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  • 101.
    Oko, Asaf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Niga, Petru
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Measurements and dimensional scaling of spontaneous imbibition of inkjet droplets on paper2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 156-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the spontaneous imbibition of water based inkjet formulations utilizing paper capillary rise and imbibition of inkjet drops. We approximate the paper structure to a two dimensional anisotropic porous material, and using Darcy's law as a base, we derive dimensionless groups that scale drop imbibition. This derivation is based on a previous dimensional scaling of drop imbibition on thick isotropic porous material. We apply this scaling to a paper substrate by measuring the average drop imbibition rate, and perform paper capillary rise experiments to obtain the average system parameters required for the scaling. The results suggest that this approach is a valuable tool to predict drop imbibition rates on paper. We then continue and perform the same sets of experiments on a different paper with similar structure that is surface treated (surface sized) with CaCl2 salt, an additive that is known to improve print quality. We find that due to rapid aggregation of the colorant ink by the CaCl2, the imbibition rate is slowed down in the capillary rise experiments, i.e., on much larger scales compared to a single inkjet drop. However, the presence of CaCl2 has only minor effect over the average imbibition rates of single drops. Imbibition rates on the CaCl2 surface sized paper did not give adequate scaling as a result of the fact that the aggregation was not included the theoretical assumptions behind the scaling.

  • 102.
    Oko, Asaf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Infiltration and dimensional scaling of picoliter inkjet drops on nano- and microporous materials – isotropic porous glass and anisotropic paper2016In: Annual Surface and Materials Chemistry Symposium and Materials for tomorrow (ASMCS 2016), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Olszewska, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Junka, Karoliina
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Niklas, Nordgren
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Laine, Janne
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Rutland, Mark
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Österberg, Monika
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Non-ionic assembly of nanofibrillated cellulose and polyethylene glycol grafted carboxymethyl cellulose and the effect of aqueous lubrication in nanocomposite formation2013In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 9, no 31, p. 7448-7457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile route to significantly lower the frictional forces between cellulose nanofibrils (NFC) has been presented. The concept is based on the surface modification of NFC by adsorption of polyethylene glycol grafted carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-g-PEG) via non-ionic interactions. The adsorption was studied using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The changes in viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed layers, upon changes in pH were evaluated and attributed to the conformation of CMC. Surface forces and frictional properties of NFC films were examined using the AFM colloidal probe technique and were shown to be highly pH dependent. A significant difference in behaviour was observed upon the surface modification of NFC. After adsorption of CMC-g-PEG, repulsive forces were acting over a much longer distance than predicted by DLVO theory. This was ascribed to the CMC-g-PEG chain extension, the effect of which was even more pronounced at higher pH due to the deprotonation of carboxyl groups on CMC. A higher anionic charge resulted in increased water content and swelling of the layer. Additionally, the adsorption of CMC-g-PEG onto NFC films markedly increased the lubrication by the reduction of the friction coefficient by 65% and 88% at pH 4.5 and pH 7.3, respectively.

  • 104.
    Ovaska, Sami-Seppo
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Salla
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Backfolk, Kaj
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Characterization of rapeseed oil/coconut oil mixtures and their penetration into hydroxypropylated-starch-based barrier coatings containing an oleophilic mineral2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 101, p. 569-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted that demonstrated that the blending of edible oils leads to changes in surface tension, thermal properties, viscosity, and oil penetration times through a barrier-coated paperboard. The results emphasize the significance of testing the oil and grease resistance (OGR) oil blends in order-to verify the suitability of the packaging material for real-life end-use applications. The results of the OGR determinations suggest that hydroxypropylated-starch-based composite coatings containing an oleophilic high aspect ratio mineral can be tailored for food shaving different fatty acid compositions by varying the pigmentation level. Compared to standard OGR tests, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based techniques make it possible to evaluate the oil penetration time and its diffusion behavior very accurately, both inside the coating layer and in the bulk matrix. It was found that, at room temperature, coconut oil tends to crystallize inside the substrate, inducing swelling of the coating layer, which probably has an influence on the physicomechanical properties of the packaging material.

