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  • 101.
    Ahlsén, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Klevbo, Göran
    Provningsmetod för plattsättningsbruk1979Report (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Ahlsén, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Montin, Stefan
    Metoder för bestämning av komprimeringsgrad hos färsk betong1979Report (Refereed)
  • 103. Ahmad, SI
    et al.
    Friberg, S
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Catalysis in micellar and liquid crystalline phases1973In: Chemie, Physikalische Chemie und Anwendungstechnik der Grenzflächenaktiven Stoffe, Munchen: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH, 1973, p. 917-924Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104. Ahmad, SI
    et al.
    Friberg, S
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Catalysis in micellar and liquid-crystalline phases : I. the system water-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide-hexanol1972In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 94, p. 5196-5199Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 105. Ahmad, SI
    et al.
    Friberg, S
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Phase equilibria and foam stability in solutions of cationic surfactants1971In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, ISSN 0904-213X, E-ISSN 1902-3103, Vol. 102, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 106. Ahmad, SI
    et al.
    Shinoda, K
    Friberg, S
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Microemulsions and phase equilibria1974In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 47, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 107.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Andersson, C.-G.
    Floberg, P.
    Rosen, J.
    Lingnert, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Effect of crust temperature and water content on acrylamide formation during baking of white bread: Steam and falling temperature baking2007In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1708-1715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of crust temperature and water content on acrylamide formation was studied during the baking of white bread. To assess the effect of over-baking, we used a full factorial experimental design in which the baking time was increased by 5 and 10 min at each baking temperature. Additional experiments were performed with steam baking and falling temperature baking. Immediately after baking, the crust was divided into the outer and inner crust fractions, and the water content and acrylamide concentration of each fraction was measured. The outer crust had a significantly lower water content and higher acrylamide concentration than the inner crust did. Crust temperature in combination with water content had a significant effect on acrylamide formation, higher temperatures resulting in higher acrylamide concentrations. However, at very high temperatures and lower water contents, acrylamide concentration was observed to decrease, though the bread colour was then unacceptable for consumption. Steam and falling temperature baking, on the other hand, decreased the acrylamide content while producing bread crust with an acceptable colour. The lowest acrylamide values and an acceptable crust colour were produced by steam baking. © 2007 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology.

  • 108.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Chamayou, A.
    Dewettinck, K.
    Depypere, F.
    Dumoulin, E.
    Fitzpatrick, J.
    Processing of food powders2008In: Food Materials Science: Principles and Practice, p. 341-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of formulation engineering concepts in food manufacturing and the demand for diversity in food products has driven a substantial market increase for food ingredients. Most ingredients are supplied in powder form and therefore a better understanding of dispersed solid food systems is important both for food ingredient manufactures and food producers. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 109.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Frias, J
    Oliveira, F.A.R.
    Singh, R.P.
    Modelling textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions2001In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 566, p. 323-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification can be used to improve the quality of canned vegetables because it can decrease thermal processing requirements. Moreover, there is some evidence that acidified vegetables retain a better texture than non-acidified ones. Optimisation of the acidification processes requires the knowledge of the relationship between texture and thermal process at low/moderate temperature. The main objective of this work was the modelling of textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal conditions, and the application of the model to predict textural changes in non-isothermal processes. Turnip was the vegetable used in the experiments. The effect of pre-treatments (blanching, freezing/thawing, calcium addition and vacuum infusion of water before acidification) on the kinetics of textural changes during acidification was also studied. Turnips were acidified in acetic acid under isothermal (20, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 100°C) and non-isothermal conditions (20 to 90°C). Texture was modelled by a two subtract first order kinetic model, assuming an Arrhenius-type dependence of the rate constants on temperature. The model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression. At temperatures lower then 70°C no significant changes in texture were detected. At higher temperatures the model showed a good fit to the data for all the conditions tested. Acidification decreased the percentage of heat labile substrate from 96% to 62%, thus improving firmness retention. The parameters of the kinetic model estimated under isothermal conditions provided an adequate prediction of texture changes under non-isothermal conditions. The methodology developed in this work can be further applied to model the textural changes of vegetables during other thermal processes, such as drying, blanching, and frying.

