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  • 101.
    Femenías, Paula
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Thuvander, Liane
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rethinking deep renovation: The perspective of rental housing in Sweden2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 195, p. 1457-1467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines renovation strategies among owners of rental housing in Sweden in response to European energy policies that promote deep renovation as a means to reduce carbon emissions from residential buildings. Case studies of eleven housing companies, seven public and three private, were designed with the aim to examine housing owners’ attitudes and renovation strategies, and how policies and objectives for energy efficiency become incorporated into these attitudes and strategies. Results are illustrated in typologies that distinguish between renovation strategies with either a more commercial or a more societal focus and spanning between deep and partial renovation. The typologies can be used to discuss how different aspects influence renovation, and illustrates how strategies change over time. The study identifies a trend in which housing owners are increasingly relying on partial or over-time renovation. Cost is one important driver, but social responsibility toward tenants and in some cases the protection of cultural heritage are also found to be important. A distrust of fixed models for renovation was observed. The paper questions the concept of deep renovation and suggests instead partial and over-time renovation as a way forward toward sustainable renovation. Partial renovation can bring together energy efficiency with environmental, financial, social, and cultural objectives of housing management. If managed properly, over-time renovation can reduce the risk of an investment, and has the advantage of allowing future technological advancements in energy efficiency to be included in current planning.

  • 102.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Meso Mechanical Study of Cracking Process in Concrete Subjected toTensile Loading2018In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 13-29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project focused on how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by both the micro and meso structures of concrete. The aim was to increase knowledge pertaining to the effect of critical parameters on the cracking process and how this is related to the material's macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scales was developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After testing, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.

  • 103.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Methodology for Mesomechanical Study of Concrete Material2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project focuses on detailed studies of how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by the concrete micro- and mesostructure. The aim is to increase knowledge of how critical parameters affect the cracking process and how this is related to the material's macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scale levels has been developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After the test, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.

  • 104.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Composite Behaviour of Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Sandwich Façade Elements2018In: International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, ISSN 1976-0485, E-ISSN 2234-1315, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the EC funded project smart elements for sustainable building envelopes, carbon textile reinforcement was incorporated into reactive powder concrete, namely textile reinforced reactive powder concrete (TRRPC), to additionally improve the post-cracking behaviour of the cementitious matrix. This high-performance composite material was included as outer and inner façade panels in prefabricated and non-load bearing sandwich elements along with low density foamed concrete (FC) and glass fibre reinforced polymer continuous connecting devices. Experiments and finite element analysis (FEA) were applied to characterize the structural performance of the developed sandwich elements. The mechanical behaviour of the individual materials, components and large-scale elements were quantified. Four-point bending tests were performed on large-scale TRRPC-FC sandwich element beams to quantify the flexural capacity, level of composite action, resulting deformation, crack propagation and failure mechanisms. Optical measurements based on digital image correlation were taken simultaneously to enable a detailed analysis of the underlying composite action. The structural behaviour of the developed elements was found to be highly dependent on the stiffness and strength of the connectors to ensure composite action between the two TRRPC panels. As for the FEA, the applied modelling approach was found to accurately describe the stiffness of the sandwich elements at lower load levels, while describing the stiffness in a conservative manner after the occurrence of connector failure mechanisms. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 105.
    Flygt, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Glasbranchen har nytta av virtual reality and augemented reality2018In: Glas, no 2, p. 56-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 106.
    Flygt, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Hur långt har vi kommit med cirkulärt tänk kring planglas?2018In: Glas, Vol. 3, p. 51-55Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 107.
    Flygt, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sverige ska bli bäst i världen påa tt digitalisera2019In: Glas, no 1, p. 44-46Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 108.
    Flygt, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Utveckling av 3D-printade sandformar för glasgjutning2018In: Glas, no 4, p. 42-43Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 109.
    Flygt, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lang, Maria
    Hur ser förutsättnignarna ut för transparent intelligens i bostäder?2015In: Glas, no 1, p. 21-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 110.
    Flygt, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lang, Maria
    Hur ser förutsättningarna ut för transparent intelligens i bostäder2015In: Glas, Vol. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 111.
    Folkeson, Björn
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Vattenanvändning med energieffektiva blandare2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the short and long term impacts of domestic hot and cold water use and associated energy use when replacing conventional faucets in 100 apartments with energy efficient faucets labeled with energy class A-B according to the Swedish energy labeling system. The study included a behavioural study to increase the understanding of the users’ perception of the faucets and to investigate the underlying reasons for acceptance of the installed products.

     

    The results showed a reduction in domestic hot water use and energy use for domestic hot water of 28 %. No reduction of cold water use could be identified although changes in occupancy of the apartments might have contributed to this result. The savings in hot water use did not diminish over the measurement period.

     

    The acceptance of the energy efficient faucets did not increase over time, which was likely due to the lack of feedback on the assumption that the faucets provided the indicated savings. It was also indicated that the perception of the faucets differed between contexts in the home. The acceptance was also found to be linked to factors that could not be isolated from the faucet and its function.

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    RISE-rapport 2017:50 Vattenanvändning med energieffektiva blandare - Teknisk rapport
  • 112.
    Forsemalm, Joakim
    et al.
    Radar arkitektur & planering, Sweden.
    Johansson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Att arbeta innovativt med evidens ihållbar stadsutveckling2019In: INNOVATIONOCHSTADSUTVECKLING : En forskningsantologiom organiseringsutmaningarför stad och kommun / [ed] Jessica Algehed, Erica Eneqvist,Christian Jensen & Jenny Lööf, 2019, p. 125-136Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Våren 2016 engagerades vi av Bostadsbolaget AB, ett allmännyttigt fastighetsbolag verksamt i Göteborg och del i Framtidenkoncernen. Bostadsbolaget hade förvärvat knappt 3 000 lägenheter i Hammarkullen i nordöstraGöteborg. Stadsdelen är av polisen kategoriserat som ett särskilt utsattområde och otaliga förbättringsprojekt har genomförts genom åren, blandannat nationella stödprogram som Blommanpengarna och Storstadssatsningen. Satsningar som inte resulterat i långsiktiga förändringar. Hosmånga aktörer i området, inte minst bland de boende, fanns en utbreddprojekttrötthet, men fortfarande en mängd utmaningar och problem sombehöver hanteras och lösas för att minska de negativa utvecklingsprocessersom drabbar framför allt de boende i området.Bostadsbolaget sökte efter nya angreppssätt och startade ett initiativ, medmålet att arbeta mer systematiskt med områdesutveckling. Och med en bredare samverkansinriktning: bolaget ville ta det långsiktiga ansvaret för utvecklingen i området genom ett nytt slags samarbete. En överenskommelseundertecknades med andra lokala förvaltningar, för att skapa en gemensamgrund för ett viktigt samhällsutvecklande arbete. Vi1 blev involverade somkunskapsstöd för att bidra till detta arbete och beslöt oss för att pröva attarbeta mer evidensbaserat med stadsutveckling.

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  • 113.
    Fortino, Stefania
    et al.
    VTT, Finland.
    Hradil, Petr
    VTT, Finland.
    Genoese, Andrea
    University of Roma Tre, Italy.
    Genoese, Allesandra
    University of Roma Tre, Italy.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Numerical hygro-thermal analysis of coated wooden bridge members exposed to Northern European climates2019In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 208, p. 492-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a numerical model to analyse the hygro-thermal behaviour of wooden bridge members. A multi-Fickian hygro-thermal model, previously implemented by some of the authors, is extended by including the dependency of wood sorption on temperature above and below zero degrees Celsius to predict moisture, temperature and relative humidity in wood under Northern European climates. The performance of the model in the presence of protective paints is particularly investigated. The finite element analysis based on the proposed model simulates the hygro-thermal behaviour of a glue-laminated beam of Älsvbacka Bridge located in Skellefteå (North of Sweden). The beam, coated by paints and claddings, was monitored by using wireless sensors in a previous research. Comparisons with the available measurements reveal that the numerical model is able to predict the moisture content in locations sheltered from rain and sun with moisture levels below the fibre saturation point. A study of the influence of different protective paints shows that the maximum and minimum moisture content at various depths along horizontal paths of the beam cross section, as well as the moisture gradients in different seasonal periods, are strongly affected by the type of paint. The proposed numerical approach is a promising tool to facilitate sensor-based monitoring techniques and to optimize the choice of protective paints for improved performance of timber bridges and other wooden structures under variable climates.

