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  • 101.
    Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    VIVAB Vatten och Miljö i Väst, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    VIVAB Vatten och Miljö i Väst, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lunds university, Sweden.
    New insights on process performance and stability for anaerobic co-digestion through modelling and population analysis2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) allows for underutilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), e.g. food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper focuses on the implementation of codigestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment and OFMSW through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process and an increase of the biomethane production of 20 to 40% with 50% OFMSW and it has an impact on the microbial community. The methanogenic activity increases and changes towards acetate degradation while the community without co-substrate remains unaffected. The modelling results show that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in digester performance due to varying inhibition. Modelling can be successfully used for designing feed strategies and experimental set-ups for anaerobic co-digestion.

  • 102.
    Keucken, Alexander
    et al.
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Habagil, Moshe
    Vatten & Miljö i Väst AB, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sludge and Organic FoodWaste — Performance, Inhibition, and Impact on theMicrobial Community2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion allows for under-utilised digesters to increase biomethane production. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), i.e., food waste, is an abundant substrate with high degradability and gas potential. This paper investigates the co-digestion of mixed sludge from wastewater treatment plants and OFMSW, through batch and continuous labscale experiments, modelling, and microbial population analysis. The results show a rapid adaptation of the process, and an increase of the biomethane production by 20% to 40%, when codigesting mixed sludge with OFMSW at a ratio of 1:1, based on the volatile solids (VS) content. The introduction of OFMSW also has an impact on the microbial community. With 50% co-substrate and constant loading conditions (1 kg VS/m3/d) the methanogenic activity increases and adapts towards acetate degradation, while the community in the reference reactor, without a co-substrate, remains unaffected. An elevated load (2 kg VS/m3/d) increases the methanogenic activity in both reactors, but the composition of the methanogenic population remains constant for the reference reactor. The modelling shows that ammonium inhibition increases at elevated organic loads, and that intermittent feeding causes fluctuations in the digester performance, due to varying inhibition. The paper demonstrates how modelling can be used for designing feed strategies and experimental setups for anaerobic co-digestion.

  • 103.
    Knowles, Brandin
    et al.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Bates, Oliver
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    This changes sustainable HCI2018In: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than a decade into Sustainable HCI (SHCI) research, the community is still struggling to converge on a shared understanding of sustainability and HCI's role in addressing it. We think this is largely a positive sign, reflective of maturity; yet, lacking a clear set of aims and metrics for sustainability continues to be the community's impediment to progressing, hence we seek to articulate a vision around which the community can productively coalesce. Drawing from recent SHCI publications, we identify commonalities that might form the basis of a shared understanding, and we show that this understanding closely aligns with the authoritative conception of a path to a sustainable future proffered by Naomi Klein in her book This Changes Everything. We elaborate a set of contributions that SHCI is already making that can be unified under Klein's narrative, and compare these categories of work to those found in past surveys of the field as evidence of substantive progress in SHCI.

  • 104.
    Kovacs, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hemlin, Olleper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Jon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Larsson, David
    Femenias, Paula
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thuvander, Liane
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fahlen, Elsa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Solceller som solavskärmning: Forskning, utveckling och demonstration2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the implementation, results, discussion and conclusions of the project "Solar Shading in an Overall Perspective - From Energy Efficiency to Energy Production and from Product to Architecture". From 2015 to 2018, companies from the solar shading and solar PV industries, together with architects, researchers, contractors and property managers, have explored the area in order to increase interest, knowledge and acceptance for solar shading in various important target groups. A strong focus has been on the combination of solar cells and solar shadings in a product named electricity generating solar shading. Among the results is a literature summary and an experience feedback from eight installations, as well as a database of examples from about 70 solar-shading installations, most of which are built up of solar cells. A development effort in collaboration between solar shading- and solar PV companies has resulted in several new products that were evaluated in the project and now being demonstrated at RISE's office in Borås.

  • 105.
    Kovacs, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hemlin, Olleper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Regelmässiga förutsättningar för takrenoveringar och solcellsinstallationer – en litteratursammanställning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents a two-piece literature summary summarizing incentives and regulatory barriers to the renovation of multi-family houses, as well as general regulations, policies and other conditions for installations of solar cell installations. For developers and suppliers with interest in roof renovation with solar cells, the report aims to provide a picture of the conditions for such actions. The overall picture is that there is a rapid positive development of incentives and regulations specifically for solar cells. Additionally, regulations for energy efficiency and environmental certification can motivate property owners to carry out such combined approach.

    This report complements the project report for project "Environmental Roofing - Solar Energy Redevelopment" (Energy Agency Project Number: 41857-1) and is available via E2B2's website - http://www.e2b2.se/.

  • 106.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Brick, Karolina
    Riksbyggen, Sweden.
    Rönneblad, Anders
    Cementa, Sweden.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Larsson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kriterier för resurssnålt byggande i praktiken: Slutrapport från forskningsprogrammet E2B2 – energieffektivtbyggande och boende2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet omfattar uppföljning av ställda kriterier för låg klimatpåverkan från betong vid upphandlingav betongstomme för brf. Viva i Göteborg. Kriterierna följdes upp dels genom att LCA studien somgenomförts under programskedet uppdaterades med data för den färdigupphandlade byggnaden ochdels genom att interljuva ett urval av aktörer för att få en inblick över hur branschen ser på de ställdakraven. Arbetet innehåller även en avslutande del angående känsligheten i beräkningarna samtosäkerheter och hur de kan behandlas.Byggnaderna som är tänkta att stå i 100 år kommer utsättas för klimatförändringar. Därförgenomfördes parallellt med LCA studien också energisimuleringar för att se hur den termiskakomforten och uppvärmningsbehovet förändras över tiden.Resultaten av LCA-uppföljningen och de ställda kriterierna visar att kraven uppfylldes för både denprefabricerade betongen och den platsgjutna betongen. Att jämföra den totala klimatpåverkan mellanprogramskedet och upphandlad byggnad visar sig inte vara möjligt då konstruktionen har förändratsalltför mycket, bland annat har den uppvärmda ytan ökat med ca 50% samtidigt som mer material haranvänts för de prefabricerade väggarna och bjälklagen. En känslighetsanalys har istället genomförtssom visar att den upphandlade konstruktionen har 30% lägre klimatpåverkan per BOA jämfört motom den byggts med traditionell betong. Hade de ursprungliga konstruktionsdetaljerna frånprogramskedet använts för väggar och bjälklag hade klimatpåverkan istället varit ca 40% lägre.Vid framtida kravställning bör man därför ta hänsyn även till konstruktionerna, betongkvaliteternaoch dess materialmängder och inte bara ställa krav på betongrecepten som i det här fallet.Klimatsimuleringarna visar att det troligen finns ett stort mörkertal med lågenergilägenheter som harförhöjd temperatur inomhus sommartid redan vid dagens klimat

  • 107.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Al-ayish, Nadia
    Brick, Karolina
    Riksbyggen, Sweden.
    Rönneblad, Anders
    Cementa, Sweden.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Larsson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Resurssnålt byggande: så ställs kraven för minstamöjliga klimatpåverkan: Resultatblad från forskningsprogrammet E2B2 –energieffektivt byggande och boende2018In: Energimyndigheten E2B2Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 108.
    Kärrman, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Anderzen, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    von Bahr, Bo
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berg, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Översikt över återvinning av fosfor och kväve från avlopp i nio utvalda länder2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increased focus on nutrients recycling specifically in Europe over the last years. This paper gives an overview of the situation in nine countries regarding status, policies and future perspectives in the area of phosphorus and nitrogen recycling from wastewater and sewage sludge. The study includes the situation in Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Netherlands, Great Britain, Norway, Finland and Canada. The information was received through interviews with national coordinators complemented with information from literature and other sources. The following topics were included:

    - Main management of sewage sludge and phosphorus extraction today

    - Expected future management of sewage sludge and phosphorus extraction, 5-10 years ahead

    - Experiences of nitrogen extraction from sewage

    - Experiences of source separated sewage systems

    - National targets, regulations and financial instruments to promote nutrients recycling from sewage

    - Ongoing research, development and innovation activities

    From the compilation of the results the countries were categorized in three groups 1)

    The Legislation group, 2) the Investigation group, and 3) the Limit group. The categorization was based on the current management of sewage sludge in combination with ambitions and future perspectives.

