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  • 101.
    Samuelson, Ingemar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Jansson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Moisture damage in rendered, undrained, well insulated stud walls2008In: Proceedings from the Third International Symposium on Tunnel Safety, Danish Society of engineers, IDA , 2008, , p. 1253-1260Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Samuelson, Ingemar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Nilsson, Ingemar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Golvskador - vad är det?2004In: Bygg & Teknik, no 8, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 103.
    Sikander, Eva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Moisture management in the building process - experience from four projects2006In: Proceedings of the Third International Building Physics Conference,, Taylor & Francis Group , 2006, , p. 553-560Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104. Stein, Johan
    et al.
    Hagentoft, Carl-Eric
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Ståhl, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Energieffektiviseringar - vilka risker finns och hur ska de hanteras?2011In: Bygg & teknik, no 2, p. 30-33Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 105.
    Thuvander, Liane
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Femenias, Paula
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Meiling, Pär
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Unveiling the process of sustainable renovation2012In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 1188-1213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renovation processes are complex and there is a risk of underestimating architectural, cultural, and social values in favor of exterior and interior upgrading, energy efficiency and financing. A synthesized, systematic process is needed for making decisions about renovation measures. The aim of this paper is to survey decision-making procedures aimed for sustainable renovation. We inventory existing tools and methodologies based on (a) a literature review and (b) results from a workshop with participants from the Swedish buildings sector, academia, and other stakeholders. Our results show that there are many tools available but few seem to have reached acceptance in renovation. None of the more established methods and tools addresses a complexity that balances material and immaterial values and they are often too specific. There is a need for simplified tools, especially for evaluating more intangible, experienced values. Instead of one comprehensive tool preferably a methodology for renovation should be developed with references to different tools. In the building sector, renovation should be considered a service-minded process rather than a merely technical one as often is the case in new construction. There is a need to clarify the process and the meaning of the terms, and that need is even more urgent when it comes to the values that are more difficult to define.

  • 106.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Renovating on unequal premises: A normative framework for a just renovation wave in swedish multifamily housing2021In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, no 19, article id 6054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the energy transition of the EU housing stock is now being intensified with the launch of the Renovation Wave, economic inequalities are increasing in many OECD countries, which has effects on housing-related inequalities and the demand of affordable housing. The Renovation Wave is thus an opportunity to improve housing quality for low-income households, but also entails risks for increased rents. In Sweden, the standard of housing is relatively high and energy poverty in multifamily housing is rare, meaning that there are limited social benefits to be achieved from extensive energy retrofitting; moreover, Sweden lacks a social housing sector, which limits protection of the worst-off residents. This paper thus explores whether the limited social benefits of the Renovation Wave weigh up against the risks that it entails for the worst-off in the Swedish context. This is done within a normative framework for just energy transitioning that is developed within the context of the Renovation Wave and increasing economic inequalities, consisting of four ordered principles: (1) The equal treatment principle; (2) The priority principle; (3) The efficiency principle; and (4) The principle of procedural fairness. Analysis showed that to be considered just according to our framework, the Swedish energy transition of housing should, in contradistinction to what is suggested in the Renovation Wave, limit the imposition of extensive energy retrofitting in low-income areas. Finally, having identified a mismatch between the most effective approaches in terms of energy savings and the most acceptable approaches in terms of social justice, we offer policy recommendations on how to bridge this mismatch in a Swedish context. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 107.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund University, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Carolina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Gitter Consult AB, weden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment.
    The renewing of Energy Performance Certificates—Reaching comparability between decade-apart energy records2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 255, article id 113902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy Performance Certificates are currently one of the most extensive data sources about the energy performance of the EUs building stock and consequently provide support for researchers and policy makers in energy regulation. As Energy Performance Certificates are being renewed, there are new possibilities to study energy performance development over time and to evaluate the building-specific effect of energy policies and measures. This paper aims to explore this possibility. In Sweden, owners of multifamily buildings had to obtain their first Energy Performance Certificate no later than the end of 2008, and with a period of validity of 10 years many owners have now obtained a second Energy Performance Certificate for their building(s). This enables unprecedented quantitative, building-specific evaluations of the change in energy performance over time. However, comparability between old and new Energy Performance Certificates must be assured. This study develops a novel three-step method to attain comparability between old and renewed Energy Performance Certificates. Results show that while many pairs of Energy Performance Certificates were considered comparable, procedural changes in methods for determining heated floor area in Swedish Energy Performance Certificates caused an overestimation of energy performance improvement of approximately 7 kWh/m2 per building which had to be corrected for. The results of this paper indicate that old and renewed Energy Performance Certificates can be utilised to successfully map development of energy performance and enable evaluation of the impact on energy performance from policies and measures that have been carried out between the two points of audit. © 2019 The Authors

