.5 μm underneath the glass surface. During the surface reaction, sodium is migrating to the surface giving a hazy salt layer on the glass which can easily be washed off with water. The applied coatings are transparent and provide increased surface hardness and crack resistance at low indentation loads. At higher indentation loads the interaction volume is larger and displays the same effect on the surface mechanical properties as for thermally strengthened glass. The contact angle with water compared to annealed float glass is significantly increased from 5° to 45° due to the different surface chemistry and surface topography.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-11-28 08:05
  • 133.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Johnson, Simon R.
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Novel thermo-chemical strengthening of glass for solar energy applications and its impact on the physical properties2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The LIMES project (Light Innovative Materials for Enhanced Solar Efficiency), a Solar-ERA.NET project, have been a fruitful collaboration project to optimize many different properties in state-of-the-art solar glasses for photovoltaic (PV) modules. Here, we present results related to the effectiveness of reactive gas strengthening and its improvement of the physical properties of thin glasses. Novel thermo-chemical strengthening has been created using reactive chemicals that react with the glass surface during the thermal strengthening process. The glass surface gets a markedly increase of Al2O3, which in previous studies has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties. Successful thermo-chemical strengthening of 4 and 2 mm glasses to a similar strengthening level have repeatedly been performed, polariscope images in Figure 1. The strengthening level has been quantified using SCALP (Scattered Light Polariscope) and were found to be in the range of 85-110 MPa of compressive stresses in the surface which are comparable to values for conventional thermally strengthened glass.

    The strength of the glasses was quantified using the ring-on-ring method and the surface mechanical properties were evaluated by means of nano/microindentation. UV-Vis spectroscopy measurements have also been performed.

    Results for the ring-on-ring tests show that the 2 mm thin glass were positively affected by the while 4 mm did not show any significant change as compared to thermally strengthened. The thermo-chemically strengthened glasses have a significantly higher crack resistance than both the reference float glass and the traditionally thermally strengthened glass. The hardness results show that for low loads, ≥1 mN, the hardness follow the order thermo-chemically strengthened glass > thermally strengthened glass > annealed float glass. The scratch resistance for thermo-chemically strengthened glass is increased as compared to ordinary float glass. In addition, the transmission is not markedly reduced.

  • 134.
    Svanberg, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Malmberg, Kajsa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Gustinelli, Graziele
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Persson, Ingela
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Brive, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Wassén, Sophia
    Effect of anthocyanins on lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage in value-added emulsions with bilberry seed oil, anthocyanins and cold set whey protein hydrogels2019Inngår i: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 272, s. 273-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work was to explore the storage properties of a structured oil-in-water emulsion containing both water- and fat-soluble bioactive compounds from bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). Bilberry seed oil (BSO) was dispersed in a continuous aqueous phase of anthocyanins (AC) and whey protein isolate. The microstructure was evaluated using light microscopy and the effect of anthocyanins on lipid oxidation and microbial growth was investigated. The results showed that it was possible to generate a stable emulsion structure that resisted phase separation during 25 weeks of storage. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry measurements of the fatty acids in the BSO during storage showed that AC had a protective effect against lipid oxidation. The AC did not have an antimicrobial effect against the investigated strains Zygosaccharomyces bailii (ATCC 42476) and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 6275 (M68)).