  • 114.
    Fredenslund, Anders M
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hinge, Jørgen
    Teknologisk Institut AgroTech, Denmark.
    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rasmussen, Søren G.
    Teknologisk Institut AgroTech, Denmark.
    Scheutz, Charlotte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    On-site and ground-based remote sensing measurements of methane emissions from four biogas plants: A comparison study2018In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 270, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for quantifying methane (CH4) emissions from biogas plants are needed, in order to ensure that emissions are within acceptable levels and to identify options for emission mitigation. Two emission measuring approaches were used at four biogas plants: an on-site approach, whereby emission sources were identified and subsequently quantified one at a time, and a ground-based remote sensing approach, which was applied to measure total CH4 emissions. The emissions were between 5.5 and 13.5 kg CH4 h−1 from the four plants, measured using ground-based remote sensing. Even though the measurements were performed on the same days at each facility, the sum of on-site emission rates varied between the remote sensing measurements (up to ∼100%). Several factors may have caused this difference: emission sources not measured using an on-site approach and short-time emission variation. On-site measurements showed that the majority of the emissions often occurred from just a few sources.

  • 115.
    Gall, Dan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Davidsson, Kent O.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Pettersson, Jan B. C.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Online Measurements of Alkali and Heavy Tar Components in Biomass Gasification2017In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 8152-8161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tar and alkali metal compounds are released during biomass gasification and have a major impact on the operation and performance of gasification processes. Herein we describe a novel method for characterization of alkali and heavy tar compounds in the hot product gas formed during gasification. Gas is continuously extracted, cooled and diluted, which results in condensation of tar and alkali into aerosol particles. The thermal stability of these particles is subsequently evaluated using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) method. The technique is adopted from aerosol science where it is frequently used to characterize the thermal properties of aerosol particles. Laboratory studies show that pure and mixed alkali salts and organic compounds evaporate in well-defined temperature ranges, which can be used to determine the chemical composition of particles. The performance of the VTDMA is demonstrated at a 4 MWth dual fluidized bed gasifier using two different types of online sampling systems. Alkali metal compounds and a wide distribution of heavy tar components with boiling points above 400°C are observed in the product gas. Implications and potential further improvements of the technique are discussed.

  • 116.
    Gall, Dan
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Anton
    Göteborg Energi AB, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Pettersson, Jan B. C.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Online Measurements of Alkali Metals during Start-up and Operation of an Industrial-Scale Biomass Gasification Plant2018In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 532-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali metal compounds may have positive influences on biomass gasification by affecting char reactivity and tar reforming but may also disturb the process by formation of deposits and agglomerates. We herein present results from online measurements of alkali compounds and particle concentrations in a dual fluidized bed gasifier with an input of 32 MWth. A surface ionization detector was used to measure alkali concentrations in the product gas, and aerosol particle measurement techniques were employed to study concentrations and properties of condensable components in the gas. Measurements were performed during start-up and steady-state operation of the gasifier. The alkali concentration increased to approximately 200 mg m-3 when fuel was fed to the gasifier and continued to rise during activation of the olivine bed by addition of potassium carbonate, while the alkali concentration was in the range from 20 to 60 mg m-3 during steady-state operation. Addition of fresh bed material and recirculated ash had noticeable effects on the observed alkali concentrations, and K2CO3 additions to improve tar chemistry resulted in increased levels of alkali in the product gas. Addition of elemental sulfur led to reduced concentrations of CH4 and heavy tars, while no clear influence on the alkali concentration was observed. The study shows that alkali concentrations are high in the product gas, which has implications for the fluidized bed process, tar chemistry, and operation of downstream components including coolers, filters, and catalytically active materials used for product gas reforming.

  • 117.
    Ghafar, Ali
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Draganovic, A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A laboratory study on grouting in vibratory host rock2019In: ISRM 9th Nordic Grouting Symposium, NGS 2019, International Society for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering , 2019, p. 131-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To sufficiently seal an underground facility in fractured rock, it is necessary to obtain adequate grout spread into the surrounding fractures. The grout spread itself depends on parameters, the most significant of which are the grout filtration tendency and rheological properties. These properties can be affected by the applied pressure. Use of high-frequency oscillating pressure is a method that has been shown to improve grout spread by virtue of reducing the grout apparent viscosity. However, this method has not yet been industrialized due to limited efficiency and rapid attenuation of the oscillation along a fracture. To address these issues, we present a pilot investigation to show the potential of high-frequency oscillation applied to the host rock to improve grout spread in fractures. The proposed method is examined using an artificial fracture, the so-called Varying Aperture Long Slot (VALS) that has been recently developed. The results are compared between the two cases with and without vibration. The study shows the potential of the method on improving the grout spread in rock fractures.

  • 118.
    Grigoriadis, K.
    et al.
    Queens University, UK.
    Whittaker, M.
    Queens University, UK.
    Soutsos, M.
    Queens University, UK.
    Sha, W.
    Queens University, UK.
    Napolano, L.
    STRESS S.C.AR.L, Italy.
    Klinge, A.
    ZRS Architekten Ingenieure GmbH, Germany.
    Paganoni, S.
    ZRS Architekten Ingenieure GmbH, Germany.
    Casado, M.
    ACCIONA Construction Technology Centre, Spain.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Rabade, Prieto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mousavi, Marjan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Scullin, M.
    CDE Global Ltd, Uk.
    Correia, R.
    CREAGH Concrete, uk.
    Zerbi, T.
    STAM S.R.L, iTALY.
    Merli, I.
    VORTEX HYDRA S.R.L, iTALY.
    Ingrosso, I.
    CETMA, Italy.
    Attanasio, A.
    CETMA, Italy.
    Largo, A.
    CETMA, Italy.
    Improving the recycling rate of the construction industry2019In: Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, International Committee of the SCMT conferences , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) accounts for approximately 25-30% of all waste generated across Europe each year. However, Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC requires from all EU member states to achieve at least 70% re-use, recycling or other recovery of non-hazardous CDW by 2020. In response, the Horizon 2020 RE4 Project (REuse and REcycling of CDW materials and structures in energy efficient pREfabricated elements for building REfurbishment and construction) consortium was set up. Its main aims are to assess the quality of various CDW fractions (e.g. mineral aggregate, timber, plastics, silt & clay), improve the quality of mineral aggregates and develop different building elements/components which contain at least 65% of CDW. Innovative building concepts will also be developed in an effort to improve recycling rates of future buildings through the use of prefabrication and modular design. The developed products and technologies will be assessed in a number of test sites by building 2-storey demonstration houses.