  • 108.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment. Lund University, Sweden.
    Energy efficiency at what cost?: Unjust burden-sharing of rent increases in extensive energy retrofitting projects in Sweden2022In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 92, article id 102791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although renovation costs can lead to rent increases in energy retrofitting, it is often assumed that reductions in energy costs will counterbalance the rent increase. In Swedish multifamily housing, energy costs for heating are however generally included as a fixed component in the monthly rent, meaning that the rent increase after energy retrofitting corresponds to the net change in rent level as well as energy costs for heating. This makes Sweden a methodologically advantageous setting for studying tenants' cost burden of energy retrofitting. The aim of this study was thus to investigate how energy performance improvement has affected rent increases in Swedish renovation projects between 2013 and 2019. Utilising a national database of multifamily housing, it was found that energy retrofitting entailed a cost relief for tenants in renovation projects with smaller investments. However, in renovation projects with larger investments, energy retrofitting entailed a cost burden for tenants. Moreover, public housing companies had conducted a high share of the extensive energy retrofits, leading to low-income tenant groups being disproportionately subjected to cost burdens of energy retrofitting. On the contrary, light energy retrofits with a cost relief for energy efficiency had been rather evenly distributed across income groups. These results indicate ongoing conflicts with the ability-to-pay principle in the energy transition of Swedish multifamily housing, and suggest that if low-investment energy retrofits are not sufficient for upcoming objectives and requirements, subsidies could be needed to compensate low-income tenants for the cost burden of extensive energy retrofitting. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 109.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport. Lund University, Sweden.
    A matter of metrics?: How analysing per capita energy use changes the face of energy efficient housing in Sweden and reveals injustices in the energy transition2020In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 70, article id 101807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy performance of the housing stock continues to be an important undertaking in the energy transition of many EU member states. However, tendencies of low-income households generally living in buildings with low energy performance pose a challenge for this transition, and cases of ‘renoviction’ and ‘green gentrification’ are becoming more and more noticed in the scientific community. More so, questions regarding the distributive justice of costs and burdens in the energy transition of the housing stock have been raised. In this paper, we approach this problem from a perspective of energy performance metrics. Although energy performance (kWh/m2, year) is generally lower in buildings inhabited by low-income households, residential density—and thus building utilisation—tends to be higher. By measuring per capita energy use instead of area-normalised energy use, we investigate if a high residential density can offset a low energy performance and change the perception of which buildings are considered energy inefficient and which are not. Results showed that by measuring per capita energy use instead of area-normalised energy use, energy inefficient buildings were found in high-income city centres instead of in low-income suburbs of Swedish cities. Moreover, there has been an unjust distribution of the imposition of the energy transition over the past decade where the residents with the initially lowest per capita energy use have carried a disproportionately high share of the energy savings. This suggests that a change of energy performance metrics could offer an approach for a more socially just and sustainable energy transition of the housing stock. © 2020 The Author(s)

  • 110.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Energy inequality as a risk in socio-technical energy transitions: The Swedish case of individual metering and billing of energy for heating2020In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 588, no 3, article id 032015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency in the housing stock is an important undertaking in the energy transition but is associated with both opportunities and risks. While there are possibilities to reduce energy inequalities in the housing stock, inequalities also risk being aggravated as actions for energy efficiency usually aim at the least energy efficient - and thus sometimes the least privileged - parts of the housing stock. In this paper, we use two different energy performance metrics (kWh/m2 and kWh/capita) to investigate the energy inequality in the Swedish multifamily building stock and explore the effects of these inequalities in the energy transition. More specifically, we investigate the implementation of individual metering and billing of energy for heating, which was recently implemented in the least energy efficient part of the housing stock. It was found that low-income households were overrepresented in the affected buildings. The consequence of this implementation is thus that the strongest protection against energy poverty in Sweden (collective billing for heating) is removed in a part of the housing stock where two of the predictors for energy poverty - low income and low energy performance - are overrepresented. It was concluded that acknowledging inequalities is crucial to avoid risks associated with the energy transition. 