  • 135.
    Svendsen, John
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Grant, Thomas
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Rennison, David
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Brimble, Margaret
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Very Short and Stable Lactoferricin-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides: Design Principles and Potential Uses2019Inngår i: Accounts of Chemical Research, ISSN 0001-4842, E-ISSN 1520-4898, Vol. 52, nr 3, s. 749-759Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ConspectusThe alarming rate at which micro-organisms are developing resistance to conventional antibiotics represents one of the global challenges of our time. There is currently ample space in the antibacterial drug pipeline, and scientists are trying to find innovative and novel strategies to target the microbial enemies. Nature has remained a source of inspiration for most of the antibiotics developed and used, and the immune molecules produced by the innate defense systems, as a first line of defense, have been heralded as the next source of antibiotics. Most living organisms produce an arsenal of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to rapidly fend off intruding pathogens, and several different attempts have been made to transform this versatile group of compounds into the next generation of antibiotics. However, faced with the many hurdles of using peptides as drugs, the success of these defense molecules as therapeutics remains to be realized. AMPs derived from the proteolytic degradation of the innate defense protein lactoferrin have been shown to display several favorable antimicrobial properties. In an attempt to investigate the biological and pharmacological properties of these much shorter AMPs, the sequence dependence was investigated, and it was shown, through a series of truncation experiments, that these AMPs in fact can be prepared as tripeptides, with improved antimicrobial activity, via the incorporation of unnatural hydrophobic residues and terminal cappings. In this Account, we describe how this class of promising cationic tripeptides has been developed to specifically address the main challenges limiting the general use of AMPs. This has been made possible through the identification of the antibacterial pharmacophore and via the incorporation of a range of unnatural hydrophobic and cationic amino acids. Incorporation of these residues at selected positions has allowed us to extensively establish how these compounds interact with the major proteolytic enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin and also the two major drug-binding plasma proteins serum albumin and α-1 glycoprotein. Several of the challenges associated with using AMPs relate to their size, susceptibility to rapid proteolytic degradation, and poor oral bioavailability. Our studies have addressed these issues in detail, and the results have allowed us to effectively design and prepare active and metabolically stable AMPs that have been evaluated in a range of functional settings. The optimized short AMPs display inhibitory activities against a plethora of micro-organisms at low micromolar concentrations, and they have been shown to target resistant strains of both bacteria and fungi alike with a very rapid mode of action. Our Account further describes how these compounds behave in in vivo experiments and highlights both the challenges and possibilities of the intriguing compounds. In several areas, they have been shown to exhibit comparable or superior activity to established antibacterial, antifungal, and antifouling commercial products. This illustrates their ability to effectively target and eradicate various microbes in a variety of settings ranging from the ocean to the clinic.

  • 136.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Probing interactions of nanocellulose and sugars using rheology2017Inngår i: International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials 2017, TAPPI Press , 2017, s. 305-314Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 137.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Full method validation in Clinical chemistry2017Inngår i: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 235-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical chemistry is subject to the same principles and standards used in all branches of metrology in chemistry for validation of measurement methods. The use of measuring systems in clinical chemistry is, however, of exceptionally high volume, diverse and involves many laboratories and systems. Samples for measuring the same measurand from a certain patient are likely to encounter several measuring systems over time in the process of diagnosis and treatment of his/her diseases. Several challenges regarding method validation across several laboratories are therefore evident, but rarely addressed in current standards and accreditation practices. The purpose of this is paper to address some of these challenges, making a case that appropriate conventional method validation performed by the manufacturers fulfils only a part of the investigation needed to show that they are fit for purpose in different healthcare circumstances. Method validation across several laboratories using verified commercially available measuring systems can only be performed by the laboratories—users themselves in their own circumstances, and need to be emphasised more by the laboratories themselves and accreditation authorities alike.

  • 138.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Filzmoser, Peter
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Hoffmann, Irene
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Walach, Jan
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Cottin, Herve
    Université Paris‐Est Créteil et Université Paris, France.
    Fray, Nicolas
    Université Paris‐Est Créteil et Université Paris, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    Université d'Orléans, France.
    Modica, Paola
    Université d'Orléans, France.
    Bardyn, Anais
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Stenzel, Oliver
    Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Significance of variables for discrimination: Applied to the search of organic ions in mass spectra measured on cometary particles2018Inngår i: Journal of Chemometrics, ISSN 0886-9383, E-ISSN 1099-128X, Vol. 32, nr 4, artikkel-id e3001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The instrument Cometary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA) on board of the European Space Agency mission Rosetta to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is a secondary ion mass spectrometer with a time-of-flight mass analyzer. It collected near the comet several thousand particles, imaged them, and analyzed the elemental and chemical compositions of their surfaces. In this study, variables have been generated from the spectral data covering the mass ranges of potential C-, H-, N-, and O-containing ions. The variable importance in binary discriminations between spectra measured on cometary particles and those measured on the target background has been estimated by the univariate t test and the multivariate methods discriminant partial least squares, random forest, and a robust method based on the log ratios of all variable pairs. The results confirm the presence of organic substances in cometary matter-probably a complex macromolecular mixture.

