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  • 101.
    Ryman, Christer
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Process integration as a tool for decision makers in the steel industry2011In: Iron and Steel Technology, 2011, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 61-69Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the most recent methods developed for simulation and optimization of integrated iron and steelmaking systems. The tools can be used to quickly manage changes and decisions in large-scale, complex industrial settings.

  • 102.
    Ryman, Christer
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Process integration as a tool for decision-makers in the steel industry2010In: AISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings, 2010, p. 1177-1186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process integration tools can be used for rational decision-making in the steel industry. This paper exemplifies how process integration models can be used for systematic analysis, design and balancing of steelmaking systems, and how they can be used for optimization of sustainability indicators such as energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and material utilization with a limited effort and time. The methodology can also be extended to include cost optimization.

  • 103.
    Ryman, Christer
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Grip, C.-E.
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Model based evaluation of sustainability indicators in integrated steelmaking: A Swedish case study2007In: AISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings, 2007, Vol. 2, p. 919-927Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex structure of the energy and mass flows in steelmaking has resulted in many attempts to describe the process dynamics by models. Swedish steelmaker SSAB Tunnplåt has long practical experience on how to use optimisation models for planning and decision-making related to energy and material utilisation. Sustainable development is development aimed at improving the quality of life for everyone, and is a factor of increasing importance in the industry. This paper exemplifies how optimisation models can be used for systematic analysis, design and balancing of steelmaking systems, and how it can be used for optimisation of sustainability indicators such as energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and material utilisation with a limited effort and time. The methodology can also be extended to include cost optimisation.

  • 104.
    Ryman, Christer
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Reduction of CO2 emissions from integrated steelmaking by optimised scrap strategies: Application of process integration models on the BF-BOF system2006In: ISIJ International, 2006, Vol. 46, no 12, p. 1752-1758Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In integrated steelmaking there are a number of means to reduce CO 2 emissions. One approach is to increase the metallic Fe input to the production system. A common belief is that scrap works as a CO2 diluent when introduced in iron ore based steelmaking. It is not necessarily so. Scrap is a key supplementary charge material in oxygen steelmaking converters, but scrap can also be utilised in ironmaking where it will decrease the use of reducing agents and with that also the specific CO2 emissions. By the use of a process integration model which basically includes the primary processes of cokemaking, sintering, ironmaking and oxygen steelmaking the overall influence of scrap input on CO2 emissions is demonstrated and commented. The influence of hot metal silicon content is elucidated by calculations with different material and process constraints. The results show that at moderate scrap rates, the reduction of CO2 emissions is favoured by increased scrap additions to the oxygen converter. When the scrap additions to the converter balances the actual heat capacity of the bath, other means to achieve an increased scrap melting capacity can be taken into account. This include combinations of scrap addition to the blast furnace, increased silicon content in tapped hot metal, and/or addition of Ferro-silicon combined with further scrap additions to the oxygen converter. Different strategies for CO2 emission reduction have to be suggested depending on if the objective is to minimise the site (direct) emissions or the global (indirect+direct) emissions. © 2006 ISIJ.

  • 105.
    Safavi Nick, Reza
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A mathematical model of the solid flow behavior in a real dimension blast furnace: Effects of the solid volume fraction on the velocity profile2013In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 84, no 10, p. 999-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical model based on the continuum mechanic concept has been developed to describe the profile of solid particles in a blast furnace with respect to the in-furnace conditions and characteristics, e.g., the shape and size of the deadman. The Navier-Stokes differential equation for multi-phase multi-dimensional space has been used to describe the behavior of existing phases. The equation has been modified to make it possible to describe the dual nature of the solid phase in the system by applying the concept of the solid surface stress to characterize the inter-granular surface interactions between particles. Since different phases co-exist in a blast furnace, the volume fraction plays an important role in a blast furnace. Therefore, the influence of three different packing densities (0.68, 0.71, and 0.74, respectively) on the profile of the flow in the upper part of a furnace down to the tuyeres level has been studied. It is shown that an increase in the volume fraction of the solid phase lead to a decrease in magnitude of the velocity. The decrease in the magnitude of the velocity due to an increase in the solid volume fraction will increase the resident time of the particles inside a blast furnace. In addition, it is shown that the solid phase velocity magnitude decreases from the throat to the belly of the furnace for the studied conditions. However, after belly the velocity magnitude increases. It is shown that the particle velocity increases in the upper part of the furnace up to the tuyeres level with a decrease in the packing density from 0.74 to 0.71 and 0.68 while all other parameters were keptconstant. The shrinkage in the size of the particles is not applied to the model. However it is plausible to say that an increase in the packing density of the bed decreases the velocity magnitude. This, in turn, increases the resident time of the particles.

  • 106.
    Safavi Nick, Reza
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tord Lage Ingemar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mathematical model of solid flow behavior in a real dimension blast furnace2013In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 979-987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical model based on the continuum mechanic concept has been developed to describe the profile of solid particles in an industrial scale blast furnace with respect to the in-furnace conditions and its characteristics such as the shape and size of the deadman. The Navier-Stokes differential equation for multi-phase multi-dimensional space has been used to describe the behavior of existing phases. The surface stress tensor has been defined as an extra term and added to the Navier-Stokes equation to describe the particle-particle interactions. This extra term in the Navier-Stokes equation behave as a breaking force when the particles are sliding down. It is shown that the particles change their profile from a V-shape to a W-shape due to the characteristics of the deadman. Moreover, the velocity magnitude is higher at the outer surface of the deadman for higher grid-slabs in this region than the near-wall cells. However, the situation changes as solid particles moving to even lower level of grid-slabs at the outer surface of the deadman in comparison to near-wall cells. It has also been shown that an increase in the magnitude of the effective pressure reduces the velocity magnitude of descending particles.

  • 107.
    Saiepour, M.
    et al.
    Swinden Technology Centre.
    Schofield, N.
    Swinden Technology Centre.
    Leden, Bo
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Niska, John
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Link, N.
    BFI Betriebforschungsinstitut GmbH.
    Unamuno, I.
    Sidenor I and D.
    Gomes, J.
    Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade (ISQ).
    Development and assessment of Predictive Emission Monitoring Systems (PEMS) models in the steel industry2006In: AISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings, 2006, Vol. 2, p. 1121-1132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 108.
    Sandberg, Erik
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Lennox, B.
    University of Manchester.
    Marjanovic, O.
    Perceptive Engineering Ltd..
    Smith, K.
    Perceptive Engineering Ltd..
    Multivariate process monitoring of EAFs2005In: Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 2005, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 221-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of a multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) to an EAF and the benefits that can be delivered was discussed. Several statistical methods for multivariate prediction were tested such as multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS). The results show that PLS was the most suitable of the tested methods and the prediction accuracy for tramp elements and alloying elements were satisfactory for online predictions and condition monitoring of scrap properties. Monitoring of short and long term variations in scrap quality was possible by analysis of the prediction errors and regression coefficients.