  • 111.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment. Lund University, Sweden.
    The effect of weighting factors on income-related energy inequalities: The case of Sweden's new building code2021In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Volume 2069, Issue 1, IOP Publishing Ltd , 2021, Vol. 2069, no 1, article id 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure building construction with low heating demand, efficient use of sustainable energy carriers, and neutrality between heating technologies, Sweden recently introduced weighting factors (WFs) for different energy carriers which are now used in Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs). As EPC ratings are gaining increased influence in Swedish energy policy and regulation, with recent examples of buildings' EPC rating acting as base for imperative regulatory requirements, the introduction of WFs is likely to have significant effects on how policy and regulations are distributed in the multifamily building stock. As residents often are directly or indirectly affected by policy that either impose or trigger measures to be undertaken in their building, the aim of this paper is to analyse how WFs affect the assessed energy performance of buildings in different resident income groups. The results show that overall, reduced energy performance from WFs was more common in high-income areas than in low-income areas. However, although the total number of buildings in the lowest EPC ratings was reduced after introducing WFs, the resulting income distribution among worst-performing buildings was more skewed towards low-income households than before introducing WFs. As imperative regulatory requirements previously have targeted worst-performing buildings, these results indicate that energy-related inequalities in the housing stock have become more prominent and should be considered as to not disproportionately burden low-income residents in the energy transition of the housing stock.

  • 112.
    von Platten, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Jörgensson, Kajsa
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Viktor
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport. Lund University, Sweden.
    Using Machine Learning to Enrich Building Databases—Methods for Tailored Energy Retrofits2020In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building databases are important assets when estimating and planning for national energy savings from energy retrofitting. However, databases often lack information on building characteristics needed to determine the feasibility of specific energy conservation measures. In this paper, machine learning methods are used to enrich the Swedish database of Energy Performance Certificates with building characteristics relevant for a chosen set of energy retrofitting packages. The study is limited to the Swedish multifamily building stock constructed between 1945 and 1975, as these buildings are facing refurbishment needs that advantageously can be combined with energy retrofitting. In total, 514 ocular observations were conducted in Google Street View of two building characteristics that were needed to determine the feasibility of the chosen energy retrofitting packages: (i) building type and (ii) suitability for additional façade insulation. Results showed that these building characteristics could be predicted with an accuracy of 88.9% and 72.5% respectively. It could be concluded that machine learning methods show promising potential to enrich building databases with building characteristics relevant for energy retrofitting, which in turn can improve estimations of national energy savings potential.

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  • 113.
    Wallentén, Petter
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    SIRen: An Applied Framework for a Sustainable Renovation Process2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 10, article id 5412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The renovation of buildings involves multidisciplinary issues and multistakeholder involvement, which makes the process complex to manage. The purpose of this paper is to present a transparent, openly accessible, adaptable framework to ensure a sustainable renovation process, covering the technical, environmental, economic, social, and cultural historical aspects to be considered by the various actors during the renovation process. A framework with an associated process was drawn up, focusing on practical usefulness together with the fundamental idea that sustainability cannot be a sub requirement but must be the overall requirement present in all stages of the process. The framework contains an overview, description of activities, links to external tools and documents, and finally a checklist to be completed after each stage. Depending on which stakeholder uses the framework, there are different examples and suggestions for activities and tools. Contrary to many other assessment schemes, the SIRen process focuses on the renovation process itself, and the self-evaluation gives a numerical value that represents to what extent the actors have considered and implemented different aspects of sustainability in the stages of the renovation process. The SIRen process was partially implemented in four renovation projects during the iterative development of the SIRen framework.

