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  • 101.
    Rodionova, Galina
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Saito, Tsuguyuki
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Lenes, Marianne
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Øyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Øyvind Weiby
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Kuramae, Ryota
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Isogai, Akiara
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    TEMPO-mediated oxidation of Norway Spruce and Eucalyptus Pulps: Preparation and Characterization of Nanofibres and Nanofiber Dispersions2013In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 207-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation of cellulose. Softwood and hardwood pulp fibers were suspended in water and oxidized to various extents at pH 10 and 22 °C using sodium hypochlorite in the presence of TEMPO radical and sodium bromide. This reaction system is known to be the most efficient one for the introduction of both surface carboxyl and aldehyde groups. Important relationships between formation of these functional groups and the fibrillation yield, light transmittance of the water dispersions and degree of polymerization of the oxidized softwood and hardwood pulps were established in the present study. A birefringence test confirmed the presence of nanofibers which according to atomic force microscopy analyses had diameters in the 1. 6-3. 8 nm range.

  • 102.
    Rogstad Nordli, Henriette
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Rokstad, Anne Mari
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Pukstad, Brita
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; Trondheim University Hospital, Norway.
    Producing ultrapure wood cellulose nanofibrils and evaluating the cytotoxicity using human skin cells2016In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 150, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have been suggested as a potential wound healing material, but its utilization is limited by FDA requirements regarding endotoxin levels. In this study a method using sodium hydroxide followed by TEMPO mediated oxidation was developed to produce ultrapure cellulose nanofibrils, with an endotoxin level of 45 endotoxin units/g (EU/g) cellulose. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (S(T)EM) revealed a highly nanofibrillated structure (lateral width of 3.7 ± 1.3 nm). Assessment of cytotoxicity and metabolic activity on Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Human Epidermal Keratinocytes was done. CNF-dispersion of 50 ÎŒg/ml did not affect the cells. CNF-aerogels induced a reduction of metabolic activity by the fibroblasts and keratinocytes, but no significant cell death. Cytokine profiling revealed no induction of the 27 cytokines tested upon exposure to CNF. The moisture-holding capacity of aerogels was relatively high (∌7500%), compared to a commercially available wound dressing (∌2500%), indicating that the CNF material is promising as dressing material for management of wounds with a moderate to high amount of exudate.

  • 103. Rusu, M.
    et al.
    Mörseburg, Kathrin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Øjvind
    Yamakawa, A.
    Liukkonen, S.
    Relation between fibre flexibility and cross-sectional properties2011In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 6, p. 641-655Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 104.
    Rättö, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Blohm, Erik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Film splitting during offset printing - the influence of paper surface properties on film splitting geometry2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Santos, Sara M.
    et al.
    INIA, Spain.
    Carbajo, José M.
    INIA, Spain.
    Gomez, Nuria
    INIA, Spain.
    Quintana, Ester
    INIA, Spain.
    Ladero, Miguel
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Sanchez, Arsenio
    National Library of Spain, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Villar, Juan C.
    INIA, Spain.
    Use of bacterial cellulose in degraded paper restoration. Part I: application on model papers2016In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 1541-1552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The disappearance of bibliographic heritage is one of the biggest problems facing libraries. One of the most common methods used to restore paper, lining, is to apply a reinforcing layer to the document. This study focuses on lining papers with bacterial cellulose (BC) sheets from Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans. For this purpose, several model papers have been selected. They have been characterized before and after the lining with this BC and a specific Japanese paper (JP) to compare both materials. Taking into account the differences between bacterial and vegetal cellulose is expected that the results may be similar to other BC and JP. The samples have been characterized before and after an aging process. There are no significant differences in some of the characteristics studied. Nevertheless, BC-lined papers present higher gloss values and b* coordinate. The wettability decreases with both BC and JP. However, in papers lined with BC, the wettability decreases more markedly and independently of the model paper used. This is related to the sealing of the surface structure by BC, which also leads to a reduction of air permeability. When the lined papers go through an aging process, there are no significant changes in any characteristic, except in b* and L* color coordinates. Additionally, the wettability rate decreases in all cases. This study indicates that papers lined with BC are stable over time. Finally, the use of BC as reinforcing material may offer advantages for specific conservation treatments, being more suitable for certain types of paper than JP.