  • 139.
    von Vogelsang, A. -C
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Förander, P.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, M.
    Tobii Pro Insight, Sweden.
    Löwenhielm, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Effect of mobile laminar airflow units on airborne bacterial contamination during neurosurgical procedures2018Inngår i: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 99, nr 3, s. 271-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) after neurosurgery are potentially life-threatening and entail great costs. SSIs may occur from airborne bacteria in the operating room, and ultraclean air is desired during infection-prone cleaning procedures. Door openings and the number of persons present in the operating room affect the air quality. Mobile laminar airflow (MLAF) units, with horizontal laminar airflow, have previously been shown to reduce airborne bacterial contamination. Aim: To assess the effect of MLAF units on airborne bacterial contamination during neurosurgical procedures. Methods: In a quasi-experimental design, bacteria-carrying particles (colony-forming units: cfu) during neurosurgical procedures were measured with active air-sampling in operating rooms with conventional turbulent ventilation, and with additional MLAF units. The MLAF units were shifted between operating rooms monthly. Colony-forming unit count and bacterial species detection were conducted after incubation. Data was collected for a period of 18 months. Findings: A total of 233 samples were collected during 45 neurosurgical procedures. The use of MLAF units significantly reduced the numbers of cfu in the surgical site area (P < 0.001) and above the instrument table (P < 0.001). Logistic regression showed that the only significant predictor affecting cfu count was the use of MLAF units (odds ratio: 41.6; 95% confidence interval: 11.3–152.8; P < 0.001). The most frequently detected bacteria were coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusion: MLAF successfully reduces cfu during neurosurgery to ultraclean air levels. MLAF units are valuable when the main operating room ventilation system is unable to produce ultraclean air in infection-prone clean neurosurgery.

  • 140.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Kjell, G.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Cupina, Ena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. Chalmers Univeristy of technology, Sweden.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Deck, C.
    University of Strasbourg, France.
    Willinger, R.
    University of Strasbourg, France.
    New functional pavements for pedestrians and cyclists2017Inngår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 105, s. 52-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When many fields of pedestrian and cyclist safety have been extensively studied, the surfacing has long been left unquestioned, despite being developed for another mode of transport and being one of the main causes for falls and fall injuries. In this project new surfacing materials for pedestrian and cyclist safety have been produced. Focusing on augmenting previously largely disregarded parameters as impact absorption, comfort and visibility at the same time as avoiding deteriorating of crucial parameters as friction and wear resistance. Rubber content, binder type, and pigment addition have been varied and evaluated. The results demonstrate that by increasing rubber content of the mixtures the head injury criterion (HIC) value and injury risk can be decreased while maintaining frictional properties according to existing criteria. Assembly of test-lanes demonstrate that some developed materials experience lower flow and component separation than standard materials due to rubber addition, calling for further optimisation of construction procedure linked to content development. Initial trials on the test-lanes indicate that a polyurethane (PU) based material has high cycling comfort, visibility and can be modified with phosphorescence properties. For standard asphalt, impact absorption might be inflicted by modification of bitumen alone but is mostly augmented by rubber addition. The results also indicate that rubber content can decrease ice formation on the materials.