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  • 114.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Kylefors, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Age 3.0 - Addressing the challenges coming with An Ageing Population: A National Strategic Innovation Agenda2014Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 115.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Kylefors, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Åldrande befolkning2013Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 116.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Kylefors, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    An Ageing Population2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The background to the agenda is the increasing proportion of elderly people in the population, which presents both challenges and opportunities for society, business and entrepreneurship. The long-term vision is to establish a sustainable society for an aging population. The aim is to create and develop easily accessible goods, services and networks that are in line with the needs and demands of elderly people. These products should be capable of coping with the complex situation of the elderly and satisfy their personal needs. Elderly people are a large and heterogeneous group and in Sweden the majority of elderly people are healthy and live independent lives. But there are also those who are frail and sick and who are in considerable need of care and assistance. The work within the research agenda has been conducted on a multidisciplinary basis to identify new interactions. The goal was to establish collaboration through a series of meetings and workshops and where ideas and innovation chains with an embedded holistic approach could be created. This goal was achieved through four workshops with some 30 organisations. Smaller meetings were also held and collaboration took place with other agendas. Three priority areas have been identified: housing, nutrition and health. To achieve the vision, it is important to work with prevention by adopting an individual approach but from a holistic perspective. Simple, robust regulatory frameworks and structures should work to promote the independence of the individual. Welfare technology that adapts existing technology and makes it useful and accessible to the elderly would bring us closer to realising the vision. This can be achieved through collaboration!

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  • 117.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment. Lund University, Sweden.
    Estimating the probability distributions of radioactive concrete in the building stock using Bayesian networks2023In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 222, article id 119812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The undesirable legacy of radioactive concrete (blue concrete) in post-war dwellings contributes to increased indoor radon levels and health threats to occupants. Despite continuous decontamination efforts, blue concrete still remains in the Swedish building stock due to low traceability as the consequence of lacking systematic documentation in technical descriptions and drawings and resource-demanding large-scaled radiation screening. The paper aims to explore the predictive inference potential of learning Bayesian networks for evaluating the presence probability of blue concrete. By integrating blue concrete records from indoor radon measurements, pre-demolition audit inventories, and building registers, it is possible to estimate buildings with high probabilities of containing blue concrete and encode the dependent relationships between variables. The findings show that blue concrete is estimated to be present in more than 30% of existing buildings, more than the current expert assumptions of 18–20%. The probability of detecting blue concrete depends on the distance to historical blue concrete manufacturing plants, building class, and construction year, but it is independent of floor area and basements. Multifamily houses and buildings built between 1960 and 1968 or nearby manufacturing plants are more likely to contain blue concrete. Despite heuristic, the data-driven approach offers an overview of the extent and the probability distribution of blue concrete-prone buildings in the regional building stock. The paper contributes to method development for pattern identification for hazardous building materials, i.e., blue concrete, and the trained models can be used for risk-based inspection planning before renovation and selective demolition. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 118.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Indoor radon interval prediction in the Swedish building stock using machine learning2023In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 245, article id 110879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor radon represents a health hazard for occupants. However, the indoor radon measurement rate is low in Sweden because of no mandatory requirements. Measuring indoor radon on an urban scale is complicated, machine learning exploiting existing data for pattern identification provides a cost-efficient approach to estimate indoor radon exposure in the building stock. Extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) models and deep neural network (DNN) models were developed based on indoor radon measurement records, property registers, and geogenic information. The XGBoost models showed promising results in predicting indoor radon intervals for different types of buildings with macro-F1 between 0.93 and 0.96, whereas the DNN models attained macro-F1 between 0.64 and 0.74. After that, the XGBoost models trained on the national indoor radon dataset were transferred to fit building registers in metropolitan regions to estimate the indoor radon intervals in non-measured and measured buildings by regions and building classes. By comparing the prediction results and the statistical summary of indoor radon intervals in measured buildings, the model uncertainty and validity were determined. The study ascertains the prediction performance of machine learning models in classifying indoor radon intervals and discusses the benefits and limitations of the data-driven approach. The research outcomes can assist preliminary large-scale indoor radon distribution estimation for relevant authorities and guide onsite measurements for prioritized building stock prone to indoor radon exposure. 

