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  • 101.
    Lillbacka, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Runesson, Kenneth
    Larsson, Fredrik
    On the implementation of plane stress in computational multiscale modeling.2006In: 2nd International Symposium on Tunnel Safety & Security., 2006, , p. 91-94Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Lundh, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Almström, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    Ageing and wear in polymeric child articles2008Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ageing and wear in polymeric child articles This report targets child use and care articles, toys and playground equipment. These products will in this report collectively be referred to as ‘child articles’. It is the authors’ experience that polymers are getting more and more frequent in child articles, probably since they are cheaper and in many ways easier to process than metals. This is not an unwanted development in itself, but the choice of material has to be carefully made since the material properties of polymers vary greatly depending on the type and amount of additives and this can not be assessed visually. In addition they degrade with time due to environmental influence. To verify the properties of a polymer the material has to be tested. One of the challenges with polymers is that they all have a limited lifetime. They degrade over time and might lose almost all their strength, leading to material failure and, in the worst case scenario, accidents. It is a fact that accidents happen due to material failure, although it is hard to trace the true cause in accident statistics. In this report the term ‘ageing’ will be used for chemical degradation of the material structure due to light and/or heat exposure and ‘wear’ refers to mechanical degradation as a result of mechanical stress and contact. The current regulation covers property changes in polymers during the lifetime of a product insufficiently, if at all. Ageing of materials is virtually non-existing in existing child article standards. During its life a product is subjected to all kinds of environmental factors which more or less lead to reduction of function of the product. All products get worn, in one way or another, when used and the surrounding environment affects the material of the product. These effects are greater or lesser depending on usage and the harshness of the surrounding environment, as well as material choice and other qualities of the product. Therefore the material and processing have to be chosen based on the knowledge of the environment in which the product will be used as well as the expected lifetime. This process is called environmental design or environmental engineering. In order to simplify the material selection process when a product is developed, it is recommended to compose a material qualification system for child articles. This system can preferably be based on existing systems from other industries. This study recommends that the requirements and test methods proposed in Chapter 5 are considered when new standards for child articles are being developed or when existing standards are being revised. It is also recommended to perform a risk analysis to identify the hazards of a product.

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  • 103.
    Lundh, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Waller, Erica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Non-integrated finger protection - A background study and suggestions of requirements and test methods2008Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young children have a natural curiosity and have not yet learned to avoid and get away from danger. It is often necessary to take measures to protect children from hazards. Parents buy protective products to avoid or decrease risks in their own and their children’s lives. Different kinds of protective products, including finger protection, are also common in nurseries, hospitals and other institutions. When a finger protection is bought and installed this gives the consumer a greater sense of security. It is vital that reality agrees with this sense. Otherwise the risk of injury may in fact increase, since a sense of security in the parent/supervisor often implies less supervision. It is therefore important to make sure that protective products on the market are safe and that they give the protection they were designed to give. This report presents a background study including injury statistics and discusses the hazards as well as methods of prevention/protection. Finger protection devices are divided into categories based on their protection method. Reasonable requirements, based on children’s characteristics and abilities, and ways to test these are discussed. Finally, suggestions of requirements and test methods are presented in the form of complete product standards for the different kinds of finger protection. ‘Finger protection’ in this report refers to protective devices designed to prevent crushing injuries between door leaf and door frame. This report deals only with non-integrated finger protection for inner doors, i.e. devices which are mounted onto an existing inner door. Currently there is no European standard regulating this kind of products.

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  • 104.
    Maghsood, Roza
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rychlik, Igor
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Load description and damage evaluation using vehicle independent driving events2015In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 101, p. 268-276p. 268-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the loads that are related to steering events, and focus on the events that cause high forces on steering components. The load is simplified by keeping the extreme force value for each driving event. We define a simplified stochastic model for the load by modeling the extreme value for each driving event by a random variable. We give formulas to compute the theoretical load spectrum and the expected fatigue damage caused by the driving events. Further, in a sensitivity study we investigate how much the expected damage depends on the variability of parameters of the proposed model.