  • 110.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Frias, J.
    Oliveira, F.A.R.
    Singh, R.P.
    Modelling textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions2001In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 566, p. 323-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification can be used to improve the quality of canned vegetables because it can decrease thermal processing requirements. Moreover, there is some evidence that acidified vegetables retain a better texture than non-acidified ones. Optimisation of the acidification processes requires the knowledge of the relationship between texture and thermal process at low/moderate temperature. The main objective of this work was the modelling of textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal conditions, and the application of the model to predict textural changes in non-isothermal processes. Turnip was the vegetable used in the experiments. The effect of pre-treatments (blanching, freezing/thawing, calcium addition and vacuum infusion of water before acidification) on the kinetics of textural changes during acidification was also studied. Turnips were acidified in acetic acid under isothermal (20, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 100°C) and non-isothermal conditions (20 to 90°C). Texture was modelled by a two subtract first order kinetic model, assuming an Arrhenius-type dependence of the rate constants on temperature. The model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression. At temperatures lower then 70°C no significant changes in texture were detected. At higher temperatures the model showed a good fit to the data for all the conditions tested. Acidification decreased the percentage of heat labile substrate from 96% to 62%, thus improving firmness retention. The parameters of the kinetic model estimated under isothermal conditions provided an adequate prediction of texture changes under non-isothermal conditions. The methodology developed in this work can be further applied to model the textural changes of vegetables during other thermal processes, such as drying, blanching, and frying.

  • 111.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gonzalez-Martinez, G
    Sjoholm, I
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Improvement of texture by modifying processing conditions2003In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 604, p. 277-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit and vegetable processors, faced with the challenge of gaining and maintaining a healthy position in the competitive fruit and vegetable sector, are optimising traditional processes towards product quality. Using frozen potatoes as a case study, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of improving the texture of potatoes by modifying the processing conditions. The texture of processed frozen potatoes is the result of the integral effect of the unit operations applied through the production chain. Production of frozen potatoes includes a blanching, a freezing, thawing/cooking step before being served. In this study, blanching temperatures from 70 to 97 °C up to 10 minutes were tested and combined with freezing by two freezing methods, impingement and air-blast freezing. The texture was measured after cooking of frozen potatoes in boiling water. Besides texture, water holding capacity, microstructural evaluation and pectinmethylesterase (PME) activity were determined. Blanching of potatoes prior to freezing can both improve water holding capacity and texture of potatoes, but this effect depends on the freezing rate and blanching temperature. Potatoes frozen with fastest freezing method are firmer and hold more water than the ones frozen by air-blast freezing. Blanching at 70 °C can lead to potatoes that after cooking retain a firmer texture, compared with blanching at 90 °C. The duration of the blanching treatment has also an important effect on texture changes. The studies of PME activity showed a good correlation between texture and PME for blanching at 90 °C, but for blanching at 70°C and longer times, the development of texture does not seem to be solely related to PME activity. Microstructural studies showed that the differences in texture are due to differences in the degree of starch gelatinisation and integrity of the cellular structure.

  • 112.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gonzalez-Martinez, G.
    Sjöholm, I.
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Improvement of texture by modifying processing conditions2003In: Acta Hortic., International Society for Horticultural Science , 2003, p. 277-283Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit and vegetable processors, faced with the challenge of gaining and maintaining a healthy position in the competitive fruit and vegetable sector, are optimising traditional processes towards product quality. Using frozen potatoes as a case study, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of improving the texture of potatoes by modifying the processing conditions. The texture of processed frozen potatoes is the result of the integral effect of the unit operations applied through the production chain. Production of frozen potatoes includes a blanching, a freezing, thawing/cooking step before being served. In this study, blanching temperatures from 70 to 97 °C up to 10 minutes were tested and combined with freezing by two freezing methods, impingement and air-blast freezing. The texture was measured after cooking of frozen potatoes in boiling water. Besides texture, water holding capacity, microstructural evaluation and pectinmethylesterase (PME) activity were determined. Blanching of potatoes prior to freezing can both improve water holding capacity and texture of potatoes, but this effect depends on the freezing rate and blanching temperature. Potatoes frozen with fastest freezing method are firmer and hold more water than the ones frozen by air-blast freezing. Blanching at 70 °C can lead to potatoes that after cooking retain a firmer texture, compared with blanching at 90 °C. The duration of the blanching treatment has also an important effect on texture changes. The studies of PME activity showed a good correlation between texture and PME for blanching at 90 °C, but for blanching at 70°C and longer times, the development of texture does not seem to be solely related to PME activity. Microstructural studies showed that the differences in texture are due to differences in the degree of starch gelatinisation and integrity of the cellular structure.