  • 106.
    Santos, Sara M.
    et al.
    INIA, Spain.
    Carbajo, José M.
    INIA, Spain.
    Gomez, Nuria
    INIA, Spain.
    Quintana, Ester
    INIA, Spain.
    Ladero, Miguel
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Sanchez, Arsenio
    National Library of Spain, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Villar, Juan C.
    INIA, Spain.
    Use of bacterial cellulose in degraded paper restoration. Part II: application on real samples2016In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 1553-1561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preservation of documentary heritage is one of the biggest challenges facing paper conservators today. The singular properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) lead us to propose to reinforce paper with BC sheets. In the first part of this study, the reinforcing capability of BC was tested on model papers of well-known fiber composition. The aim of the present study was to verify the suitability of rebuilding degraded old papers with BC. The degraded papers were characterized before and after the reinforcement. In addition, lined samples were characterized before and after an aging process in order to study the stability in time. The same methodology was used with Japanese paper (JP), a material commonly used by paper conservators, in order to compare both materials as reinforcement. Mechanical properties of paper lined with BC are as good as those obtained with JP. Papers lined with BC have more marked modifications on their optical properties than those restored with JP. Nevertheless, letters in books lined with BC are more legible. Moreover, only the papers restored with BC show high changes in porosity. The aging process leads to a slight decrement in burst index. Changes on tear index and optical properties with the aging process depend on the paper to be restored. This study suggests that BC improves deteriorated paper quality, without altering the information contained therein, and that this improvement is maintained over time. Hence, BC is a promising alternative material for the restoration of paper.

  • 107.
    Schachtl, M.
    et al.
    BASF SE, Germany.
    Erren, S.
    BASF SE, Germany.
    Scliönhaber, D.
    BASF SE, Germany.
    Dahlbom, P.
    Norske Skog Skogn, Norway.
    Steinsli, J. H.
    Norske Skog Skogn, Norway.
    Johansson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Experiences with "dithionite Based Additives (DBA) in (C)TMP" in lab, pilot and mill scale: Synergies between high brightness, less specific energy consumption and development of pulp properties2016In: International Mechanical Pulping Conference 2016 (IMPC 2016), TAPPI Press, 2016, p. 59-69Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to report about our experiences with treating softwood mechanical pulp (MP) with DBA directly injected into the gap of high consistency (HC) refiners used as chemical reactors to improve the competitiveness and the ecological footprint of (C)TMP based products. After the description of the main factors and pros and cons of conventional oxidative and reductive bleaching of sofhvood MP the basic principles of the treatment of MP with DBA in the (C)TMP refiner are outlined. By means of exemplary results of trials in lab, pilot and mill scale as well as of productions the main advantages of "DBA in (C)TMP" are illustrated: efficient brightness gain, reduction of anionic trash, high wood yield, reduction of hard chelating agents, saving of refining energy and increase of strength properties. Using the example of Norske Skog Skogn it is demonstrated how the system works in practice in the production of high bright and standard newsprint made from normal and lower quality wood. Finally it is pointed out that to a certain extent DBAs can be tailored to the needs of the respective mill.

  • 108.
    Stepien, Milena
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Saarinen, Jarkko J.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Teisala, Hannu
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Aromaa, Mikko
    California Institute of Technology, USA.
    Haapanen, Janne
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Kuusipalo, Jurkka
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Wear resistance of nanoparticle coatings on paperboard2013In: TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology 2013, TAPPI Press , 2013, p. 821-829Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    • LFS-deposited TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles create superhydro-phobic and hydrophilic paper surface, • Abrasive damage of surface structure influences only slightly the wettability of superhydrophobic TiO2 and hydrophilic SiO2 coatings, • A more severe abrasive action will remove some of the nanoparticle coating, but the hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of the surface are maintained, • SiO2 nanoparticle coated surface is more resistant to abrasion than the TiO2 coating, which indicates a stronger inter-particle and particle to surface adhesion of the former, • Investigation of nanoparticle loss from the paper surface is challenging, due to the small total mass of nanoparticles in the coating, mixed together with pigment particles and fiber debris removed during abrasion experiment.