  • 105.
    Palm, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Gränsvärden för klorider efter PVC-bränder2002Report (Refereed)
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  • 106.
    Palm, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Carlsson, Bo
    New accelerated weathering tests including acid rain2002In: JCT: Journal of Coatings Technology, ISSN 0361-8773, Vol. 74, p. 69-74,79Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Palm, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Carlsson, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Utveckling och analys av accelererade åldringsmetoder för fordonslacker.1998Report (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 108.
    Palm, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Heale, Beatrice
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Jämförelse av tillgängliga rostskyddssystem för kulturmiljövård – resultat av fältstationsstationsprovningar samt jämförelse med resultat från accelererad provning2006Report (Refereed)
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  • 109.
    Palm, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Mattiasson, Kerstin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Klimatisering och installationsteknik.
    Segerdahl, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Kopparbeläggningar på induktiva flödesmätare2005Report (Refereed)
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  • 110.
    Pinori, Emiliano
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Elwing, Hans B.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The impact of coating hardness on the anti-barnacle efficacy of an embedded antifouling biocide2013In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 763-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficacy of antifouling coatings designed to minimise the release of biocide, either by embedded (non-covalent) or tethered (covalently bonded) biocides, relies on sufficient bioavailability of the active compound upon contact between the organism and the coating. This investigation is focused on whether coating hardness affects the efficacy of embedded coating systems. Two experimental, non-eroding and waterborne latex paint formulations composed mainly of polystyrene (PS) or polyvinyl versatate (PV) were chosen for their difference in mechanical properties measured in terms of Buchholz indentation resistance. Ivermectin was added to both formulations to a final concentration of 0.1% (w/v) and the steady state release rate was measured according to ISO 15181 at between 34 and 70 ng cm-2 day-1 for both formulations. Field trials conducted over 3 months showed significant differences in anti-barnacle efficacy between the formulations despite their similar release profiles. The softer PV coating showed complete anti-barnacle efficacy, ie no barnacles were detected, while the harder PS coating showed no efficacy against barnacle colonisation during the same time period. The results indicate a new antifouling strategy whereby a route of intoxication is triggered by the organism itself upon interaction with the coating and its embedded biocide. This finding opens new possibilities in controlling macrofouling by low emission antifouling coatings.

  • 111.
    Rathje, Li Sophie Zhao
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Niklas, Nordgren
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Daniel
    AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm.
    Widengren, Jerker
    AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm.
    Aspenström, Pontus
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gad, Annica K.B.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Oncogenes induce a vimentin filament collapse mediated by HDAC6 that is linked to cell stiffness2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 4, p. 1515-1520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oncogenes deregulate fundamental cellular functions, which can lead to development of tumors, tumor-cell invasion, and metastasis. As the mechanical properties of cells govern cell motility, we hypothesized that oncogenes promote cell invasion by inducing cytoskeletal changes that increase cellular stiffness. We show that the oncogenes simian virus 40 large T antigen, c-Myc, and cyclin E induce spatial reorganization of the vimentin intermediate filament network in cells. At the cellular level, this reorganization manifests as increased width of vimentin fibers and the collapse of the vimentin network. At nanoscale resolution, the organization of vimentin fibers in these oncogene-expressing cells was more entangled, with increased width of the fibers compared with control cells. Expression of these oncogenes also resulted in upregulation of the tubulin deacetylase histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and altered spatial distribution of acetylated microtubules. This oncogene expression also induced increases in cellular stiffness and promoted the invasive capacity of the cells. Importantly, HDAC6 was required and sufficient for the structural collapse of the vimentin filament network, and was required for increased cellular stiffness of the oncogene-expressing cells. Taken together, these data are consistent with the possibility that oncogenes can induce cellular stiffness via an HDAC6-induced reorganization of the vimentin intermediate filament network.