    The legislation group includes Germany and Switzerland where the latter is the only country with a prohibition of spreading sewage sludge in agriculture, implemented 2006. Germany is a frontrunner with a newly implemented legislation. Spreading of sewage sludge is today rare in Germany since limits are getting more and more strict over time. Incineration is a common method in both Switzerland and Germany and both countries are in the frontline regarding the introduction of phosphorus extraction from the ashes.

    Six countries still use considerable amounts sewage sludge on agriculture, where four countries; Great Britain, Denmark, Norway and Canada has no plans in changing this (the Limit group). The Netherlands is also part of the Limit group but is different since they do not spread any sewage sludge on agriculture due to tough limits.

    The investigation group contain Finland and Sweden. They are spreading relatively large amounts of sewage sludge but has also an ambition to start extract and recycle phosphorus. This is done with support of a policy in Finland and in with a governmental investigation in Sweden with aim at formulating new regulations.

    A general observation is that the current handling of sewage sludge in each country is more dependent on local conditions than a more scientific evaluation of different opportunities. The explanations can rather be found in the structure of the agriculture (the access of manure or the access of agricultural land convenient for spreading sewage sludge), traditions and attitude to incineration, possibilities of alternative use of sludge (cover of mines and landfills), debate of sewage sludge or other reasons.

  • 109.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Boork, Magdalena
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Barriers, driving forces and non-energy benefits for battery storage in photovoltaic (PV) systems in modern agriculture2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 18, article id 3568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Battery storage has been highlighted as one way to increase the share of renewables in energy systems. The use of local battery storage is also beneficial when reducing power variations in the grid, thereby contributing to more robust and cost-effective energy systems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate barriers, drivers and non-energy benefits (NEB) for investments in battery storage in photovoltaic systems (PV) in the context of farmers with PV systems in Sweden. The study is based on a questionnaire about barriers, driving forces and NEB for investment in battery storage connected to PV. The questionnaire was sent to farmers in Sweden who already have photovoltaics installed and about 100 persons answered, a response rate of 59%. The major barriers found are related to the technical and economic risks of investing in battery storage. One of the main conclusions is that the highest-ranked driver, i.e., to use a larger part of the produced electricity oneself, turns out to be the highest priority for the grid-owner seeking to reduce the need for extensive investments in the grid. The primary NEBs found were the possibility of becoming independent from grid electricity. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 110.
    Lane, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Thorbjörn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Byggae - Method for quality assurance of energy efficient buildings2017In: International Journal of Energy Production and Management, ISSN 2056-3272, E-ISSN 2056-3280, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies for energy efficiency requirements in buildings have become more stringent according to EU2020 goals. Despite policy regulations, requirements for energy efficiency are not met in many new buildings. Some of the reasons for this energy performance gap are related to the building process. The aim with this paper is to describe a purposed method for quality assurance of sustainable buildings according to energy efficiency. The proposed method is called ByggaE, where 'Bygga' is the Swedish word for 'build' and E is the first letter in 'energy efficient'. It is a tool intended to lower the energy performance gap related to the building process by guiding the client and providers through the process to fulfill goals. The essence of ByggaE is the formulation of requirements by the client and the working process of identifying, handling and following up critical constructions and key issues. This working process involves all participants in the building project by using appropriate quality guidelines and checklists for documentation, communication and verification. ByggaE is a step forward ensuring that the building fulfills the defined functions and that conscious decisions are taken when goals have to be changed during the building project. The next steps are to ensure the usefulness of the method in practice by more testing and to spread knowledge about the method.

  • 111.
    Lennartsson, Maria
    et al.
    City of Stockholm, Sweden.
    McConville, Jennifer
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hagman, Marinette
    Northwestern Skånes Water and Wastewater Municipal Company, Sweden.
    Kjerstadius, Hamse
    Northwestern Skånes Water and Wastewater Municipal Company, Sweden.
    Investments in innovative urban sanitation - Decision-making processes in Sweden2019In: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, E-ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 588-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies decision-making processes in relation to the implementation of innovative source-separating wastewater systems in the development area of Helsingborg called H+, and the non-implementation of the same in Stockholm Royal Seaport. Two analytical perspectives were used to identify critical organisational functions, drivers for change and the anchoring of these decisions within policy: (i) a sustainability transitions framework, and (ii) a policy trickle-down study assessing policy-concept uptake by stakeholders. Critical functions supporting implementation of source-separating systems in H+ were: common vision, leadership, cross-sectoral cooperation, and an innovative approach both within the utility and in the city administration in Helsingborg. In Stockholm, with regard to source-separating wastewater systems, there was a lack of common vision and of cross-sectoral cooperation and leadership. This was also evident in the lack of uptake by stakeholders of the policies for source separation. In Helsingborg, the main drivers for source-separating wastewater systems are increased biogas generation and improved potential for nutrient recycling. In Stockholm, these drivers have not been enough to create change, but the potential for increased heat recovery from greywater at source may be the additional driver necessary for future implementation of source-separating wastewater systems. Comparison of the stalled source-separation policy in Stockholm with a successfully implemented policy in a related field found a key criteria to be the presence of inspired individuals in positions where they had the mandate as well as the ability to create a common vision for change.

  • 112.
    Lindahl, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Värmepumpar i fjärrvärmesystem2017In: Kyla&Värme, no 1, p. 44-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Borgqvist, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Certified energy consultant for increasednumber of retail grocery stores with low energy use, safe operation and low environmental impact2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 376-384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the framework for a proposed certification for energy consultants targeting the grocery sector, i.e. supermarkets. Thecertificationshould cover necessary knowledge and requirements, with the overall aim of increasing energy efficiency and reducing related costs for the store at the system level. Within the retail sector, supermarkets are the most energy-intensive buildings. Buildings intended for food sector applications need to be of a special design, with requirements that differ from other premises. Half of the electricity used is employed to keep food cold. However, energy efficiency can be improved through efficient equipment and increased knowledge, sometimes by 30-50% or more. This paper presents different skills and requirements needed by a certified energy consultant, CEC, working with energy efficiency in supermarket, from the retailer's perspective. Thus, the specifications can be used to further develop the certification area; energy consulting for supermarkets and good practice approaches targeting this area.

