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  • 101.
    Tondi, Gianluca
    et al.
    Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Austria.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tannin based foams modified to be semi-conductive: Synthesis and characterization2015In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 78, p. 488-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to modify highly insulative and lightweight biorenewable foam thermosets to be semi-conductive for primarily building material applications. The foams were formed and then post-treated with in-situ polymerization of polyaniline, both doped and undoped, adsorbing and possibly absorbing (observed by SEM-EDX) to the foam structure at levels of 100–120 wt%.

    The modified tannin foams were shown to be semi-conductive in comparison to the highly insulative structure prior to polyaniline modification. While the 50% protonated polyaniline modified foams, or doped foams, had a higher conductivity than the undoped polyaniline modified foams, the acid used in fabrication of the foams provided some degree of conductivity to the undoped PANI modified foams. Moreover, the modified foams had an increased volume of 15% after modification, were more sensitive to moisture, and the polyaniline did not affect the degradation temperature of the foams.

  • 102.
    Treu, Andreas
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Bardage, Stig
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fungal durability of polyaniline modified wood and the impact of a low pulsed electric field2014In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 87, no Febr, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New wood protection technologies should be effective against biodeterioration and at the same time minimize environmental impact. The present study investigates the effect of polyanilinemodification of wood and the effect of a pulsed electric field on fungal protection. The effect of fungi and a pulsed electric field on the conductivity of the modified wood was also measured. It was found that it is possible to polymerize polyaniline particles in-situ homogeneously throughout the wood specimens. The polyaniline particles themselves were not found to be anti-fungal, however when in contact with water they affected the pH drastically and inhibited fungal growth. The wood treatment with polyaniline and the connection to a pulsed electric fieldwere found to be effective in protecting the wood from deterioration when exposed to Postia placenta. The unmodified samples that were connected to a pulsed electric field lost under 10wt% due to fungal degradation. The combination of polyaniline treatment with the connection to a pulsed electric field showed a slight synergistic effect which resulted in less weight loss due to fungal degradation. However, a more brittle wood structure was observed.Leached and fungal exposed samples showed a significant drop in the conductivity, indicating that the network has broken down slightly. 

  • 103.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Controlled deposition of magnetic particles within the 3-D template of wood: Making use of the natural hierarchical structure of wood2014In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, no 67, p. 35678-35685Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Elustondo, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Basic density determination for Swedish softwoods and its influence on average moisture content of wood packages estimated by measuring their mass2016In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 248-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a set-up with a device measuring the mass of wood packages is examined as an aid to estimate the average moisture content (MC) of wood packages. As the basic density needs to be presumed in the set-up, an estimator of the basic density as a function of log diameter is determined for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). In total, 1920 specimens were collected at two different sawmills and analysed for this purpose. Specimens collected at the butt-end of pine had the greatest variation in basic density and it is recommended that they should be omitted when sawmills create their own functions for basic density estimation. Furthermore, the variation in basic density was shown to have the greatest impact on the estimated MC. A maximum error estimator of the MC became 14% at a MC of 70% and 9% at a MC of 10%. It was therefore concluded that the described method should not be used to estimate the MC of packages after drying but can serve as a valuable indicator of average green MC of a drying batch.

  • 105.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hägg, Linus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Förädling och processer (TRf).
    Elustondo, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of fan speed on airflow distribution in a batch kiln2015In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports experimental data of airflow distribution as a function of fan speed in an industrial batch kiln. Measurements were conducted with 20 hot-film anemometers distributed throughout the load at two occasions. The main result was that airflow distribution did not change significantly as the fan speed was reduced, and no positions where the air movement stopped were found. It was also found that relatively more air ran in the bolster spaces in comparison to the adjacent packages as the air ran through the load.

  • 106.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Internal heat exchange in progressive kilns2015In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 318-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work possible energy savings were investigated by introducing a new layout of a 2-zone progressive kiln. The layout consisted of installing a door between the first and second zone, thereby allowing the two zones to be run at different temperature levels -making internal heat recovery possible. An Optimized Two Stage continuous kiln is dimensioned for drying sideboard of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) with the aid of a commercial simulation program. Temperature levels of 75/55°C (dry bulb/wet bulb) were chosen at the pressure side of zone 1 and 45/25°C (dry bulb/wet bulb) at the pressure side of zone 2. The capacity of the heat exchanger was assumed to be sufficient to make the suggested design functional and no consideration was given to the increased air flow resistance the introduction of the heat exchanger would cause. The results indicated that roughly 30% of the heat is possible to recover in comparison to a traditional kiln. It was finally concluded that the influence of ingoing process parameters needs to be implemented in the kiln control system to fully utilize the kilns potential.