  • 109.
    Sandberg, J.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Wang, Chuan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Dahl, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lundgren, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    A new optimal solution space based method for increased resolution in energy system optimisation2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, p. 583-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a new method for increased time resolution in multi-period Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) optimisation is presented and applied to a district heating system. The proposed method facilitates the analysis of many time periods in multi period MILP optimisation projects. In the paper, a 365 time period model spanning 1. year developed with the novel method is compared to a 12 time period model developed with a more conventional methodology. The new method offers a significant decrease in the amount of input data for multi period models and facilitates changes to the analysed time span or resolution in time. In the application of the new method oil savings of 7% compared to the current operational strategy of the district heating system are revealed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 110.
    Sidestam, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Karlberg, Mats
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Niska, John
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Modeling of hydrogen diffusion in piled slabs2014In: Advanced Materials Research, Trans Tech Publications , 2014, Vol. 783-786, p. 2201-2206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen is harmful in steel which makes it important to reduce the hydrogen content. Piling slabs after casting gives a slow cooling which increases the diffusion out of the steel. Finite element modeling has been used to simulate this process where hydrogen solubility and phase dependent diffusivity can be taken into account. The hydrogen diffusion model is using STEELTEMP® 2D for the thermal analysis. Measurements of temperature and hydrogen content in piled slabs have been done and the calculations are in good agreement. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  • 111.
    Sidestam, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Karlberg, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Niska, John
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Modeling of hydrogen diffusion in piled slabs2014In: Materials Engineering Forum, Trans Tech Publications Ltd , 2014, Vol. 783-786, p. 2201-2206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen is harmful in steel which makes it important to reduce the hydrogen content. Piling slabs after casting gives a slow cooling which increases the diffusion out of the steel. Finite element modeling has been used to simulate this process where hydrogen solubility and phase dependent diffusivity can be taken into account. The hydrogen diffusion model is using STEELTEMP® 2D for the thermal analysis. Measurements of temperature and hydrogen content in piled slabs have been done and the calculations are in good agreement. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  • 112.
    Sikström, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Ökvist, L.S.
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Injection of BOF slag through blast furnace tuyere - Strials in an experimental blast furnace2002In: Proceedings - Ironmaking Conference, 2002, p. 257-266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The injection of BOF slag through blast furnace tuyeres was discussed. Quenching and dissection of the raceway area of the blast furnace was also shown. The development of a fluxed pellet with an even lower gangue content for attaining better blast furnace performance was also discussed.

  • 113.
    Skagestad, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Tel-Tek, Norway.
    Normann, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gardarsdottir, Stefania Osk
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy. RISE, Innventia.
    Eldrup, Nils H.
    HSN, Norway.
    Ali, Hassan
    HSN, Norway.
    Haugen, Hans Aksel
    Tel-Tek, Norway.
    Mathisen, Anette
    Tel-Tek, Norway.
    CO2stCap - Cutting Cost of CO2 Capture in Process Industry2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 114, p. 6303-6315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a presentation of the CO2stCap project to be undertaken in the four year project period (2015 - 2019). The project focuses on partial CO2 capture in process industry and how this can be applied to reduce cost. By performing techno-economic analyses, the optimal capture rate, including optimal design, application and configuration for different industry sources can be obtained. Cost estimation methods are used as a basis to identify and verify potentials for cost reduction when applying different options for implementation of partial CO2 capture. CO2stCap. Industries studied in this project are pulp & paper, steel, cement and metallurgical production of silicon for solar cells.

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  • 114.
    Smith, Tim
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Scanmety IV - How the emphasis has changed from sceanmer?2012In: Steel Times International, 2012, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 58-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 115.
    Song, Tengfei
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Jianliang
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Wang, Guangwei
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Wang, Haiyang
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Xu, Runsheng
    Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China.
    Pang, Qinghai
    University of Science and Technology Liaoning, China.
    Wang, Chuan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS. Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Effect of carbonization conditions on the property and structure of bamboo char for injection in blast furnace2019In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 442-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the effect of carbonization conditions on the bamboo, the relationship between carbonization parameter and physicochemical characteristics was studied. The results indicated that the volatile matter drastically decreased with the increase of carbonization temperature, while the fixed carbon and fuel ratio (fixed carbon/volatile matter) increased. Excellent linearity between the fuel ratio and carbonization temperature was obtained. The energy yield decreased gradually when rising the carbonization temperature, whereas the change of heating value was not obvious. A new calculation model of higher heating value (HHV) was developed, and it could be used to predict HHV of the bamboo char more precisely at temperatures above 300°C. The positive impact of functional groups, specific surface area as well as catalysis of alkali metal may contribute to the combustion of bamboo char. The results showed that there is a feasible operating condition for the transformation of bamboo into char with the carbonization parameter at 400°C for 30 min.

  • 116.
    Sundqvist, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Biermann, Maxinillian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Normann, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Nilsson, Lars
    SSAB Europe, Sweden.
    Evaluation of low and high level integration options for carbon capture at an integrated iron and steel mill2018In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 77, p. 27-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve climate goals, the iron and steel industry needs to find energy efficient and cost saving pathways for implementing CO2 capture. This paper evaluates two integration alternatives of excess-heat powered CO2 capture at an integrated iron and steel plant using the concept of partial capture. The two sources of CO2 investigated were the blast furnace gas (BFG) and flue gas from the combined heat and power (CHP) plant, representing a high and low level integration alternative, respectively. An amine capture system was simulated in Aspen Plus, and optimized for low energy requirement. To analyze the effects on the iron and steel system and the level of available excess heat, an in-house model was used containing interlinked energy and mass balances of each process step available. The results show that high level integration of CO2 capture gives a lower specific heat demand and improves the overall energy efficiency of the steel plant, resulting in more available heat. For this reason, it is possible to capture 3% more from BFG without any extensive alterations to the plant to recover excess heat. The total available excess heat at the plant will sustain capture of up to 46% of the steel plants total CO2 emissions, and beyond that point steam has to be imported.