  • 119.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Physical properties and Raman Spectroscopy of mixed alkali/alkaline earth silicate glassesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Möncke, Doris
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Kamitsos, Efstratios I.
    National Hellenic Research Foundation, Greece.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mixed alkali/alkaline earth-silicate glasses: Physical properties and structure by vibrational spectroscopy2019In: International Journal of Applied Glass Science, ISSN 2041-1286, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 349-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate the correlation of selected physical properties with structural changes in quaternary mixed modifier alkali/alkaline earth oxide silicate glass  systems,  focusing  either  on  the  mixed  alkali  effect  [(20−x)Na2O–xK2O– 10CaO–70SiO2 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20)] or on the mixed alkaline earth effect [20Na2O– (10−y)CaO–yBaO–70SiO2 (y = 0, 5, 10)]. A maximum microhardness and packing density, as well as a minimum glass transition temperature were observed for mixed alkali glasses. The mixed alkaline earth glasses do not exhibit any clear extrema in any  of  the  properties  studied.  The  hardness  and  glass  transition  temperature  de-creases, while the density and molar volume increases with increasing BaO content. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the Q3 group compared to the Q2 and Q4 groups as the high field strength ions Na+ or Ca2+ are substituted by their low field strength analogs K+  or Ba2+. In the mixed alkali series, the high field strength ion Na+, seems to push the low field strength ion K+ into lower energy sites when present simultaneously, while such an effect is not apparent for the mixed alkaline earth glasses, where the far IR spectra of mixed glasses are equivalent to the weighted averages of the pure glasses.

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  • 121.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology. Linneaus Univerrsity, Sweden.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology. University of Jena, Germany.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    X-ray and UV–Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy studies of the Cu (I) and Cu (II) coordination environments in mixed alkali-lime-silicate glasses2019In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X, ISSN 2590-1591, Vol. 3, article id 100029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The local structures of Cu(I) and Cu(II) in (20-x)Na2O-xK2O-10CaO-70SiO2 glasses with a copper content of 0.4 mol% have been investigated by Cu K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Complementary data for Cu(II) was derived using UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Indication for mainly linear two-fold coordination of the Cu+ ion was found by both EXAFS and XANES, but other coordination between Cu+ and O2– cannot be excluded. The Cu(I)-O bond lengths were found to be 1.79–1.83 ± 0.02 Å. EXAFS results showed that Cu(II) was mostly present in a Jahn-Teller distorted environment with oxygen, an octahedron with four shorter Cu(II)-O bonds and two longer in axial position. The equatorial bond lengths were found to be 1.89–1.91 ± 0.02 Å and the axial 2.20–2.24 ± 0.02 Å with no effect of the Jahn-Teller distortion of the octahedron when the glass composition was altered.

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  • 122.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lagerbielke, Erika
    Linneus University, Sweden.
    ETERNAL GLASS. Rapport - studie om återvinning av glas2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I vilken omfattning kan ökad återvinning av glas leda till minskad energianvändningoch minskade koldioxidutsläpp vid glasproduktion, minskad miljöpåverkan genomdeponi samt på lång sikt möjligen minskad brytning av icke-förnyelsebar naturråvara?

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  • 123.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Improved mechanical properties and chemical durability by modifying the float glass composition and thermo-chemical strengthening for photovoltaic cover glass2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy is promising renewable energy where glass is an important material and have a significant impact on the efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) module. The cover glass of PV-modules constitutes a large part of the total weight of the unit. In a recent Solar-ERA.NET project, LIMES (www.limes.nu), have we been aiming towards developing 1 mm thin glass for PV modules by improving the indentation mechanical properties and by investigating a novel thermo-chemical strengthening method.

    Starting from traditional soda-lime-silicate float composition different components was studied in a DoE fashion. The mechanical properties were studied using nano- and microindentation, the chemical durability by P98 analysis and weathering experiments. The findings resulted in a suggested composition for improving the properties of float glass by adding small amounts of zinc and titanium oxide as well as increasing the amount of aluminum and magnesium oxide. The components found to improve the chemical resistance were alumina, zirconia, zinc, lanthanum and titanium oxide. The surface hardness, crack- and scratch resistance were improved when magnesia was replaced with zinc oxide. When magnesia was replaced with titania, the hardness was increased.

    Some results from the thermo-chemical strengthening experiments will be presented. Heating and quenching in a reactive gas atmosphere using aluminum precursors have resulted in chemically modified surface in addition to the thermal strengthening.

  • 124.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Falk, Andreas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Jesper
    Ljunggren, Fredrik
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Framtidens utmaningar för flervåningshus i trä: Del 2b: Övergripande helhetsperspektiv på flervåningshus2017In: Bygg&Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 3, p. 50-55Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 125.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Conference proceedings, ICTB 2017, 3rd International Conference on Timber Bridges2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Conference proceedings from the conference ICTB 2017, the 3rd International Conference on Timber Bridges, 26-29 June 2017 in Skellefteå, Sweden. Content of the conference is presented in the Conference programme included in these proceedings on pages 3-10.  Papers presented at the conference were distributed on USB to participants at the conference.

    The conference contained 5 Keynote presentations and 45 Technical papers presented in 10 sessions, and also a technical visit to wooden buildings and bridges in Skellefteå.

    A pre-tour included visit to several timber bridges between Skellefteå and Umeå, and the pretour programme is included in these proceedings on pages 11-15.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 126.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    VTI, Sweden.
    Järlskog, Ida
    VTI, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    VTI, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys, Sweden.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys, Sweden.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys, Sweden.
    Road dust load dynamics and influencing factors for six winter seasons in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: Atmospheric Environment: X, ISSN 2590-1621, Vol. 2, article id 100014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic related non-exhaust particulate sources and road dust are an increasingly important source for PM10 air pollution as exhaust sources are decreasing due to regulations. In the Nordic countries, the road dust problem is enhanced by use of studded tyres, causing increased road wear and winter road maintenance including gritting. Efforts to reduce road dust emissions requires knowledge on temporal and spatial road dust load dynamics. The city of Stockholm, Sweden, has therefore financed seasonal (October to May) road dust sampling to be able to optimize their winter and spring time street operation measures for reduced road dust emissions. This work describes the outcome of six seasons (2011/2012–2016/2017) of road dust sampling in five central streets using the VTI wet dust sampler (WDS).The results show that road dust load, expressed as DL180 (dust load smaller than 180 μm) has a seasonal variation with the highest loads (up to 200 g/m2) in late winter and early spring and a minimum (down to about 15 g/m2) in early autumn and late spring. The dust load varies between streets and is depending on pavement surface properties. On a smaller scale the dust load has a high variability across streets due to differences in rates of suspension from different parts of the road surface, with low amounts in wheel tracks and higher in-between and outside the tracks. Between 2 and 30% of the DL180 is smaller than 10 μm and could directly contribute to PM10 emissions. In general, higher road surface texture leads to higher dust loads, but the condition of the pavement (e.g. cracks, aggregate loss) might also have an effect. A new, wear resistant pavement accumulated markedly higher road dust amounts than a several years old pavement. This paper closes with a discussion on the complex relation between road dust load and PM10 concentrations and a discussion on the challenges and comparability of road dust sampling techniques and measures. © 2019 The Authors

  • 127.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Moderna betongbeläggningar: utveckling mot mindre slitage och partikelemission2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vägbeläggningar av betong har potential att vara ett intressant alternativ till asfalt på flera sätt. Betong är normalt sett slitstark och saknar fossila komponenter, vilket är gynnsamt ur klimatsynpunkt och för brandsäkerhet i t.ex. tunnlar. Betong är dock dyrare att lägga, vilket medför att ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv måste betongen vara både slitstarkare och kräva mindre underhåll jämfört med asfaltsbeläggningar. Syftet med föreliggande projekt har varit att ta fram ett betongrecept (Betong 2), med bättre egenskaper avseende slitage och partikelemissioner jämfört med en känd standardbetong (Betong 1) och en slitstark asfaltsbeläggning (ABS16) baserade på samma ballastmaterial. Inledande försök på pinne-skiva-maskin visade att nötning och partikelkoncentration för vägmaterialen av betong uppvisar en omvänd proportionalitet mot ballastens hårdhet, och en direkt proportionalitet mot glidsträckan. I VTI:s provvägsmaskin jämfördes Betong 2 mot Betong 1 och mot en asfalt av typen ABS16. Provningen visade att slitaget var betydligt lägre för Betong 2 jämfört med referensasfalten (ABS16) och Betong 1. Genomgående genererar båda betongerna högre PM10-halter än asfalten. Ultrafina partiklar genereras i högre grad av asfalten. Orsaken till betongernas högre PM10-emission bedöms vara bidraget från cementpastan, vilket avspeglas i ett cirka tre gånger så högt kalciuminnehåll i PM10 från betongerna jämfört med PM10 från asfalten ABS16. Sammantaget visar både provningen i PVM och i detaljstudierna i pinne-skiva-maskin att Betong 2 har högre slitstyrka än både Betong 1 och asfalten ABS 16 och genererar generellt mindre PM10 än Betong 1.