  • 119.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Modeling Artificial Neural Networks to Predict Asbestos-containing Materials in Residential Buildings2022In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 1122, article id 012050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of hazardous materials inhibits material circularity. The existing residential buildings are exposed to the risk of the unforeseen presence of asbestos-containing materials during the demolition or renovation process. Estimating the potential occurrence of contaminated building components can therefore facilitate semi-selective demolition and decontamination planning. The study aims to investigate the prediction possibility of seven frequently detected asbestos-containing materials by using artificial neural networks based on a hazardous material dataset from pre-demolition audit inventories and national building registers. Through iterative model evaluation and careful hyperparameter tuning, the prediction performance for each asbestos-containing material was benchmarked. A high level of accuracy was obtained for asbestos pipe insulation and ventilation channel, yet barely any patterns were found for asbestos floor mats. Artificial neural networks show potential for classifying specific asbestos components and can enhance the knowledge of their detection patterns. However, more quality data are needed to bring the models into practice for risk assessment for not yet inventoried residential buildings. The proposed screening approach for in situ asbestos-containing materials has high applicability for the quality assurance of recycled materials in circular value chains.

  • 120.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Johansson, T.
    KTH Royal Institute of tTechnology, Sweden.
    Tracing hazardous materials in registered records: A case study of demolished and renovated buildings in Gothenburg2021In: Journal of Physics, IOP Publishing Ltd , 2021, no 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazardous materials encountered during building renovation or demolition processes not only result in uncertainty in cost estimation and the lead time but also hampers material recyclability and reuse. Therefore, the paper discusses the possibility of predicting the extent of the hazardous materials, including asbestos, PCB, mercury, and CFC, through data mining techniques based on registered records. Pre-demolition audits contain observation data that can be used as a sample for statistical prediction through careful processing. By developing an innovative approach of merging data from environmental inventories with building registers, the positive ratio of remaining hazardous materials in the Gothenburg building stock can be estimated. The study highlights the challenges of creating a training dataset by completing information from the existing environmental inventory, providing new insight into digital protocol development for enhancing material circularity. 

  • 121.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A Data-Driven Approach to Assess the Risk of Encountering Hazardous Materials in the Building Stock Based on Environmental Inventories2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 14, article id 7836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of hazardous materials hinders the circular economy in construction and demolition waste management. However, traditional environmental investigations are costly and time-consuming, and thus lead to limited adoption. To deal with these challenges, the study investigated the possibility of employing registered records as input data to achieve in situ hazardous building materials management at a large scale. Through characterizing the eligible building groups in question, the risk of unexpected cost and delay due to acute abatement could be mitigated. Merging the national building registers and the environmental inventory from renovated and demolished buildings in the City of Gothenburg, a training dataset was created for data validation and statistical operations. Four types of inventories were evaluated to identify the building groups with adequate data size and data quality. The observations’ representativeness was described by plotting the distribution of building features between the Gothenburg dataset and the training dataset. Evaluating the missing data and the positive detection rates affirmed that reports and protocols could locate hazardous materials in the building stock. The asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing materials with high positive detection rates were highlighted and discussed. Moreover, the potential inventory types and building groups for future machine learning prediction were delineated through the cross-validation matrix. The novel study contributes to the method development for assessing the risk of residual hazardous materials in buildings.

  • 122.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Machine Learning in Hazardous Building Material Management : Research Status and Applications2021In: Recent Progress in Materials, E-ISSN 2689-5846, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of the presence of hazardous materials in buildings is essential for improving material recyclability, increasing working safety, and lowering the risk of unforeseen cost and delay in demolition. In light of these aspects, machine learning has been viewed as a promising approach to complement environmental investigations and quantify the risk of finding hazardous materials in buildings. In view of the increasing number of related studies, this article aims to review the research status of hazardous material management and identify the potential applications of machine learning. Our exploratory study consists of a two-fold approach: science mapping and critical literature review. By evaluating the references acquired from a literature search and complementary materials, we have been able to pinpoint and discuss the research gaps and opportunities. While pilot research has been conducted in the identification of hazardous materials, source separation and collection, extensive adoption of the available machine learning methods was not found in this field. Our findings show that (1) quantification of asbestos-cement roofing is possible from the combination of remote sensing and machine learning algorithms, (2) characterization of buildings with asbestos-containing materials is progressive by using statistical methods, and (3) separation and collection of asbestos-containing wastes can be addressed with a hybrid of image processing and machine learning algorithms. Analysis from this study demonstrates the method applicability and provides an orientation to the future implementation of the European Union Construction and Demolition Waste Management Protocol. Furthermore, establishing a comprehensive environmental inventory database is a key to facilitating a transition toward hazard-free circular construction