  • 117.
    Sundqvist Ökvist, L.
    et al.
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Jansson, B.
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Hahlin, Pär.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Effect of coal properties, injection rate and O2 addition on BF conditions2006In: 4th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmarking, ICSTI 2006, Proceedings, 2006, p. 327-330Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A test with different coal grades, injection rates and methods for oxygen addition has been performed in the LKAB experimental BF (EBF). The EBF test results are compared with results achieved at BF No. 3 at SSAB Tunnplåt in Luleå. The BF conditions have been studied by evaluation of process data, vertical temperature measurements and under-burden probe data in terms of temperature and gas composition. The generation of fines has been studied in samples taken out by solid sampling in the shaft and in samples of BF flue dust and sludge. The samples have been analysed by tumbler tests, chemical analyses, XRD and light microscopy. The type of PC used turned out to have a great effect on the consumption of reducing agents as well as on the dust generation. Effects seen on the BF gas composition and alkali behaviour that affected the raw material behaviour could be seen when the low volatile coal was changed into a high volatile coal. The vertical temperature profile was greatly influenced by the PCR, which also had an effect on the dust generation.

  • 118.
    Sundqvist Ökvist, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lagerwall, Per
    SSAB, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Bo
    SSAB, Sweden.
    Orre, Joel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Brämming, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Lundgren, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Low CO2 ironmaking in the blast furnace2017In: Stahl und Eisen (1881), ISSN 0340-4803, Vol. 137, no 9, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The steel industry contributes to the global emissions of fossil CO2 by around 7 %, mainly related to coal and coke used in the BF. At the same time the BF is, and will be in a foreseeable future, the most energy efficient method for ore based hot metal production. Several R&D teams have investigated concepts to minimize CO2 emission as e. g. the ULCOS top gas recycling BF, high injection of H2, use of bio-mass products and HBI. In this paper these different options, and in some cases combination of these are analyzed relative the BF conditions and their possible impacts on fossil CO2 emission are compared.

  • 119.
    Sundqvist Őkvist, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Orre, Joel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Brämming, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Lundgren, M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Lagerwall, P.
    SSAB Europe, Sweden.
    Sundelin, B.
    SSAB Special Steels, Sweden.
    Blast furnace practice with low emission of carbon dioxide2018In: Chernye Metally, ISSN 0132-0890, no 7, p. 12-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HBI charging has also the potential to significantly reduce the CO2 emission at the BF but for using high amounts as e. g. 50% the production rate should preferably be increased. Lowed added amounts like 20% of HBI or some other scrap product can be used for lowering of CO2 emission and especially if a slight increase of the production rate is desired. The combined cases with lower amount added in terms of biomass products for injection together with top charging of charcoal as well as HBI addition was shown to give effects up to around 20–30%. This could be an advantage from BF operation point of view as the overall process is likely less influenced by such modification. Top gas recycling has been proven in experiments to give the savings that have been estimated in the modeled cases. As the top gas will be used for BF operation others as e. g. oil, NG, COG, biogas or biomass have to be used in heating furnaces, for district heating and power plants. Moreover, it will need installation of CO2 capture plant and enlargement of oxygen production capacity. By limiting the hot gas temperature to 850 ºC and using metallic heat exchangers the hot stoves are available for periods with conventional BF operation.

  • 120.
    Suopajärvi, Hannu
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mousa, Elsayed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Romar, Henrik
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Kemppainen, Antti
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Wang, Chuan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Phounglamcheik, Aekjuthon
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tuomikoski, Sari
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Norberg, Nicklas
    Future Eco North Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Andefors, Alf
    Future Eco North Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lassi, Ulla
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Fabritius, Timo
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Use of biomass in integrated steelmaking – Status quo, future needs and comparison to other low-CO2 steel production technologies2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 213, p. 384-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a fundamental and critical review of biomass application as a reducing agent and fuel in integrated steelmaking. The basis for the review is derived from the current process and product quality requirements that also biomass-derived fuels should fulfill. The availability and characteristics of different sources of biomass are discussed and suitable pretreatment technologies for their upgrading are evaluated. The existing literature concerning biomass application in bio-coke making, blast furnace injection, iron ore sintering and production of carbon composite agglomerates is reviewed and research gaps filled by providing insights and recommendations to the unresolved challenges. Several possibilities to integrate the production of biomass-based reducing agents with existing industrial infrastructures to lower the cost and increase the total efficiency are given. A comparison of technical challenges and CO2 emission reduction potential between biomass-based steelmaking and other emerging technologies to produce low-CO2 steel is made. 

  • 121.
    Suopajärvi, Hannu
    et al.
    Sapotech, Finland.
    Wang, Chuan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Mousa, Elsayed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Fabritius, Timo
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Life cycle CO2 emission reduction in nordic integrated steel plant by applying biomass-based reducing agents2018In: European Biomass Conf. Exhib. Proc., 2018, no 26thEUBCE, p. 1420-1424Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass in iron and steelmaking as a reducing agent or as a source of energy has been identified as one of the possible solutions to reduce the fossil CO2 emissions for this carbon intensive industry. Despite the growing interest, there is very little knowledge concerning the CO2 emission reduction potential of using biomass-based fuels in iron and steelmaking processes. In this research, a life cycle CO2 analysis is made to compare life cycle CO2 emission profile of steel production in a Nordic integrated steel plant to different biomass scenarios in which pulverized coal injection to the blast furnace is partially or completely replaced with biomass-derived reducing agents. The system boundary is defined from cradle-to-gate and life cycle inventory is made by combining traditional life cycle modeling practices with process modeling done by sophisticated BF energy and mass balance model.