  • 141.
    Wells, James
    et al.
    National Physical Laboratory, UK; Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kazakova, Olga
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Posth, Oliver
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Steinhoff, Uwe
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Bogart, Lara
    Healthcare Biomagnetics Laboratory, UK.
    Southern, Paul
    Healthcare Biomagnetics Laboratory, UK.
    Pankhurst, Quentin
    Healthcare Biomagnetics Laboratory, UK.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Standardisation of magnetic nanoparticles in liquid suspension2017Inngår i: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 50, nr 383003, s. 1-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles offer diverse opportunities for technology innovation,spanning a large number of industry sectors from imaging and actuation based applicationsin biomedicine and biotechnology, through large-scale environmental remediation uses suchas water purification, to engineering-based applications such as position-controlled lubricantsand soaps. Continuous advances in their manufacture have produced an ever-growing rangeof products, each with their own unique properties. At the same time, the characterisation ofmagnetic nanoparticles is often complex, and expert knowledge is needed to correctly interpretthe measurement data. In many cases, the stringent requirements of the end-user technologiesdictate that magnetic nanoparticle products should be clearly defined, well characterised,consistent and safe; or to put it another way—standardised. The aims of this document areto outline the concepts and terminology necessary for discussion of magnetic nanoparticles,to examine the current state-of-the-art in characterisation methods necessary for the mostprominent applications of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, to suggest a possible structurefor the future development of standardisation within the field, and to identify areas and topicswhich deserve to be the focus of future work items. We discuss potential roadmaps for thefuture standardisation of this developing industry, and the likely challenges to be encounteredalong the way.

  • 142.
    Wetterskog, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Castro, A
    SOLVE Research and Consultancy AB, Sweden.
    Zeng, L
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Heinke, D
    nanoPET Pharma GmbH, Germany.
    Olsson, E
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Nilsson, L
    Lund University, Sweden; SOLVE Research and Consultancy AB, Sweden.
    Gehrke, N
    nanoPET Pharma GmbH, Germany.
    Svedlindh, P
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Size and property bimodality in magnetic nanoparticle dispersions: single domain particles vs. strongly coupled nanoclusters2017Inngår i: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, nr 12, s. 4227-4235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of magnetic nanoparticles in the biotechnical sector puts new demands on fast and quantitative characterization techniques for nanoparticle dispersions. In this work, we report the use of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) to study the properties of a commercial magnetic nanoparticle dispersion. We demonstrate the effectiveness of both techniques when subjected to a dispersion with a bimodal size/magnetic property distribution: i.e., a small superparamagnetic fraction, and a larger blocked fraction of strongly coupled colloidal nanoclusters. We show that the oriented attachment of primary nanocrystals into colloidal nanoclusters drastically alters their static, dynamic, and magnetic resonance properties. Finally, we show how the FMR spectra are influenced by dynamical effects; agglomeration of the superparamagnetic fraction leads to reversible line-broadening; rotational alignment of the suspended nanoclusters results in shape-dependent resonance shifts. The AF4 and FMR measurements described herein are fast and simple, and therefore suitable for quality control procedures in commercial production of magnetic nanoparticles.

  • 143.
    Wieland, D. C. F.
    et al.
    Institute for Materials Research, Germany; EMBL Hamburg, Germany.
    Zander, T.
    Institute for Materials Research, Germany.
    Garamus, V. M.
    Institute for Materials Research, Germany.
    Krywka, C.
    Institute for Materials Research, Germany.
    Dedinaite, A.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden .
    Claesson, P.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Willumeit-Römer, R.
    Institute for Materials Research, Germany.
    Complex solutions under shear and pressure: A rheometer setup for X-ray scattering experiments2017Inngår i: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, E-ISSN 1600-5775, Vol. 24, s. 646-652Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A newly developed high-pressure rheometer for in situ X-ray scattering experiments is described. A commercial rheometer was modified in such a way that X-ray scattering experiments can be performed under different pressures and shear. First experiments were carried out on hyaluronan, a ubiquitous biopolymer that is important for different functions in the body such as articular joint lubrication. The data hint at a decreased electrostatic interaction at higher pressure, presumably due to the increase of the dielectric constant of water by 3% and the decrease of the free volume at 300 bar.