  • 107.
    Östlund, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Wedin, Helena
    Bolin, Lisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Smuk, Lena
    Eriksson, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Textilåtervinning: tekniska möjligheter och utmaningar2015Report (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Beklädnader av trä med brandskyddande förmåga2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 109.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Brandsäkerhet i moderna trähus: kartläggning av brandincidenter2016In: Husbyggaren, no 2, p. 36-39Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flervåningshus med trästomme har kunnat byggas i Sverige sedan 1994, då vi fick funktionsbaserade byggregler. Byggtekniken är nu väl etablerad och stadigt ökande. Personskyddet är klart definierat i byggreglerna och nu har frågor om egendomsskydd aktualiserats från nya perspektiv. Som ett första steg i ökad förståelse har brandincidenter kartlagts i de flervåningshus som hittills byggts med trästomme. Kartläggningen visar att moderna flerbostadshus med trästomme har en lägre frekvens av brandincidenter som lett till insatser från räddningstjänsten än hela beståndet av flerbostadshus.

  • 110.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Fire protection ability of wood coverings2015In: Wood Design Focus, ISSN 1066-5757, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low thermal conductivity and slow charring rate of wood products may protect underlying products from being heated and ignited. A literature survey shows that such fire protective behavior of wood coverings has been verified by different methodologies in several countries in and outside Europe. A new European system with K classes for the fire protection ability of coverings has been utilized for wood products. The classes are based on full-scale furnace testing, and the main parameter is the temperature behind the fire-exposed panel after different time intervals. Three levels are defined: 10, 30 and 60 min. An extensive test program has been performed according to the new European system. The results demonstrate that all K classes may be achieved for wood-based panels (particle board, plywood, solid wood panels, OSB - Oriented Strand Board and hardboard), and for solid wood panelling and cladding. The criteria for wood products are based mainly on panel thickness. The thickness for achieving each K class may vary slightly, depending on the wood product type and on mounting conditions and fixing means. Typical thickness to reach 10 min fire protection is 10-15 mm, for 30 min 24 -30 mm, and for 60 min protection 52-54 mm. The enduse applications of wood products with K classes are mainly as wall and ceiling coverings and for protection of underlying materials and structures. Examples are protection of timber structures from becoming charred, and protection of steel structures from reaching high temperatures. K classification is required by building regulations in some countries, e. g. Germany, Denmark and Sweden.

  • 111.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Fire safety in timber Buildings – State of the art2015Report (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Fire safety in timber buildings: First European guideline2016In: SFPE Europe, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The first European design guide for fire safety in timber buildings has been developed that presents information for architects, engineers, educators, regulatory authorities and building industry professionals for the fire-safe use of timber structures and wood products in buildings. The guide, available in nine languages, aims to provide the highest scientific knowledge with regard to fire safety on the European level. The guide covers the use of design codes (such as Eurocode 5 Design of timber structures), European fire standards, practical guidance and examples for fire safe design and principles of performance-based fire design.

    The design guide is focusing on structural fire protection by providing the latest detailed guidance on load-bearing and separating functions of timber structures under standard fire exposure. New modelling not yet included in Eurocode 5 is presented. The guide includes information on the reaction to fire performance of wood products according to the new European system. The importance of proper detailing in building design is stressed by practical solutions. Active measures of fire protection are presented as important means in fulfilling fire safety objectives.

  • 113.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Fire protection ability of wood coverings2015In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 1475-1493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low thermal conductivity and slow charring rate of wood products may protect underlying products from being heated and ignited. A literature survey shows that such fire protective behaviour of wood coverings has been verified by different methodologies in several countries in and outside Europe. A new European system with K classes for the fire protection ability of coverings has been utilised for wood products. The classes are based on full-scale furnace testing, and the main parameter is the temperature behind the fire-exposed panel after different time intervals. Three levels are defined: 10, 30 and 60 min. An extensive test program has been performed according to the new European system. The results demonstrate that all K classes may be achieved for wood-based panels (particle board, plywood, solid wood panels, OSB—Oriented Strand Board and hardboard), and for solid wood panelling and cladding. The criteria for wood products are based mainly on panel thickness. The thickness for achieving each K class may vary slightly, depending on the wood product type and on mounting conditions and fixing means. Typical thickness to reach 10 min fire protection is 10–15 mm, for 30 min 24–30 mm, and for 60 min protection 52–54 mm. The end-use applications of wood products with K classes are mainly as wall and ceiling coverings and for protection of underlying materials and structures. Examples are protection of combustible insulation materials from being ignited, timber structures from becoming charred, and steel structures from reaching high temperatures. K classification is required by building regulations in some countries, e.g. Germany, Denmark and Sweden.