  • 114.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. University of Borås, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fahlén, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Axell, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Fransson, Niklas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thermal comfort in the supermarketenvironment – multiple enquiry methods and simultaneous measurements of the thermal environment2017In: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 82, p. 426-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the supermarket environment three factors must be considered: food (food quality), personnel (working conditions), and customers.The customers do not remain in this environment very long but are of particular interest since they constitute the supermarket’s commercial basis. However, there are no recommendations on the indoor environment based on this category. This study compares the perceived indoor thermal environment with simultaneous objective measurements of the thermal environment and includes multiple enquiry methods. These methods have been used for this specific environment in order to understand how customers perceive, evaluate, and prefer variations in the thermal environment.

    Measurements were performed in summer and winter in front of twelve display cabinets, over 1100 questionnaires have been received.To provide recommendations, this study presents measured and perceived comfort in supermarkets, information which can be used for prescribing suitable thermal environments for customers.

  • 115.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rolfsman, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Swartz, H.
    Energy agreements regarding grocery stores for a sustainable society - Lessons learned2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 152-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we aim to shed light on waste heat from commercial refrigeration, which is common but unnecessary. Excess heat is the heat which is not recovered, although it is possible to do so. We include heating for existing buildings: grocery stores as stand-alone, or within another building. VariousSwedish perspectives of the parties involved, tenant and landlord, are discussed. Theoretically and technically, it is not difficult to distributeexcess energy from a tenant to another receiver, which in turn uses the energy. However, to meet energy goals regarding energy consumption for heating buildings requires new and efficient approaches. The technique is already known and availableon the market. We suggest that availableenergy and heat recovery projects, contracts and agreements maysignificantly enhance the possibility of creating viable energy efficiency projects, and include excess heat. Results include lessons learned from the parties.

  • 116.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sundström, Malin
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Consumer perception and behavior in the retail foodscape – A study of chilled groceries2018In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 40, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the retail grocery business, new competitors such as pure e-commerce players are growing fast, and, in order to compete, ‘brick and mortar’ stores such as supermarkets need to become more professional at providing excellent customer service, and to use the physical servicescape as the main competitive advantages. However, supermarkets also face a challenge to offer consumers high quality products while at the same time providing a pleasant and functional servicescape. Products like groceries often need to be stored in cabinets due to strict regulations and in order to maintain correct temperatures. Some of these cabinets have doors which make them more energy-efficient (Evans et al., 2007 ;  Faramarzi et al., 2002), reduces costs, and contributes to grocery quality, but it can also affect the perceived servicescape, and risk a negative impact on sales (Waide, 2014; Kauffeld, 2015). For example, moisture from the atmosphere that condenses on the inside of the door glass (Fricke and Bansal, 2015) may make the cabinets less transparent, and doors can obstruct consumers from passing by. Thus, having chilled groceries in cabinets with doors can be both beneficial and problematic. However, no studies have been conducted on how open (no doors) or closed (with doors) cabinets for chilled groceries impact consumer perception and behavior. Hence, the purpose of the study is to contribute to an understanding of how consumers behave and what they perceive when shopping chilled groceries from cabinets with doors and without doors in the supermarket.

    Based on a qualitative research approach, combining in-store observations and focus group interviews, and focusing on Bitner's (1992) three environmental variables in the servicescape, i.e. (1) ambient condition, (2) space and functions, and (3) signs, symbols and artifacts, the study investigates the question: do open or closed cabinets for chilled groceries in the supermarket impact consumer perception and behavior, and if so, how?

    Our results indicate that consumers’ behavior and perceptions of the foodscape differ when there are doors or no doors on the cabinets. The paper thereby contributes to servicescape research by focusing on a particular part of supermarkets – the foodscape for chilled groceries–and by enhancing the understanding of environmental variables in the servicescape. The results further show how doors lead to different forms of approach or avoidance behavior in terms of accessibility and that consumers’ vision, olfaction and tactility all influence consumers’ perceptions of freshness and cleanliness in relation to doors or no doors. Our results also have practical implications for retailers who are designing new stores or considering changes in existing store layouts.

  • 117.
    Linden, Hanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    LCM development: focusing on the LC promoters and their organizational problem-solving2019In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 297-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Life cycle management (LCM) implies a specific sustainability perspective which extends environmental management along the product life cycle, with the aim of decreasing negative environmental impact throughout the product chain. Research has identified that the adoption of LCM in the industry depends upon its situational adaptation to the organizational context. Even so, little is known about the specifics of this adaptation. With this paper, our aim is to add knowledge on LCM adoption and adaptation. Methods: A systematic analysis of empirical material on life cycle (LC) activity in six multinational corporations (MNCs) is conducted, by applying a secondary analysis of qualitative data (Heaton 2008). In order to study instances of LCM adoption and adaptation, we focus on the acts and situations of LC promoters. The identified instances are analyzed through the lens of situated problem-solving (Kuhn and Jackson 2008). Results and discussion: Sixty-seven instances of LC promotion were identified and analyzed, resulting in the identification of eight categories of problem-situations typically encountered by LC promoters. The identified problem-situations represent different situations when the organizational appropriateness of the LC approach is at stake and to which responses tailored to the organization are put forward by a LC promoter. The results bring to the fore the ubiquity of organizational and creative problem-solving, highlighting the role of LC promoters as change agents for LCM adoption, and depict the development of LCM as an emergent practice, rather than an implementation process. Conclusions: This paper provides a first systematic analysis of LC promoters enacting a variety of responses to organizationally challenging LC situations, thus detailing the adaptation necessary for embedding LCM in the industry. Findings show that the development of LCM to a great extent is about the promotion of a LC approach, and that LC promoters need organizational knowing, in addition to LC knowing, to make the LC approach relevant to management and business.

  • 118.
    Lindqvist, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Tufvesson, Linda
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Khalil, Sammar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Prade, Thomas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bio-based production systems: Why environmental assessment needs to include supporting systems2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 17, article id 4678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a bio-based economy is expected to deliver substantial environmental and economic benefits. However, bio-based production systems still come with significant environmental challenges, and there is a need for assessment methods that are adapted for the specific characteristics of these systems. In this review, we investigated how the environmental aspects of bio-based production systems differ from those of non-renewable systems, what requirements these differences impose when assessing their sustainability, and to what extent mainstream assessment methods fulfil these requirements. One unique characteristic of bio-based production is the need to maintain the regenerative capacity of the system. The necessary conditions for maintaining regenerative capacity are often provided through direct or indirect interactions between the production system and surrounding "supporting" systems. Thus, in the environmental assessment, impact categories affected in both the primary production system and the supporting systems need to be included, and impact models tailored to the specific context of the study should be used. Development in this direction requires efforts to broaden the system boundaries of conventional environmental assessments, to increase the level of spatial and temporal differentiation, and to improve our understanding of how local uniqueness and temporal dynamics affect the performance of the investigated system.

  • 119.
    Lisa, Bolin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Norrblom, Hans-Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea.
    Hållbarhetsanalys av cirkulära möbelflöden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport belyser på vilket sätt den miljömässiga, sociala och ekonomiska hållbarheten för offentliga möbler ändras när man går från linjära till mer cirkulära affärsmodeller. Analyserna utgår ifrån fallstudier av en trästol med stoppad sits, en stol med metallben och stoppad sits, en kontorsstol samt ett möblemangbestående av skrivbord och stol. De miljömässiga effekterna av att sälja dessa produkter i en cirkulär affärsmodell har beräknats med hjälp av livscykelanalys (LCA). Resultaten diskuteras även i förhållande till cirkulära affärsmodellers inverkan på sociala aspekter och ekonomisk hållbarhet.

