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  • 101. Risman, Per O.
    et al.
    Raaholt, Birgitta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Retro-modelling of a dual resonant applicator and accurate dielectric properties of liquid water from -20 °c to +100 °c2007In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 959-966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical analysis is made of literature reports on the dielectric properties of pure water from liquid water supercooled at -20 °C, to +100 °C, in principle in the frequency range 0 to 3 GHz. Measurements using complete multi-step numerical modelling of a dual resonant cavity at about 920 MHz and 2230 MHz are presented. The measured data at about +20 °C are used as reference for the calculation of data at other temperatures. Due to the high resolution and considerations of various error sources, the resulting accuracy becomes high and allows the construction of improved empirical formulae for the Debye relaxation behaviour. © 2007 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 102.
    Rød, Bjarte
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Barabadi, Abbas
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Ayele, Yonas Zewdu
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Droguett, Enrique López
    University of Chile, Chile.
    Probabilistic metric of infrastructure resilience considering time-dependent and time-independent covariates2017In: Safety and Reliability - Theory and Applications - Proceedings of the 27th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2017, CRC Press/Balkema , 2017, p. 1053-1060Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the importance of resilient critical infrastructures has become more evident. More frequent extreme weather conditions and human-induced disasters, such as terror attacks, cause severe damage to infrastructures. It is important to be able to withstand such events, but perhaps even more important be able to bounce back and rapidly recover. In this work, resilience is formulated, in a pragmatic way, as a combination of the reliability of infrastructure elements, vulnerability and the recoverability of the failed components. To be able to characterize the recovery time, there is a need to know the reliability and vulnerability of the infrastructures, i.e. their drop in performance in different scenarios with different stress level. Moreover, recovery time and vulnerability can be affected significantly by different factors such as location, seasonal effects, recovery crew available etc. Hence, the trajectory of the loss in performance and the recovery may have different paths depending these associated factors, meaning that resilience prediction model must be able to capture these factors. However, resilience studies are not well detailed regarding the effect of time dependent and time independent influence factors. The proposed formulation makes it possible to predict the resilience of a (critical) infrastructure with multiple failure mechanisms, different types of vulnerability process, and recovery actions with time-dependent and time-independent covariates. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

  • 103.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Evergren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Brannsikkerhet ved bruk av gassbeholdere i bygg2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet på oppdrag fra Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB). DSB har bedt RISE Fire Research om å bistå med evalueringer knyttet til bruken av gassbeholdere ved serveringssteder, overnattingssteder og forsamlingslokaler.

  • 104.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjær, Sindre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Mapping of gas concentrations, effect of deadair space and effect of alternative detection technology in smouldering fires2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight out of ten fire-related fatalities occur in dwellings. It is a fact that smoke detectors save lives, which emphasizes the importance of every home having a functioning smoke detector. In Norway, smoke detectors in dwellings are mandatory, and recommendations on which detector technology to use and the position of the detectors are given. Smoke detectors should be installed on the ceiling, outside of dead-air space (close to walls). In this study, ten smouldering fire experiments have been conducted to: • investigate if smoke detectors with CO sensing can alert residents at an earlier stage than photoelectric smoke detectors, consequently increasing chances of egress and survival for a sleeping person. • measure concentrations of toxic gases in a room where a smouldering fire occurs and investigate if tenability limits are exceeded when n photoelectric smoke detector is activated. • investigate if smoke detectors placed within dead-air space are activated at a later stage than smoke detectors placed according to the recommendations.

  • 105.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Røykvarslere for bruk i bolig: Kartlegging av forskningsfront2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    I byggeforskrift av 1985 ble det innført krav til røykvarslere i nye boliger. I Forskrift om brannforebyggende tiltak og brannsyn (FOBTOB) av 1990, ble det i tillegg innført krav om røykvarslere i eksisterende boliger.

     

    Et litteraturstudium har blitt gjennomført for å kartlegge teknologistatus for røykvarslere i boliger. Det er lagt vekt på hvilken forskning og utvikling som er gjort med tanke på røykvarslere for boliger siden år 2000. Hvilke deteksjonsprinsipper kan benyttes, og kan ny teknologi gjøre detektorene bedre?

     

    Rapporten oppsummerer litteraturstudiet, innenfor forskjellige fokusområder, og gir i tillegg forslag til videre forskning på temaet.