  • 128.
    Gustavsson, Börje
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Skydd av befintliga byggnadsfasader – en förstudie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Protection of existing building façades – preliminary study

    General concepts related to explosive loading and associated effects on buildings have been discussed. Requirements pertaining to the explosive and vehicle impact resistance of various building components were also elaborated along with the mention of relevant safety measures. Assessing the explosive resistance of existing buildings, with a focus on facades, was discussed in combination with design requirements and potential strength-ening approaches. Relevant literature covering the developments of this field was re-ferred to throughout the report.

    It was suggested that a future quality assurance method be devised with the title of "By-ggaS – Method for quality assurance of safe buildings". ByggaS is a method of working with safety issues related to the entire construction process. This encompasses quality assurance requirements (phased), planning and production. With the help of quality management routines and checklists, this method ensures that quality is met in each process through continuous documenting, communicating, checking and verifying the work. Overall, ByggaS allows for an increased quality and safety of the building to be delivered. It facilitates the work of individual construction projects and provides a more efficient process by offering the project participants a complete working method with associated tools/templates.

     

  • 129.
    Haddaway, Neal
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Piniewski, Mikolaj
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Macura, Biljana
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    What ecotechnologies exist for recycling carbon and nutrients from domestic wastewater?: A systematic map protocol 09 Engineering 0907 Environmental Engineering2019In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pollution of the Baltic Sea continues to be a problem. Major terrestrial sources of nutrient emissions to the Baltic Sea are agriculture and wastewater, both major causes of eutrophication. Wastewater contains nutrients and organic matter that could constitute valuable products such as agricultural fertilizers and source of energy. With the EU's action plan for circular economy, waste management and resource utilization is central. Thus the integration of resource recovery to wastewater management could create benefits beyond the wastewater sector. There is a growing interest in resource recovery from wastewater. However, there is no systematic overview of the literature on technologies to recover nutrients and carbon from wastewater sources done to date. Methods: This systematic map will identify a representative list of studies on ecotechnologies for reusing carbon and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from domestic wastewater, which includes e.g. sewage sludge and wastewater fractions. Searches will be performed in five bibliographic databases, one search engine and 38 specialist websites. Searches will mainly be performed in English, search for literature in specialist websites will also include Finnish, Polish and Swedish. Coding and meta-data extraction will include information on ecotechnology name and short description, reuse outcome (i.e. reuse of carbon, nitrogen and/or phosphorus), type of reuse (i.e. whether it is explicit or implicit), study country and location, latitude and longitude. All screening and coding will be done after initial consistency checking. The outcomes of this systematic map will be a searchable database of coded studies. Findings will be presented in a geo-informational system (i.e. an evidence atlas) and knowledge gaps and clusters will be visualised via heat maps.

  • 130.
    Haegermark, Maria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Dalenbäck, Jan-Olof
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic rooftop systems in a complex setting: A Swedish case study2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 127, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An economic feasibility study of solar photovoltaic rooftop (PV) systems in Swedish multifamily buildings was carried out to examine the effects of current market conditions, incentive programmes, and building-specific parameters. Economic analyses were conducted for 108 electricity supply points for scenarios including (1) a tax rebate, (2) an investment subsidy, and (3) both tax rebate and subsidy. First, PV systems were sized and oriented to give the highest net present values, considering actual fuse sizes and hourly demands matched to simulated PV generation. This resulted in shares of profitable systems as follows: 33% with a tax rebate, 51% with a subsidy, and 93% with both. It was shown that the tax rebate programme promotes relatively large systems compared to the subsidy, although with a much higher risk. Thereafter, the influences of main fuse size and existing roofs were investigated. Most of the roofs were large enough to fit the previously sized PV systems. However, taking into account the slopes and directions of available rooftops considerably reduced the number of profitable systems. Finally, the study showed that in addition to support measures and other economic conditions, the PV system feasibility was highly sensitive to roof characteristics, electricity demand and fuse size.

  • 131.
    Hagberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gilbertsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Asp, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Projektrapport om läckage frångödselbehållare av betong: inspektion och egenkontroll2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manure storages should be inspected regularly to prevent leakage of manure due to for example damages on the pit. The legislation states that an operator is responsible forprotecting both the environment and people from harm and inconvenience. Damage onthe pit could lead to negative impact on the environment with addition of nutrients to the surroundings as well as reduced water quality. The legislation also state that amanure storage must be constructed and maintained to prevent run-off and leakage.

    In this project, a concrete expert has visited farms and inspected concrete manure storages to record common damages on the pits as well as assess causes of damages andsuggest different repair methods. The inspections have been complemented withliterature review and complied in this report.

    Damages to concrete manure storages are caused by mechanical damages or chemical attacks. The most common mechanical damage is caused by collision with the tractor or manure spreader into the pit. Chemical attacks can be different acid attacks on the concrete.

    The condition of a manure storage should be checked regularly. Taking a photo of anemerged damage is valuable when in contact with an expert to clarify the nature of thedamage as well as required repair method. Repair of damages should always be precededby consulting an expert. Experts are for example engineers working as concrete expertsas well as specialists at the manufacturers’.

    It’s important to prevent damages on the manure storages. One of the most importantfactor is to follow the manufacturer's instructions how to operate and use the storage aswell as to follow the precautions that are necessary.

    In Denmark there is a state control system for manure storages where certified inspectorsregularly visit farms to inspect manure storages. This Danish control system is brieflydescribed in this report. In addition, the Swedish environmental and work environment legislations are described based on various aspects.

    The aim of this report has been to facilitate for operators to carry out minor inspectionsand controls of manure storages. The report can also serve as a tool for inspectors andadvisors who want to learn more about leakage from concrete manure storages, damagesand repair methods.

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  • 132.
    Haglund Stignor, Caroline
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Tiljander, Pia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Lidbom, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Axell, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Masgrau, M.
    Airec, Sweden.
    New type of energy efficient heat exchanger for indirectly cooled display cabinets - Laboratory and field tests2018In: Refrigeration Science and Technology, 2018, p. 206-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a completely new type of air-to-liquid heat exchanger, adapted for obtaining good heat transfer performance even at a laminar flow regime on the liquid side has been evaluated in a display cabinet application. The heat exchanger consists of parallel plates, with liquid in every second passage and air in the other passages. Tests were performed with a traditional open vertical display cabinet, first with a traditional finned-tube coil and thereafter with the new type of heat exchanger, both in a climate chamber and thereafter in the field. The results from both tests showed that the liquid inlet temperature could be increased by around 6°C, from the range -8°C - -7°C with the traditional coil to the range -2°C -1°C with the new type of heat exchanger, which can lead to considerable energy savings and operation without the need for defrosting of the heat exchanger.