    Studien visar att miljönyttan med cirkulära affärsmodeller varierar med produkt men också med typ av miljöpåverkan som studeras. Livscykelanalysberäkningar på produkter som studerats inom projektet visar till exempel på minskningar av klimatpåverkan med runt 20-40% när en möbel tillhandahålls med en cirkulär affärsmodell istället för en traditionell linjär. Samtidigt minskade behovet av ingående materialresurser (trä, stål mm) med runt 50%. Utöver livscykelanalyser bör miljöbedömningen av en cirkulär affärsmodell också särskilt beakta användingen av toxiska ämnen. För att kunna arbeta praktiskt med dessa frågor är dokumentation och spårbarhet för möbler och material en viktigt fråga.  

    En cirkulär affärsmodell ger inte med automatik en lägre total miljöpåverkan. Det som spelar störst roll är affärsmodellens förmåga att öka den faktiska livslängden på produkten. Det är också viktigt att möbler fortsatt designas för att materialen ska kunna återvinnas när möbeln inte längre är i bruk, oavsett om de är gjorda för återbruk eller ej. Ökade transporter och lagerhållning som konsekvens av cirkulära affärskoncept har i våra fallstudier liten inverkan på miljöprestandan.   

    Uppskattningsvis finns en potential till besparing om ca 45 000 ton koldioxidekvivalenter årligen – om alla kontorsmöbler som produceras i Sverige i stället skulle säljas enligt cirkulär modell. Detta motsvarar ungefär nytillverkning av 450 000 kontorsstolar (NEPD-467-327-EN, 2016). Det finns dock mycket lite statistik över hur möbler används och när de de facto slängs vilket gör det svårt att säga något om faktiska miljöförbättringar i större skala.

    Hållbarhet är inte bara miljö, utan även ekonomiska och sociala aspekter, såsom livscykelkostnad för kunden eller påverkan på arbetsmiljö och arbetstillfällen. Om cirkulära affärsmodeller blir mer eller mindre ekonomiskt hållbara beror på det aktuella fallet och ur vems perspektiv ekonomin utvärderas. Viktigt att tänka på när man utvärderar cirkulära affärsmodeller är att ta ett livscykelperspektiv på kostnaderna, t.ex. att en kund inte bara beaktar inköpspris utan alla kostnader att införskaffa, inneha, hantera och avyttra sina möbler. Dessa kostnader kommer att påverka om affärsmodellen är lönsam eller inte för de olika aktörerna. Här saknas dock ofta data när det gäller indirekta kostnader och hanteringskostnader.

    Det är troligt att de största miljöeffekterna av cirkulära affärsmodeller kommer av ändrade beteenden kring möbler och möbelköp på sikt - såsom nya kundgrupper för möbler med lång livslängd - samt inspirationseffekt till andra branscher hur cirkulära affärsmodeller kan genomföras i praktiken.

    För att beräkna eller bedöma hållbarheteffekter krävs en mängd data och metodmässiga val. För att miljö- och hållbarhetsanalyser ska kunna användas mer utbrett i möbelbranschen inom tex marknadskommunikation, upphandling eller som underlag för styrmedel, behöver branschen komma överens om gemensamma riktlinjer för hur man ska beräkna och kommunicera effekterna av cirkularitet.  

  • 120.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden; , KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Järlskog, Ida
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Wet Dust Sampler—a Sampling Method for Road Dust Quantification and Analyses2019In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 230, no 8, article id 180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern countries, the climate, and consequently the use of studded tyres and winter traction sanding, causes accumulation of road dust over winter and spring, resulting in high PM10 concentrations during springtime dusting events. To quantify the dust at the road surface, a method—the wet dust sampler (WDS)—was developed allowing repeatable sampling also under wet and snowy conditions. The principle of operation is flushing high-pressurised water over a defined surface area and transferring the dust laden water into a container for further analyses. The WDS has been used for some time and is presented in detail to the international scientific community as reported by Jonsson et al. (2008) and Gustafsson et al. (2019), and in this paper, the latest version is presented together with an evaluation of its performance. To evaluate the WDS, the ejected water amount was measured, as well as water losses in different parts of the sampling system, together with indicative dust measurement using turbidity as a proxy for dust concentration. The results show that the WDS, when accounting for all losses, have a predictable and repeatable water performance, with no impact on performance based on the variety of asphalt surface types included in this study, given undamaged surfaces. The largest loss was found to be water retained on the surface, and the dust measurements imply that this might not have as large impact on the sampled dust as could be expected. A theoretical particle mass balance shows small particle losses, while field measurements show higher losses. Several tests are suggested to validate and improve on the mass balances. Finally, the WDS is found to perform well and is able to contribute to further knowledge regarding road dust implications for air pollution.

  • 121.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden; KTH Royal Instiute of Technology, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    VTI, Sweden.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    VTI, Sweden; KTH Royal Instiute of Technology, Sweden; University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Calibration of the Swedish studded tyre abrasion wear prediction model with implication for the NORTRIP road dust emission model2019In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimentally based prediction model of road abrasion wear due to studded tyres is available in Sweden and has been found to work well. However, it has not been validated since 2007, and since then road surfaces and tyre design have developed, and the question has arisen regarding the model’s current validity. The abrasion wear model is used in the NORTRIP emission model (NOn-exhaust Road Traffic Induced Particle emission modelling), and the effect of a recalibrated abrasion wear model on the emission model is shown. In this paper, the abrasion wear model is compared to full-scale field measurements at several recently constructed roads in Sweden to investigate its validity, while also proposing changes to allow for continued use. It is concluded that the model overestimates the wear and an update is suggested. In addition, the impact on NORTRIP emission predictions is briefly investigated. There were also indications that NORTRIP is affected by the abrasion model overestimating the contribution of pavement wear to the particle emissions.

  • 122.
    Lundberg, Louise
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Atongka Tchoffor, Placid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Pallarès, David
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thunman, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Impacts of Bed Material Activation and Fuel Moisture Content on the Gasification Rate of Biomass Char in a Fluidized Bed2019In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 58, no 12, p. 4802-4809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of certain bed materials has been found to increase the steam gasification rate of biomass char. The present work investigates how this phenomenon is influenced by different parameters (e.g., temperature, fuel type, and fuel moisture content), using a laboratory-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Silica sand, fresh olivine, and activated olivine were employed as bed materials, and three biomass fuels (wood chips, wood pellets, and forest residue pellets) were considered. Switching the bed material from silica sand to activated olivine resulted in a significant increase in the char gasification rate for all three fuels, with further increases noted as the fuel particle size was decreased. The observed effect was strongest (up to 4-fold) during the initial conversion phase (char gasification degrees < 20%) when the temperature was relatively low (≤ 800 °C). The moisture content of the wood chips (0-40%) had no significant effect on the char gasification rate.

  • 123.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hedenstedt, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jones, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Rekommendation för proaktivt brandskyddsarbete2019Report (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Lööf, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Innovation platsforms: why, how and by whom?2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex challenges of today - ranging from social divisions to global warming - are difficult to handle by existing organisations, formed from a logic more suited for tasks and problems that can be clearly defined and divided. In recent years, innovation has often been emphasised as the key to managing complex societal challenges. Various forms of innovation efforts have become increasingly common. For example, investments in development and testing of new technical solutions in areas such as ICT, mobility and sustainable construction, but also solutions with social focus developed for and by the user such as more equal public space and services for sustainable lifestyles. It has become more common to work with concepts such as test beds and ‘living labs’, using design thinking and an experimental methodology in order to develop new solutions and innovation.