  • 106.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Investigation of the use of smoke alarms in Norwegian dwellings2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 387-388Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey mapping the use of smoke alarms and residents’ awareness of their legal obligations for protecting their dwellings with smoke alarms has been carried out. A total of 628 individual households geographically distributed throughout Norway were included in this study. The results demonstrated that factors such as level of education, age, gender, and if the dwelling is owned or rented by the resident, affects the awareness and compliance with the regulations and recommendations for the use of smoke alarms in dwellings.

  • 107.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    Fjær, Sindre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Kartlegging av gasskonsentrasjoner, effekt av dødluftsrom og effekt av alternativt deteksjonsprinsipp ved ulmebrann2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Åtte av ti som omkommer i brann dør i hjemmet. Det er stadfestet at røykvarslere redder liv, noe som understreker hvor viktig det er at alle hjem har fungerende røykvarsler. I Norge er det krav om at fungerende røykvarsler er installert i alle boliger, og det er også gitt anbefalinger om deteksjonsprinsipp og plassering av røykvarslere. Det er anbefalt å benytte optiske røykvarslere fremfor ioniske, og at disse monteres i tak, utenfor dødluftsrom (nær vegg). I denne studien er det utført ti forsøk med ulmebrann i et testrom innredet med en seng for å: • undersøke om røykdetektorer med CO-sensor kan varsle beboer på et tidligere tidspunkt enn optiske detektorer, og følgelig øke sjansene for evakuering. • kartlegge nivået av giftige gasser i et rom hvor ulmebrann oppstår, og undersøke om grenseverdiene for forgiftning er overskredet når en tradisjonell, optisk røykvarsler går til alarm. • undersøke om røykdetektorer som er plassert i dødluftsrom reagerer tregere enn detektorer som er plassert i henhold Norsk brannvernforenings anbefalinger.

  • 108.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Evaluering av brannen i BASA-Huset, Tønsberg2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    Torsdag 23. juli 2015 brøt det ut brann i BASA-Huset i Tønsberg. BASA-Huset var et næringsbygg hvor ca. 70 firma hadde tilhold. Størsteparten av bygget brant ned, og forsikringserstatningene er anslått til å være i størrelsesorden flere hundre millioner kroner. Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap og Direktoratet for byggkvalitet har bedt SP Fire Research om å evaluere brannen med tanke på hvorfor brannen ble så stor som den ble, og hvilke nasjonale læringspunkt som kan dras ut av hendelsen.

  • 109.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Anteson, F
    Davis, Jenny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoden, P.-O.
    Home transport and wastage: Environmentally relevant household activities in the life cycle of food2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 42099, p. 371-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis of food production systems, the consumer phase (home transport, cooking, storing, and wastage) is an important contributor to the total life-cycle environmental impact. However, households are the least investigated part of the food chain. Information gathering about households involves difficulties; the number of households is large, and food-related activities are embedded in other household activities. In cooperation between researchers from environmental systems analysis and consumer research, Swedish households were surveyed by questionnaire, diary, and interviews. Data on home transport of food and wastage were collected. The average weekly driving distance was 28 to 63 km per household, depending on how trips made in conjunction with other errands are allocated. The wastage of prepared food ranged between 0 and 34% for different food categories, and wastage from storing between 0 and 164% (more food was discarded, e.g. by cleaning out a cupboard, than consumed). In both cases dairy products scored highest. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 110.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mattsson, Berit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nybrant, T
    Ohlsson, Tomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Industrial processing versus home cooking: An environmental comparison between three ways to prepare a meal2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 42099, p. 414-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a strong trend in Sweden for industrially processed meals to replace homemade meals. In the public debate this is often claimed to increase the environmental impact from foods. In the study presented in this article, we used life-cycle assessment to quantify the environmental impact of three meals: homemade, semiprepared, and ready-to-eat. The differences in environmental impact between the meals were small; the ready-to-eat meal used the most energy, whereas the homemade meal had higher emissions causing eutrophication and global warming. The dominating contributor to the environmental impact was agriculture, accounting for 30% of the impact related to energy and 95% of that related to eutrophication. Industry, packaging, and consumer home transport and food preparation also contributed significantly. Important factors were raw material use, energy efficiency in industry and households, packaging, and residue treatment. To decrease the overall environmental impact of food consumption, improvements in agriculture are very important, together with raw-material use within industry and households. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 111.
    Spaepen, Lutgart
    et al.
    VLAIO ‐ Flanders Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Belgium.
    Vanschoonbeek, Eddy
    VLAIO ‐ Flanders Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Belgium.
    Hantson, Karolien
    VLAIO ‐ Flanders Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Belgium.
    de Brabandere, Anne
    VLAIO ‐ Flanders Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Belgium.
    Bagur, Jaume
    Fundació BIT ‐ Balears d'Innovació i Tecnologia, Spain.
    Salamanca, Immaculada
    Fundació BIT ‐ Balears d'Innovació i Tecnologia, Spain.
    Maupoix, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Bräck, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Mikheil, Marian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Design Options Paper SME Value Chains: Peer learning of innovationagencies about innovation support in SMEs in transnational business valuechains2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of globalization the production of goods and services is getting increasingly spread over companies and countries. Goods are nowadays processed in many sequential stages at the most suited location for the activity. Multinationals lead the process. Small and medium ‐sized enterprises (SMEs) try to participate as partners, but they face serious challenges to get access to the markets and to add value in these global value chains (GVCs).