  • 112. Ruths, Marina
    et al.
    Lundgren, Sarah M.
    Persson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    17 - Friction of fatty acids in nanoscale contacts2016In: Environmentally friendly and biobased lubricants / [ed] Brajendra K. Sharma, Girma Biresaw, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016, p. 333-359Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Samuelsson, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Antonsson, Margareta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Självhäftande etiketter för arkivboxar2003Report (Refereed)
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  • 114.
    Sedighi Moghaddam, Maziar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Heydari, Golrokh
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Fielden, Matthew
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Haapanen, Janne
    TUT Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    TUT Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Wålinder, Magnus E. P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hydrophobisation of wood surfaces by combining liquid flame spray (LFS) and plasma treatment: Dynamic wetting properties2016In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 527-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrophilic nature of wood surfaces is a major cause for water uptake and subsequent biological degradation and dimensional changes. In the present paper, a thin transparent superhydrophobic layer on pine veneer surfaces has been created for controlling surface wettability and water repellency. This effect was achieved by means of the liquid flame spray (LFS) technique, in the course of which the nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO2) was brought to the surface, followed by plasma polymerisation. Plasma polymerised perfluorohexane (PFH) or hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) were then deposited onto the LFS-treated wood surfaces. The same treatment systems were applied to silicon wafers so as to have well-defined reference surfaces. The dynamic wettability was studied by the multicycle Wilhelmy plate (mWP) method, resulting in advancing and receding contact angles as well as sorption behavior of the samples during repeated wetting cycles in water. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterise the topography and surface chemical compositions and to elucidate the question how the morphology of the nanoparticles and plasma affect the wetting behavior. A multi-scale roughness (micro-nano roughness) was found and this enhanced the forced wetting durability via a superhydrophobic effect on the surface, which was stable even after repeated wetting cycles. The hydrophobic effect of this approach was higher compared to that of plasma modified surfaces with their micro-scale modification.

  • 115.
    Sedighi Moghaddam, Maziar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Van den Bulcke, J.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Wålinder, M. E. P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Van Acker, J.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    X-ray computed tomography on chemically modified wood2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping and visualization of structural changes due to the modification of wood would increase the understanding of chemical modification processes and facilitate optimization of the process parameters. The 2D and 3D microstructure of acetylated and furfurylated softwood and hardwood were visualized using X-ray computed tomography and some anatomical features were investigated such as total porosity, cell wall thickness and maximum opening of tracheid lumens. The wetting properties of chemically modified samples were related to the microstructural properties. Significant changes in the wood structure were observed for furfurylated sapwood samples mainly indicated by a change in tracheid shape and filling of tracheids by furan polymer, whereas no microstructural changes were noted for acetylated samples. Furfurylation significantly decreased the porosity of the sample in both earlywood and latewood regions; whereas for acetylated samples the total porosity of modified and unmodified samples was rather similar. This is in line with results of wetting showing that furfurylation reduced both swelling and capillary uptake in contrast to acetylation which reduced mostly swelling.

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  • 116.
    Sedighi Moghaddam, Maziar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wålinder, Magnus E. P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wettability and swelling of acetylated and furfurylated wood analyzed by multicycle Wilhelmy plate method2016In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wetting, dimensional stability and sorption properties of a range of modified wood samples obtained either by acetylation or furfurylation were compared with those of unmodified samples of the same wood species via a multicycle Wilhelmy plate method. Wettability measurements were performed with water and octane as the swelling and non-swelling liquids, respectively. It was found that acetylation reduces water uptake mainly by reducing the swelling. In comparison, furfurylation reduces both swelling and the void volume in the sample. To quantify the effect of the modification process of the wood properties, the parameters "liquid up-take reduction" and the "perimeter change reduction" were introduced, which were determined from multicycle Wilhelmy plate measurements. Compared with the acetylated wood, the furfurylated wood with a higher level of weight percent gain exhibited larger property changes on the surface and in terms of swelling and sorption properties.

  • 117.
    Sommertune, Jens
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Stjernberg Bejhed, Rebecca
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sarwe, Anna
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Balceris, Cristoph
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Ludwig, Frank
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Posth, Oliver
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Fornara, Andrea
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Polymer/iron oxide nanoparticle composites—A straight forward and scalable synthesis approach2015In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 19752-19768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic nanoparticle systems can be divided into single-core nanoparticles (with only one magnetic core per particle) and magnetic multi-core nanoparticles (with several magnetic cores per particle). Here, we report multi-core nanoparticle synthesis based on a controlled precipitation process within a well-defined oil in water emulsion to trap the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in a range of polymer matrices of choice, such as poly(styrene), poly(lactid acid), poly(methyl methacrylate), and poly(caprolactone). Multi-core particles were obtained within the Z-average size range of 130 to 340 nm. With the aim to combine the fast room temperature magnetic relaxation of small individual cores with high magnetization of the ensemble of SPIONs, we used small (<10 nm) core nanoparticles. The performed synthesis is highly flexible with respect to the choice of polymer and SPION loading and gives rise to multi-core particles with interesting magnetic properties and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast efficacy.

