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  • 101.
    Frennberg, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Kärn, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Interferometer för mätning av långa passbitar.1992Report (Refereed)
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  • 102. Gevorgian, S
    et al.
    Pendrill, L
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Characterisation of VCSELs for applications in industrial microwave photonic devices1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 103.
    Glon, F.
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden; ENISE, France.
    Flys, Olena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Lööf, P.- J.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Rosen, Bengt Göran
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    3D SEM for surface topography quantification - A case study on dental surfaces2014In: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, Met and Props 2013, 2014, Vol. 483, p. 12026article id 012026Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    3D analysis of surface topography is becoming a more used tool for industry and research. New ISO standards are being launched to assist in quantifying engineering surfaces. The traditional optical measuring instrumentation used for 3D surface characterization has been optical interferometers and confocal based instrumentation. However, the resolution here is limited in the lateral dimension to the wavelength of visible light to about 500 nm. The great advantage using the SEM for topography measurements is the high flexibility to zoom from low magnifications and locating interesting areas to high magnification of down to nanometer large surface features within seconds. This paper presents surface characterization of dental implant micro topography. 3D topography data was created from SEM images using commercial photogrammetric software. A coherence scanning interferometer was used for reference measurements to compare with the 3D SEM measurements on relocated areas. As a result of this study, measurements emphasizes that the correlation between the accepted CSI measurements and the new technology represented by photogrammetry based on SEM images for many areal characterization parameters are around or less than 20%. The importance of selecting sampling and parameter sensitivity to varying sampling is high-lighted. Future work includes a broader study of limitations of the photogrammetry technique on certified micro-geometries and more application surfaces at different scales.

  • 104.
    Gradinarsky, LP
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Johansson, J
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Climate monitoring using GPS2002In: Physics and chemistry of the earth, Vol. 27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Gradinarsky, LP
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Johansson, Jan et al
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    GPS site testing at Chajantor in Chile2001In: Physics and chemistry of the earth, Vol. 26, p. 421-426Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 106.
    Graziani, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Elgered, Gunnar K.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Martellucci, Antonio
    European Space Agency, The Netherlands.
    Mercolino, Mattia
    European Space Agency, Germany.
    Tortora, Paolo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Assessment of ground-based microwave radiometry for calibration of atmospheric variability in spacecraft tracking2014In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 2634-2641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a suggested radio propagation experiment using a deep space antenna, accurate calibration of the propagation delay through the Earth's atmosphere is essential. One or two microwave radiometers can be used for this purpose. Differences in precise locations of the radiometer(s) and antenna to be calibrated leave a residual wet path delay value. We computed the Allan Standard Deviation (ASD) of this residual, as well as the one resulting from different pointing positions in the plane of the sky, by simulations. Pointing offsets, e.g., to avoid solar radiation into the radiometer beam, lead in general to an increased ASD. However, for many observation geometries a deliberate pointing offset can compensate for the location differences. In the case studied we found a reduction of the ASD with up to 45% compared to the ASD obtained for a zero pointing offset. The size of the calculated ASD depends strongly on the model parameters used, e.g., the turbulence strength parameter Cn 2, which has a significant natural variation over a year.

  • 107.
    Gunnarsson, Ove
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Calibration of PD-calibrators.1998Report (Refereed)
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  • 108.
    Gunnarsson, Ove et al
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Comparison EUROMET.EM-K8 of DC voltage ratio: results2005In: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 54, p. 575-579Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Gunnarsson, Ove et al
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Transport behavior of commercially available 100?W standard resistorsol.2001In: IEEE transactions on instrumentation and measurement, Vol. 50, p. 242-244Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Gunnarsson, Ove
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Thorén, Ingemar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Den svenska resistansenheten, resultatet av en internationell jämförelsemätning 1990/91.1991Report (Refereed)
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  • 111.
    Gupta, Mrigank
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Road Bumps/Humps and Human Body Response2009Report (Refereed)
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  • 112.
    Gutfelt, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Johansson, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Nyfeldt, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    13th Comparison between the Swedish national kilogram and SP principal standards for one kilogram2014Report (Refereed)
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  • 113.
    Haitjema, H
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Frennberg, Matz
    International comparison of roundness profiles with nanometric accuracy1996In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 67-73Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Hallbjörner, Paul
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Ying, Zhinong
    Håkansson, M
    Wingqvist, Claes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Anttila, Tommi
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Multipath Simulator for Mobile Terminal Antenna Characterisation2012In: IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, 2012, , p. 743-750Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 115.
    Hammerberg, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Grating cavity laser spectroscopy of molecular Iodine at 633 nm wavelength.1995Report (Refereed)
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  • 116.
    Hanning, Johanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Yhland, Klas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Sobis, Peter
    Omnisys Instruments AB, Sweden.
    Bryllert, Tomas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stake, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Single Flange 2-port Design For THz Integrated Circuit S-parameter Characterization2013In: 38th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz 2013, 2013, , p. 6665800article id 6665800Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A single flange 2-port TRL calibration and measurement setup for accurate THz S-parameter characterization of integrated membrane circuit devices is proposed. The proposed setup facilitates shorter access waveguides, which greatly improves the calibration uncertainty.