  • 133.
    Hallonsten, Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund University, Sweden.
    The third sector of R&D: literature review, basic analysis, and research agenda2017In: Prometheus, ISSN 0810-9028, E-ISSN 1470-1030, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 21-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The third sector of national innovation systems comprises non-academic, publicly owned R&D organizations that complement universities and private-sector firms and are normally called ‘research institutes’. Scholarly attention to these organizations has been scarce, partly a consequence of the theoretical imbalance in favor of conceptualizations of innovation processes as requiring mainly universities, private-sector firms, and governmental authorities to occur and succeed. Similarly, while this third sector often makes up a significant share of national innovation systems, it receives less attention in national research and innovation policy than do, say, universities. This paper argues that the role(s) and function(s) of third sector research institutes deserve to be mapped and analyzed in greater detail in order to understand how various organizational actors interact to produce innovation. From a comprehensive literature review and basic analysis of three institute groups in three Nordic countries, the paper makes a first preliminary analysis of the topic. While this analysis yields some interesting conclusions, its main function is to point the way for future studies. In these, other actors in the system should be investigated in thorough empirical studies, armed with tools from classic sociological systems theory that enhance the conceptual strength of the innovation systems framework and enable the acknowledgement of the role(s) and function(s) of several important organizational actors, not least research institutes.

  • 134.
    Harris, Steve
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Mirata, Murat
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Sotenäs kommun, Sweden.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    A roadmap for increased uptake of industrial symbiosis in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
  • 135.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden.
    Eklöf, Ingemar
    Novus Ecsosystems, Sweden.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Återvinning av däck i anläggningskonstruktioner: bättre resursutnyttjande av ett högvärdigt material2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gummi har särskilda egenskaper i förhållande till andra material. När uttjänta däck återvinns erhålls olika produkter som till stora delar har kvar sina gummiegenskaper. Det är till exempel mjukt, har isolerande och dränerande förmågor samt återfår sin ursprungliga form efter en belastning förutom att det är beständigt över tid. Dessa egenskaper kan utnyttjas för att framställa produkter och konstruktioner med unika kvaliteter, till exempel produkter som tål större deformation utan att gå sönder, som dämpar vibrationer och buller, som har en isolerande förmåga, har renande och stabiliserande förmågor. I anläggningsbranschen har man traditionellt mest utnyttjat antingen obundna granulära material, (sand och bergmaterial) eller bundna material (asfalt, betong). Gummimaterial i form av exempelvis granulat, däckklipp eller hela däck erbjuder möjligheter att utföra nya typer av anläggningskonstruktioner med speciella fördelar i förhållande till de traditionella konstruktionerna. Välkända exempel på hur man skapat en ny typ av konstruktioner baserat på gummits speciella egenskaper är konstgräsplaner med gummigranulat och fallskyddande lekplatsbeläggningar. Det finns stora potentialer att utveckla anläggningskonstruktioner med unika egenskaper där det återvunna materialet utgör eller till del ingår och som kommer bli efterfrågat för sin funktion och lönsamhet. Ett grundläggande problem, oavsett tillämpningar, är att det handlar om två olika värdekedjor och någon naturlig länk för att knyta samman dessa saknas. Den ena värdekedjan är utförande och anläggande av väg och anläggningskonstruktioner och den andra är återvinning av avfall och restprodukter. Dessa värdekedjor har traditionellt helt olika fokus på syfte och mål med verksamheterna varför det önskvärda förhållandet med både ”push and pull” inte naturligt uppstår. För att skapa denna länk måste någon part ta ansvar för det behov och den roll som uppstår i skärningspunkten mellan värdekedjorna. Vem som tar denna roll är den springande frågan för vidareförädling, tillverkning och utförande där återvunna däck helt eller till del utgör råvaran.

  • 136.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Salt-frostprovning av betong med slagg och flygaska2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project has been to develop the salt-freeze-thaw method (the slab method in CEN TS/12390-9 and method A in SS 137244) further so that the results reflect what is taking place in the long run during real conditions in Swedish climate in concrete with binders containing slag and fly ash and thereby can be used to in initial tests in order to predict the salt-frost resistance of such concretes. By doing this basic knowledge about the salt-frost resistance of concretes containing slag a fly ash has been assembled.Since several studies have shown that the salt-frost resistance of slag concrete in particular is affected by carbonation, the influence of carbonation was studied. Concrete with slag and fly ash has a slower strength development at the early stages and the influence of this fact has also been included in the investigation.In the project 14 different concretes with varying binder compositions and the water-to-binder ratio 0.45 have been subjected to the standardized salt-frost scaling method and 5 variations of the method, where the age at sawing, the length of the conditioning period in 65 % RH and the carbon dioxide conditions have been varied. The tests have been accompanied by determination of strength development, air pore structure, weight gain during wetting and the first 28 frost cycles, inner degradation and analysis of the surface by XRD and microscopy. With some binder combinations mortar specimens have been prepared and on these sorption isotherms have been determined and TG-analysis and low temperature calorimetry tests have been carried out. Specimens for field exposure at the site adjacent to the main road 40 has also been prepared and placed. Within the project time only measurements after one winter season has been performed.The conclusion regarding the applicability of the existing test method is that for compositions with maximum 20 % slag or fly ash the method works well without adjustments. For compositions with higher amounts of slag or fly ash the conditioning should be completed with about one week exposure to 1 % CO2, in order to take into account the increased scaling due to carbonation. As regards the use on concretes with considerably slower strength development than normal the age of the specimens at the start of the salt-frost cycling can be increased to up to 90 days in order to reflect the performance in the long run. It should then also be ascertained that the concrete in question in a real case is not exposed to salt-frost attack at a lower maturity than what this represents.When it comes to the requirements on binder compositions for exposure class XF4, it is shown that the requirements which exist in SS 137003:2015 are fully adequate. Maximum 20 % slag or fly ash can be used without influencing the salt-frost resistance more than marginally at a water-to-binder ratio =0,45. Using 35 % fly ash or 65 % slag results in very large scaling. Using 35 % slag gives is ambiguous results, but may perhaps be acceptable if the maximum water-to-binder ratio in that case is decreased to 0,40.

  • 137.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Eva, Rodum
    Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway.
    Torkkeli, Minna
    Finnish Transport Agency, Finland.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    A Nordic method for testing hydrophobic impregnations with regard to prevention of chloride ingress2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloride induced corrosion of the reinforcement is the major cause of degradation of reinforced concrete structures. In particular in the Nordic countries, the use of de-icing salts during winter, leads to severe degradation of edge beams in road bridges. Thus, in order to extend the service life and decrease maintenance costs, hydrophobic impregnations are commonly used to prevent or slow down chloride ingress into concrete. There is a harmonised European standard for hydrophobic impregnations, EN 1504-2 [1], but the property “diffusion of chloride ions” is “subject to national standards and regulations”. The transport and road administrations of Sweden, Norway and Finland use different national methods to evaluate the performance of this type of products meaning that the same CEmarked product needs to meet different requirements. Therefore, the transport and road administrations of Sweden, Norway and Finland initiated a project with the aim to establish a common Nordic method for classification of hydrophobic impregnations with regard to their capability to protect concrete from chloride ingress. The project was divided into three phases consisting on the analysis of existing test standards (national and international), a pre-study to evaluate the influence of different tests parameters and a round robin test involving three laboratories (one in each country). A thorough comparison of the existing methods and review of relevant literature made it possible to define which test parameters could be used in the formulation of the new method and which ones required further studies. It was found that the type of surface to be treated, the length of the preconditioning period, the length of the curing period and whether the surface to be impregnated should be soaked with Ca(OH)2-solution or not should be further investigated. The results of the pre-study showed that the application of the impregnation to form surfaces led to somewhat better chloride blocking effect. Despite this, it was decided to use sawn surfaces in the method, since it is much easier to obtain reproducible surface characteristics that way. The characteristics of a form surface depend on e.g. the form material, use of release agents, curing conditions. Saturation of the surface with calcium hydroxide solution before impregnation was found slightly beneficial on the chloride blocking effect compared to when such a treatment was omitted. However, since this did not contribute to the robustness of the test results, it increased the number of experimental steps and it is not representative of practice in real structures, it was decided not to incorporate such a treatment in the new method. The chloride protection slightly increases with the impregnation curing time. It was not clear which factor was most dominant; if the continuous polymerization of the hydrophobic impregnation or the continuous cement hydration. Since enough curing time is necessary for the treatment to be efficient, it was decided that the curing period before exposure to chlorides should be 28 days. With the primary objective of determining the reliability and reproducibility of the new method, a round robin exercise was carried out. Three laboratories were involved in this phase; CBI-Borås in Sweden, SINTEF in Norway and VTT in Finland. The results show that despite some differences in both materials and methods, such as the type of cement or preconditioning and curing environments, highly reproducible results were obtained. In addition, a detailed discussion on the influence of the details of the method on the chloride profiles and on the filter effect is presented. Within the round robin test, the relative humidity before and after impregnation and the dry condition of the powder samples were found to be the major parameters leading to the discrepancy of the results. In addition, handling of the wet concrete surfaces after exposure to chlorides and the time period (and temperature) between the end of the chloride exposure and powder sampling for chloride analysis were found to have surprisingly large effects on the form of the chloride profiles in the samples. Therefore, these parts of the procedures were made much more precise in the final method, in order to increase its reproducibility. The method can be briefly described as follows: Concrete specimens are prepared by sawing 100 mm cubes into two halves, three cubes per test series. The sawn surfaces are defined as exposure faces. Three halves are treated with the hydrophobic impregnation to be tested and the other three halves are kept as untreated references. The specimens are exposed submerged in 15% NaCl-solution for 56 days. After exposure, the chloride ingress is determined by profile grinding and the total amount of penetrated chlorides is calculated. The chloride blocking effect of the hydrophobic impregnations, expressed as the Filter Effect, FE, which is determined as 1 minus the ratio between the amount of penetrated chlorides in treated and in non-treated concrete specimens. The results obtained in both the pre-study and round robin exercise were compared to those obtained with the existing national methods in order to establish proper requirement levels with the new method. Despite the many differences between the methods, it was found that a filter effect of approximately 0.65 correlates well with the existing requirement in the Swedish method and in the Norwegian method. However, given limited data available and also considering data from field investigations, a level of 0.60 is proposed as appropriate for a really well performing hydrophobic impregnation. The method was accepted as a Nordtest method in December 2015 with the denomination NT Build 515.