  • 105.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    REr.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Alkali Resistance of Textile Reinforcement for Concrete Façade Panels2014In: XXII NORDIC CONCRETE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM, 2014, , p. 61-64, Publication no. 50Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile reinforced concrete has been proven to be a suitable solution for the production of thin and lightweight façade panels. Despite it being researched over the past decade, its long-term durability is not sufficiently characterized. This article presents experimental results from accelerated aging and direct tensile testing of various textile reinforcement alternatives according to ISO 10406-1. Based on the results, a large degeneration of the glass and basalt fibre bars was observed after 30 days of immersion. As for carbon fibre grids, no significant difference in ultimate tensile force was noted before and after immersion.

  • 106.
    Nilsson, Ulrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Andersson, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Transport av farligt gods som hotobjekt2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    After 11 September, 2001, there has been a focus on how to reduce the risk for new terror attacks on society. In transport in general, and transport of dangerous goods (hazardous materials) in particular, a number of steps have been taken to reduce the risks for antagonistic attacks. One such step was to introduce a requirement for all carriers of high-consequence dangerous goods to implement a security plan for the transport. To establish the usefulness and relevance of today’s regulations there is a need to make a more thorough analysis. Due to the fact that so far very few antagonistic attacks, deriving from the transport of dangerous goods, have been launched, other material for analyzing is needed. Even if hazardous materials have been involved in most attacks, the transport itself is rarely used as a tool for the attack. Our way to facilitate the analysis was to create twelve different scenarios, where a more or less likely chain of events, leading to an antagonistic attack, was described. The scenarios were written in an anecdotic or fiction-like manner. All scenarios were analyzed based on three main characteristics: psychological impact, resources needed and the possibility of counteractions to the threat. Then it was possible to discuss the effectiveness of the regulations, which address security in dangerous goods transport. It was concluded that some areas are of great interest for reducing risks related to antagonistic threats. First, the development of security plans and the possible audit of security plans. Second, consideration of selective routing for transports of dangerous goods (in a dynamic perspective, i.e. based on the currently existing risks). And third, the management of information and the use of telematics in the transport of dangerous goods. The report is included in a research project, SecureFlow’05, being carried out with the University College of Borås as lead partner and with financial support from the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems VINNOVA.

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  • 107. Ringsberg, J
    et al.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Schreuder, M
    Högström, P
    Examples of selected research efforts made on characteristics of material, ship side structure response and ship survivability in ship collisions.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Sandström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Tillförlitlighet och Livslängd.
    Svensson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Load/Strength analysis of wave energy components2014Report (Refereed)
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  • 109. Schlune, Hendrik
    et al.
    Plos, Mario
    Gylltoft, Kent
    Thelandersson, Sven
    Svensson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    A New Safety Format for Nonlinear Analysis2011In: Proceeding of XXI Nordic Concrete Research Symposium, The Nordic Concrete Federation, p, 2011, , p. 41-44Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 110. Seiffedine, S
    et al.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Inverkan av porer på mekaniska egenskaper i gjutna aluminiumkomponenter2009In: Gjuteriet, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 21-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 111.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Laminated safety glass and adhesives: A literature survey on experimental techniques and experimental data2012Report (Refereed)
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  • 112.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Materials performance assessment of precision cast aluminium components with novel strain analysis techniques2014In: International Foundry Research, no 3, p. 10-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Nya metoder för studier av gjutjärns mekaniska egenskaper2011In: Gjuteriet, Vol. 101, no 9, p. 28-30Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 114.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    On characterization and modelling of mechanical properties of materials for cast components2012In: 70th World Foundry Congress 2012, WFC 2012, 2012, , p. 402-419Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Autio, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Odnegård, K.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh). MAN Diesel and Turbo, Denmark.
    Analysis of strains in cast iron joints using finite element simulations and digital image correlation techniques2012In: 70th World Foundry Congress 2012, WFC 2012, 2012, , p. 396-401p. 396-401Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Metalock method is a mechanical joining technique most commonly employed in cracked castings of iron, aluminum and steel. The marine diesel engine designer MAN Diesel & Turbo uses the Metalock method for crack patching in large cast iron components. The service life of these components can thereby be extended, reducing both replacement costs and environmental impact. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical behavior of the Metalock method. This was studied by full scale testing, using a non-contact deformation measurement technique known as digital image correlation (DIC), of cast iron specimens joined together by the Metalock method. Furthermore, finite element (FE) simulations were performed, and verified by experimental results, in order to study the mechanical behavior in detail and to carry out a parametric study on some of the components included in the joint. Experimental tests show that using the DIC technique gives a good possibility to verify the strain-field achieved by FE simulations and improving the understanding of the Metalock joining technique.