  • 117.
    Hanning, Johanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stenarson, Jörgen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Yhland, Klas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Sobis, Peter
    Omnisys Instruments AB, Sweden.
    Bryllert, Tomas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stake, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Single-Flange 2-Port TRL Calibration for Accurate THz S-Parameter Measurements of Waveguide Integrated Circuits2014In: IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, ISSN 2156-342X, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 582-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a single flange 2-port measurement setup for S-parameter characterization of waveguide integrated devices. The setup greatly reduces calibration and measurement uncertainty by eliminating vector network analyzer (VNA) extender cable movement and minimizing the effect of waveguide manufacturing tolerances. Change time of standards is also improved, reducing the influence of VNA drift on the uncertainty. A TRL calibration kit has been manufactured and measurements are demonstrated in WR-03 (220-325 GHz).

  • 118.
    Hanssen, James L.
    et al.
    US Naval Observatory, USA.
    Ekström, Christopher R.
    US Naval Observatory, USA.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Jaldehag, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Evaluation of time transfer units for time and frequency transfer in optical fibers utilizing a passive technique based on SONET/SDH2012In: 44th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting 2012, 2012, , p. 371-376p. 371-376Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time transfer method of using passive listening and detection of SDH frame headers in fiberoptical networks has been presented earlier. Previous results, using commercialized equipment and commercial fiber-links, have shown that time transfer with a precision of the order of a few nanoseconds is possible over links with network distances exceeding 1100 km. The motivation of the work has been to develop an alternative and complementary time transfer method using existing infrastructure and to make it accessible to regular users of time keeping equipment. All previous reported experimental results were performed by SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden in commercial data communication networks in Sweden and Finland. This paper will report on the recent results from an experimental fiber test network implemented at the U.S. Naval Observatory. The fiber network is in a loop-back configuration with the two node elements in the same rack. The fiber link that connects the nodes is in an environmental chamber that allows a means to apply controlled fiber length fluctuations to the link. The performance of the Time Transfer Unit (TTU) was evaluated in this setting. This will be the first independent evaluation of the TTU equipment.

  • 119.
    Hasic, Becir
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Utveckling och utvärdering av drivelektroniken till en optiskt baserad mikrovågsoscillator2003Report (Refereed)
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  • 120.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    LED som ersättning för spotlights2011In: Ceebel nyhetsbrev, Vol. 3, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 121.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    LED-lampans livslängd kan variera kraftigt2010In: Husbyggaren, Vol. 3, no 7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 122.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Robust tid i Sverige2013Report (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Henriksson, Nikolaj
    Jonasson, Viktoria
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Progress report on low flow measurement based on optical characterization of gas density in vacuum2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim to achieve a new primary standard for calibration of ultra-low gas flows (leaks) the research in determination of gas density using optical refractometry has progressed, resulting in an evaluation of the stability of the prototype and a refined theoretical analysis. Furthermore, a renewed literature search has revealed more relevant work and further knowledge is gained from these papers. The assembled prototype was known to be of proportions far from optimum, however the assumption that it would be sufficient to reach applicable results was too optimistic. The conclusion is to continue with the efforts, however with a new and improved prototype and an adjusted choice of mirror parameters, and this report summarizes the work as of spring 2010.