  • 113.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Pereira, N.R.
    Staack, N.
    Floberg, P.
    Microwave convective drying of plant foods at constant and variable microwave power2007In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 25, no 42193, p. 1149-1153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microwave convective drying of plant foods is a promising process due to the shorter drying time and better product quality. High microwave power decreases the drying time but causes charring of the product. In this work, microwave drying under constant and variable microwave power were compared. Temperature-sensitive products, such as plant foods, are especially affected by microwave power during the final drying period. Therefore, drying at variable microwave power was found to be a more suitable drying process. Air (temperature and velocity) has an important role during microwave drying, not only as carrier of evaporated moisture but also as it contributes to a more homogeneous and faster drying.

  • 114.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Prothon, F.
    Funebo, Tomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Comparison of drying kinetics and texture effects of two calcium pretreatments before microwave-assisted dehydration of apple and potato2003In: International journal of food science & technology, ISSN 0950-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2621, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 411-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects on drying rate and texture of treating two plant tissues with calcium, before drying in air with microwave assistance, were studied in this work. The two tissues, potato and apple cubes, which have different structures and composition, were pretreated by immersion in CaCl2 solutions at 20 or at 70 °C before microwave-assisted air dehydration at 50, 60 and 70 °C. The pretreatments with calcium influenced the strength of the plant tissue cell wall, producing products of varying hardness after rehydration. The effect of the two calcium pretreatments was quite different for apples and potatoes. For apples, calcium pretreatment at 20 °C increased the hardness of rehydrated apples compared with untreated apples, but calcium pretreatment at 70 °C had no effect on texture. For potatoes, both calcium pretreatments at 20 and at 70 °C significantly increased the hardness of rehydrated potatoes. The water diffusivity during drying varied mainly because of the type of plant tissue, with secondary effects caused by the drying temperature and the type of calcium pretreatment.

  • 115.
    Aicher, Simon mfl
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Determination of fracture energy of wood in Mode II. RILEM TC 133 Report.1997Report (Refereed)
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  • 116.
    Al Suhairy, Sinan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Akustik (Eta).
    Prediction of ground vibration from railways. Master of Science thesis, Department of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology2000Report (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 117. Alander, J
    et al.
    Wärnheim, T
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Model microemulsions containing vegetable oils Part 1: Nonionic surfactant systems1989In: Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, ISSN 0003-021X, E-ISSN 1558-9331, Vol. 66, p. 1656-1660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonionic microemulsions containing triglucerides and fatty acid esters as lipophilic components have been studied. The phase inversion temperature (PIT) of the systems was determined by a conductometric method. Partial phase diagrams were constructed in the phase inversion temperature range. Water solubilization capacity of the nonionic surfactant systems studied was dependent on surfactant and oil types in analogy to ordinary hydrocarbon systems. The PIT:s increased with increased molecular weight for both esters and triglycerides.