  • 116.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Diaconu, Vasile Lucian
    Skoglund, Peter
    Diószegi, A
    Stress relaxation of compacted graphite iron alloyed with molybdenum2013In: International Journal of Cast Metal Research, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 51-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Snis, Anders
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Karlsson, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Digital image correlation analysis of local strain fields on Ti6A14V manufactured by electron beam melting2014In: Materials Science & Engineering A, Vol. 618, p. 456-461Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Persson, P
    Vomacka, P
    Analysing the deformation behaviour of compacted graphite cast irons using digital image correlation techniques2011In: Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 457, p. 470-475Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Persson, Per-Eric
    Vormacka, Peter
    Analysing the Deformation Behvaiour of Compacted Graphite Cast Irons Using digital Image Correlation Techniques2010In: Key Engineering Materials, ISSN 1013-9826, E-ISSN 1662-9795, Vol. 457, p. 470-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Skoglund, Peter
    Moverare, J
    Fatigue and strength of new grey iron alloys for brake discs2013In: Konferensbidrag till 7th International on Low Cycle Conference Fatigue (LCF7), 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Svensson, Henrik
    RISE, Swerea, SWECAST.
    Study of the Eutectoid Transformation in Grey Cast Irons and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties2010In: Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 457, p. 157-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this experimental study, six pearlitic grey cast irons with different Cu and Cr content, different section thicknesses and different eutectoid cooling rates have been examined. The eutectoid cooling rate was approximated by casting simulation analysis. The purpose of the experiments was to study the effect of the matrix structure on the overall mechanical properties. An emphasis is put on the pearlite interlamellar spacing because this controls the resulting mechanical properties to a large extent. By keeping the graphite structure constant, the effect of the matrix structure was able to be studied. This was achieved by shake-out at temperatures above the eutectoid transformation range followed by subsequent cooling in air, mould or in a furnace. The pearlite interlamellar spacing ranged from 90 to 330 nm for the matrices studied. Comparing the strength of the fine structured and coarse structured materials, the tensile and yield strength was reduced by almost 50%. Regarding the elastic deformation, a weak increase in the tangent modulus with increasing alloying content was observed. It was also observed that lower cooling rate decreased the tangent modulus. The tangent modulus ranged between 70 and 110 GPa. Analysing the plastic deformation of the materials, in terms of strain hardening exponent, n, and strength coefficient, K, a strong dependence on the pearlite coarseness was observed. It was concluded that the effect of graphite particle length on tensile strength was negligible and the major improvement on the strength was due to refinement of the pearlite.