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  • 124.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Jaldehag, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Rieck, Carsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Bideberg, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Jaldehag, Kenneth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Time and Frequency Activities at SP2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The national Time and Frequency laboratory of Sweden is a part of SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden since 1995. The laboratory is responsible for maintaining the official realization of Swedish standard time and the dissemination of it within Sweden. The objectives of the laboratory include supporting and making it accessible to Swedish industry and authorities with accurate measures of Time and Frequency by instrument calibration, knowledge-transfer, time dissemination, research and development. Swedish standard time is regulated by law to follow UTC as achieved and maintained by the BIPM. The atomic clocks that are used to implement UTC(SP), the realization of UTC in Sweden, are located at five different sites and are reported to TAI using data from TWSTFT and GNSS links. The activities in the Time and Frequency laboratory at SP is presently undergoing an expansion, with the construction of a new additional secure site, the implementation of a distributed time scale and the participation in the Galileo time scale.

  • 125.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Olsson, Björn
    Så fick vi SP: s klocka att ticka i fibernätet2011In: ElektronikTidningen, no 3, p. 3-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sp Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut har tillsammans med Informasic utvecklat en ny teknik för överföring av tid via fiberoptiska nät. Tekniken har redan väckt intresse för sammankoppling av olika nationella tidsskalor, särskilt inom Europa där avstånden är korta och fiberlänkarna många.

  • 126.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Pérez-Millán, Pere
    Wiberg, Andreas
    Andrekson, Peter
    Andrés, Miguel V.
    Optical Demultiplexing of millimeter-wave subcarriers for wireless channel distribution employing dual wavelength FBGs2007In: Opt. Communications, Vol. 275, no 2, p. 335-343Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Pérez-Millán, Pere
    Wiberg, Andreas
    Cruz, José L
    Andrés, Miguel V.
    Dispersion induced effects of high-order optical sidebands in the performance of millimeter-wave fiber-optic links2006In: Microwave Opt Technol Lett., no 48, p. 1436-1441Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Wiberg, Andreas
    Andersson, Bengt-Erik
    Andrekson, Peter
    Nilsson, Mattias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Dispersion-Tolerant Millimeter-Wave Photonic Link Using Polarization-Dependent Modulation2007In: J. Lightwave Technol, Vol. 25, p. 2984-2991Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Wiberg, Andreas
    Pérez-Millán, Pere
    Andrés, Miguel V.
    Microwave-Photonic Frequency Multiplication Utilizing Optical Four-Wave Mixing and Fiber Bragg Gratings,2006In: Lightwave Technol, Vol. 24, p. 329-334Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Hessling, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    A novel method of estimating dynamic measurement errors (MST/221278/PAP/138046)2006In: Meas. Sci. Technol., Vol. 17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 131.
    Hessling, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Identification of Complex Models2014In: SIAM/ASA J. Uncertainty Quantification, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 717-44Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Hessling, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Propagation of dynamic measurement uncertainty2011In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 105105-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Hessling, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    Eichstädt, S
    Elster, C
    Esward, T J
    Deconvolution filters for the analysis of dynamic measurment processs: a tutorial2010In: Metrologia, Vol. 47, p. 522-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 134.
    Hjelmgren, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Dynamic measurement of force - A literature survey2002Report (Refereed)
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  • 135.
    Hjelmgren, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Dynamic measurement of pressure. - A literature survey2002Report (Refereed)
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  • 136.
    Hjelmgren, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Nätverk för dynamiska mätningar - Behovsanalys, kompetenshöjning och forskningsprioritering2003Report (Refereed)
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  • 137.
    Hobiger, Thomas
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rieck, Carsten
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rüdiger, Haas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Koyama, Yasuhiro
    National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan.
    Combining GPS and VLBI for inter-continental frequency transfer2015In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 251-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades the global positioning system (GPS) has been the only space geodetic technique routinely used for inter-continental frequency transfer applications. In the past very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) has also been considered for this purpose and the method's capabilities were studied several times. However, compared to GPS current VLBI technology only provides few observations per hour, thus limiting its potential to improve frequency comparisons. We therefore investigate the effect of combining GPS and VLBI on the observation level in order to draw the maximum benefit from the strength of each individual technique. As a test-bed for our study we use the CONT11 campaign observed in 2011. First we review the frequency transfer performance that can be achieved with independent technique-specific analyses, both with individual software packages and with the multitechnique software c5++. With this analysis approach both techniques, GPS and VLBI, show similar frequency link instabilities at the level of 10 -14 to 10 -15 (MDEV) on inter-continental baselines for averaging times of one day. Then we use the c5++ software for a combined analysis of GPS and VLBI data on the observation level. We demonstrate that our combination approach leads to small but consistent improvements for frequency transfer of up to 10%, in particular for averaging periods longer than 3000 s.