  • 109.
    Stepien, Milena
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Saarinen, Jarkko J.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Teisala, Hannu
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Haapanen, Janne
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Kuusipalo, Jurkka
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Abrasion and Compression Resistance of Liquid-Flame-Spray-Deposited Functional Nanoparticle Coatings on Paper2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional paper surfaces with adjustable wettability can be fabricated by deposition of nanoparticles in a roll-to-roll liquid flame spray (LFS) process. The TiO2 nanoparticle coating creates a superhydrophobic surface with water CAs exceeding 160°, whereas SiO2 nanoparticle coating creates highly hydrophilic surfaces with water CAs as low as 21°. The superhydrophobicity or hydrophilicity is a result of the combined effect of surface structure and surface chemistry of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the wettability of the TiO2-nanoparticle coated paper can controlled photocatalytically and adjusted with UV-treatment to any water contact angle between 10° to 160°. In the current work, the abrasion and compression resistance of LFS nanoparticle coated paper was investigated with rotary abrasion testing and calendering. Changes in sample properties were analysed with contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and high resolution field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  • 110.
    Stepien, Milena
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Saarinen, Jarkko J.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Teisalo, Hannu
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Aromaa, Mikko
    California Institute of Technology, USA.
    Haapanen, Janne
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Kuusipalo, Jurkka
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Wear resistance of nanoparticle coatings on paperboard2013In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 307, no 1-2, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper can be coated with liquid flame spray (LFS) generated nanoparticles to control the wettability of its surface from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. The adhesion of the nanoparticles on paper is of interest both for understanding the product durability during its lifetime and for product safety issues. Poor particle adhesion influences the desired functional properties and released nanoparticles cause health and environmental concerns. To investigate the wear resistance of LFS-TiO2 and -SiO2 coated papers, the nanoparticle surfaces were exposed to rotary abrasion tests. The changes in the samples were analyzed by contact angle measurements and high resolution field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After abrasive action with another paperboard surface, only relatively small changes in wettability of superhydrophobic/hydrophilic coatings were found. A more severe abrasive action will remove some of the nanoparticle coating, but the hydrophobic/hydrophilic character of the surface is still maintained to large extent. The results indicate that the wear resistance of LFS nanocoated paper surfaces differs and depends on the nanoparticle material type used for the coating. This is clearly reflected as changes in surface structure shown by FE-SEM and wettability. The results can help understanding which paper-related application areas could be targeted with the LFS-nanoparticle coating process.

  • 111.
    Stepien, Milena
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Saarinen, Jarkko J.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Teisala, Hannu
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Aromaa, Mikko
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Kuusipalo, Jurkka
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Surface characterization of nanoparticle coated paperboard2012In: Technical Proceedings of the 2012 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo, NSTI-Nanotech 2012, 2012, p. 710-713Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both surface topographical and chemical composition of nanoparticle coated paperboard was characterized to explain observed differences in surface wettability. TiO 2 particles induce superhydrophobicity with water contact angle (CA) of 161° whereas SiO 2 particles result in superhydrophilicity with 23° water CA. The nanoparticles were generated by the liquid flame spray (LFS) process. The morphological characterization of reference paperboard and nanocoated samples was performed using FESEM and AFM. Both XPS and CA measurements were used to evaluate chemical composition before and after nanoparticle deposition. Our results show that the LFS process can be used to create either hydrophobic or hydrophilic paperboard depending on the type of nanoparticles used for coating. The wettability differences were contributed to the attributed effect of surface chemistry and topography.

  • 112.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Controlling the elastic modulus of cellulose nanofibrils hydrogels by crosslinking: a premise for their use in medical applications2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils can be utilized as a building block in novel material concepts. One area of particular interest is formation of hydrogels for use in medical applications such as drug delivery and tissue engineering. Compared to bacterial cellulose, which is presently used for some medical applications but is produced through a somewhat inefficient process, cellulose nanofibrils from wood can be produced effectively and in large quantities. Cellulose nanofibrils are nano-scaled fibres with high aspect ratio and strong interactions with water. In order to produce stable macroscopic structures which perform adequately in humid conditions, the nanofibrils must be cross-linked in a controlled way. Several properties are important for a successful utilization of hydrogels for biomedical applications, such as degradation, bio-adhesion, bioactivity, transport through the network and mechanical properties. In the present work focus is set on the mechanical and viscoelastic properties of hydrogels. Hydrogels of oxidized cellulose nanofibrils were formed by crosslinking the nanofibrils through the formation of covalent bonds between the crosslinking molecules and oxidized sites at the nanofibril surfaces. The elastic moduli of the hydrogels were controlled by varying the concentration and the length of the crosslinking molecules. Results from cytotoxicity studies of cellulose nanofibrils will be shown.