  • 118.
    Swerin, Agne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Sundin, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Wåhlander, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Formulation of a pigmented foam aimed for superhydrophobic coatings2015In: Paper Conference and Trade Show (PaperCon 2015), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental studies of superhydrophobicity have evolved toward several industrial applications. The present study concerns the formulation of pigmented foam aimed for water-borne superhydrophobic surface layers. An industrially viable process for a one-step water-borne superhydrophobic coating was developed in collaboration with industrial partners. A typical formulation contained calcium carbonate (preferably aragonite type), sodium oleate and carboxylic latex binder. The pigmented foam was laboratory rod coated onto paperboard substrates. During the drying the foamed structure collapses into a pigmented coating. The contact and rolling-off angles, droplet stain size and Cobb value were evaluated for different amounts of the added ingredients. The frictional resistance and water vapour permeability was measured for some of the samples.

    More recent results show that through careful reformulation of the coating dispersions these pigmented foams can be prepared at considerably higher solids content, which is of utmost relevance to decrease drying time if implemented in an industrial process. It was also shown that the hydrostatic water resistance (Cobb value) and the mechanical robustness could be substantially improved compared to previous results. Surface spectroscopy data provided an explanation for the increased water resistance.

  • 119.
    Swerin, Agne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Sundin, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Wåhlander, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Formulation of superhydrophobic pigment coatings2015In: Paper Conference and Trade Show (PaperCon 2015), TAPPI Press, 2015, Vol. 2, p. 1410-1424Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Swerin, Agne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sundin, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Wåhlander, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    One-pot waterborne superhydrophobic pigment coatings at high solids with improved scratch and water resistance2016In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 495, p. 79-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pigment coating was developed to achieve superhydrophobicity in one step from a waterborne formulation containing aragonite calcium carbonate, hydrophobized using sodium oleate, latex binder and cross-linker. Coatings formulated ≤50 mass% and applied to polyethylene coated paperboard substrates displayed typical superhydrophobic features: water contact angles ≥150°, low roll-off angle and low stain sizes, but poor scratch and water resistance as well as foaming issues during preparation. Reformulation at higher solids content significantly improved scratch and water resistance properties. Water rinsing of the dried coatings further increased the water barrier capacity due to reduced surfactant-assisted wetting; findings were corroborated by detailed surface chemistry analyses showing the removal of surface-active components after water rinsing of the dried coatings. A plausible cause for the improved durability is the fact that capillary forces increase exponentially with increasing pigment volume fraction (power law exponent of 2.2) leading to efficient binder coverage during the early stage of pigment coating consolidation.

  • 121.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Funktionella ytbeläggningar på trä/ Functional multilayer coatings to improve properties of wood2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Report on the Troëdsson Postdoc-project 2013‒2015.

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  • 122.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Teisala, Hannu
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Haapanen, Janne
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Aromaa, Mikko
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Stepien, Milena
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Saarinen, Jarkko J.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. Åbo Akademi University, Finland .
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland .
    Kuusipalo, Jurkka
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Adjustable wetting of liquid flame spray (LFS) TiO2-nanoparticle coated board: Batch-type versus roll-to-roll stimulation methods2014In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 271-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superhydrophobic nanoparticle coating was created on the surface of board using liquid flame spray (LFS). The LFS coating was carried out continuously in ambient conditions without any additional hydrophobization steps. The contact angle of water (CAW) of ZrO2, Al2O3 and TiO2 coating was adjusted reversibly from &gt;150° down to ~10-20° using different stimulation methods. From industrial point of view, the controlled surface wetting has been in focus for a long time because it defines the liquid-solid contact area, and furthermore can enhance the mechanical and chemical bonding on the interface between the liquid and the solid. The used stimulation methods included batch-type methods: artificial daylight illumination and heat treatment and roll-to-roll methods: corona, argon plasma, IR (infra red)- and UV (ultra violet)-treatments. On the contrary to batch-type methods, the adjustment and switching of wetting was done only in seconds or fraction of seconds using roll-to-roll stimulation methods. This is significant in the converting processes of board since they are usually continuous, high volume operations. In addition, the creation of microfluidic patterns on the surface of TiO2 coated board using simple photomasking and surface stimulation was demonstrated. This provides new advantages and possibilities, especially in the field of intelligent printing. Limited durability and poor repellency against low surface tension liquids are presently the main limitations of LFS coatings.