  • 118. Alander, J
    et al.
    Wärnheim, T
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Model microemulsions containing vegetable oils Part 2: Ionic surfactant systems1989In: Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, ISSN 0003-021X, E-ISSN 1558-9331, Vol. 66, p. 1661-1665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase behavior and the structure of ionic microemulsions, stabilized by sodium oleate and different alcohol cosurfactants, containing fatty acid esters or triglycerides as lipophilic components, have been investigated. Microemulsions containing triglycerides display a smaller stability region than microemulsions containing hydrocarbons or fatty acid esters. From structural investigations, using the NMR FT pulsed gradient spin echo method for measuring self-diffusion coefficients, differences in the microstructure are revealed as well. Adding an ester (or a hydrocarbon) to a microemulsion containing sodium oleate/pentanol will at certain compositions lead to a gradual transition from a bicontinuous to an oilcontinuous system, while this behavior cannot be detected when adding a triglyceride. Instead, a phase-separation occurs, and it is suggested that the larger molecular size of the triglyceride is responsible for the diffirence.

  • 119.
    Alber, Catherine
    et al.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Brandner, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Björklund, Sebastian
    Malmö University, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Billsten, Peter
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Corkery, Robert W.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Engblom, Johan
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Effects of water gradients and use of urea on skin ultrastructure evaluated by confocal Raman microspectroscopy2013In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes, ISSN 0005-2736, E-ISSN 1879-2642, Vol. 1828, no 11, p. 2470-2478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rather thin outermost layer of the mammalian skin, stratum corneum (SC), is a complex biomembrane which separates the water rich inside of the body from the dry outside. The skin surface can be exposed to rather extreme variations in ambient conditions (e.g. water activity, temperature and pH), with potential effects on the barrier function. Increased understanding of how the barrier is affected by such changes is highly relevant for regulation of transdermal uptake of exogenous chemicals. In the present study we investigate the effect of hydration and the use of a well-known humectant, urea, on skin barrier ultrastructure by means of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. We also perform dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) microbalance measurements to examine the water uptake capacity of SC pretreated with urea. Based on novel Raman images, constructed from 2D spectral maps, we can distinguish large water inclusions within the skin membrane exceeding the size of fully hydrated corneocytes. We show that these inclusions contain water with spectral properties similar to that of bulk water. The results furthermore show that the ambient water activity has an important impact on the formation of these water inclusions as well as on the hydration profile across the membrane. Urea significantly increases the water uptake when present in skin, as compared to skin without urea, and it promotes formation of larger water inclusions in the tissue. The results confirm that urea can be used as a humectant to increase skin hydration.