  • 122.
    Svensson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Ramirez Lopez, Pavel Ernesto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Jalali, Pooria Nazem
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    One-way coupling of an advanced CFD multi-physics model to FEA for predicting stress-strain in the solidifying shell during continuous casting of steel2015In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Engineering and Engineering, Institute of Physics Publishing , 2015, Vol. 84, no 1, article id 012097Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main targets for Continuous Casting (CC) modelling is the actual prediction of defects during transient events. However, the majority of CC models are based on a statistical approach towards flow and powder performance, which is unable to capture the subtleties of small variations in casting conditions during real industrial operation or the combined effects of such changes leading eventually to defects. An advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model; which accounts for transient changes on lubrication during casting due to turbulent flow dynamics and mould oscillation has been presented on MCWASP XIV (Austria) to address these issues. The model has been successfully applied to the industrial environment to tackle typical problems such as lack of lubrication or unstable flows. However, a direct application to cracking had proven elusive. The present paper describes how results from this advanced CFD-CC model have been successfully coupled to structural Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for prediction of stress-strains as a function of irregular lubrication conditions in the mould. The main challenge for coupling was the extraction of the solidified shell from CFD calculations (carried out with a hybrid structured mesh) and creating a geometry by using iso-surfaces, re-meshing and mapping loads (e.g. temperature, pressure and external body forces), which served as input to mechanical stress-strain calculations. Preliminary results for CC of slabs show that the temperature distribution within the shell causes shrinkage and thermal deformation; which are in turn, the main source of stress. Results also show reasonable stress levels of 10-20 MPa in regions, where the shell is thin and exposed to large temperature gradients. Finally, predictions are in good agreement with prior works where stresses indicate compression at the slab surface, while tension is observed at the interior; generating a characteristic stress-strain state during solidification in CC.

  • 123.
    Tikka, J.
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Lindfors, N.-O.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Tornado process solves old problems2007In: Nordic Steel and Mining Review, ISSN 2840448, no 3, p. 134-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Van Dijk, Erik
    et al.
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Cobden, Paul
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Lukashuk, Liliana
    Johnson Matthey, UK.
    Van De Water, Leon
    Johnson Matthey, UK.
    Lundqvist, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Manzolini, Giancarlo
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Cormos, Calin Cristian
    Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Romania.
    Van Dijk, Camiel
    Kisuma Chemicals, The Netherlands.
    Mancuso, Luca
    Amec Foster Wheeler Italiana Srl, Italy.
    Johns, Jeremy
    Tata Steel UK Consulting Ltd, UK.
    Bellqvist, David
    SSAB, Sweden.
    Stepwise project: Sorption-enhanced water-gas shift technology to reduce carbon footprint in the iron and steel industry2018In: Johnson Matthey Technology Review, ISSN 2056-5135, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 395-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial processes contribute significantly to global carbon dioxide emissions, with iron and steel manufacturing alone responsible for 6% of the total figure. The STEPWISE project, funded through the European Horizon 2020 (H2020) Low Carbon Energy (LCE) programme under grant agreement number 640769, is looking at reducing CO2 emissions in the iron and steel making industries. At the heart of this project is the ECN technology called sorption-enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS), which is a solid sorption technology for CO2 capture from fuel gases such as blast furnace gas (BFG). This technology combines water-gas shift (WGS) in the WGS section with CO2/H2 separation steps in the SEWGS section. Scaling up of the SEWGS technology for CO2 capture from BFG and demonstrating it in an industrially relevant environment are the key objectives of the STEPWISE project, which are achieved by international collaboration between the project partners towards design, construction and operation of a pilot plant at Swerea Mefos, Luleå, Sweden, next to the SSAB steel manufacturing site.

  • 125.
    Van Dijk, H. A. J.
    et al.
    ECN, The Netherlands.
    Cobden, P. D.
    ECN, The Netherlands.
    Lundqvist, M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Cormos, C. C.
    Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Romania.
    Watson, M. J.
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Manzolini, G.
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Van Der Veer, S.
    Kisuma Chemicals, The Netherlands.
    Mancuso, L.
    Amec Foster Wheeler Italiana Srl, Italy.
    Johns, J.
    Tata Steel UK Consulting Ltd, UK.
    Sundelin, B.
    SSAB, Sweden.
    Cost Effective CO2 Reduction in the Iron & Steel Industry by Means of the SEWGS Technology: STEPWISE Project2017In: Energy Procedia, 2017, p. 6256-6265Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the STEPWISE project, the Sorption Enhanced Water-Gas Shift (SEWGS) technology for CO2 capture is brought to TRL6 by means of design, construction, operation and modelling a pilot installation in the Iron and Steel industry using Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). This advanced CO2 removal technology makes use of regenerative solid adsorbents. The STEPWISE project represents the essential demonstration step within the research, development and demonstration trajectory of the SEWGS technology. This project will further reduce the risks associated with scaling up the process.

  • 126.
    Viklund-White, Christina
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Ye, Guozhu
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Utilization and treatment of steelmaking slags1999In: Proceedings of the TMS Fall Extraction and Processing Conference, 1999, Vol. 1, p. 337-345Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of slags in steelmaking processes amounts to approximately 10 to 15 percent of the mass of metal produced. Landfilling of slag is increasingly regarded as unacceptable as it is a waste of resources as well as having the potential of leaching out heavy metals. In addition land for disposal is becoming increasingly scarce. Steelmaking slags have in many aspects good physical properties making them suitable for high quality demands such as concrete, asphalt layers and waterway construction. However, the technical quality and environmental characteristics of the slags are not always adequate and can sometimes limit their use. Modification of the properties of the slag may therefore be necessary. The article discusses methods that can be used for treatment of steelmaking slags, as well as various applications where slags of this kind are suitable. The slag projects that have been carried out at MEFOS in the recent years will also be highlighted. These include: - Stabilization of steelmaking slags by metallurgical treatment - Reduction of steelmaking slags for metal recovery by the IPBM process using a DC-furnace with a hollow electrode.

  • 127.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Bellqvist, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Nilsson, Leif
    SSAB EMEA, Sweden.
    Ivashechkin, Pavel
    VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Germany.
    Reimer, Veronika
    Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH, Germany.
    Rato, Ricardo
    ISQ, Portugal.
    Guillon, Christelle
    Arcelor Mittal Maizières, France.
    Weber, Valentine
    Arcelor Mittal Maizières, France.
    Arribas, Juan Jose
    Arcelor Mittal, Spain.
    Techno-economic assessment of recovery and reuse of low temperature heat (T<350°C) in the steel industry by means of process integration2014In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2014, Vol. 61, p. 2188-2191Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a techno-economic evaluation of various options for recovery and reuse of low temperature heat (LTH) with temperatures below 350&deg;C. A process integration approach has been applied to illustrate the investment strategies for a typical European integrated steel plant towards positive energy and environmental effects. The modelling results indicate a CO2 reduction potential of 0.44-1.80% of the total CO2 emissions by recovering and reuse of LTH from the flue gas in various process units. The pay-back time depends on reuse pathways and waste heat temperature, varying from 0.5 to 7.6 years. The results are only valid for the simulated generic site. For the results implementation at real steel plants, local boundary conditions should be considered.