  • 123.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Teisala, Hannu
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Haapanen, Janne
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Honkanen, Mari
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Vippola, Minnamari
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Bardage, Stig
    Wålinder, Magnus E. P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Superamphiphobic overhang coating on a biobased material2016In: Annual Surface and Materials Chemistry Symposium and Materials for tomorrow (ASMCS 2016), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Teisala, Hannu
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Haapanen, Janne
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Honkanen, Mari
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Vippola, Minnamari
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Bardage, Stig
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Wålinder, Magnus E. P.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Superamphiphobic overhang structured coating on a biobased material2016In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 389, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A superamphiphobic coating on a biobased material shows extreme liquid repellency with static contact angles (CA) greater than 150° and roll-off angles less than 10° against water, ethylene glycol, diiodomethane and olive oil, and a CA for hexadecane greater than 130°. The coating consisting of titania nanoparticles deposited by liquid flame spray (LFS) and hydrophobized using plasma-polymerized perfluorohexane was applied to a birch hardwood. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging after sample preparation by UV laser ablation of coated areas revealed that capped structures were formed and this, together with the geometrically homogeneous wood structure, fulfilled the criteria for overhang structures to occur. The coating showed high hydrophobic durability by still being non-wetted after 500 000 water drop impacts, and this is discussed in relation to geometrical factors and wetting forces. The coating was semi-transparent with no significant coloration. A self-cleaning effect was demonstrated with both water and oil droplets. A self-cleanable, durable and highly transparent superamphiphobic coating based on a capped overhang structure has a great potential for commercial feasibility in a variety of applications, here exemplified for a biobased material.

  • 125.
    Wernståhl, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    A comparison of testing in Global UV and Xenon arc test cabinet.1990Report (Refereed)
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  • 126.
    Wernståhl, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Renovering av träfönster - tekniska och ekonomiska förutsättningar för fallstudie av A13-metoden.1990Report (Refereed)
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  • 127.
    Wieland, D. C. Florian
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Degen, Patrick
    Technical University of Dortmund, Germany.
    Zander, Thomas
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Gayer, Sören
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Raj, Akanksha
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An, Junxue
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dédinaité, Andra A.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Willumeit-Römer, Regine
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Structure of DPPC-hyaluronan interfacial layers-effects of molecular weight and ion composition2016In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 729-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyaluronan and phospholipids play an important role in lubrication in articular joints and provide in combination with glycoproteins exceptionally low friction coefficients. We have investigated the structural organization of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) Langmuir layers at the solution-air interface at different length scales with respect to the adsorption of hyaluronan (HA). This allows us to assemble a comprehensive picture of the adsorption and the resulting structures, and how they are affected by the molecular weight of HA and the presence of calcium ions. Brewster angle microscopy and grazing incident diffraction were used to determine the lateral structure at the micro- and macro scale. The data reveals an influence of HA on both the macro and micro structure of the DPPC Langmuir layer, and that the strength of this effect increases with decreasing molecular weight of HA and in presence of calcium ions. Furthermore, from X-ray reflectivity measurements we conclude that HA adsorbs to the hydrophilic part of DPPC, but data also suggest that two types of interfacial structures are formed at the interface. We argue that hydrophobic forces and electrostatic interactions play important rules for the association between DPPC and HA. Surface pressure area isotherms were used to determine the influence of HA on the phase behavior of DPPC while electrophoretic mobility measurements were used to gain insight into the binding of calcium ions to DPPC vesicles and hyaluronan.

  • 128.
    Wieland, D. C. Florian
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geestacht, Germany.
    Garamus, Vasil M.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geestacht, Germany.
    Zander, Thomas
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geestacht, Germany.
    Krywka, C.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geestacht, Germany.
    Wang, M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dédinaité, Andra A.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Willumeit-Römera, Regine
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geestacht, Germany.
    Studying solutions at high shear rates: A dedicated microfluidics setup2016In: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, E-ISSN 1600-5775, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 480-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a dedicated small-angle X-ray scattering setup for the investigation of complex fluids at different controlled shear conditions is reported. The setup utilizes a microfluidics chip with a narrowing channel. As a consequence, a shear gradient is generated within the channel and the effect of shear rate on structure and interactions is mapped spatially. In a first experiment small-angle X-ray scattering is utilized to investigate highly concentrated protein solutions up to a shear rate of 300000 s-1. These data demonstrate that equilibrium clusters of lysozyme are destabilized at high shear rates.