  • 113.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Nanocellulose: a promising green flooding additive2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Syverud, Kristin
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Alexandrescu, L.
    Gatti, A.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Biocompatibility studies of nanofibril structures based on Eucalyptus and Pinus radiata pulp fibres2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Syverud, Kristin
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Alexandrescu, L.
    Gatti, A.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Belosi, F.
    Verifying the biocompatibility of cellulose nanofibril structures as a first step to develop filters for air-borne nanoparticles2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Syverud, Kristin
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Alexandrescu, L.
    Manti, Canonico
    Gatti, A.
    Physical, chemical and biological characterization of a new nanostructured filtering membrane2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Syverud, Kristin
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Salvatori, R.
    Gatti, A.
    Towards novel filter concepts for nanopollution2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Syverud, Kristin
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toledo, J.
    Toledo, P.G.
    A comparative study of Eucalyptus and Pinus Radiata pulp fibres as raw materials for production of cellulose nanofibrils2011In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Syverud, Kristin
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Kirsebom, H.
    Hajizadet, S.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Cross-linking cellulose nanofibrils for potential elastic cryo-structured gels2011In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Syverud, Kristin
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Pettersen, S.
    Draget, K.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Controlling the elastic modulus of nanoengineered hydrogels by cross-linking cellulose nanofibrils2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Syverud, Kristin
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Xhanari, K.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Yu, Y.
    Stenius, P.
    Films made of cellulose nanofibrils: surface modification by adsorption of a cationic surfactant and characterization by computer-assisted electron microscopy2011In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Tehrani, Zari
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Rogstad Nordli, Henriette
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Pukstad, Brita
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; Trondheim University Hospital, Norway.
    Gethin, David T.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Translucent and ductile nanocellulose-PEG bionanocomposites-A novel substrate with potential to be functionalized by printing for wound dressing applications2016In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 93, p. 193-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is potential that nanocellulose structures can act as a substrate for biomedical applications in which printing can expand its use as a functionalized biomaterial. Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material suitable for use in biomedical devices that include wound dressings. The material does not promote bacterial growth, allows for production of translucent films and provides a moist wound-healing environment. However it is intrinsically brittle so research is needed to develop its flexibility and strength through the addition of plasticisers. In this work, we explore the effect of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG 400) as a plasticizer on nanocellulose film formation and performance. The nanocellulose used was prepared with TEMPO mediated oxidation. We also demonstrated different methods such as laser profilometry and atomic force microscopy to observe the topography and morphology of the films. FTIR, UV-vis spectroscopy was used to look at the characteristics of the nanocellulose films. In addition, the mechanical strength of the films with and without plasticizers was assessed. This led to the formulation of films that included PEG400 at 10-40% by weight. These demonstrated properties that are suitable for wound dressings. Additionally, the PEG modification yielded films that showed a surface morphology adequate for surface modification by printing. Importantly, a cytotoxicity test was performed using Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Human Epidermal Keratinocytes. The results showed no effect on the metabolic activity when fibroblasts were incubated in the presence of films containing 10 and 25% PEG. A reduction was measured in the presence of PEG at 40%. However, no significant cell death was detected in any of the cell-types. Hence, the nanocellulose-PEG films are not considered to be cytotoxic against human skin cells at the concentrations applied in this study.

  • 123.
    Toven, K.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Azócar, L.
    Reitan, A.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Mass loss kinetics in torrefaction for various biomass feedstocks2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Toven, K.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Celaya, J.
    Lenes, M.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Bridgwater, A.V.
    Ash free pyrolysis liquid from softwood forestry residues2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Toven, K.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Reitan, A.
    Karlsen, T.
    Properties of Torrefied Pellets made of softwood forestry residues2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 126.
    Wernersson Brodin, F.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Weiby Gregersen, Ø
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Cellulose nanofibrils: Challenges and possibilities as a paper additive or coating material – A review2014In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 1, no 29, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 127. Xhanari, K.
    et al.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Paso, K.
    Stenius, P.
    Reduction of water wettability of nanofibrillated cellulose by adsorption of cationic surfactants2011In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 128. Xhanari, K.
    et al.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Paso, K.
    Stenius, P.
    Structure of nanofibrillated cellulose layers at the o/w interface2011In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 356Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 129. Xhanari, K.
    et al.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Stenius, P.
    Emulsions stabilized by microfibrillated cellulose: The effect of hydrofobization, concentration and o/w-ratio2011In: Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, ISSN 0193-2691, E-ISSN 1532-2351, Vol. 32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Öyaas, K.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
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