  • 128.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Brämming, Mats
    SSAB EMEA, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Numerical model of scrap blending in BOF with simultaneous consideration of steel quality, production cost, and energy use2013In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 84, no 4, p. 387-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At its integrated steel plant in Luleå, SSAB EMEA produces high strength steel via two basic oxygen furnaces (BOFs), type LD/LBE. The BOFs are charged with a mix of hot metal, scrap, and slag formers. The scrap has several functions, for example, as coolant to balance excess heat, and it contributes to high steel production rate and decreased CO2 emission. The optimal scrap to hot metal ratio is influenced by several factors, for example, the excess heat generated in the BOF versus target value of tapping temperature, content of contamination elements versus contents allowed in the steel, possible use of alloys in scrap to decrease the need of alloy addition and the scrap price versus the production cost of hot metal. The first two factors also affect the maximum amount of scrap to be charged. Furthermore, the available scrap exists as several types with different composition, properties, size, and price. For most scrap types there are also uncertainties in composition, which has to be considered. An optimization model has been further developed in combination with some statistic analysis techniques. The present work is focusing on the possibility to use the model as a tool to optimize and control raw material/scrap blending into the BOFs. On the basis of the statistical analysis technique, the scrap sorting in the model will be described, as well as development and introduction of an extended BOF sub-model. This model includes a scrap sorting function and a response on deviations in steel quality. Real production data is used to identify steel quality parameters with consideration of different combination of elements, for example, S, Cr, Ni, and Cu. The possible solutions with simultaneous consideration of steel quality, energy consumption and production cost are presented.

  • 129.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lövgren, Jonas
    SSAB EMEA, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Leif
    SSAB EMEA, Sweden.
    Mellin, Pelle
    KTH Royal Institue of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH Royal Institue of Technology, Sweden.
    Salman, Hassan
    Sveaskog, Sweden.
    Hultgren, Anders
    SCA Energy, Sweden.
    Injection of solid biomass products into the blast furnace and its potential effects on an integrated steel plant2014In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2014, Vol. 61, p. 2184-2187Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is to investigate different types of biomass products' injection into the blast furnace (BF) to replace pulverized coal injection (PCI). The biomass products covered in the study are charcoal, torrefied material and wood pellets on the basis of Swedish forests. The modelling work has been performed in a specialized BF model. The modelling results show that charcoal has the significant effects on the BF operation. PCI can be replaced fully by charcoal, and only limited amount of torrefied material and wood pellets can be injected into BF. For the studied BF, the annual CO2 emission reduction potential from the replaced amount of PCI when injecting charcoal, torrefied material and wood pellets are about 1140 kton, 260 kton and 230 kton, respectively. In addition, a possible energy saving can be achieved for charcoal injection. A slightly higher P content in the hot metal may occur when injecting torrefied material.

  • 130.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    MEFOS - Metallurgical Research Institute AB.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Ryman, Christer
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Grip, C.-E.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Johnsson, Andreas
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Engdahl, J.
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    A model on CO2 emission reduction in integrated steelmaking by optimization methods2008In: International Journal of Energy Research, 2008, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 1092-1106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel industry is a large energy user in the manufacturing sector. Carbon dioxide from the steel industry accounts for about 5-7% of the total anthropogenic CO2 emission. Concerns about energy consumption and climate change have been growing on the sustainability agenda of the steel industry. The CO2 emission will be heavily influenced with increasing steel production in the world. It is of great interest to evaluate and decrease the specific CO2 emission and to find out feasible solutions for its reduction. In this work, a process integration method focusing on the integrated steel plant system has been applied. In this paper, an optimization model, which can be used to evaluate CO2 emission for the integrated steel plant system, is presented. Two application cases of analysing CO2 emission reduction possibilities are included in the paper. Furthermore, the possibility to apply the model for a specific integrated steel plant has been discussed. The research work on the optimization of energy and CO2 emission has shown that it is possible to create a combined optimization tool that is powerful to assess the system performance from several aspects for the steel plant. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 131.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Mellin, P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, L.
    SSAB Europe Luleå, Sweden.
    Lövgren, J.
    SSAB Europe Luleå, Sweden.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Injecting different types of biomass products to the blast furnace and their impacts on the CO2 emission reduction2015In: AISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings, Association for Iron and Steel Technology, AISTECH , 2015, Vol. 1, p. 1525-1535Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years more research has been focusing on utilizing biomass in the blast furnaces (BFs). One driving force is linked to the climate change mitigation, i.e. to reduce CO2 emission from fossil reducing agents or fuels, by using biomass. The amounts of biomass that could be utilized in BF is limited by different parameters, such as metallurgical properties of reducing agents, fuel properties such as volatile content, fixed carbon and oxygen content, ash chemistry (S, Na2O, K2O, etc.). In this paper, different types of biomass products in the form of solid, liquid and gas are investigated as injectants to the blast furnace. The modelling work has been done for a BF from a Nordic country. The possible amounts of injected biomass products are presented. With the replacement ratios of pulverized coal (PC), the potential CO2emission reduction when injecting different biomass products is quantified. In addition, the strategy of using biomass at the studied iron-making plant is discussed. AISTech 2015 Proceedings © 2015 by AIST.

  • 132.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS.
    Mellin, Pelle
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lövgren, Jonas
    SSAB Europe, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Leif
    SSAB Europe, Sweden.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Salman, Hassan
    Sveaskog, Sweden.
    Hultgren, Anders
    SCA Energy, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Swerea MEFOS. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Biomass as blast furnace injectant - Considering availability, pretreatment and deployment in the Swedish steel industry2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 102, p. 217-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated and modeled the injection of biomass into blast furnaces (BF), in place of pulverized coal (PC) from fossil sources. This is the easiest way to reduce CO2 emissions, beyond efficiency-improvements. The considered biomass is either pelletized, torrefied or pyrolyzed. It gives us three cases where we have calculated the maximum replacement ratio for each. It was found that charcoal from pyrolysis can fully replace PC, while torrefied material and pelletized wood can replace 22.8% and 20.0% respectively, by weight. Our energy and mass balance model (MASMOD), with metallurgical sub-models for each zone, further indicates that (1) more Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) will be generated resulting in reduced fuel consumption in an integrated plant, (2) lower need of limestone can be expected, (3) lower amount of generated slag as well, and (4) reduced fuel consumption for heating the hot blast is anticipated. Overall, substantial energy savings are possible, which is one of the main findings in this paper. Due to the high usage of PC in Sweden, large amounts of biomass is required if full substitution by charcoal is pursued (6.19 TWh/y). But according to our study, it is likely available in the long term for the blast furnace designated M3 (located in Luleå). Finally, over a year with almost fully used production capacity (2008 used as reference), a 28.1% reduction in on-site emissions is possible by using charcoal. Torrefied material and wood pellets can reduce the emissions by 6.4% and 5.7% respectively. The complete replacement of PC in BF M3 can reduce 17.3% of the total emissions from the Swedish steel industry.