    The aim of this brochure is to offer an introduction to the concept of Innovation Platforms. What is an Innovation Platform, how it can be set up and function, and what a city or municipality might gain from working this way? This brochure is based on experiences from several national projects, such as the Swedish six year-long project Innovation Platforms for Sustainable, Attractive Cities (VINNOVA, 2013- 2019), with research overview from the RUGGEDISED-project and giving examples from both The Hague and Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Borås, Kiruna and Lund in Sweden.

  • 125.
    Macura, Biljana
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Piniewski, Mikolaj
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Haddaway, Neal
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden; University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Effectiveness of ecotechnologies for recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from anaerobic digestate and effectiveness of the recovery products as fertilisers: A systematic review protocol2019In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The regular addition of plant-available nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, either as manufactured fertilisers or animal manure, to agricultural soils is needed for global food security. Increased recycling of nutrients back to agriculture from organic waste streams is necessary for increased rural-urban sustainability. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and agricultural wastes is widely applied to stabilize the substrate and also capture its energetic value via biogas production. The liquid phase of anaerobic digestate is a concentrated source of nutrients to which nutrient recovery technologies can be applied. Two such promising technologies that could increase nutrient recycling from e.g. wastewater and thereby contribute to environmental amelioration are struvite precipitation and ammonia stripping. By combining anaerobic digestion and nutrient recovery technologies on the digestate, a treatment process that provides both renewable energy and plant nutrients is achieved. This review will examine the effectiveness of ecotechnologies for the recovery and reuse of nitrogen and phosphorus from anaerobic digestate with the aim of reducing the impact of waste on the environment. Methods: We will search for both academic and grey literature published after 2013. English language searches will be performed in 4 bibliographic databases, and Google Scholar, while searches in 41 specialist websites will be performed in English, Finnish, Polish and Swedish. Eligibility screening will be conducted at two levels: title and abstract and full text. Included eligible studies will be subject to a critical appraisal that will assess external and internal study validity. We will extract information on study characteristics, intervention, comparators, effect modifiers, and measured outcomes. Data synthesis will involve narrative synthesis of each included study of sufficient validity. Quantitative synthesis (i.e. meta-analysis) may be possible in cases where a sufficient number of studies report similar types of outcomes. © 2019 The Author(s).

  • 126.
    Malm, Annika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Kant, H.
    Janson, O.
    Olsson, E.
    Serious gaming will facilitate sustainable stormwater handling in Gothenburg, Sweden2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Malm, Annika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Svensson, Gilbert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Privata servisledningar för dricksvatten, spillvatten och dagvatten: så långa är de2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to give an indication of the total length of service connection pipes for water, sewerage and stormwater in Sweden divided into public and private pipe lengths. The length of the publicly owned main system for water and wastewater are generally well documented by the municipalities while the service connections are primarily only compiled by number, not the lengths.This report has been put together by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden on behalf of the Swedish Water Development.The service pipe lengths have been produced by estimating key figures for the lengths per type of property and the total amount of each such type of property, summed up to total service pipe lengths for all of Sweden. The result is presented separately for water, sewage water and stormwater pipe lengths and also into public respectively private owned. Sweden’s buildings can be divided into different types of housing according to the assessed unit types: single-family homes, townhouses (including semi-detached), multi-family houses and other buildings such as for operations and community services. Key figures for these building types were compiled using appropriate “study sites” for the purpose of the report. The study sites were extrapolated to the whole of Sweden by multiplying the service pipe length per property with the number of such properties in Sweden.The result shows that there are 25 500 km water, 24 000 km sewage water and 152 000 km stormwater private service pipes in total in Sweden. The length of the publicly owned service pipes is 6 400 km water, 6 800 km sewage water and 4 200 km stormwater. The private water and sewage water service pipes correspond to almost 25 % of the entire water and sewage pipe network respectively. The private stormwater service pipes constitute almost 80 % of the entire stormwater pipe network. This means that the private service connection pipe lengths constitute about half of the total pipe system in Sweden.The key figures for each property category presented in the results section of this report can be used by each municipality to make their own assessment of the service connection pipe length.With this assessment of the service pipe lengths, the proportion of water losses often termed “Unavoidable Average Real Losses” difficult for the municipalities to trace, is also possible to assess. The results from this report imply that the privately owned service connections contribute to half of the inevitable water losses in Sweden.The replacement value for the private service connections in total in Sweden is estimated to over 200 billion SEK.

  • 128.
    Malm, Annika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Montelius, M.
    Svensson, G.
    Kant, H.
    Swedish Sustainability Index for progress in municipal water and wastewater services2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Malm, Annika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mårtensson, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Katrin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Framtidens smarta VA-ledningsnät: lägesrapport2019Report (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Durgun, Özüm
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fastighetsägares förutsättningar för renovering av sina byggnadsbestånd från miljonprogramstiden2018In: Bygg&Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn står inför ett stort renoveringsbehov. Byggnader från miljonprogramstiden har nått en ålder då många olika byggnadsdelar når sin förväntade livslängd. Detta renoveringsbehov är inte jämnt fördelat bland Sveriges fastighetsägare. Det stora flertalet av de ännu ej renoverade byggnaderna från miljonprogramstiden ägs av fastighetsbolag knutna till SABO, men det finns även många privata fastighetsägare och bostadsrättsföreningar som har ett eftersläpande renoveringsbehov eller som har renoverat men fortfarande har en hög energianvändning och alltså troligtvis inte genomfört nödvändiga energieffektiviseringsåtgärder. Det finns också olika förutsättningar för att göra de investeringar som krävs, vilket beror på företagens soliditet, fastigheternas värde och möjligheten att få lån, utrymme för hyresökning etc. Detta gör att renoveringstakten inte kommer att täcka renoveringsbehovet och att vissa delar av fastighetsbeståndet kommer att vara mer eftersatt.

  • 131.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nya digitala verktyg ger bättre bild av renoveringsbehovet2017In: Bygg & Teknik, no 5, p. 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn är inne i en period av mycket hög aktivitet. Över 700 000 nya bostäder efterfrågas, samtidigt som miljonprogrammets byggnader börjar nå sin förväntade livslängd. Detta är en enorm utmaning, men det är också en möjlighet, där vi kan nå energi- och klimatmål och skapagoda boendemiljöer till rimlig kostnad.

  • 132.
    Mangold, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Österbring, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Overland, Conny
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallbaum, Holger
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Building Ownership, Renovation Investments, and Energy Performance - A Study of Multi-Family Dwellings in Gothenburg2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European building stock was renewed at a rapid pace during the period 1950–1975.In many European countries, the building stock from this time needs to be renovated, and thereare opportunities to introduce energy efficiency measures in the renovation process. Informationavailability and increasingly available analysis tools make it possible to assess the impact of policyand regulation. This article describes methods developed for analyzing investments in renovationand energy performance based on building ownership and inhabitant socio-economic informationdeveloped for Swedish authorities, to be used for the Swedish national renovations strategy in2019. This was done by analyzing measured energy usage and renovation investments made duringthe last 30 years, coupled with building specific official information of buildings and resident areacharacteristics, for multi-family dwellings in Gothenburg (N = 6319). The statistical analyses showthat more costly renovations lead to decreasing energy usage for heating, but buildings that havebeen renovated during the last decades have a higher energy usage when accounting for currentheating system, ownership, and resident socio-economic background. It is appropriate to includean affordability aspect in larger renovation projects since economically disadvantaged groups areover-represented in buildings with poorer energy performance.