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  • 123.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Machine learning models for the prediction of polychlorinated biphenyls and asbestos materials in buildings2023In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 199, article id 107253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazardous materials in buildings cause project uncertainty concerning schedule and cost estimation, and hinder material recovery in renovation and demolition. The study aims to identify patterns and extent of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and asbestos materials in the Swedish building stock to assess their potential presence in pre-demolition audits. Statistics and machine learning pipelines were generated for four PCB and twelve asbestos components based on environmental inventories. The models succeeded in predicting most hazardous materials in residential buildings with a minimum average performance of 0.79, and 0.78 for some hazardous components in non-residential buildings. By employing the leader models to regional building registers, the probability of hazardous materials was estimated for non-inspected building stocks. The geospatial distribution of buildings prone to contamination was further predicted for Stockholm public housing to demonstrate the models’ application. The research outcomes contribute to a cost-efficient data-driven approach to evaluating comprehensive hazardous materials in existing buildings.

  • 124.
    Wu, Pei-Yu
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sandels, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Johansson, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Predicting the presence of hazardous materials in buildings using machine learning2022In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 213, article id 108894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying in situ hazardous materials can improve demolition waste recyclability and reduce project uncertainties concerning cost overrun and delay. With the attempt to characterize their detection patterns in buildings, the study investigates the prediction potential of machine learning techniques with hazardous waste inventories and building registers as input data. By matching, validating, and assuring the quality of empirical data, a hazardous material dataset for training, testing, and validation was created. The objectives of the explorative study are to highlight the challenges in machine learning pipeline development and verify two prediction hypotheses. Our findings show an average of 74% and 83% accuracy rates in predicting asbestos pipe insulation in multifamily houses and PCB joints or sealants in school buildings in two major Swedish cities Gothenburg and Stockholm. Similarly, 78% and 83% of recall rates were obtained for imbalanced classification. By correlating the training sample size and cross-validation accuracy, the bias and variance issues were assessed in learning curves. In general, the models perform well on the limited dataset, yet collecting more training data can improve the model's generalizability to other building stocks, meanwhile decreasing the chance of overfitting. Furthermore, the average impact on the model output magnitude of each feature was illustrated. The proposed applied machine learning approach is promising for in situ hazardous material management and could support decision-making regarding risk evaluation in selective demolition work. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 125.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate. Lund University, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport. Lund University, Sweden.
    Arfvidsson, Jesper
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Managing Choice Uncertainties in Life-CycleAssessment as a Decision-Support Tool for BuildingDesign: A Case Study on Building Framework2020In: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 12, article id 5130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To establish a circular economy in society, it is crucial to incorporate life-cycle studies, such as life-cycle assessment (LCA), in the design process of products in order to mitigate the well-recognized problem of the design paradox. The aim of the study was to provide means in a structured way to highlight choice uncertainty present in LCA when used as decision support, as well as to mitigate subjective interpretations of the numerical results leading to arbitrary decisions. The study focused on choices available when defining the goal and scope of a life-cycle assessment. The suggested approach is intended to be used in the early design phases of complex products with high levels of uncertainty in the product life-cycle. To demonstrate and evaluate the approach, a life-cycle assessment was conducted of two design options for a specific building. In the case study two types of building frameworks were compared from an environmental perspective by calculating the global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, stratospheric ozonedepletion potential and photochemical oxidants creation potential. In the study, a procedure named the Decision Choices Procedure (DCP) was developed to improve LCA as an effective tool for decision support concerning design alternatives when less information is available. The advantagesand drawbacks of the proposed approach are discussed to spur further improvements in the use of LCA as a decision-support tool.