  • 133.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Nordgren, Samuel
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Lindblom, B.
    Savonen, S.
    Hansson, R.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Integrated conceptual design of heating system at a Swedish mining company2009In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, Italian Association of Chemical Engineering - AIDIC , 2009, Vol. 18, p. 129-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LKAB Malmberget is a Swedish mining site located at Malmberget, Sweden. Seven boiler centers are located on north part of Malmberget. There are no connections in between these boiler centers, meaning that it is a decentralized heating system. The heat generated is to heat up buildings and for mine ventilation mainly during the cold periods. The heat is mainly provided from electric and oil boilers. However, most boilers under use are over 20 years old, and it is time to retrofit the boiler system and infrastructure. The purpose of this work is to design and optimize the heating system by the integrated concept. An optimization model based on the mixed integer linear programming (MlLP) has been developed to minimize the total heat production cost, including operation cost and investment cost. The model can be used to calculate how a given heat demand can be satisfied at the lowest possible cost. Four different technical options have been considered in a new centralized heating system. On the basis of data input and assumptions, modeling results indicate that a lower cost could be achieved when a waste heat recovery boiler is installed at the old pelletization plant to recover sensible heat from flue gas. This will lead to a remarkable electricity saving (around 70% saving) compared to the reference case. It has also been noticed that in the optimized cases, oil boilers should not be operated due to a higher price compared to electricity, and by estimation an annual reduction of 3000 ton CO2 and 4.5 ton NOx could be achieved. Copyright © 2009. AIDIC Servizi S. r. l.

  • 134.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Nordgren, Samuel
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Lindblom, B.
    LKAB.
    Savonen, S.
    LKAB.
    Hedpalm, T.
    LKAB.
    Larsson, Miakel
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Hansson, R.
    LKAB.
    Conceptual design of an integrated heating system at LKAB Malmberget with consideration of social-environmental damage costs2010In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, no 9, p. 944-951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LKAB Malmberget is a Swedish mining site located at Malmberget, Sweden. Seven boiler centers are located in the north part of Malmberget. There are no connections in between these boiler centers, meaning that it is a decentralized heating system. The heat generated is used to heat up buildings and for mine ventilation air mainly during the cold periods. The heat is mainly provided from electric and oil boilers. However, most boilers under use are over 20 years old, and it is time to retrofit the boiler system and infrastructure. The purpose of this work is to design and optimize the heating system by introducing an integrated concept to minimize the heat production cost. An optimization model based on the mixed integer linear programming (MILP) has been developed. Several technical options have been considered in a new centralized heating system. The optimization principle is based on two kinds of perspectives: current price and external costs. With consideration of environmental and health damage from society concerns point of view, instead of environmental taxes in the current price perspective, the monetary values of externalities due to pollutants such as CO2, NOx, SO2 and particulates emitted from the heating system are included. On the basis of data input and assumptions, modeling results indicate that a lower cost could be achieved when a waste heat recovery boiler is installed at the older pelletization plant to recover sensible heat from flue gas. This technical option is the best solution or at least contributes to the best solution in all optimization results. Including the externality cost is useful for making fair evaluation of the social-environmental impacts of the alternatives. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 135.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Olsson, Erik T.
    SSAB EMEA Oxelösund, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    SSAB EMEA Oxelösund, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Bo
    AGA AB, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Practical and research experiences on hot stoves' operation at SSAB EMEA no. 4 blast furnace2014In: AISTech - Iron and Steel Technology Conference Proceedings, Association for Iron and Steel Technology, AISTECH , 2014, Vol. 1, p. 873-882Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 136.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Perander, J.
    Rautaruukki Oyj.
    Tech-economical analysis of waste heat recovery and utilization at Ruukki metals, Raahe steelworks2010In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation, and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2010, Aabo Akademi University , 2010, Vol. 4, p. 115-122Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel industry is one of energy-intensive industries. Recovery and utilization of waste heat is important for reduction of energy consumption in the steel industry. Waste heat occurs in every plant of iron and steel works in the form of gases, liquid and solid. In this work, the waste heat considered is the flue gases from various process units. The studied steel works is Raahe steelworks (Ruukki), which is a fully integrated steel plant. The major process units to generate flue gases at Ruukki are batteries at coking plant, cowper at iron making plant and heat furnaces at the rolling mill. The flue gas temperatures are in the range of 230 ~ 550 °C, and the flow rates are in the range of 25000 ~ 127000 Nm3/hour at each stack. The potential thermal energy recovered at each unit is calculated. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technique has been applied for electricity generation from the recovered waste heat. Some economical parameters such as net present value (NPV), Internal return rate (IRR) and pay-back time are presented to show projects' economical feasibility. Sensitivity analysis of some key influence factors, such as equipment cost, electricity price and discount rate, etc. has been made. Furthermore, a concept of optimized use of waste heat from an integrated point of view has been studied, in which the power plant is also covered. Analysis and discussions on how to utilize waste heat to produce steam or electricity towards a more economical solution are presented.