  • 133.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden ; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Moberg, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Life cycle sustainability evaluations of bio-based value chains: Reviewing the indicators from a Swedish perspective2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policymakers worldwide are promoting the use of bio-based products as part of sustainable development. Nonetheless, there are concerns that the bio-based economy may undermine the sustainability of the transition, e.g., from the overexploitation of biomass resources and indirect impacts of land use. Adequate assessment methods with a broad systems perspective are thus required in order to ensure a transition to a sustainable, bio-based economy. We review the scientifically published life cycle studies of bio-based products in order to investigate the extent to which they include important sustainability indicators. To define which indicators are important, we refer to established frameworks for sustainability assessment, and include an Open Space workshop with academics and industrial experts. The results suggest that there is a discrepancy between the indicators that we found to be important, and the indicators that are frequently included in the studies. This indicates a need for the development and dissemination of improved methods in order to model several important environmental impacts, such as: water depletion, indirect land use change, and impacts on ecosystem quality and biological diversity. The small number of published social life cycle assessments (SLCAs) and life cycle sustainability assessments (LCSAs) indicate that these are still immature tools; as such, there is a need for improved methods and more case studies.

  • 134.
    McConville, J. R.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jönsson, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, M.
    Ecoloop, Sweden.
    Source separation: Challenges & opportunities for transition in the Swedish wastewater sector2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 120, p. 144-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A paradigm shift to waste reuse has started in the wastewater sector with many experts calling for greater resource recovery, often facilitated by alternative solutions such as source separation. Source separation has been shown to be advantageous for improving treatment capacity, food security, and efficiency; yet these systems are still immature, considered risky by professionals and scarcely implemented. This study attempts to answer the question of why source separation is still marginalized by examining the Swedish experience with source separated wastewater from the perspective of Technology Innovation Systems (TIS) in order to identify obstacles and policy recommendations. Considering that source-separation is still in a development phase, the study found that source separation works moderately well within the on-site niche and that blackwater systems in general perform better than urine diversion. Knowledge development is found to be the weakest function. A major blocking mechanism is the weakness of interchange between knowledge development and entrepreneurial activity. Policy recommendations include: increased R&D; building networks and communication platforms; and establishing guidelines for technologies, legislation interpretation and organizational models.

  • 135.
    McConville, J. R.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Maiteki, J. M.
    National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Uganda.
    Niwagaba, C. B.
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Infrastructure investments and operating costs for fecal sludge and sewage treatment systems in Kampala, Uganda2019In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 584-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like many low-income countries, Uganda is struggling to provide sanitation to its inhabitants. Meeting the Sustainable Development Goal related to sanitation (SDG6) will require major investments in sanitation. This study uses the concept of service regimes to analyze existing sanitation infrastructure and services and their respective costs. The service regimes investigated are the sewage regime and the fecal sludge (FS) regime. The results show that approximately 56% of the fecal flow in Kampala is estimated as ‘safely managed’. The results also show that the annual per capita costs for the sewage regime (USD 186) are more than 13-fold those for the FS regime (USD 14). Additionally, there are large differences in subsidies between the regimes. When allocating public funds, decision-makers are advised to consider (i) number of customers within regimes, (ii) total capital and operating costs of services, (iii) cost allocation between stakeholders, and (iv) infrastructure performance. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s).

  • 136.
    McConville, Jennifer R.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Mats
    Ecoloop, Sweden.
    Is the Swedish wastewater sector ready for a transition to source separation?2017In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 91, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Source separation of urine for recycling has been applied in small-scale and decentralized wastewater systems in Sweden for the past 25 years and for blackwater for pollution control even longer. The Swedish experience with source separating nutrient recycling systems is relatively well documented; however, few reports have specifically studied the potential for expansion of this practice. The aim of this study is to fill this knowledge gap by assessing the status of source-separating technologies in Sweden based on transition theory. This study uses a multi-level perspective to determine how ready the Swedish wastewater sector is for transitioning to alternative systems. Given the stability of the existing sewage wastewater regime, it seems unlikely that changes within the regime will lead to a quick and large-scale transition to source separation. Instead, the initiative must come from the niche itself, exploiting institutional cracks in the regime and opportunities from shifting trends in the landscape. If source separation is to be mainstreamed in Sweden, it will need to break into markets within the wastewater jurisdictions. In order to do so, further knowledge needs to be developed that will overcome glitches with immature technologies, uncertain legal conditions/status, investigate potential risks, and clearly define complementary system advantages. This may require the use of new perspectives that focus on holistic sustainable use of resources, including other nutrients than phosphorous, and taking into account global issues such as planetary boundaries and effects from climate change, such as water scarcity. This knowledge can then be used to establish guidelines, norms, and standards, as well as clarify the legislative structures that can support such a transition. There is also a strong need to improve knowledge dissemination regarding best-practices for implementing source-separation technologies and supporting organizational structures. Similarly, support for entrepreneurial activities within the niche needs to increase, not least through strengthening social networks and communication platforms.