  • 122.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Wilberfors, Fredrik
    Alander, Monika
    Digital image correlation techniques for analysing the deformation behaviour of compacted graphite cast irons on a microstructural level2011In: Applied Mechanics and Materials, ISSN 1660-9336, E-ISSN 1662-7482, Vol. 70, p. 171-176Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Snygg, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Cannmo, Patrik
    FE-modeling of dynamic experimental testing with large elastic-plastic deformations2001In: Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference - IMAC 2001. Vol. 1, 2001, , p. 531-537Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 124. Svensson, Henrik
    et al.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    The Effect of Cooling Rate, Section Size and Alloying on Matrix Structure Formation in Pearlitic Grey Cast Iron2011In: Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 457, p. 169-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The matrix structure formation of cast irons is strongly affected by the casting process where different alloying elements and cooling conditions are methods used to achieve the desired structure and performance of the material. In the presented study, six pearlitic grey cast irons have been analysed regarding how the pearlitic structure formation might be controlled. Different amounts of copper and chromium were added, ranging from 0.07 to 1.11 wt% and 0.08 to 0.60 wt%, respectively. Three different section sizes (Ø20, Ø45 and Ø85 mm) and three different cooling conditions through the eutectoid transformation were used to control the matrix structure formation. The three different cooling conditions were achieved by shake-out at 950°C and cooling in air or furnace, or by keeping the casting in the mould. The present paper focuses on the pearlite appearance, since it strongly affects the mechanical properties. The analysis shows that the refining effect of Cr is much stronger than that of Cu. Comparing the low alloyed base melt with the ones alloyed with Cu and Cr, it is seen that additions of 0.75 wt% Cu refines the pearlite by approximately 10%. Keeping this Cu level constant and adding Cr, it is observed that an addition of ∼0.6 wt% refines the pearlite by another 20%. The most potent refining effect of Cr is achieved by additions up to 0.35 wt%. Keeping the Cr constant at 0.35% and changing the Cu content (0.35 to 1.10 wt%), almost no variation is observed in the overall interlamellar spacing. The eutectoid cooling rate most strongly affects the interlamellar spacing down to cooling rates of about -0.75 °C/s. At higher (i.e. lower value) cooling rates the interlamellar spacing is fairly constant. In addition to studying the interlamellar spacing, the graphite structure has also been analysed and evaluated concerning effects from the different casting variables.

  • 125. Svensson, I
    et al.
    Sjögren, Torsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    On modeling and simulation of mechanical properties of cast irons with different morphologies of graphite2009In: International Journal of Metalcasting, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 67-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 126.
    Svensson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Cumulative fatigue damage taking the threshold into account2001In: Proceedings of the international Conference on Fatigue in the Very High Cycle Regime, Vienna, Austria July 2-4, 2001, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Svensson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Second moment reliability evaluation vs. Monte Carlo simulations for weld fatigue strength2012In: Quality and Reliability Engineering International, ISSN 0748-8017, E-ISSN 1099-1638, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 887-896Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Svensson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    de Maré, Jaques
    On the choice of difference quotients for evaluating prediction intervals2008In: Measurement, Vol. 41, p. 755-762Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Svensson, Thomas
    et al.
    TS Ingenjörsstatistik, Sweden.
    Hannes, Dave
    Inspecta Technology AB, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Dahlberg, Magnus
    Inspecta Technology AB, Sweden.
    Anderson, Andreas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Three HCF models for strain fatigue life of welded pipes in austenitic stainless steel2015In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 101, p. 476-484p. 476-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue bending tests have been performed on welded pipes made from an austenitic stainless steel. Four types of loading were used: 1) constant amplitude, 2) a load expected at pressure vessel environment, 3) a Gaussian load, and 4) a specially constructed two-level block load. The twenty-eight test results are evaluated using three different models: 1) the classical Basquin equation neglecting the fatigue limit, 2) the ASME model with a fatigue limit, and 3) a model with continuously decreasing fatigue limit. No significant differences between the three models were found. Predictions based on constant amplitude results appear to be non-conservative.

  • 130.
    Svensson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Ekstrand-Tobin, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö (ETi ).
    Laboratory study to determine the critical moisture level for mould growth on building materials2012In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, Vol. 73, no 23, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The susceptibility of building materials to mould growth varies. Some are tolerant to high relative humidity in the ambient air without mould growth occurring, while others are less tolerant, and mould can grow in relative humidity as low as 75%. Within a building, constructions are exposed to different temperatures and relative humidities. To minimise the risk of microbial growth, building materials should be chosen that are tolerant to the expected conditions. In this study, the critical moisture levels for ten building materials with a range of expected critical moisture levels (wood-based materials, gypsum boards and inorganic boards) were evaluated. Samples of the building materials were inoculated with spores from six species of mould fungi (Eurotium herbariorum, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Stachybotrys chartarum) and incubated in test cabinets at specified temperature (10 _x0001_C and 22 _x0001_C) and relative humidity conditions (75e95%); growth of mould was analysed weekly for at least 12 weeks. One of the conclusions is that two similar building materials or products may have considerably different resistance to mould growth, and so the results from one type of building material cannot be applied to the other. Also, in order to compare results from different tests, it is important to use the same test method. It is also important to state the temperature at which the critical moisture level applies and how long the material is exposed to the temperature and relative humidity conditions during the test.