  • 126.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Arfvidsson, Jesper
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The importance of including secondary effects when defining the system boundary with life cycle perspective: Case study for design of an external wall2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 143, p. 1105-1113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis are suitable tools in trying to minimize environmental impact and cost. To get reliable results it is crucial to set up correct system boundaries for the investigation, but it is often difficult to understand a complex products system because of the cascade effects of consequences that can be induced even by small changes. In this paper the effects and consequences evaluation (ECE) method is introduced to systematically identify and organize the effects and consequences for a design change of parts of a complex system. The method is applied in a case study of external wall insulation for a new building to investigate the importance of correct system boundaries. Using the methodical approach in identifying all significant consequences showed that unexpected unit processes can be important when deciding on the relevant system boundary. We also conclude that such processes can have a significant impact on the final results by calculating the change in global warming potential and life cycle cost for the processes affected by the design option.

  • 127.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Arfvidsson, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The influence of secondary effects on global warming and cost optimization of insulation in the building envelope2017In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 118, p. 174-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative environmental impact from the building construction phase is increasing compared to the operation phase for new buildings. Therefore, it is important to consider the complete environmental life cycle of energy improvement measures. Many advanced optimization methods have been developed in recent years to assess building life cycle impact. However, these previous studies have not fully addressed the secondary effects, in other words, indirect effects outside the actual design option. This may lead to conclusions of optimization studies based on misleading calculation results. The main purpose this study was to highlight the relevance of including secondary effects in optimization of building design with respect to global warming potential and cost. This was done by conducting a parameter study of the building envelope insulation thickness with regard to global warming potential and life cycle costs, while considering secondary effects induced by the different design options. Findings from this study show that secondary effects influence the system boundary, algorithm architecture, results and the final conclusions of optimal building design. Omitting secondary effects can thus lead to incorrect decision on optimal solutions with regard to global warming potential and life cycle cost. Therefore, it is therefore important to take them into consideration when performing optimization studies of building design options.

  • 128.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Lund University, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Arfvidsson, Jesper
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Approach to manage parameter and choice uncertainty in life cycle optimisation of building design: Case study of optimal insulation thickness2021In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 191, article id 107544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate global warming, it is important to decrease the climate impact from the building stock, which accounts for 39% of the GHG emissions in Europe. An extensive portion of these emissions are generated from the heating of buildings, but emissions also occur from the production of building materials. It is therefore important to find building design solutions that consider both production and operation and maintenance in order to minimise the climate impact of a building during its entire lifetime. At the same time, the production of buildings has to be cost-efficient. In the design of buildings, both climate impact and cost must be evaluated in order to make well-supported decisions. The overall aim of this study was to develop a procedure to facilitate using life cycle studies as decision support for building design. The presented approach will provide a structured means to manage choice and parameter uncertainty when life cycle studies are used as decision support in order to optimise building design. There are many uncertainties in the design phase of buildings, and the approach is demonstrated here in a case study of insulation thickness in the building envelope. The results can be used to support decisions on where to effectively make improvements when subjective choices and parameter uncertainties are considered in the study. The suggested approach will lessen the problem of false certainty in the conclusions drawn, and at the same time provide strong decision support.

  • 129.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Arfvidsson, Jesper
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Välj rätt systemgräns vid designoptimering2016In: Husbyggaren, no 5, p. 32-34Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Ylmen, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Life Cycle Assessment of an Office Building Based on Site-Specific Data2019In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 13, article id 2588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an established method to assess the various environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a building. The goal of this project was to calculate the environmental releases for a whole office building and investigate the contribution in terms of environmental impact for different parts of the building, as well as the impact from different stages of the life cycle. The construction process was followed up during production and the contractors provided real-time data on the input required in terms of building products, transport, machinery, energy use, etc. The results are presented for five environmental impact categories and, as expected, materials that constitute the main mass of the building and the energy used during operation contribute the largest share of environmental impact. It is usually difficult to evaluate the environmental impact of the materials in technical installations due to the lack of data. However, in this study, the data were provided by the contractors directly involved in the construction and can, therefore, be considered highly reliable. The results show that materials for installations have a significant environmental impact for four of the environmental impact categories studied, which is a noteworthy finding.