  • 137.
    Mirata, Murat
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Sotenäs kommun, Sweden.
    Harris, Steve
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Fornell, Rickard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hackl, Roman
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden.
    Källqvist, Tobias
    Hifab, Sweden.
    Dalväg, Emma
    Hifab, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    International and Swedish State of Play in Industrial Symbiosis: A review with proposals to scale up industrial symbiosis in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
  • 138.
    Munthe, Christian
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nijsingh, Niels
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Chalmers Institute of Technology, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, DG Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Ethics of Antibiotic Resistance: Towards an Agenda for Feasible and Justified Global Health Policy2019In: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 731-733Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Myhr, Anders
    et al.
    Pure Logic AS, Norway.
    Röyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Brandtsegg, Andreas.
    Pure Logic AS, Norway.
    Bjerkseter, Catho
    Pure Logic AS, Norway.
    Throne-Holst, Harald
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Borch, Anita
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Wentzel, Alexander
    SINTEF Industry, Norway.
    Røyne, Anja
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Towards a low CO 2 emission building material employing bacterial metabolism (2/2): Prospects for global warming potential reduction in the concrete industry2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0208643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of concrete is one of the most significant contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. This work focuses on bio-cementation-based products and their potential to reduce global warming potential (GWP). In particular, we address a proposed bio-cementation method employing bacterial metabolism in a two-step process of limestone dissolution and recrystallisation (BioZEment). A scenario-based techno-economic analysis (TEA) is combined with a life cycle assessment (LCA), a market model and a literature review of consumers’ willingness to pay, to compute the expected reduction of global GWP. Based on the LCA, the GWP of 1 ton of BioZEment is found to be 70–83% lower than conventional concrete. In the TEA, three scenarios are investigated: brick, precast and onsite production. The results indicate that brick production may be the easiest way to implement the products, but that due to high cost, the impact on global GWP will be marginal. For precast production the expected 10% higher material cost of BioZEment only produces a marginal increase in total cost. Thus, precast production has the potential to reduce global GWP from concrete production by 0–20%. Significant technological hurdles remain before BioZEment-based products can be used in onsite construction scenarios, but in this scenario, the potential GWP reduction ranges from 1 to 26%. While the potential to reduce global GWP is substantial, significant efforts need to be made both in regard to public acceptance and production methods for this potential to be unlocked. © 2019 Myhr et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 140.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lundin, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. RISE Urban Water Management.
    Användning av recirkulerade fosforprodukter från avlopp – gödslingseffekt och upplägg av odlingstester2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the strategic work at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden to generate andspread knowledge on recovery and reuse of nutrients in Sweden. The aim of the report is to help ensure that high-quality products which are attractive for agricultural use emerge from Swedish wastewater treatment plants. The findings can be useful in further work on quality assurance of attractive recovered phosphorus products as fertilisers. Over 200 000 tons of dry matter sludge are produced annually at Swedish wastewater treatment plants, containing in total around 5400 tons of phosphorus that could potentially be reused inagriculture. Apart from direct spreading of bio-sludge on farmland, many different extraction technologies have been developed to recover and thus recycle phosphorus and other nutrients from wastewater and sludge. These different technologies extract phosphorus in different compounds with varying properties as a fertiliser in agriculture. The report reflects on and describes the properties of compounds produced by existing extraction technologies and estimates their value as fertilisers based on fertiliser experiments described in the literature.Two phosphorus compounds that appear particularly interesting are 1) phosphoric acid, a rawmaterial in the production of N-P-K and N-P products and certain forms of superphosphate, and 2) struvite, which has a fertiliser effect comparable to that of super-phosphate. However, it is difficult to assess and compare the fertiliser effect, or plant availability, of recovered phosphorus compounds in a fair manner. As soon as the compound touches the soil,all kinds of processes commence releasing phosphorus in plant-available forms or perhaps binding it in even stronger ways to soil minerals. The pH of the soil, but also its texture,composition of minerals, redox potential and current phosphorus concentration, are factors influencing the actual processes that take place. Other contextual factors such as climate also affect the complicated turnover of phosphorus in soil. However, once applied to farmland, all phosphorus compounds contribute to the pool of plant-available phosphorus in either the shortor long term. Phosphorus compounds that become available in the long term are valuable froma nutrient storage point of view. However, for a highly phosphorus-demanding crop on a phosphorus-deficient soil, rapid delivery of plant-available phosphorus is required. The variation between different types of soil is often great, but an attempt is made in this report to present amore general ranking of different recovered compounds from wastewater or sludge extraction(based on their function as a phosphorus fertiliser according to the literature). The table below summarises the compounds and provides a rough estimate of their general function as phosphorus fertiliser, where 1 indicates good fertilising effect and 4 indicates weak fertilising effect.

    [table, see fulltext]

    It is not only the fertiliser effect that determines the attractiveness of a product to farmers. Other decisive factors are competitive price, physical properties of the product that are compatible with modern cultivation techniques and machinery, and a well-defined nutrient content that is homogeneous and stable over time.Tests to assess and evaluate the fertiliser properties of recovered phosphorus products are currently based on varying and often simplified methodologies, meaning that data from different producers are difficult to compare. This report highlights the need for developing comparable and applicable tests for recovered phosphorus products. It also considers relevant parameters to analyse and suggests an appropriate test set-up. The plant availability and effect of nutrients in (recovered) fertiliser products can be assessed in three steps:

    1. Chemical determination and content quantification of phosphorus forms and environmental toxins.
    2. Greenhouse cultivation experiments.
    3. Field cultivation tests.
  • 141.
    Nakos Lantz, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Märkning av Värmepumpar- Heat Pump Keymark2017In: KYLA & VÄRME, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Niklasson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ryde, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Schüßler, Ingmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Branschgemensam forskning för småskaliga biobränslepannor inför ekodesign2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New domestic biofuel boilers must meet the Ecodesign Directive by 2020. In a market survey from 2014, none of 11 tested pellet boilers did meet all requirements, clearly indicating a developmental need. In the present project boiler manufacturers and research institutes have collaborated in response to the combustion engineering challenges.

    For pellet boilers, the biggest challenge with the Ecodesign Directive is that performance is largely calculated from partial load operation (low load). Previously, performance has only been determined at nominal load and the design has been optimized accordingly. In this project, tests have been run with two modern pellet boilers that have different types of pellet burner: one with horizontal burner tube and one with an underfeed burner cup. The results show that sufficient combustion performance could be maintained at partial load with both burner types. However, the tube burner exhibited significantly lower emissions at partial loads, probably due to the combustion zone in this burner being protected from heat radiation exchange with cooling boiler walls. A rather extensive work was laid down to provide the cup burner with a protective collar that would protect the combustion zone. However, it did not result in any significant improvement, probably because the supply of secondary air did not become optimal. A more extensive work is required to develop an optimal burner design of this type.

    For wood log boilers, it is a challenge to comply with the NOx requirements of the Ecodesign Directive of 200 mg / Nm³. A variety of temperature measurements in a wood log boiler resulted in the exclusion of thermal NOx formation. The boiler was fitted with a flue gas recirculation system, but it did not reduce the NOx emission. Then different varieties of wood fuels were tested. The NOx emission could be reduced to meet the requirement using barked birch wood. Chemical analyzes showed that the birch bark contained 0.49% nitrogen compared to 0.09% in the stock. Spruce logs also gave low NOx emissions, but that fuel resulted in increased CO and OGC emissions. For wood log boilers to meet the requirements for CO, OGC and dust, optimization is required under the wood's final combustion phase. At this stage, emissions are at its highest, due to the decreasing heat output while the airflow tends to cool down the flue gas faster than the combustible gases burn out. The optical particle measurement showed a clear correlation between dust and CO in the flue gas. If the boiler meets the CO limit, there are good chances that the requirement for particles also will be met.

    The efficiency specified in the Ecodesign Directive is calculated based on the fuel's higher heating value. In addition, some loss factors are subtracted. This implies that the boiler must not have unnecessarily large heat losses or excessive electricity consumption to meet the requirements. Measurements showed that the biggest loss occurs with the heat in the flue gas. The second largest loss is heat from the boiler body. For the efficiency, the importance of a well-insulated boiler body increases in the case of partial loads. The two pellet boilers used in the project were well suited to meet the eco-directive directive's efficiency requirements.

  • 143.
    Niklasson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ryde, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    On-line monitoring of agglomeration in fluidised bed boilers2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion in fluidized beds has several benefits, but a potential problem is bed agglomeration causing defluidisation. The most used counter measure is to regularly renew the bed material, inferring costs for new sand and deposition of spent material. For an adaptive optimization there is a need of a method which indicates when bed agglomeration is initializing, before it is too late to counteract.

    In this project, the conductivity of fluidized beds has been measured by a novel in-situ probe. The probe has been tested in a fluidized bed of sand and ashes at temperatures up to 1000°C. In addition, the probe has been tested in a fluidized bed while burning different fuels.

    The results show that the conductivity of the bed increases with temperature and concentration of ash. The conductivity varies strongly between different fuels. The signal from the probe reacts strongly to the onset of severe bed agglomeration, but it is hard to find any consistent tendencies that can be applied to predict it.