  • 120.
    Alberius, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Andersson, N
    Spray drying functionalized mesostructured colloids2003In: Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials / [ed] Yunfeng Lu, C J Brinker , M Antonietti, Materials Research Society, 2003, p. 53-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 121. Albers, Eva
    et al.
    Johansson, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Processum.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Larsson, Christer
    Selective suppression of bacterial contaminants by process conditions during lignocellulose based yeast fermentations2011In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 4, article id Art no 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Contamination of bacteria in large-scale yeast fermentations is a serious problem and a threat to the development of successful biofuel production plants. Huge research efforts have been spent in order to solve this problem, but additional ways must still be found to keep bacterial contaminants from thriving in these environments. The aim of this project was to develop process conditions that would inhibit bacterial growth while giving yeast a competitive advantage. Results: Lactic acid bacteria are usually considered to be the most common contaminants in industrial yeast fermentations. Our observations support this view but also suggest that acetic acid bacteria, although not so numerous, could be a much more problematic obstacle to overcome. Acetic acid bacteria showed a capacity to drastically reduce the viability of yeast. In addition, they consumed the previously formed ethanol. Lactic acid bacteria did not show this detrimental effect on yeast viability. It was possible to combat both types of bacteria by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol to the wood hydrolysate medium used. As a result of NaCl + ethanol additions the amount of viable bacteria decreased and yeast viability was enhanced concomitantly with an increase in ethanol concentration. The successful result obtained via addition of NaCl and ethanol was also confirmed in a real industrial ethanol production plant with its natural inherent yeast/bacterial community. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the number of bacteria and offer a selective advantage to yeast by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol when cultivated in lignocellulosic medium such as wood hydrolysate. However, for optimal results, the concentrations of NaCl + ethanol must be adjusted to suit the challenges offered by each hydrolysate. © 2011 Albers et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 122.
    Alberts, Claes
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Strömberg, Uno
    Skador på betongbalkonger.: Uppföljning av tidigare utförda lagningar1980Report (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Albinsson, B
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wendin, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Åström, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Handbok i sensorisk analys2013Report (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Albinsson, B
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wendin, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Åström, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sensoriska tillämpningar inom industrin2010Report (Other academic)
  • 125.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Nytt belastiningssystem installerat på SP Brandteknik2013In: Brandposten, no 49, p. 42-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 126.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Assessment of concrete structures after fire2011Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 127.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Assessment of fire exposed concrete with full-field strain determination2011In: Proceedings pro080 : 2nd International Workshop on Concrete Spalling due to Fire Exposure., RILEM , 2011, , p. 337-344Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Capillary suction and chloride migration in fire exposed concrete with PP-fibre2012In: 3rd International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting III. ICCRRR 2012, 2012, , p. 128-130p. 351-357Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annually, several concrete structures, such as buildings, bridges, parking garages, tunnels, etc. are exposed to fires. Many fires are small, for example single car fires in tunnels. These fires do not affect the load carrying capability of the concrete structure and thus minor or no reparations are required. In modern concrete for civil engineer applications the use of Polypropylene fibres (PP-fibre) to reduce fire spalling is growing. Some studies have been carried out which indicate that the use of PP-fibres will not affect the durability of the concrete. But in case of a fairly moderate fire exposure, a fire exposure that does not lead to structural damage, the PP-fibres can potentially lead to reduced durability. During low intensity fires or at long distances downstream a large fire in a tunnel the PP-fibres melts and form channels in the concrete. After such degradation of the PP-fibres it is plausible that accelerated damage may occur when moisture, de-icing salts and carbon dioxide can more easily penetrate the concrete. In this experimental study the chloride migration and the capillary suction are studied in moderately heated concrete containing PP-fibres. The chloride migration tests were conducted with heated samples with and without PP-fibres. The capillary suction tests were even conducted with different fibre contents. As a reference the results are compared with results from unheated concrete. The aim of the project is to define whether or not measures have to be taken to repair concrete structures after small fires and at long distances downstream from large fires in tunnels. If the durability is affected the costs and consequences of not repairing and refurbishing after the fire can potentially be very high especially after a fires in very long tunnel.

  • 129.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Quantification of fire damage of concrete for tunnel applications2012In: Proceedings from the Fifth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, SP , 2012, , p. 685-694Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Jansson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan L.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Assessment of fire exposed concrete structures2012In: fib Symposium 2012: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community, 2012, , p. 619-626p. 619-622Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annually, several concrete structures, such as buildings, bridges, parking garages and tunnels are exposed to fires. An assessment is then necessary to decide whether the structure can be repaired or needs to be replaced. In a recent research project, recommendations for assessments of fire exposed concrete structures have been developed. The recommendations are based on a literature survey, results from an experimental study, where ultrasonic measurements, microscopy, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurement on loaded core samples were used and practical experience of real post-fire structural assessments. A refined assessment of the fire damage is obtained by combining these test methods.

  • 131.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Lind, Per
    Brandprov av limträbalkar för Japan2011In: Brandposten, no 45, p. 7-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 132.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Mattsson, Ida
    Skadeutredning av parkeringsgarage efter storbrand2011In: Brandposten, no 45, p. 10-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 133.
    Aleite, Edgardo
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Gyllström, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik.
    Mätning av intensitetsbrus i lasrar (RIN)2000Report (Refereed)
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  • 134.
    Alexandersson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Polymercementbetong: Polymer cement concrete1983Report (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Alexandersson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Strength losses in heat cured concrete1972Report (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Alexandersson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, CBI - Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Strength losses in heat curing: causes and countermeasures1974Report (Refereed)
  • 137. Alexandrova, L
    et al.
    Hanumantha Rao, K
    Forsberg, KSE
    Grigorov, L
    Pugh, RJ
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Three-phase contact parameters measurements for silica-mixed cationic-anionic surfactant systems2009In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 348, no 1-3, p. 228-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability and interactions in thin wetting films between the silica surface and air bubble containing (a) straight chain C10 amine and (b) cationic/anionic surfactant mixture of a straight chain C10 amine with sodium C8, C10 and (straight chain) C12 sulfonates, were studied using the microscopic thin wetting film method developed by Platikanov [D. Platikanov, J. Phys. Chem. 68 (1964) 3619]. Film lifetimes, three-phase contact (TPC) expansion rate, receding contact angles and surface tension were measured. The presence of the mixed cationic/anionic surfactants was found to lessen contact angles and suppresses the thin aqueous film rupture, thus inducing longer film lifetime, as compared to the pure amine system. In the case of mixed surfactants heterocoagulation could arise through the formation of positively charged interfacial complexes. Mixed solution of cationic and anionic surfactants shows synergistic lowering in surface tension. The formation of the interfacial complex at the air/solution interface was confirmed by surface tension data. It was also shown, that the chain length compatibility between the anionic and cationic surfactants system controls the strength of the interfacial complex. The observed phenomena were discussed in terms of the electrostatic heterocoagulation theory, where the interactions can be attractive or repulsive depending on the different surface activity and charge of the respective surfactants at the two interfaces.