  • 137.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Ryman, Crister
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Dahl, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Potential CO2 emission reduction for BF-BOF steelmaking based on optimised use of ferrous burden materials2009In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 29-38Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, the blast furnace (BF) to basic oxygen furnace (BOF) is the dominant steel production route in the steel industry. The direct CO2 emission in this process system exceeds 1 t of CO2/t of crude steel produced. Different ferrous burden materials, for instance iron ore and scrap, can be used in various proportions in this steelmaking route. This paper analyses how energy use, conversion costs, and CO2 emissions can be influenced by the use of different ferrous burden materials when producing crude steel. An optimisation mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model has been applied for analysis. By the use of the optimisation model, it is possible to highlight some issues of special importance, such as best practices to increase production at low conversion cost, or best practices to increase production at low CO2 emission. It is found out that more benefits will be gained when using the system-oriented analysis to the steelmaking process. Furthermore, a comprehensive view of the trade-offs between the objectives of Cost and CO2 can provide useful information for decision makers to generate strategies under the future emission trading. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 138.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Sandberg, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Analysis of oxygen enrichment and its potential influences on the energy system in an integrated steel plant using a new solution space based optimization approach2011In: Chemical Engineering Transactions, Italian Association of Chemical Engineering - AIDIC , 2011, Vol. 25, p. 87-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With oxygen enrichment in hot stoves the high calorific coke oven gas can be saved due to the possibility of using lower calorific gases which enables replacement of other imported fuels such as oil or LPG. The application of increased oxygen use in hot stoves or increased O2 in blast, will also potentially lead to lower coke rate. Central to the performance in system optimisation is the ability to analyse and properly describe the system variations. The demand for coke oven gas is depending on both internal operation logistics but it also has outdoor temperature dependence through a heat and power plant producing district heat to the community. An analysis of the influence of increased oxygen enrichment on the entire energy system has been carried out by use of an optimization model. A method of achieving a high time resolution in MILP optimisation is applied in the analysis. Different strategies have been suggested for minimum energy consumption at the studied steel plant and the nearby CHP plant. Copyright © 2011, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.

  • 139.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS. Åbo Akademi University,Finland ; Luleå University of Technology Sweden .
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Schlimbach, Jurgen
    DK Recycling und Roheisen GmbH, Germany.
    Modelling and Analysis of Oxygen Enrichment to Hot Stoves2017In: Energy Procedia, 2017, p. 5128-5133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents some research work on applying the oxygen enrichment technique to hot stoves that was carried out in one European RFCS project. In the presented work, both theoretical and practical work was studied. A dynamic model was used to investigate the effects of oxygen enrichment on hot stoves' performance under the condition that only blast furnace gas was used as the fuel gas. The modelling results showed that SOE will enhance the combustion process in hot stoves by increasing hot blast temperature and shortening the on-gas time, which were further verified by industrial trials performed at an iron-making plant. In addition, CFD modelling was performed by simulating different oxygen levels and lance positions at the burner to avoid the hot spot formation during the combustion.

  • 140.
    Wang, Guangwei
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Jianliang
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Chang, Weiwei
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Li, Rongpeng
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Li, Yanjiang
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Wang, Chuan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS. Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Structural features and gasification reactivity of biomass chars pyrolyzed in different atmospheres at high temperature2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 147, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gasification properties of biomass chars obtained under different conditions by using non-isotherm thermogravimetric method. The physical and chemical structure features were also systematically studied. It shows that the gasification reactivities decrease with increasing pyrolysis temperature, and the gasification reactivities for the chars obtained under different atmosphere conditions are in the order of N2 char &gt; CO2 char &gt; CO char &gt; H2 char. The gasification reactivities of the chars are mostly depend on the carbonaceous structure. Three nth-order represented gas-solid models, i.e. Random pore model (RPM), Unreaction core model (URCM) and Volumetric model (VM), were used to describe the reactive behaviors, and it indicates that the RPM is more suitable than the other two models.

  • 141.
    Wang, Pang
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Wang, Guaweng
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Jianliang
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China;University of Queensland, Australia.
    Lee, Jui Yuan
    National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan.
    Li, Yanjiang
    University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
    Wang, Chuan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS. Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Co-combustion characteristics and kinetic study of anthracite coal and palm kernel shell char2018In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 143, p. 736-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to evaluate the combustion characteristics of Yangquan anthracite coal (YQ), palm kernel shell char (PC) and their blends with different mass ratios. The physical and chemical characteristics of YQ and PC were also studied systematically. The investigation shows that, compared to YQ, PC was more reactive due to the higher content of the alkali metal oxides, lower ordering degree and more developed porous structures. The combustion reactivity of YQ can be improved effectively by mixing with PC, and a synergetic effect between YQ and PC can be observed. The experimental results of the thermal degradation experiments were represented with both the random pore model (RPM) and the volume model (VM), and the activation energies and pre-exponential factors were further determined. The performance of the RPM model is slightly better than that of the VM model. The activation energies of all samples are in the range of 90.2–121.8 kJ/mol, where the lowest value of 90.2 kJ/mol is for the sample of PC at 60% mass ratio.

  • 142.
    Wang, Qi
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology, China.
    Wang, Guangwei
    University of Science and Technology, China.
    Zhang, Jianliang
    University of Science and Technology, China ; University of Queensland, Australia.
    Lee, Jui-Yuan
    National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan.
    Wang, Haiyang
    University of Science and Technology, China.
    Wang, Chuan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Combustion behaviors and kinetics analysis of coal, biomass and plastic2018In: Thermochimica Acta, ISSN 0040-6031, E-ISSN 1872-762X, Vol. 669, p. 140-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, thermal analysis method (TGA) was adopted to describe the combustion behavior of bituminous coal(GC), anthracite(LC), biomass(PS) and plastic(PVC).The structure characteristics of these samples were carried out using Raman spectroscope followed by peak deconvolution and data analysis. The kinetic parameters and combustion reaction mechanism were obtained by fitting experimental data with the random nucleation nuclei growth model (RNGM) and volume model (VM) in order to find out the kinetics characteristics responsible for the combustion of the samples. The results indicate that significant difference between combustion process of these samples are mainly attributed to their differences structures, the combustion reactivity of PS is better than GC duo to the catalysis of alkali matter in biomass ash. RNGM model is better than VM model for simulating the combustion process, and TRNGM model plays a good performance in depicting the combustion process of PVC with three reaction stages.

  • 143.
    Watakabe, Shirou
    et al.
    JFE Steel Corporation, Japan.
    Miyagawa, Kazuya
    Kobe Steel, Japan.
    Matsuzaki, Shinroku
    Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Japan.
    Inada, Takanobu
    Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Japan.
    Tomita, Yukio
    Nisshin Steel Company, Japan.
    Saito, K.
    Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Japan.
    Osame, Masao
    JFE Steel Corporation, Japan.
    Sikström, Peter
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, MEFOS.
    Operation trial of hydrogenous gas injection of COURSE50 project at an experimental blast furnace2013In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 53, no 12, p. 2065-2071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COURSE50 (CO2 ultimate reduction in steelmaking process by innovative technology for Cool Earth 50) carried out COG and reformed COG (RCOG) injection operation trials at LKAB's experimental blast furnace in Luleå in cooperation with LKAB and Swerea MEFOS. Operation trials were successfully carried out. Input of C in both COG and RCOG injection periods decreased comparing the base period, because ofincrease in H2 reduction instead of C direct reduction that is a huge endothermic reaction. However poor penetration depth of injected gas from shaft tuyere made furnace efficiency worse. Hot top gas injection increased temperature of top gas and upper part of the furnace. Efficiency of hot top gas injection was not clear as sinter degradation did not occur in the base period.