    On the other hand governments and nongovernmental institutions and organisations, inspired by research on the importance of the participation of SMEs in GVCs, are seeking to implement policies and programs intended to support entrepreneurs in this field.

    In INNOSUP project H2020 ‐ CSA‐LS 671524, we learn together with innovation agencies from three European regions about SMEs in transnational business value chains, or even GVCs, and the support they receive or need. In this project we wanted to challenge some of the ‘myths’ surrounding the nature of GVCs and the added value our SMEs can create in them.

    At the beginning of the project, the perception prevailed that the multiple types of support offered to the companies of our target group were often misdirected and failed to provide relevant support to the type of businesses we aimed in our project. At the same time, the existing public support measures were seen to largely neglect the real needs of this category of SMEs. Some of the interviews revealed that indeed part of this critique is true. But, surprisingly or not, in many other cases, SMEs much welcome the efforts public support makes. Consequently, in addition to providing critical comments on certain public support measures for the innovation and internationalisation of SMEs and how they relate to the participation of these businesses in GVCs, we present a few suggestions for how regional and EU small business policy can potentially be reconfigured to cover the needs of these firms.

  • 112.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Bøe, Andreas G.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stensaas, Jan P.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    Hva kan vi lære av brannen i Lærdal i januar 2014?: Vurdering av brannspredningen2014Report (Refereed)
  • 113. Stern, S
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gunnarsson, S
    Oborn, I
    Kumm, K.-I.
    Nybrant, T
    Sustainable development of food production: A case study on scenarios for pig production2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 42099, p. 402-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study future, sustainable production systems, a stepwise method was used to create three future scenarios for pig production based on different sustainability goals. The first scenario focused on animal welfare and the natural behavior of the animals. The second targeted low impacts on the environment and the efficient use of natural resources. The third scenario aimed at product quality and safety. Each scenario fulfilled different aspects of sustainability, but there were goal conflicts because no scenario fulfilled all sustainability goals. The scenarios were then parameterized. The environmental impact was calculated using the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and the economic cost was calculated from the same data set. The cost per kilo of pork was highest for the animal welfare scenario and similar for the other two scenarios. The environmental scenario had the lowest environmental impact, and the product-quality scenario the highest. The results are discussed based on different future priorities. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 114.
    Stiernstedt, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Carlström, Elis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Mellander, Bengt Erik
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskolan.
    Co-sintering of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells made by Aqueous Tape Casting2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) are typically produced using organic solvent tape casting of one layer (electrolyte, anode or cathode) followed by deposition of the other layers by complex methods such as physical vapour deposition. Our aim is instead to use aqueous tape casting, followed by co-sintering. These are less costly processes, which causes less CO2-emissions, but co-sintering is a critical step. Both shrinkage and thermal expansion must be matched, and of course also the sintering temperature. Using water-based tape casting we have demonstrated co-sintering of NiO/YSZ-anode with 30% porosity and dense YSZ-electrolyte, in planar and tubular shapes. We have also shown that tape casting is a suitable prototype method for tubes. On-going work aims at increasing the porosity and decreasing the working temperature of the cell.