  • 138. Alexandrova, L
    et al.
    Hanumantha, Rao K
    Forsberg, KSE
    Grigorov, L
    Pugh, Robert J
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    The influence of mixed cationic-anionic surfactants on the three-phase contact parameters in silica-solution systems2011In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 373, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of thin wetting films on silica surface from aqueous solution of (a) tetradecyltrimetilammonium bromide (C14TAB) and (b) surfactant mixture of the cationic C14TAB with the anionic sodium alkyl- (straight chain C12-, C14- and C16-) sulfonates, was studied using the microscopic thin wetting film method developed by Platikanov. Film lifetimes, three-phase contact (TPC) expansion rates, receding contact angles and surface tension were measured. It was found that the mixed surfactants caused lower contact angles, lower rates of the thin aqueous film rupture and longer film lifetimes, as compared to the pure C14TAB. This behavior was explained by the strong initial adsorption of interfacial complexes from the mixed surfactant system at the air/solution interface, followed by adsorption at the silica interface. The formation of the interfacial complexes at the air/solution interface was proved by means of the surface tension data. It was also shown, that the chain length compatibility between the anionic and cationic surfactants controls the strength of the interfacial complex and causes synergistic lowering in the surface tension. The film rupture mechanism was explained by the heterocoagulation mechanism between the positively charged air/solution interface and the solution/silica interface, which remained negatively charged.

  • 139. Alexandrova, L
    et al.
    Pugh, RJ
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Tiberg, F
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Grigorov, L
    Confirmation of the heterocoagulation theory of flotation1999In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 15, p. 7464-7471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To model the flotation process, we have used the microscopic method developed by Scheludko to study the stability of an aqueous thin film containing tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide ( C14TAB ) between an air bubble and a silica substrate. Experiments were performed at a range of C14TAB concentrations and pH values. Spontaneous rupture of the thin aqueous film was interpretated in terms of heterocoagulation resulting from the preferential adsorption of relatively low surfactant concentrations at the vapour/solution interface causing a net positive charge while the solution/silica interface remained negatively charged. In addition, during the the three-phase-contact (TPC) expansion or de-wetting step following film rupture, the movement of TPC across the silica substrate leads to transfer of amine from the vapour/solution interface to the vapour/silica. This process resembles a Langmuir-Blodgett deposition process and emphasized the importance of the solution/vapour interface in the de-wetting process.