  • 144.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Scanmet III - 3rd international conference on process development in iron and steelmaking2009In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 80, no 6, p. 377-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Yan, J.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ryman, Christer
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Grip, C.-E.
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Preface2006In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 115-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 146.
    Ye, Guozhu
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Characterisation and removal of halogens in the EAF dust and zinc oxide fume obtained from thermal treatment of EAF dust2000In: Proceedings of the TMS Fall Extraction and Processing Conference, 2000, p. 271-280Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most essential problems associated with the treatment of EAF dust is its high content of halogens. For most thermal processes for zinc recovery, such as the plasma processes with a zinc condenser, the halides in the gas stream will form a dross phase that results in a low zinc yield. For those with zinc oxide as main product, such as Waelz oxides, the high halogen content in the product implies a great degradation of the product quality and the product can only be sold at a low price. Further processing of zinc oxide with high halogen content either by pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical processes will also result in process problems. This paper will review the pre- and post-treatment alternatives for halogen removal based on the comprehensive characterization work that has been carried out at MEFOS and the preliminary experimental results. The experimental results show that chlorine and fluorine content could be reduced to 450 ppm and 50 ppm respectively by selective sulfation, and to about 200 ppm by soda leaching. Selective sulfation of zinc oxide in the EAF dust will also be discussed.

  • 147.
    Ye, Guozhu
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Innovative environmental technologies for iron and steel industry - Experience of Swerea MEFOS2010In: SEAISI Quarterly (South East Asia Iron and Steel Institute), ISSN 1295721, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steelmaking industry generate annually huge amount of by-products and wastes in terms of slag, dust, sludge, mill scale etc. In addition to these our industry also consumes a lot of energy and release a targe quantity of green house gases such as C02 and NO*. A large number of environmental technologies have been pilot tested at Swerea MEFOS in the past 20 years. These include the long term projects for C0 2-reduction and energy saving technologies, control of dioxin emission and various pyro-metallurgical processes for treatment of wastes and by-products generated by the steel industry. This paper will highlight some of the pilot and demonstration projects carried out at and by Swerea MEFOS. These projects include the IPBM-process, for recovery of valuable metals such as V, Cr and Zn from slag and dusts, the REZIN concept for zinc recovery from EAF dust, Preheating and surface cleaning of scrap using ASR. The experiences at Swerea MEFOS have shown that pilot testing is one of the most essential parts of the development of advanced green technologies for the steel industry.

  • 148.
    Ye, Guozhu
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Burström, Eric
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Phase relations in the system of ZnO-Fe2O3-CaO and its importance for elimination of zinc ferrite in eaf dust2005In: REWAS'04 - Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology, 2005, p. 2103-2111Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD) is a hazardous waste from the steel industry. It has a high content of both Fe2O3 and ZnO. Much of ZnO in EAFD exists as ZnOFe2O3 and the rest as free ZnO. For most of the hydrometallurgical processes for EAFD treatment that have been proposed and tested only free ZnO could be recovered. This means low yield of Zn-recovery. Based on detailed studies of the phase relations in the system of ZnO-Fe2O3-CaO, a process concept for elimination of ZnOFe2O3 by CaO treatment has been proposed and preliminary tested in small scale. It has been shown that by proper CaO-control most of the ZnO in EAFD could be transferred to free ZnO. XRD and SEM investigations on leaching residue reveal that all converted free ZnO could be recovered and the leaching residue consists mainly of Ca2Fe 2O5, which is a good slag former for steelmaking processes.

  • 149.
    Ye, Guozhu
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Burström, Eric
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Recovery of zinc from EAF dust - Pilot experiences at MEFOS2008In: Proceedings of the 2008 Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology, REWAS 2008, 2008, p. 577-582Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite of numerous solutions for recovery of zinc from EAF dust have been suggested and tested in laboratory scale over the last three decades, Waelz kiln process is still the most dominating process for treatment of EAF dust. Few of the proposed alternative methods have gone beyond the laboratory tests. This paper will give you insights to some of the concepts that have been pilot tested at MEFOS. The innovative aspects of these concepts will be shown and the major results will be highlighted. These include the following concepts: - Production of a crude zinc oxide product with low halide content for zinc electrowinning using a DC furnace with hollow electrode - Production of a bypass filter dust containing more than 50%ZnO by injection of EAF dust to the electric arc furnace during refining combined with a bypass filter system - Elimination of zinc ferrite by CaO treatment for electrowinning with EZINEX process - Selective reduction of iron oxide in zinc ferrite for simultaneous recovery of ZnO and metallic iron.

  • 150.
    Ye, Guozhu
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Burström, Eric
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS.
    Maccagni, M.
    Engitec Srl.
    Bianco, L.
    Ferriere Nord SpA.
    Stripple, H.
    IVL (Swedish Environmental Reserach Institute Ltd).
    Elimination of zinc ferrite for hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc from EAF dust2006In: 2006 TMS Fall Extraction and Processing Division: Sohn International Symposium, 2006, Vol. 6, p. 397-411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrometallurgical zinc recovery from EAF dust has several advantages compared to pyrometallurgical alternatives in terms of low temperature operation, lower energy consumption and higher flexibility. Many hydrometallurgical processes have been suggested and tested over the years without success. The main reasons are: - Low leaching yield of zinc due to the fact that a high fraction of ZnO in the EAF dust exists in the zinc ferrite structure which makes selective leaching of ZnO not possible - Many of the proposals could not handle the halide in the EAF dust To eliminate these two disadvantages, two zinc ferrite elimination concepts have been tested and developed in the REZIN project of the EU 5 th Framework Programme. The two concepts for zinc ferrite elimination could be shortly described by the following chemical reactions: A. ZnOFe 2O 3 + 2CaO = Ca 2Fe 2O 5 + ZnO free B. ZnOFe 2O 3 + C = Fe met + CO/CO 2 + ZnO free These two concepts were investigated in details in combination with a subsequent leaching step using the novel EZINC process for recovery of zinc from EAF dust. Leaching of pretreated samples has shown great increases of a zinc recovery yield. A zinc recovery of over 90 % could be reached, as compared to about 50 % for no-pretreated samples. This paper will describe the two concepts in details.

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