  • 144.
    Wittbom, Cerina
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne Association of Local Authorities, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ann-Charlotte
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. Lund University, Sweden.
    Roldin, Pontus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nordin, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden; Sweco Environment, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Staffan
    Lund University, Sweden; University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Nilsson, Patrik T.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pagels, Joakim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svenningsson, Birgitta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Effect of solubility limitation on hygroscopic growth and cloud drop activation of SOA particles produced from traffic exhausts2018Inngår i: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 75, nr 4, s. 359-383Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hygroscopicity measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles often show inconsistent results between the supersaturated and subsaturated regimes, with higher activity as cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) than indicated by hygroscopic growth. In this study, we have investigated the discrepancy between the two regimes in the Lund University (LU) smog chamber. Various anthropogenic SOA were produced from mixtures of different precursors: anthropogenic light aromatic precursors (toluene and m-xylene), exhaust from a diesel passenger vehicle spiked with the light aromatic precursors, and exhaust from two different gasoline-powered passenger vehicles. Three types of seed particles were used: soot aggregates from a diesel vehicle, soot aggregates from a flame soot generator and ammonium sulphate (AS) particles. The hygroscopicity of seed particles with condensed, photochemically produced, anthropogenic SOA was investigated with respect to critical supersaturation (sc) and hygroscopic growth factor (gf) at 90% relative humidity. The hygroscopicity parameter κ was calculated for the two regimes: κsc and κgf, from measurements of sc and gf, respectively. The two κ showed significant discrepancies, with a κgf /κsc ratio closest to one for the gasoline experiments with ammonium sulphate seed and lower for the soot seed experiments. Empirical observations of sc and gf were compared to theoretical predictions, using modified Köhler theory where water solubility limitations were taken into account. The results indicate that the inconsistency between measurements in the subsaturated and supersaturated regimes may be explained by part of the organic material in the particles produced from anthropogenic precursors having a limited solubility in water. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 145.
    Wogelred, Louise
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Höök, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Agnarsson, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Toward multiplexed quantification of biomolecules on surfaces using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry2018Inngår i: Biointerphases, ISSN 1934-8630, E-ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 13, nr 3, artikkel-id 03B413Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate detection and quantification of individual molecules is important for the development of improved diagnostic methods as well as biochemical characterization of disease progression and treatments. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface analysis technique capable of imaging the distribution of specific molecules on surfaces with a high spatial resolution (<1 μm) and high sensitivity. ToF-SIMS is particularly suitable for detection of molecules up to ∼2 kDa, including lipids, whereas larger molecules, such as peptides and proteins, are fragmented during analysis, which makes them difficult to identify. In this study, an approach for extending the molecular detection capability of ToF-SIMS is presented, based on the specific binding of functionalized liposomes to molecular targets on the sample surface and subsequent detection of the liposomes by ToF-SIMS. Furthermore, by using different recognition elements conjugated to liposomes with different lipid compositions, simultaneous detection of different targets was accomplished. This multiplexing capability was investigated for two types of recognition elements (antibodies and cholera toxin) and for target molecules immobilized on surfaces using two frequently applied surface functionalization strategies: a supported lipid bilayer aimed to mimic a cell membrane and a polyethylene glycol modified surface, commonly employed in bioanalytical sensor applications. The efficacy of the conjugation protocols and the specificity of the recognition mechanism were confirmed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, while fluorescence microscopy was used to validate the ToF-SIMS data and the reliability of the freeze-drying step required for ToF-SIMS analysis. The results demonstrated specific binding of the two types of liposomes to each target and showed a concentration-dependent binding to the targets on the different model surfaces. In particular, the possibility to use the contrasts in the mass spectra of SIMS to identify the concentration dependent coverage of different liposomes opens up new opportunities for multiplexed detection and quantification of molecules at biotechnology relevant interfaces.