  • 140.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Pilgard, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Technical University Munich, Germany.
    Fossdal, Carl Gunnar
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Characterisation of Postia placenta colonisation during 36 weeks in acetylated southern yellow pine sapwood at three acetylation levels including genomic DNA and gene expression quantification of the fungus2016In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, no 11, p. 1055-1065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to protect timber in service against basidiomycete deterioration is by means of acetylation via reaction with acetic anhydride. The reason why acetylated wood (WAc) is resistant against decay fungi is still not exactly understood. The aim of this study was to contribute to this field of science, and Postia placenta colonisation after 4, 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks was observed at three acetylation levels of Pinus spp. sapwood. Mass loss (ML) and wood moisture content (MC) data reflected the acetylation levels. The initial equilibrium MC (EMC) proved to be a good indicator of subsequent ML. Genomic DNA quantification showed P. placenta colonisation in all samples, also in samples where no ML were detectable. The number of expressed gene transcripts was limited, but the findings supported the results of previous studies: WAc seems to have some resistance against oxidative mechanisms, which are part of the metabolism of P. placenta. This leads to a delay in decay initiation, a delay in expression of genes involved in enzymatic depolymerisation, and a slower decay rate. The magnitudes of these effects are presented for each acetylation level. The data also imply that there is no absolute decay threshold at high acetylation levels, but instead a significant delay of decay initiation and a slower decay rate.

  • 141. Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Effects of leaching on Postia placenta decay of acetic anhydride treated wood2013In: Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering, 2013, , p. 209-214Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Postia placenta decay of acetic anhydride modified wood: effect of leaching2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 162-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that acetylation of wood by the use of acetic anhydride is able to impart a significant degree of decay resistance. The aim of this work was to study how a standardized leaching procedure with water (EN 84) affected the degradation of acetic anhydride modified samples by the brown rot fungi Postia placenta compared to no leaching prior to incubation. Three different levels (low, medium, and high) of acetic anhydride modified Southern yellow pine (SYP; Pinus spp.) were tested. The samples were harvested after 4 and 28 weeks. Wecompared changes in mass loss, wood moisture content, fungal DNA, and gene expression from five genes. If leaching changes the acetylated samples and makes them more susceptible for fungal deterioration, the expected effect would be higher levels of these parameters. Generally, leaching resulted in few differences between leached and nonleached samples at low levels of acetylation, while no changes were found for the highest acetylation level. No differences were found in gene expressions after 28 weeks. The possible protection of acetylated wood against oxidative fungal degradation is suggested to be interpreted in combination with the lowered wood moisture content.

  • 143. Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Hietala, Ari
    A step towards a better understanding of fungal colonization of modified wood - QRT-PCR studies2010In: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, 2010, , p. 9Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Fossdal, Carl Gunnar
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    New insight regarding mode of action of brown rot decay of modified wood based on DNA and gene expression studies: A review2015In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 5-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modified wood shows resistance against wood deteriorating fungi, but the mechanisms are still not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to summarise the molecular studies performed on modified wood with regard to brown rot decay fungi. The DNA data showed that fungi are present inside the laboratory wood test samples already after two weeks of inoculation. Generally the fungal DNA content reflects mass loss and wood moisture content. The oxidative gene expression seems to be higher in modified wood than in untreated wood and it tend to increase during incubation. Based on the gene expression data we suggest that the hypothesis of lack of substrate recognition by the fungus should be rejected. In the reviewed studies, total wood moisture content in the samples was generally not low enough to inhibit fungal colonisation. Hence, moisture distribution within the wood should be studied more closely.

  • 145. Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Durability of modified wood – Laboratory vs field performance2009In: Proceedings of The Fourth European Conference on Wood Modification., SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden , 2009, , p. 515-522Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 146.
    Alfredsson, Robert
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Jarl, Marie-Louice
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Polymer och fiber.
    Bestämning av sammansättning hos PVC-produkter från gamla hus.1999Report (Refereed)
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  • 147.
    Algehed, Jessica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Winnes, Kajsa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys.
    Miljökultur: vad vet forskarna om kulturens och tjänsternas miljöpåverkan2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en översikt av vad vi har funnit hittills i den vetenskapliga litteraturen om kulturens och tjänsternas miljöpåverkan.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 148.
    Algerbo, Per-Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Lokalt omhändertagande av icke avvattnat avloppsslam1997Report (Refereed)
  • 149.
    Algerbo, Per-Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Dalemo, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sammanfattning av seminariet1997Report (Refereed)
  • 150.
    Algerbo, Per-Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Mattson, Lennart
    Thylén, Lennart
    Skörderelaterad kvävegödsling: teknik, metodik och erfarenheter2003Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
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