  • 131.
    Olander, Stefan (Editor)
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment. Lund Universtiy, Sweden.
    Femenias, Paula (Editor)
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Helsing, Elisabeth (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Wallenten, Petter (Editor)
    Lund Universtiy, Sweden.
    Hållbar renoveringur ett helhetsperspektiv: En antologi från forskningsmiljön SIRen2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Innehållsförteckning:

    - Förord  av Madeleine Nobs, NCC

    - Innehållsförteckning

    - Tvärdisciplinär forskning möjliggör hållbar integrerad renovering av Kristina Mjörnell, RISE och Lunds Universitet

    - SIRens-process för hållbar renovering med uppföljning av Petter Wallentén, Lunds Universitet, Kristina Mjörnell, RISE och Lunds Universitet

    - Praktisk tillämpning av SIRens renoveringsprocess av Sofia Meurk, Omreda AB

    - Varsam energieffektiv renovering – Tjärna ängar Borlänge av Jonn Are Myhren, Högskolan Dalarna, Martin Bergdahl, Högskolan Dalarna

    - Sociala perspektiv på termisk komfort vid renovering av Tjärna Ängar av Annette Henning, Högskolan Dalarna, Jonn Are Myhren, Högskolan Dalarna, Maria Wallinder, Högskolan Dalarna och Linköpings universitet

    - Från omfattande till varsam renovering av Paula Femenías, Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Sara Hamon, Familjebostäder, Jospehina Wilson, Familjebostäder, Per-Henrik Hartman Familjebostäder, Kristina Mjörnell, RISE och Lunds Universitet

    - Beslutsfattande i tidiga skeden vid renovering av skolbyggnad av Karin Farsäter, Lunds Universitet, Stefan Olander, Lunds Universitet

    - Lyckad renovering av miljonprogramsområde i Munkedal  av Anna Rudhag, Rotpartner

    - Kunskapslyft renovering av Liane Thuvander, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Paula Femenías, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Fredrik Olsson, Rotpartner, Angelica Starke, Rotpartner

    - ”Örat mot marken” Kartbaserad metodik för boendeinflytande i stadsutveckling av Liane Thuvander, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Jenny Stenberg, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Alfredo Torrez, Hyresgästföreningen, Kim Weinehammar, Hyresgästföreningen, Jesper Bryngelsson, Hyresgästföreningen

    - Hyresgästsamråd vid renovering – fyra dilemman av Jenny Stenberg, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola

    - Kulturvärden och hållbar renovering av Petra Eriksson, Uppsala universitet, Campus Gotland, Anna Donarelli, Riksantikvarieämbetet, Therese Sonehag, Riksantikvarieämbetet

    - Hållbar energieffektivisering av historiska trä- och stenbyggnader med hampa-kalk av Paulien Strandberg-de Bruijn, Lunds Universitet, Kristin Balksten, Uppsala universitet Campus Gotland, Anna Donarelli, Riksantikvarieämbetet

    - Superisoleringsmaterial – hur kan de användas vid renovering? av Pär Johansson, Chalmers tekniska högskola, Petra Eriksson, Uppsala Universitet,Paula Wahlgren, Chalmers tekniska högskola

    - Kulturvärden i planeringsprocessen - kulturmiljöprogram som kunskapsunderlag av Sanja Peter, Göteborgs stad

    - Varför är det så ont om Q? av Jennie Sjöholm, Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Kristina L Nilsson, Luleå Tekniska Universitet

    - Installation av FTX – ett sätt att få lägre energianvändning och bättre innemiljö  av Dennis Johansson, Lunds Universitet, Akram Abdul Hamid, Lunds Universitet, Hans Bagge, Lunds Universitet, Jan Kristoffersson, Sustainable Innovation

    - Mäta resursförbrukning under ombyggnad  av Jan Bröchner, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Ahmet Anil Sezer, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola

    - Relining eller rörbyte  av Folke Björk, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Parastou Kharazmi, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Tord af Klintberg, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan

    - Vad står det i lagar och regler om renovering?  av Elisabeth Helsing, RISE

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