  • 138.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Parg, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Ellison, Tommy
    BESAB, Sweden.
    Hydrofoberande medel i sprutbetong: Inverkan på egenskaper och beteendet vid sprutning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal with this project is to acquire more profound knowledge and experiences as regards the use of hydrophobic agents added to fresh concrete (hydrophobic admixtures) intended for sprayed concrete with low-alkali binders, with the purpose to enhance the durability and serviceability of the sprayed concrete. The results from this project contribute to increased understanding of the practical possibilities with and limitations for hydrophobic admixtures in sprayed concrete. Thus the need for costly field tests, with trial and error can be decreased.A large part of the project has been devoted to study the influence of the hydrophobic admixtures on the properties at an early stage, since these are decisive for the practical application. In addition the influence on strength development and bond have been determined. The hydrophobicity that these admixtures give the concrete has also been investigated. These tests have primarily been carried out on paste, mortar or concrete cast in a traditional way, not on sprayed concrete. Spraying tests have been carried out with one of the hydrophobic admixtures and a reference without admixture in order to study the behaviour at spraying. On samples from the sprayed concrete the bond, hydrophobicity and chloride intrusion have been determined.Two hydrophobic admixtures, Sitren P 750 (E) and Silres BS 1001 (W) have been used, both based on organosilicates. Admixture E consist of a modified siloxan which is attached to silica fume and admixture W is a water based emulsion of silan/siloxan. Most of the tests were carried out on a pure Portland cement (Degerhamns Anläggningscement from Cementa) and on a Portland-fly ash cement (Slite Anläggning FA from Cementa). Both cements are sulphate resistant and have low alkali content. Tests with and without accelerator have been carried out.When used without accelerator admixture W influenced the setting time and the heat development much more than admixture E. Admixture W had a clear retarding effect. It was though possible to compensate for this effect by adding an accelerator. The 28 day strength decreased when both admixtures were used, most with admixture W. But also in this case this effect was to some extent compensated by adding an accelerator. The accelerator did not have a decisive influence when admixture E was used. When the bond was determined on cast concrete admixture W gave higher and less deviating results than admixture E. The hydrophobicity in mixtures with the two admixtures was comparable.The spray test was carried out with admixture W and an accelerator. With the admixture less water was needed to give the same workability. The behaviour at spraying was as good as, or somewhat better, with the hydrophobic admixture compared to the mix without. The hydrophobic admixture did not influence the bond of the sprayed concrete. The water absorption of the sprayed concrete with the hydrophobic admixture was approximately 30 % lower than without, and the resistance to chloride intrusion was approximately 40 % higher.

  • 139.
    Hennessy, Jay
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Flexibility in thermal grids: A review of short-term storage in district heating distribution networks2019In: Energy Procedia, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 158, p. 2430-2434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future energy systems need to be more flexible. The use of cross-sector coupling in combination with thermal storage in thermal grids has been shown to provide such flexibility. The presented study reviews how short-term storage in district heating distribution networks is used or modelled for flexibility, what are the most important parameters, and where the knowledge gaps remain. The results show that the potential for flexibility from district heating has not been fully exploited. Sensible thermal storage tanks are 50-100 times cheaper than electrical storage and storage in the distribution network requires little additional investment in infrastructure. In some countries, the majority of district heating systems have sensible thermal storage tanks, with as much as 64 % of their capacity available for flexibility services. Initial results suggest that only smaller networks are prevented from using the distribution network for storage, but the impacts of this type of use on the physical components and the capacity limitations remain unclear and show a need for standardised methods for analysis. There is a growing interest, both in Europe and China, in the use of short-term storage in district heating to provide flexibility, particularly in the form of ancillary services to the electricity grid, but implementations of these techniques are rare. The presented study identifies a number of remaining knowledge gaps that should be addressed in order to harness available flexibility in district heating. © 2019 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of ICAE2018 - The 10th International Conference on Applied Energy.

  • 140.
    Hennessy, Jay
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Towards smart thermal grids: Techno-economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies for district heating2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 766-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent improvements in low-temperature heat-to-power (LTHtP) technologies have led to an increase in efficiency at lower temperatures and lower cost. LTHtP has so far not been used in district heating. The aim of the study is to establish under what conditions the use of existing LTHtP technology is technically and economically feasible using a district heating system as the heat source. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is identified as the most interesting LTHtP technology, due to its high relative efficiency and the commercial availability of devices operating at temperatures in the district heating operating range. The levelised cost of electricity of several ORC devices is calculated for temperatures found in district heating, assuming a zero cost of heat. A case study from Sweden is used to calculate the levelised cost of electricity, the net present value and payback period, based on income from the electricity produced, excluding taxes. Hourly spot market electricity prices from 2017 are used, as well as forecast scenarios for 2020, 2030 and 2040. A sensitivity study tests the importance of electricity price, cost of heat and capital/installation cost. Based on the case study, the best levelised cost of electricity achieved was 26.5 EUR/MWh, with a payback period greater than 30 years. Under current Swedish market conditions, the ORC does not appear to be economically feasible for use in district heating, but the net present value and payback period may be significantly more attractive under other countries’ market conditions or with reduced capital costs. For a positive net present value in the Swedish market the capital cost should be reduced to 1.7 EUR/W installed, or the average electricity price should be at least 35.2 EUR/MWh, if the cost of heat is zero. The cost of heat is an important factor in these calculations and should be developed further in future work.