  • 146.
    Wright, David A.
    et al.
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    Zydenbos, Sue M.
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    Wessman, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi, material och ytor.
    O’Callaghan, Maureen
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    Townsend, Richard J.
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    Jackson, Ttrevor A.
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    van Koten, Chikako
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    Mansfield, Sarah
    Ag Research, New Zealand.
    Surface coating aids survival of Serratia entomophila (Enterobacteriaceae) in granules for surface application2017Inngår i: Biocontrol science and technology (Print), ISSN 0958-3157, E-ISSN 1360-0478, Vol. 27, nr 12, s. 1383-1399Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The nonspore-forming bacterium Serratia entomophila may be used to control the New Zealand grass grub (Costelytra giveni) but is sensitive to environmental stress and must be formulated to improve survival. Existing formulations require subsurface application limiting the area that can be treated. Formulations that allow delivery by broadcast methods are desirable to reduce application costs and increase the potential for aerial application to inaccessible areas. Two formulations were prepared for use in experiments examining the persistence and movement of inoculum through soil. When granules were applied to the soil surface, bacterial survival was negligible in uncoated core, but improved with increasing thickness of the coating. Both survival of bacteria and release into the soil were influenced by soil moisture content. Granules at <12% soil moisture showed high bacterial mortality and reduced delivery to the soil, while at 28% soil moisture most bacteria were released to the soil. There was a high level of survival of the applied bacteria within granules at 20% and 28% soil moisture. The formulations maintained viability of S. entomophila in granules stored under ambient conditions for more than 6 months. In laboratory and field tests, the application of granules caused disease in the target grass grub larvae, whether application was applied to the surface or subsurface. In field trials, broadcast applied granules could produce equivalent disease to thin-coat granules drilled into the soil, but these levels of disease were associated with the occurrence of precipitation shortly after application.

  • 147.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Vega, Alberto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Accelerated ageing and degradation characteristics of rigidpolyurethane foam2017Inngår i: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 138, s. 192-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The urgent need for revision of the normative test method (EN 253) for the lifetime prediction of district

    heating pipes requires a better understanding of the failure mechanisms involved. Therefore, various

    methods were used to study thermal degradation characteristics of rigid polyurethane (PUR) foam in

    both air and nitrogen atmosphere. Accelerated ageing in nitrogen caused insigni

    ficant changes, whereas

    ageing in air caused signi

    ficant changes in weight, dimensions, chemical structure and cell gas composition,

    indicating importance of the thermo-oxidative type of degradation. A clear indication of the

    thermo-oxidative type of degradation was the formation of new carbonyl groups in PUR together with

    the loss of CH

    2 groups after ageing in air. Another result of ageing in air was the loss of pentane and

    cyclopentane, and the formation of some new volatile compounds in the cells of PUR foam. However,

    despite a large difference in degradation characteristics between the samples aged in air and in nitrogen,

    no signi

    ficant difference in the flexural strength of PUR foam was recorded during the induction stage of

    the degradation process. Furthermore, it is shown that the signi

    ficant drop in shear strength, which

    re

    flects the adhesion force between PUR foam and steel pipe, observed during the early stage of

    accelerated ageing of district heating pipes is not caused by thermo-oxidative degradation.