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  • 138.
    Holmsten, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Andersson, Roland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Calibration of optical time domain reflectometers using time delay generator.1993Report (Refereed)
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  • 139.
    Holmsten, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Ivarsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Falk, Roland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Lidbeck, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Josefson, Lars-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Inhomogeneity Measurements of Long Thermocouples using a Short Movable Heating Zone2008In: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 915-925Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Holmsten, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Josefson, Lars-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Ljungblad, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Klevedal, Bengt
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Long term stability and hysteresis effects in Pt100 sensors used in industry2013In: AIP Conference Proceedings 9th International Temperature Symposium on Temperature (ISSN: 0094-243X), 2013, Vol. 1152, p. 421-426p. 421-426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Pt100 sensor is under normal conditions a very accurate and stable sensor for temperature measurements. Two important factors that can have influence on the results are its drift during time and the hysteresis effect at temperature changes. Different types of Pt100 sensors will show varying sensitivity for these effects. This study includes a number of partially supported wire type Pt100 sensors mainly used as reference sensors at different industries and laboratories. For most of the sensors, there is a history of calibration data for several years. By using a dry block calibrator, the hysteresis effects of the sensors are measured in the temperature range 0 °C up to 500 °C, depending on the calibration range of the sensor. The suitability of the method is evaluated by measurements of the stability of the dry-block and the repeatability of hysteresis tests. The evaluation shows that it is possible to measure hysteresis effects above a few mK. The tested Pt100 sensors exhibits hysteresis effects of 20 mK peak-to-peak as most, which is in the same magnitude as the uncertainty of the calibration and also more significant than the annual drift. The best sensors showed a hysteresis of just a few mK.

  • 141.
    Holmsten, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Ljungblad, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Josefson, Lars-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Comparison of Blackbody Sources for Low-Temperature IR Calibration2015In: International Journal of Thermophysics, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 3310-3319Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation thermometers are traditionally mostly used in high-temperature applications. They are, however, becoming more common in different applications at room temperature or below, in applications such as monitoring frozen food and evaluating heat leakage in buildings. To measure temperature accurately with a pyrometer, calibration is essential. A problem with traditional, commercially available, blackbody sources is that ice is often formed on the surface when measuring temperatures below \(0\,{}^{\circ }\hbox {C}\). This is due to the humidity of the surrounding air and, as ice does not have the same emissivity as the blackbody source, it biases the measurements. An alternative to a traditional blackbody source has been tested by SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden. The objective is to find a cost-efficient method of calibrating pyrometers by comparison at the level of accuracy required for the intended use. A disc-shaped blackbody with a surface pyramid pattern is placed in a climatic chamber with an opening for field of view of the pyrometer. The temperature of the climatic chamber is measured with two platinum resistance thermometers in the air in the vicinity of the disc. As a rule, frost will form only if the deposition surface is colder than the surrounding air, and, as this is not the case when the air of the climatic chamber is cooled, there should be no frost or ice formed on the blackbody surface. To test the disc-shaped blackbody source, a blackbody cavity immersed in a conventional stirred liquid bath was used as a reference blackbody source. Two different pyrometers were calibrated by comparison using the two different blackbody sources, and the results were compared. The results of the measurements show that the disc works as intended and is suitable as a blackbody radiation source.

  • 142.
    Holmsten, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Ogura, Hideki
    National Metrology Institute of Japan, Japan.
    Klason, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Ljungblad, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Development and Evaluation of a Co–C Eutectic-Point Cell for Thermocouple Calibration2015In: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 1888-1894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cobalt–carbon (Co–C) eutectic point at 1324∘C has in previous studies proved to be suitable as a reference for thermocouple calibration above 1100∘C. For types S, R, and B, it fills the gap between the copper point and the palladium point, and for Pt/Pd thermocouples, it extends the range from the copper point. This work describes the implementation of the Co–C reference point at the Technical Institute of Sweden (SP). A Co–C cell was developed and manufactured at SP in a collaboration project with the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The principle of the cell is a hybrid design with double walls, both for the outer crucible and the inner thermometer well, with graphite foil between the walls. To evaluate the performance of the developed cell (SP cell), a comparison between the SP cell and another cell, manufactured and provided from the National Physics Laboratory (NPL) in England, is performed using Pt/Pd thermocouples as transfer standards. The comparison showed very good agreement, with differences below 40 mK, using the same furnace and two different thermocouples. The expanded uncertainty (k=2) for the comparison was estimated to be 70 mK.