  • 141.
    Hennessy, Jay
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Mälardalen University,Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University,Sweden.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University,Sweden.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University,Sweden.
    Räftegård, Oskar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies suitable for use in district heating networks2017In: Energy Procedia, p. 1721-1727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent improvements in heat-to-power (HtP) technologies have led to an increase in efficiency at lower temperatures and lower cost. HtP is used extensively in power generation via the steam Rankine cycle, but so far has not been used in district heating (DH). The aim of the study is to analyze the economic feasibility of using HtP technologies in a DH network. This is achieved by establishing suitable technologies and calculating the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) under conditions that may be found in DH. The result, for the vendors, temperatures and assumptions considered, is a range of 25-292 €/MWh, excluding the cost of heat. The breadth of this range in part reflects the importance of selecting appropriate products to match the heat source temperature.

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  • 142.
    Hesselgren, Lars
    et al.
    PLP Architecture, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Ingemar
    LogistikCentrum, Sweden.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Prieto Rábade, Miguel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    NuMo – New Urban Mobility: New urban infrastructure support for autonomous vehicles2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreword All transport systems have a certain capacity determined by its configurations. For cars the most efficient current form is constant speed driving, e.g. the motorway. Its capacity is limited by the time separation between vehicles. Any transport system that stops because of congestion or other causes by definition sees its capacity reduced to zero. Hence traffic jams are hugely disruptive. Public transport operates on a model inherited from the 19 th Century. Vehicles (buses, trams, railways, metros) run on a regular (timetabled) basis and stops at every station (bus stop). Since there is no pre-booking and the need of transport is hard to foresee, the vehicles are often almost empty, at other times hugely congested. The NuMo technology emerges from decades of work across the whole transportation industry. Autonomous electric vehicles (AEVs) equipped with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication can safely keep shorter distances. In practical terms this means that a platooned car system has the same capacity in one lane as a double-lane motorway. Automated intelligent controls ensure that the NuMo systems never stops, thus achieving the highest capacity. Instead of waiting for the mass deployment of fully automated vehicles, NuMo starts with dedicated networks that integrate tightly with existing infrastructure for step-wise smooth transition to fully automated transport system. NuMo includes an on-demand public transport system which only runs when it is needed. The system will take advantage of close-spacing possible with robot controls – vehicles can run close together and also use less road width by less wiggling. Equally importantly stations and access to the normal road network is arranged such that the traffic flow never stops. The urban impact can be imagined by understanding the impact of modern public transport systems currently under construction. Some of them are underground to avoid disrupting the street patterns. Some are elevated, some rely on physical separation at grade. One interesting option is to use tunnels underground or in water to further reduce disruption. Many cities are abandoning the traditional port infrastructure giving huge opportunities to again regard water as a connector rather than something to cross. The NuMo system uses all of those techniques and detailed design studies are under way for each of those options. NuMo will make an important contribution to environmental sustainability in many respects. Firstly, it will accelerate adoption of electric propulsion; secondly it will encourage vehicle sharing; and thirdly by only running when needed will save on unnecessary movements and finally its construction costs will be less than conventional systems. Sketches of NuMo networks are presented on places as diverse as Stockholm, Gothenburg and New York. Naturally the system will also be crucial in the development of new cities. This report is a summary of the studies performed within the project “New urban infrastructure support for autonomous vehicles” financed by Vinnova through the Strategic Innovation Program InfraSweden2030. The aim is to explore the infrastructure support to accelerate the introduction of autonomous electric vehicles for future mobility.

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  • 143.
    Heyne, Stefan
    et al.
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Well-to-tank data for advanced tailor-made biofuel alternatives2017In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2017, no 25thEUBCE, p. 1230-1236Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is part of a cross-disciplinary Swedish research project on advanced tailor-made biofuels that aims at identifying drop-in biofuel options for the transport sector that combine excellent combustion properties with sustainable production pathways. The present paper addresses the methodology and primary results of the biofuel production pathway assessment for the diesel fuel alternatives identified within the project. The methodology is illustrated for 2-Ethylhexanol. Three alternative production pathways for 2-Ethylhexanol are analyzed: gasification-based, butanol-based and ethanol-based. The highest biomass to 2-Ethylhexanol conversion (33.9%, lower heating value basis) is achieved for the ethanol-based conversion pathway. The varying spectrum of by-products requires a sophisticated analysis necessary, as addressed in the present work. 2-Ethylhexanol as biofuel cannot outperform conventional biofuels such as e.g. ethanol from a well-to-tank energy performance perspective due to the additional conversion steps necessary. End-use phase benefits such as higher blend-in ratios or reduced pollutant emissions may change the well-to-wheel picture. 

  • 144.
    Hillberg, Emil
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Zegers, A.
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Migliavacca, G.
    RSE, Italy.
    Beccuti, G.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Lehnhoff, S.
    OFFIS, Germany.
    Uhlen, K.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Oleinikova, I.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Pompee, J.
    RTE Reseau de Transport d'Electricite, France.
    Bourmaud, J-Y.
    RTE Reseau de Transport d'Electricite, France.
    Pihl, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Norström, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Rossi, Joni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Flexibility to support the future power systems2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Power system flexibility relates to the ability of the power system to manage changes. Solutions providing advances in flexibility are of utmost importance for the future power system. Development and deployment of innovative technologies, communication and monitoring possibilities, as well as increased interaction and information exchange, are enablers to provide holistic flexibility solutions. Furthermore, development of new methods for market design and analysis, as well as methods and procedures related to system planning and operation, will be required to utilise available flexibility to provide most value to society. However, flexibility is not a unified term and is lacking a commonly accepted definition. The flexibility term is used as an umbrella covering various needs and aspects in the power system. This situation makes it highly complex to discuss flexibility in the power system and craves for differentiation to enhance clarity. In this report, the solution has been to differentiate the flexibility term on needs, and to categorise flexibility needs in four categories: Flexibility for Power, Flexibility for Energy, Flexibility for Transfer Capacity, and Flexibility for Voltage. Here, flexibility needs are considered from over-all system perspectives (stability, frequency and energy supply) and from more local perspectives (transfer capacities, voltage and power quality). With flexibility support considered for both operation and planning of the power system, it is required in a timescale from fractions of a second (e.g. stability and frequency support) to minutes and hours (e.g. thermal loadings and generation dispatch) to months and years (e.g. planning for seasonal adequacy and planning of new investments). The categorisation presented in this report supports an increased understanding of the flexibility needs, to be able to identify and select the most suitable flexibility solutions.

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  • 145.
    Hillberg, Emil
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Zegers, Anthony
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Herndler, Barbara
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria.
    Wong, Steven
    Natural Resources Canada, Canada.
    Pompee, Jean
    RTE Reseau de Transport d'Electricite, France.
    Bourmaud, Jean-Yves
    RTE Reseau de Transport d'Electricite, France.
    Lehnhoff, Sebastian
    OFFIS, Germany.
    Migliavacca, Gianluigi
    RSE, Italy.
    Uhlen, Kjetil
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Oleinikova, Irina
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Pihl, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Norström, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Persson, Mattias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Rossi, Joni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Beccuti, Giovanni
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Flexibility needsin the future power system2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Power system flexibility relates to the ability of the power system to manage changes. Solutions providing advances in flexibility are of utmost importance for the future power system. Development and deployment of innovative technologies, communication and monitoring possibilities, as well as increased interaction and information exchange, are enablers to provide holistic flexibility solutions. Furthermore, development of new methods for market design and analysis, as well as methods and procedures related to system planning and operation, will be required to utilise available flexibility to provide most value to society. However, flexibility is not a unified term and is lacking a commonly accepted definition. Several definitions of flexibility have been suggested, some of which restrict the definition of flexibility to relate to changes in supply and demand while others do not put this limitation. The flexibility term is used as an umbrella covering various needs and aspects in the power system. This situation makes it highly complex to discuss flexibility in the power system and craves for differentiation to enhance clarity. In this report, the solution has been to differentiate the flexibility term on needs, and to categorise flexibility needs in four categories:

     Flexibility for Power: - Need Description: Short term equilibrium between power supply and power demand, a system wide requirement for maintaining the frequency stability. - Main Rationale: Increased amount of intermittent, weather dependent, power supply in the generation mix. - Activation Timescale: Fractions of a second up to an hour.