  • 131.
    Svensson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Optimal experimental design for estimating crack closure features2004In: International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 705-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a new method for determining crack closure properties of a material has been presented. the method is convenient for engineering purpose, since it does not include any observations of the closure, but only uses results from fatigue life tests. In this paper we introduce the concept of optimal experimental design and use it for finding an optimal test design for the closure determining method. The resulting design is shown to give the same precision as the design used in previous investigations using only 60% of teh number of tests. A new series of fatigue tests was made according to the new design and the closure model parameters were estimated.

  • 132. Sánchez, L
    et al.
    Ringsberg, J
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Effects of matrix cracking on the estimation of operational limits of FRP laminates.2012In: Proceedings of the ECCM15 conferenc, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Sánchez-Heres, Luis Felipe
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Influence of mechanical and probabilistic models on the reliability estimates of fibre-reinforced cross-ply laminates2014In: Structural Safety, Vol. 51, p. 35-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous methodologies for estimating the reliability of fibre-reinforced plastics have been published in the past few decades. Several of these methodologies use different mechanical and probabilistic models, each one based on a number of assumptions and approximations. The objective of this study is to assess common assumptions and approximations made on mechanical and probabilistic models used in reliability analyses of fibre-reinforced plastic laminates. The assessment consists of two parts: a theoretical overview of the models and their justification, and an investigation of the quantitative influence of the models on the reliability estimates of a group of fibre-reinforced cross-ply laminates. The reliability estimates are calculated through Monte Carlo simulations using different mechanical and probabilistic models. This study concludes that both mechanical and probabilistic models can significantly influence the reliabilityestimations. For the mechanical models, the factor with the greatest influence is the definition and modelling of matrix cracking. While, for the probabilistic models, the choice of probability distribution for modelling ply property variability has the greatest influence.

  • 134.
    Sánchez-Heres, Luis Felipe
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Study on the Possibility of Increasing the Maximum Allowable Stresses in Fibre-Reinforced Plastics2013In: Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 47, no 16, p. 1931-1941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the results of a study aimed at investigating the possibility of increasing the maximum allowable stresses in fibre-reinforced plastics compared to current practice. The study consisted of a comparison between the maximum allowable stresses of a group of cross-ply laminates, determined by deterministic analyses with safety and model factors as stated in design rules, and their probabilistic responses estimated with a fracture mechanics based model that accounted for material degradation. The results suggest that for the studied cases, the maximum allowable stresses do not provide the desired reliability; thus, their increase cannot be motivated. More importantly, the investigation shows that a better understanding of the effects of matrix cracks, and therefore, the maximum allowable crack density in a composite laminate, would lead to better and safer composite structures.