  • 129.
    Xu, Qian
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Linden, Mika
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland; University of Ulm, Germany.
    Smått, Jan Henrik
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Nanopatterned zinc titanate thin films prepared by the evaporation-induced self-assembly process2013In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-609, Vol. 531, p. 222-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanopatterned thin films prepared by the evaporation-induced self-assembly process have up to now been limited to a few transition metal oxides (i.e. Al2O3, TiO2 and ZrO2). Here we describe the formation of zinc titanate nanoperforated thin films with different Zn/Ti ratios using the dipcoating process. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy reveal that the structure consists of well-ordered pseudohexagonal nanoperforations in the range of 30 nm in diameter separated by 25 nm wide metal oxide ridges, while the film thickness is close to 2 nm. For films with a zinc precursor content up to 50 mol%, the well-organized structure of the thin film can be maintained, while at higher Zn contents the nanostructure is gradually becoming more disordered, which we have shown is consistent with the partial charge model. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements on the films calcined at 700 C indicate that the anatase phase of the pure TiO2 films is gradually consumed at the expense of a newly formed Zn2Ti3O8 phase upon increasing the Zn/Ti ratio in the starting precursor solution. The unique combination of the nanostructure with the zinc titanate composition grants these nanopatterned thin films significant application prospects in for instance optics and catalysis. 

  • 130.
    Zander, Thomas
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Wieland, D. C. Florian
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Raj, Akanksha
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Min
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nowak, Benedikt
    Technical University of Dortmund, Germany.
    Krywka, Christina
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Dédinaité, Andra A.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Garamus, Vasil M.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Schreyer, Andreas
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Willumeit-Römer, Regine
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    The influence of hyaluronan on the structure of a DPPC-bilayer under high pressures2016In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 142, p. 230-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The superior lubrication properties of synovial joints have inspired many studies aiming at uncovering the molecular mechanisms which give rise to low friction and wear. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood yet, and, in particular, it has not been elucidated how the biolubricants present at the interface of cartilage respond to high pressures, which arise during high loads of joints. In this study we utilize a simple model system composed of two biomolecules that have been implied as being important for joint lubrication. It consists of a solid supported dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholin (DPPC) bilayer, which was formed via vesicles fusion on a flat Si wafer, and the anionic polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA). We first characterized the structure of the HA layer that adsorbed to the DPPC bilayers at ambient pressure and different temperatures using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements. Next, XRR was utilized to evaluate the response of the system to high hydrostatic pressures, up to 2 kbar (200 MPa), at three different temperatures. By means of fluorescence microscopy images the distribution of DPPC and HA on the surface was visualized. Our data suggest that HA adsorbs to the headgroup region that is oriented towards the water side of the supported bilayer. Phase transitions of the bilayer in response to temperature and pressure changes were also observed in presence and absence of HA. Our results reveal a higher stability against high hydrostatic pressures for DPPC/HA composite layers compared to that of the DPPC bilayer in absence of HA.

  • 131.
    Zhang, Fan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brinck, Tore
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brandner, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Claesson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Dedinaite, Andra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In situ confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy and electrochemicalstudies of mussel adhesive protein and ceria composite film on carbonsteel in salt solutions2013In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 107, p. 276-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films composed of Mefp-1 and ceria nanoparticles have shown an increasing corrosion inhibitioneffect with time for carbon steel in acidic aqueous solutions containing phosphate, which motivates adetailed study of the inhibition mechanism by in situ confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy (CRM) andelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The presence of both CeO2and ferricoxides in the thin composite film was demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. TheRaman spectra assisted by DFT calculations suggest that Mefp-1 forms tri-Fe3+/Mefp-1 complexes andbinds to ceria nanoparticles in the composite film. The in situ CRM measurement allow us to followthe development of corrosion products. The measurements show a mixture of Fe oxides/oxyhydroxides,and also indicate that ferrous oxides may be further oxidized by the composite film. Moreover, phos-phate ions react with the Fe ions released from the surface to form iron-phosphate deposits, whichbecome incorporated into the corrosion product layer and the composite film. The EIS measurementssuggest a layered surface structure formed by the initial Mefp-1/ceria composite layer and the corrosionproducts/iron-phosphate deposits. These measurements also demonstrate the greatly increased inhibi-tion effect of the composite film in the presence of the phosphate ions. The consistent CRM and EIS resultssuggest that the iron-phosphate deposits heal defects in the composite film and corrosion product layer,which results in a significantly improved corrosion inhibition of the Mefp-1/ceria composite film duringinitial and long term exposure.