  • 143.
    Houtzager, Ernest
    et al.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Rietveld, Gert
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Hällström, Jari K.
    MIKES, Finland.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    van der Beek, Jan H.N.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Selection and characterization of resistors for a HVDC reference divider2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 197-198p. 197-198, article id 6250869Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the selection and characterization of resistors for a 1000 kV HVDC divider. One thousand 10 MΩ resistors will be connected in series in the final design. Due to the large number of resistors only a randomly selected set has been characterized. The measured temperature and voltage coefficients of the resistors are around 1 μΩ/Ω/K and -10 μΩ/Ω/kV respectively, which make them very suitable for reaching the overall desired divider uncertainty of better than 100 μV/V.

  • 144.
    Hulsman, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Measuring relative humidity with a Fabry-Perot refractometer2001Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 145.
    Hällström, Jari K.
    et al.
    MIKES, Finland.
    Svensson, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Suomalainen, Esa Pekka
    MIKES, Finland.
    Immonen, Pekka
    MIKES, Finland.
    Bilateral three-phase 50 Hz power comparison2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 118-119p. 118-119, article id 6250689Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the results of a bilateral three-phase power comparison between SP, Sweden and MIKES, Finland. A three-phase precision electricity meter was used a transfer reference. Both active and reactive three-phase power measurements were compared.

  • 146.
    Höpe, Andreas
    et al.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Koo, Annette B.A.
    Measurement Standards Lab., New Zealand.
    Verdu, Francisco M.
    University of Alicante, Spain.
    Leloup, Frederic Bernard
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Obein, Gaël
    Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, France.
    Wübbeler, Gerd
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Campos, Joaquin
    Agencia Estatal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Spain.
    Iacomussi, Paola
    Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Jaanson, Priit
    Mittatekniikan Keskus, Finland.
    Källbergj, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Smid, Marek
    Cesky Metrologicky Institut Brno, Czech Republic.
    Källberg, Stefan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Kommunikation.
    "Multidimensional reflectometry for industry" (xD-Reflect) an European research project2014In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 2014, 2014, Vol. 9018, p. 901804article id 901804Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Metrology Research Program (EMRP) is a metrology-focused program of coordinated Research and Development (RD) funded by the European Commission and participating countries within the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET). It supports and ensures research collaboration between them by launching and managing different types of project calls. Within the EMRP Call 2012 "Metrology for Industry", the joint research project (JRP) entitled "Multidimensional Reflectometry for Industry" (xD-Reflect) was submitted by a consortium of 8 National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and 2 universities and was subsequently funded. The general objective of xD-Reflect is to meet the demands from industry to describe the overall macroscopic appearance of modern surfaces by developing and improving methods for optical measurements which correlate with the visual sensation being evoked. In particular, the project deals with the "Goniochromatism", "Gloss" and "Fluorescence" properties of dedicated artifacts, which will be investigated in three main work packages (WP). Two additional transversal WP reinforce the structure: "Modelling and Data Analysis" with the objective to give an irreducible set of calibration schemes and handling methods and "Visual Perception", which will produce perception scales for the different visual attributes. Multidimensional reflectometry involves the enhancement of spectral and spatial resolution of reference gonioreflectometers for BRDF measurements using modern detectors, conoscopic optical designs, CCD cameras, line scan cameras, and modern light sources in order to describe new effects like sparkle and graininess/coarseness. More information and updated news concerning the project can be found on the xD-Reflect website http://www.xdreflect.eu/.

  • 147.
    Ivarsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Nationell kalibreringsjämförelse avseende storheten temperatur -september 1999 till mars 2000.2001Report (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Ivarsson, Jan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Falk, Roland
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    A stable and uniform oil bath for precision calibration of thermometers in the range 90 °C to 200 °C2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Ivarsson, Sven
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Källgren, Håkan
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Calibration of submultiples of the kilogram.1989Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 150.
    Ivarsson, Sven
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Johansson, Bengt
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Källgren, Håkan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Massa, kraft, längd och tryck.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Intercomparison of measurement techniques on small masses. Euromet project A88/143.1989Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
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