  • 148.
    Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Vega, Alberto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Livslängd för fjärrvärmerör: Fas 1 - Nedbrytningsmekanismer2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens standard för prefabricerade fjärrvärmerör SS-EN253 innehåller olika testmetoder och krav där ett av de viktigaste är kravet på livslängd på minst 30 år vid en kontinuerlig driftstemperatur på 120 °C. Bestämningen av tekniska livslängden är baserad på mätningar av förändringar i skjuvhållfastheten efter accelererad termisk åldring. Den beräknade livslängden för ett fjärrvärmerör är baserad på extrapolering med hjälp av Arrhenius ekvation. Det finns en stor enighet kring uppfattningen att Arrhenius modellen inte ger en god överensstämmelse med de observerade åldringsdata och att det följaktligen saknas tillförlitliga metoder för livslängdsbestämning av fjärrvärmerör. Trots många forskningsrapporter finns det fortfarande skilda teorier om hur snabbt PUR-isoleringar bryts ner och vilka nedbrytningsmekanismer som dominerar. Syftet med det här projektet är att kartlägga de komplicerade sambanden och förstå vilka nedbrytningsprocesser som dominerar under olika betingelser och utifrån denna kunskap utveckla tillförlitliga metoder för livslängdsprediktering.

    Allt testmaterial utgjordes i denna studie av polyuretan (PUR) cellplastisolering som togs ut från nytillverkade fjärrvärmerör. Accelererad åldring genomfördes i luft och i kväveatmosfär vid 150 °C för upp till 8 veckor. Det visade sig att exponering i kväveatmosfär inte orsakar någon mätbar förändring av egenskaper. En motsvarande åldring i luft orsakar däremot stora förändringar i både dimensioner, viktförlust och färg. IR (infraröd) analys kunde också bekräfta att materialet bryts ner genom termo-oxidativa processer. Termo-oxidativ nedbrytning syns också i analyser av cellgassammansättningen. Materialet efter åldring i luft innehåller betydligt mindre halt cyklopentan samtidigt som fyra nya flyktiga ämnen kunde detekteras. Trots alla indikationer på materialets termo-oxidativa nedbrytning har böjhållfastheten inte förändrats hos materialet. Detta måste utredas vidare för att kunna förklara mekanismer bakom resultatet.

    Förutom beständighetsstudier av PUR materialet genomfördes långtidsåldring av fjärrvärmerör vid olika temperaturer. Resultaten av skjuvhållfasthet mätningar indikerar att det åtminstone finns tre olika faser i nedbrytningsprocessen. Initialt sjunker hållfastheten troligen på grund av fysikaliska effekter orsakade av de höga temperaturerna. Därefter ökar skjuvhållfastheten troligen beroende på sidoreaktioner och fortsatt tvärbindning. Det tredje steget är en termo-oxidativ nedbrytning som såsmåningom leder till förlust av vidhäftningen. Även värmeledningsförmågan ökar betydligt som ett resultat av nedbrytningsprocesser. Det finns behov av ytterligare forskning för att kunna föreslå en ny modell för livslängdsberäkningar baserade på experimentella resultat.

  • 149.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lagerström, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Albin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Eklund, Brita
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Elwing, Hans
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Dahl, Peter
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    A novel XRF method to measure environmental release of copper and zinc from antifouling paints2017Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 225, s. 490-496Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from vessels and leisure crafts coated with antifouling paints can pose a threat to water quality in semi-enclosed areas such as harbors and marinas as well as to coastal archipelagos. However, no reliable, practical and low-cost method exists to measure the direct release of metals from antifouling paints. Therefore, the paint industry and regulatory authorities are obliged to use release rate measurements derived from either mathematical models or from laboratory studies. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel method using a handheld X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) to determine the cumulative release of Cu and Zn from antifouling paints. The results showed a strong linear relationship between XRF Kα net intensities and metal concentrations, as determined by ICP-MS. The release of Cu and Zn were determined for coated panels exposed in harbors located in the Baltic Sea and in Kattegat. The field study showed salinity to have a strong impact on the release of Cu, i.e. the release increased with salinity. Contrary, the effect of salinity on Zn was not as evident. As exemplified in this work, the XRF method also makes it possible to identify the governing parameters to the release of Cu and Zn, e.g. salinity and type of paint formulation. Thus, the XRF method can be used to measure environmentally relevant releases of metallic compounds to design more efficient and optimized antifouling coatings.

123 101 - 149 of 149
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