  • 144.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jahnke, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Tactics for Norm-Creative Innovation2018In: Series. International Journal of TV Serial Narratives, ISSN 2405-8726, E-ISSN 2169-0820, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 375-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a set of norm-creative innovation tactics developed in collaborative design research projects with the objective of creating more inclusive solutions. Unawareness of social norms are exemplified through some of the flaws design has contributed to. The norm-creative approach explored in this paper involves a first step of being norm-critical, i.e. challenging social norms that contributes to inequalities and social exclusion, and a second step of being norm-creative, i.e. developing design solutions that counteract such norms through design thinking of what might be. The tactics were developed by extracting and articulating knowledge and experiences from various strands of design methodologies, successively tweaked with norm-creative perspectives and then probed in a series of collaborative design projects. The resulting tactics serve three key roles: Firstly, they contribute in iterative explorations of several stances and action possibilities. Secondly, they promote change of awareness through increasing understanding of diverse user experiences and social exclusion, and thirdly, they contribute both in thinking new about what is and what might be, thereby affording innovative prospects. Tactics for norm-creative innovation can for these reasons be one way of raising awareness and contributing to social sustainability through design. 

  • 145.
    Norefjäll, Fredric
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Innovationsförmåga för ett hållbart transportsystem: Trafikverket och samverkande aktörers processer för innovations- och omställningsförmåga2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta dokument sammanfattar arbetet som utförts under förstudien till forskningsprojektet: Innovationsförmåga för ett hållbart transportsystem – Trafikverkets och samverkande aktörers processer för innovations- och omställningsförmåga. Syftet med forskningsprojektet är att bidra till att Trafikverkets innovationsarbete får genomslag för omställningen av transportsystemet. Genom ökad kunskap om hur egna strukturer och processer för innovation påverkar och påverkas av, exempelvis andra aktörer, specifika marknadsvillkor eller normer, stärker detta projekt arbetet för ett hållbart transportsystem.

  • 146.
    Ollas, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Markusson, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Jon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Alfadel, Usama
    Soliga Energi, Sweden.
    Impact of Battery Sizing on Self-Consumption, Self-Sufficiency and PeakPower Demand for a Low Energy Single-Family House With PVProduction in Sweden2018In: 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC-7), June 10-15, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper simulates the impact of battery sizingfor an actual nearly-zero energy (NZEB) single-family housewith solar PV located in Bor°as, Sweden. Simulations are done,using measurement data as an input, for three different batterydispatch algorithms with two different purposes; (i) peak powershaving and (ii) maximising system self-consumption (SC) andself-sufficiency (SS) of the solar PV. The results show that theoptimal battery storage size for this single-family house, givenits measured electrical loads and existing solar PV system isaround 7.2 kWh. System self-consumption and self-sufficiencyfrom generated solar PV increased with 24.3 percentage pointscompared to a reference case without battery. Furthermore,results show that increasing the battery size beyond 7.2 kWhonly results in minor performance gains.

  • 147.
    Ollas, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Jon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Markusson, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Alfadel, Usama
    Soliga Energi, Sweden.
    Impact of Battery Sizing on Self-Consumption, Self-Sufficiency and Peak Power Demand for a Low Energy Single-Family House with PV Production in Sweden2018In: 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC 2018 - A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC and 34th EU PVSEC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 618-623Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper simulates the impact of battery sizing for an actual nearly-zero energy (NZEB) single-family house with solar PV located in Boras, Sweden. Simulations are done,° using measurement data as an input, for three different battery dispatch algorithms with two different purposes; (i) peak power shaving and (ii) maximising system self-consumption (SC) and self-sufficiency (SS) of the solar PV. The results show that the optimal battery storage size for this single-family house, given its measured electrical loads and existing solar PV system is around 7.2 kWh. System self-consumption and self-sufficiency from generated solar PV increased with 24.3 percentage points compared to a reference case without battery. Furthermore, results show that increasing the battery size beyond 7.2 kWh only results in minor performance gains.

  • 148.
    Parra-López, Carlos
    et al.
    IFAPA Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training, Spain.
    Holley, Martin
    CSE Centre for Sustainable Energy, UK.
    Lindegaard, Kevin
    Crops for Energy Ltd, UK.
    Sayadi, Samir
    IFAPA Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training, Spain.
    Esteban-López, Gonzales
    Energy Agency of Granada, Spain.
    Durán-Zuazo, Victor H.
    IFAPA Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training, Spain.
    Knauer, Cristoph
    ttz Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Engelbrechten, Hans-Georg von.
    Agraligna GmbH, Germany.
    Winterber, Ralf
    Regionale Planungsgemeinschaft Altmark, Germany.
    Henriksson, Annika
    SalixEnergi Europa AB, Sweden.
    Lamley, Annette
    CSE Centre for Sustainable Energy, UK.
    Nylander, Anders
    Kommunförbundet Skåne, Sweden.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Leonard, Pauline
    Western Development Commission, Ireland.
    Daly, Patrick
    Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland.
    Drzewaszewski, Lukasz
    Gmina Zaluski, Poland.
    Rzewuski, Wojciech
    Mazovian Agricultural Advisory Centre, Poland.
    Strengthening the development of the short-rotation plantations bioenergy sector: Policy insights from six European countries2017In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 114, p. 781-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper, based on a participatory methodological framework involving expert stakeholders and researchers from six European countries (Germany, Ireland, Poland, Spain, Sweden and UK), analyses the priority issues for the development of short-rotation plantations (SRP), and proposes a series of policy strategies to strengthen this development. The results indicate that there is a lack of awareness of the multifaceted benefits of SRP at the level of farmers, policy makers and public authorities. More research is required to put a value on the multifunctionality of SRP and justify its public support. Small-scale projects using established technologies are also required with energy crops introduced in a phased manner. The simultaneous dissemination of this knowledge upwards to policy makers and downwards to producers and farmers is critical in the success of SRP. Also, greater financial support on both the supply and demand side is highlighted as being necessary: on the supply side linking multifunctional benefits of SRP and targeted payments, along with increased long-term contractual arrangements between farmers and energy plant operators; demand side incentives should overcome any difference in price between fossil fuels and energy crops. Groups to lobby for the uptake and support of SRP and bioenergy are also of necessary.

  • 149.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Energikontor Sydost, Sweden.
    Tekniska och ekonomiska förutsättningar för oljeersättning i industrin med pyrolysolja2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For potential users, especially in the industry, which consider bio-oil as well as pyrolysis oil as a fuel alternatives in the future, in-depth knowledge of its technical and economic conditions in various industrial applications is required. To verify which requirements these oils sets on the combustion technology more combustion tests in potential burners are needed to clarify any technical development. To minimize any problems that may arise with pyrolysis oil, from delivery to storage and combustion, the available knowledge about the use of common bio-oils should be used. The overall objective of this project is to investigate the possibilities to use pyrolysis oil in various industrial applications.

  • 150.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ingvarson, Robert
    Janfire, Sweden.
    Sänkning av kväveoxidemissioner samt förlängd livslängd genom rökgasåterföring i en pelletsbrännare 750 kW2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project has been involved in developing a flue gas recirculation system aimed at reducing emissions of NO

    x and dust, as well as extending the life of the material in a pellet burner. Installation of a flue gas recirculation system and combustion tests have been performed in a laundry in Bengtsfors, which has a pellet-fired boiler with two janfire burners of 750 kW each. The results of the tests showed that the flue gas recirculation had an impact on NOx emissions. These decreased by about 17-18% in wood pellets combustion and by 10% in combustion of nitrogen rich agro fuel pellets in comparison to non-flue gas recirculation. With flue gas recirculation, the combustion furnace temperatures decreased by 85-105 oC for wood pellets and about 70 oC for agro fuel pellets.

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