  • 114.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings – Phase 2: Task 1 - Literature Review2016Report (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Fire Safety Engineering – Opportunities and challenges for timber buildings2016In: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2016, p. 3829-3838, article id 1066aConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combustibility of timber is one of the main reasons that many building regulations strictly limit the use of timber as a building material. Fire safety is an important contribution to feeling safe, and an important criterion for the choice of building materials. The main precondition for an increased use of timber in buildings is adequate fire safety. This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges to reach this goal by implementing Fire Safety Engineering and Performance Based Design principles.

  • 116.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandstopp i modulbyggnader2016In: Bygg & teknik, no 6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Bristande brandteknisk funktion hos byggnadstekniska detaljlösningar är ofta en starkt bidragande orsak till brandspridning. Flera incidenter de senaste åren visar tydligt att byggsystem med hålrum kan ha stor inverkan på brandförloppet och medföra stora egendomsskador i alla typer av byggnader. Befintliga rekommendationer om att brandstopp måste installeras i hålrum för att hindra att dolda bränder uppstår och sprids mellan brandceller följs tyvärr ofta inte inom praktiskt byggande.brandprovning.

  • 117.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Durability of the reaction to fire performance for fire retardant treated (FRT) wood products in exterior applications: a ten years report2016In: MATEC Web of Conferences: 2nd International Seminar for Fire Safety of Facades, 2016, Vol. 46, article id 05005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several long term experimental studies on the maintained reaction to fire performance of fire retardant treated (FRT) wood products over time are presented. They are performed according to a European system based on earlier Nordic and North American systems and include accelerated ageing according to different procedures and natural weathering up to ten years. Main conclusions are: The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood for most FRT wood products used commercially. The reaction to fire properties of FRT wood may be maintained after accelerated and natural ageing if the retention levels are high enough, but several FRT wood products loose most of their improved reaction to fire properties during weathering. Paint systems contribute considerably to maintain of the fire performance at exterior application and are usually needed to maintain the fire performance after weathering.

  • 118.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Durability of the reaction to fire performance of fire retardant treated wood products in exterior applications: a ten years report2016In: Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Wood and Fire Safety, 2016, p. 237-244Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several long term experimental studies on the maintained reaction to fire performance of fire retardant treated (FRT) wood products over time are presented. They are performed according to a European system based on earlier Nordic and North American systems and include accelerated ageing according to different procedures and natural weathering up to ten years. Main conclusions are: The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood for most FRT wood products used commercially. The reaction to fire properties of FRT wood may be maintained after accelerated and natural ageing if the retention levels are high enough, but several FRT wood products loose most of their improved reaction to fire properties during weathering. Paint systems contribute considerably to maintain of the fire performance at exterior application and are usually needed to maintain the fire performance after weathering.

  • 119.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Europeisk brandklassning av trägolv2016Report (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Fire retardant treated wood products – Properties and uses2016In: Proceedings of the International Research Group Annual Meeting 2016, 2016, article id 16-30701Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is combustible, but can still perform very well in fire, especially for load bearing structures. However, visible wood surface may not fulfil the fire requirements in building codes and fire retardant treatments may be an option. The highest reaction to fire classification for combustible products may then be reached. However, the excellent fire performance of the virgin fire retardant treated, FRT, wood products may degrade over time, especially in outdoor applications. Two cases of long term durability of FRT wood products exist and standard procedures are available for limited hygroscopicity and maintained fire performance after weathering. Structural degradation may also occur, but is relevant only for load-bearing uses. Recommendations on end uses and suggestions for further research are included.

  • 121.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Fire scenarios for multi-storey façades with emphasis on full-scale testing of wooden façades2015In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 1495-1510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper briefly reviews the main fire scenarios for exterior façade claddings on multi-storey buildings, together with available full-scale test procedures and performance requirements in different countries. It is obvious that there is no international agreement or approach on how to evaluate the fire safety of façade claddings. Two series of full-scale fire tests of wooden façades, in accordance with the Swedish SP Fire 105 test, are presented: one series for different proportions of untreated wood (partial wood and structural fire protection with a fire shield above the window), and another series for fire-retardant-treated wood. The results are compared with data from the intermediate scale Single Burning Item test and the small scale cone calorimeter test. A main conclusion is that SP Fire 105 is a useful tool to evaluate the fire behaviour of façade claddings, but it should be complemented with more objective measurements. Claddings with partial wood and the use of a fire shield above the window fulfil the requirements. Wood claddings treated with fire retardants (FR) may fulfil the requirements, if the amount of FR is high enough. It is also essential to demonstrate the weather durability of the FR treatment. Good agreement has been found with the other test methods used. The need to use fire stops behind multi-storey façade claddings to avoid the spread of fire in cavities is underlined.

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