     Flexibility for Energy: - Need Description: Medium to long term equilibrium between energy supply and energy demand, a system wide requirement for demand scenarios over time. - Main Rationale: Decreased amount of fuel storage-based energy supply in the generation mix.  - Activation Timescale: Hours to several years.

     Flexibility for Transfer Capacity: - Need Description: Short to medium term ability to transfer power between supply and demand, where local or regional limitations may cause bottlenecks resulting in congestion costs. - Main Rationale: Increased utilisation levels, with increased peak demands and increased peak supply. - Activation Timescale: Minutes to several hours.

     Flexibility for Voltage: - Need Description: Short term ability to keep the bus voltages within predefined limits, a local and regional requirement. - Main Rationale: Increased amount of distributed power generation in the distribution systems, resulting in bi-directional power flows and increased variance of operating scenarios. - Activation Timescale: Seconds to tens of minutes.

    Here, flexibility needs are considered from over-all system perspectives (stability, frequency and energy supply) and from more local perspectives (transfer capacities, voltage and power quality). With flexibility support considered for both operation and planning of the power system, it is required in a timescale from fractions of a second (e.g. stability and frequency support) to minutes and hours (e.g. thermal loadings and generation dispatch) to months and years (e.g. planning for seasonal adequacy and planning of new investments).

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  • 146.
    Hiller, Carolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Utveckling och tillämpning av sensoriska metoder för objektiva belysnings-bedömningar, del I2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag finns tekniska belysningsstandarder som inkluderar parameterar så som ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Det som saknas är krav som grundar sig på människors upplevelser av belysning och ljusmiljöer. Att få med den upplevelsebaserade dimensionen skulle betyda ett helhetstänk som förmodligen skulle gynna både ljuskomforten och än mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Att beskriva upplevda belysningsparametrar har hittills visat sig inte vara helt enkelt, och här saknas både kunskap och en gemensam begreppsvärld inom branschen; något som hämmar fastighetsägare att ställa lämpliga krav vid en upphandling liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Det övergripande syftet med detta forskningsprojekt är att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar. Syftet med försöken som redovisas i denna delrapport är att vidareutveckla och testa metoden ytterligare. Detta görs genom att nya armaturer testas liksom att försök utförs i en ny verklig kontext (kontorsmiljö). Försöken bygger vidare på resultat från tidigare försök som har rapporterats om i (Boork et al, 2017).

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer, som uppfyllde särskilda urvalskriterier, har tidigare rekryterats och dessa personer tränades nu för detta specifika delprojekt för att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på RISE Research Institutes of Sweden i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorieförsök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visade att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar även för de testade belysningsprodukterna, dvs mindre LED-spotlights. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna och som i tidigare försök spelade färgtemperaturen en stor roll för flera av de bedömda egenskaperna; inte minst förstås för ljuskällans gulhet och för läsbarhet (textkontrasten). Liksom i tidigare försök fanns det samband mellan de fysikaliska mätningarna och sensoriska bedömningarna, men inte för alla egenskaper, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysning.  Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att likvärdiga resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, om ändock något spretigare och inte heller lika entydiga i jämförelse med verklig kontext i tidigare försök.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

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  • 147.
    Holgersson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mälarporten, termiska lager i fjärrvärmesystemet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I området Mälarporten har en storskalig förändring påbörjats. Området har tidigare bestått av gamla, till viss del nedlagda industrier, och kommer till stor del ersättas med bostäder, men också i viss mån kontor. Energi- och effektbehovet i området kommer att förändras mot tidigare vilket innebär att även fjärrvärmesystemet behöver förnyas. Vidare är det troligt att fjärrvärmenätet kommer arbeta med lägre temperaturer då nya fastigheter är av lågenergityp.

    Uppdraget i denna studie är att komplettera Mälarenergis arbete kring det kommande fjärrvärmenätet i området Mälarporten, Västerås med en kort utredning av termiska lager. Studien syftar till att öka kunskapen kring termiska lagers funktion i fjärrvärmenät inför ombyggnationen av fjärrvärmenätet i Mälarporten. Övergripande belyses teknik, viktiga parametrar och nuläget.

    Det finns flera tillämpningar på termiska lager i fjärrvärmesystem. Dels för att utjämna dygnsvariationerna i lasten i nätet, men också variationen över säsong. Vidare finns potential att använda ett termiskt lager i områden där det inte är möjligt med höga termiska effektuttag.

    De flesta installerade lagren idag är av typen sensibla lager men utvecklingen av latenta och termokemiska lager går fort. De latenta lagren är mer tillämpbara än de termokemiska som mestadels befinner sig på forskningsstadiet. Ett exempel på latent lager är snö vilket tillämpas idag i Sundsvall för fjärrkyla. En positiv bieffekt är att ett sådant lager kan underlätta rening av smältvattnet i en stad.

    Både KTH och Chalmers bedriver forskning för att utveckla latenta lagers tillämpningar i fjärrvärme/fjärrkylasystem. Det borde också vara intressant för Mälarenergi att titta närmare på SaltX installation i Berlin samt borrhålslagret i Linköping och befintliga groplager i Malung och Danmark.

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  • 148.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Practical considerations in utilizing structural health information in bridge maintenance2019In: Structural Health Monitoring 2019: Enabling Intelligent Life-Cycle Health Management for Industry Internet of Things (IIOT) - Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, DEStech Publications Inc. , 2019, p. 1533-1540Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents two illustrative examples about the utilization of structural health information for rational decision making in everyday bridge management. It is suggested that Bayesian decision analysis could be useful even in sample cases to help efficiently use specific and generic information about structural condition. However, there are some challenges concerning practical application.

  • 149.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Time-variant reliability of timber beams according to Eurocodes considering long-term deflections2019In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a consistent level of failure probability, structural design codes are optimized using probabilistic methods. This optimization process traditionally focuses on the ultimate limit states (ULS). However, in the design of timber structures the performance of the structural members is often governed by the serviceability limit state (SLS) associated with different load levels than applied in the ULS. The probability of serviceability failure is strongly dependent on the loading sequence and the time-dependent response of timber; therefore, a time-variant probabilistic model is recommended to estimate them properly. This study aims to investigate the time-dependent reliability for long-term deflections of timber office and residential floor beams according to the specifications of the Eurocodes. A simple creep model is used to calculate the deflections and Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to determine the reliability index. It was found that the creep factor and the suggested deflection limits given in Eurocode 5 might not be appropriate to achieve the expected target reliabilities. To obtain a more consistent reliability, more suitable values for the mentioned parameters were suggested. However, the primary aim was to present a framework to determine appropriate deflection limits for structural codes.

  • 150.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Larsson Ivanov, O.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Leander, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Björnsson, I.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    A practical approach for supporting decisions in bridge condition assessment and monitoring2019In: 20th Congress of IABSE, New York City 2019: The Evolving Metropolis - Report, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2019, p. 2137-2142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution a practical and rational decision-making approach is presented to be applied for common bridges typically managed by public authorities. The authors have developed a model with the intention to be applicable for practical cases for common bridges in the daily work of bride operators responsible for a large number of assets, yet still maintain the principles of more generic frameworks based on probabilistic decision-theory. Three main attributes of the verification of sufficiency of structural performance are considered, namely: 1) the level of sophistication of modelling performance, 2) the degree of verification and acceptance criteria in terms of dealing with uncertainties and consequences, 3) the extent of information is obtained and incorporated in the verification. The simplicity of the approach is demonstrated through an illustrative case study inspired by practical condition assessment decision problems. It is argued that in practical cases it may be desirable to utilize less advanced methods owing to constraints in resources or lack of reliable data (e.g. based on structural health monitoring or other on-site measurement techniques). 

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