  • 132. Zhao, Y.
    et al.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Muhammed, M.
    Toprak, M. S.
    Synthesis of nanostructured antimony telluride for thermoelectric applications2015In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2015, Vol. 1742, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been studied during past decades since they can generate electricity directly from waste heat. Antimony chalcogenides (Sb2M3, M = S, Se, Te) are well known as one of the promising candidates among the inorganic TE materials. We report on the synthesis of Sb2Te3 nanoparticle via thermolysis method. A systematic study was done to investigate the effect of reaction time and ratio between the precursors as well as the method of cooling on the morphology and composition of obtained nanoparticles. The ratio between precursors was varied to study the effect on the morphology. Furthermore, the high purity phase Sb2Te3 was obtained by a rapid cooling process.

  • 133.
    Zhao, Yichen
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Torsten
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fornara, Andrea
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Toprak, Muhammet Sadaka
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Muhammed, Mamoun A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Relaxation is the key to longer life: Suppressed degradation of P3HT films on conductive substrates2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 2, no 33, p. 13270-13276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we show the dependence of the degree of degradation of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) films on the conductivity of the supporting substrate. P3HT is widely used for organic solar cells and electronic devices because it allows simple, low cost fabrication and has potential for the fabrication of flexible devices. However, P3HT is known to have a relatively low photostability, and investigating the photodegradation mechanism is an active research field. We find that P3HT films on conductive substrates show significantly retarded degradation and retain their chemical and morphological features when compared to similar films on glass substrates. This 'substrate effect' in retarding the degradation of P3HT films is evident even upon prolonged exposure to air for up to five months. 

  • 134.
    Zhao, Yichen
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Wang, Qin
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Yang, Xuran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rihtnesberg, David B.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Direct Determination of Spatial Localization of Carriers in CdSe-CdS Quantum Dots2015In: Journal of Nanomaterials, ISSN 1687-4110, E-ISSN 1687-4129, Vol. 2015, article id 321354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) have gained significant attention due to their tunable band gap, simple solution processability, ease of scale-up, and low cost. By carefully choosing the materials, core-shell heterostructure QDs (HQDs) can be further synthesized with a controlled spatial spread of wave functions of the excited electrons and holes for various applications. Many investigations have been done to understand the exciton dynamics by optical characterizations. However, these spectroscopic data demonstrate that the spatial separation of the excitons cannot distinguish the distribution of excited electrons and holes. In this work, we report a simple and direct method to determine the localized holes and delocalized electrons in HQDs. The quasi-type-II CdSe-CdS core-shell QDs were synthesized via a thermolysis method. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofiber and ZnO nanorods were selected as hole and electron conductor materials, respectively, and were combined with HQDs to form two different nanocomposites. Photoelectrical properties were evaluated under different environments via a quick and facile characterization method, confirming that the electrons in the HQDs were freely accessible at the surface of the nanocrystal, while the holes were confined within the CdSe core.

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  • 135.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; IMDEA Nanoscience, Spain.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Kjellin, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Camacho, Alejandra
    L’Oréal Research and Innovation, US.
    Niklas, Nordgren
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Luengo, Gustavo S.
    L’Oréal Research and Innovation, France.
    Nanomechanical properties of human skin and introduction of a novel hair indenter2016In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 54, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical resistance of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of skin, to deformation has been evaluated at different length scales using Atomic Force Microscopy. Nanomechanical surface mapping was first conducted using a sharp silicon tip and revealed that Young’s modulus of the stratum corneum varied over the surface with a mean value of about 0.4 GPa. Force indentation measurements showed permanent deformation of the skin surface only at high applied loads (above 4 μN). The latter effect was further demonstrated using nanomechanical imaging in which the obtained depth profiles clearly illustrate the effects of increased normal force on the elastic/plastic surface deformation. Force measurements utilizing the single hair fiber probe supported the nanoindentation results of the stratum corneum being highly elastic at the nanoscale, but revealed that the lateral scale of the deformation determines the effective elastic modulus.This result resolves the fact that the reported values in the literature vary greatly and will help to understand the biophysics of the interaction of razor cut hairs that curl back during growth and interact with the skin.

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