  • 135.
    Sällberg, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    Karlsson, Linda
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Hur djupa repor tål ett plaströr?2009In: Svenskt Vatten, no 6, p. 1-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 136.
    Sällström, Jan Henrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Rörcentrum.
    Thörnblom, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Göteborg (BMg).
    Andersson, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Bolin, Lisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Minskning av risken för skador på gasledningar genom djupförläggning och användandet av grävskydd (Reducing the risks for gas pipe damages through deep digging and the use of protective plates)2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report concerns part 2 of a project with the aim to propose protective measures for cables and pipelines for bio and natural gas. Part 1 was previously reported in SGC Rapport 2011:239. The wish is to be able to increase the pressure in the distribution networks from 4 to 10 bar without having to retain the safety distances valid for 80 bar pipelines. Polymer, concrete and steel protective plates, and deep digging are the physical measures considered. In part 1 a survey was made, in part by an enquiry, of the frequency, causes and consequences of incidents where pipelines were hit by excavators. Further, the rules and standards were investigated in countries where 7–10 bar pipelines are already in service. Here, in part 2 the perspective was widened to include, apart from gas pipelines, also all kinds of buried pipelines and cables. Now a visit to a supplier in France is reported, as well as an vestigation of costs and environmental impacts of the different protective measures, and an analysis of the strength of protective plates and of how they can best be positioned in the ground in relationship to the pipeline. The main result from the study visit to France was that new regulations mean that both new and existing pipelines have to be satisfactorily protected. For the physical point of view these plastic protective plates play an important part, and there are commercially available building systems of plates for which the strength and durability have been verified by tests. In the full scale experiments done in, e.g., France, it can be concluded that the plastic (HDPE) plates can wit stand high loads which are applied by use of a bucket with teeth mounted on an excavator. In some cases penetration of teeth occurs, but the plates will in that case either come up and alert the operator or stay in the ground and still protect the buried cable or pipeline. Concrete plate can also break, but the pieces are held together by the steel reinforcement. The analysis of costs and environmental impacts shows that plastic plates are preferred with regard to both aspects. In addition they have a very good signalling effect being produced in a bright yellow colour. Also deep digging can be effective taking into account costs and environmental aspects, but the risk reduction will according to literature be less than for the plates. Plastic plates are shown, in the literature surveyed, by full scale experiments to have at least as good, and sufficient, resistance to impact as concrete ones. This is verified by in-house numerical analyses. The finite element analyses show that the plastic plates deforms but do not break. The arching action of the backfill protects the buried pipe, and the stresses become only somewhat higher when using plastic plates instead of using stiff plates of steel or concrete. There may be unfavourable cases when the plastic plates cannot by themself stop forces and stresses passing down through soil layers acting on the buried pipe.

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  • 137.
    Waller, Erica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Child protective products - protective function of socket protectors, hob guards, locks and locking devices2004Report (Refereed)
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  • 138. Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Lundgren, Karin
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Implementation of experimental data in analyses of textile reinforced concrete structures2015In: FERRO-11 – 11th International Symposium on Ferrocement and 3rd ICTRC - International Conference on Textile Reinforced Concrete, 2015, , p. 149-158Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 139.
    Yang, S. -H.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Jonas W.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnson, Erland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Analysis of Mooring Lines for Wave Energy Converters: A Comparison of De-Coupled and Coupled Simulation Procedures2014In: ASME 2014 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, 2014, Vol. 4A, p. Paper No. OMAE2014-23377, pp. V04AT02A034Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mooring systems for wave energy converters (WEC) have to be designed to survive the cyclic loads and motions they are subjected to as a result of the wave load-WEC interaction and the motions of the WEC in the random elevation of the sea surface. The current study compares four simulation procedures for the analysis of fatigue of WEC moorings. The objective is to recommend the type of simulation procedure that can be used to make reliable fatigue design of WEC mooring systems at a reasonable computational effort. A cylindrical floating WEC with four spread mooring lines is chosen for case study. The mooring dynamics of the WEC is simulated using coupled and de-coupled approaches in the time domain. In total, four types of simulation procedures are compared using the commercial simulation software DNV DeepC and an in-house code MOODY. A parameter sensitivity analysis of environmental conditions, model and numerical parameters is presented. The results are compared with respect to fatigue damage calculated using a stress-based approach and the rainflow counting method. It is found that a de-coupled approach, using DNV DeepC to simulate the buoy's motions and cable response, is recommended since (i) it gives reliable results in terms of motion and stress responses of the buoy, mooring lines and accumulated fatigue damage, (ii) it requires the least model preparation by the engineer and the computation time is reasonable.

  • 140.
    Zandi Hanjari, Kamyab
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Structural analysis of concrete members with shear failure2012In: fib Symposium 2012: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community - Proceedings, 2012, , p. 165-168p. 165-168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the shear response in reinforced concrete and the influence of aggregate interlock using non-linear finite element analysis. The influence of aggregate types on shear response of concrete was studied with finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beams failed in shear. The influence of aggregate interlock was investigated using different smeared crack approaches, i.e. multi directional, fixed and rotating crack models. The results from analysis are verified with the result from mechanical testing with respect to stiffness, capacity and crack pattern.

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