  • 115.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Heat flux in jet fires: New method for measuring the heat flux levels of jet fires2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Jet fires are ignited leakages of pressurized liquid or gaseous fuel. In jet fire testing for the offshore industry, heat flux is the defining factor for the accidental loads. NORSOK S001 [1] defines two different heat flux levels of 250 kW/m2 and 350 kW/m2 depending on the leak rate of hydrocarbons. These heat flux levels are used in risk analysis and define what type of fire load bearing structures and critical equipment need to be able to resist in a given area. Examples of such ratings can be “250 kW/m2 jet fire for 60 minutes”, “350 kW/m2 jet fire for 15 minutes” or any other combination based on calculations in the risk assessment. Combined with critical temperatures this defines the performance criteria for the passive fire protection. Each configuration of the passive fire protection needs to be tested and verified. Manufacturers of passive fire protection request fire tests to document their performance against jet fires with these various heat flux levels. The challenge is that the standard for testing passive fire protection against jet fires [2] does not define any heat flux level or any method to define or measure it. We have developed a method for defining and measuring the heat flux levels in jet fires. This method can be used when faced with the challenge of testing passive fire protection against specific levels of heat flux. The method includes a custom test rig that allows jet fire testing with different heat flux levels. A large number of tests have been performed to verify the reproducibility and repeatability of the method. Heat flux is defined as the flow of energy through a surface. The heat flux from a fire to an engulfed surface of an object is dependent on both the engulfing flame and the properties of the surface. The properties of the surface may change during the exposure to the flame as it heats up and changes its surface properties. At some point the object inside the flame will reach a thermal equilibrium with the flame where the net flow of energy into the object is balanced by the energy emitted from the object. The heat flux for an object can be calculated as incident heat flux, emitted heat flux or net heat flux. A definition of heat flux needs to include parameters of the receiving object. These variations give a lot of degrees of freedom when calculating heat flux in a fire. Special water cooled gauges are designed to measure heat flux to a cooled surface, but these have proved to be very unreliable when placed inside a large fire. A more robust and easily defined method is to measure the equilibrium temperature inside an object placed inside the flame. This is the principle used in plate thermocouples used in fire resistance furnace testing [3]. In our experience, these plate thermocouples are often damaged during high heat flux jet fire tests. This raises questions to how long into the tests such measurements are reliable. Several other types of objects have been tested and the most convenient and reliable type was found to be simply a small 8 mm steel tube that is sealed in the end and has a thermocouple inside. One key difference between this small tube thermocouple and the plate thermocouple is that the plate thermocouple is directional and the tube is omnidirectional. Current works and tests will optimize the measuring objects in order to get the most relevant equilibrium temperature while still maintaining the robustness of the sensor during the test. The suggested heat flux calculation is to follow the Stefan-Boltzmann relation of temperature and heat flux. For a black body this gives 350 kW/m2 for 1303 °C and 250 kW/m2 for 1176 °C. A lower emissivity may be defined for the surface of the sensing object giving higher temperatures for the same flux levels. This method gives a simple, robust and reproducible correlation between heat flux levels and temperatures that can be measured during jet fire tests. The method does not differ between the varying convective and radiative heat transfer in the flame, but it is a representative measurement for the temperature that an object would reach when placed inside the flame.

  • 116.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stensaas, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Solcelleteknologi og brannsikkerhet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Norway is increasing. In this study, fire safety challenges of PV technology are studied. Fire ignition, fire spread and fire extinguishing are investigated. The study forms a knowledge base for safeguarding fire safety during assembly, operation and during firefighting efforts, and to form unified and clear regulations. The results show:

    Fire ignition: PV installations contain many electric connections which can be potential ignition sources, as well as a small volume of combustible materials. These provide everything needed to initiate a fire. It is important that all connections in a PV installation are robust and can withstand the stress they are exposed to throughout their lifetime, without causing malfunction that could cause a fire.

    Fire spread: For building attached photovoltaics, there are cavities between the module and the building. If there is a fire in this cavity, the produced heat could be trapped, which could lead to a more rapid and extensive fire spread than if the building surface were uncovered. In large scale tests with PV modules mounted on a roof covering, the fire spread under the whole area covered with modules, but stopped when approaching the edge. This demonstrates the importance of sectioning when mounting PV installations, to avoid fire spread to the whole roof. An option is to use materials with limited combustibility as roof covering below the PV module, to withstand the increased heat exposure from the PV modules. The cavity between module and building could potentially also alter the air flow along the building, which in turn could affect the fire spread.

    Firefighting: Firefighters need information on whether there is a PV installation in the building, and where there are electrical components. During firefighting efforts, the fire service must consider the danger of direct contact, and danger of arcs and other faults that could lead to new ignition points. Fresh water can be used as an extinguishing agent. This must be applied from at least 1 meter distance with spread beam and at least 5 meters distance with a focused beam. PV modules can complicate fire extinguishing as they represent a physical barrier between the fire fighter and the area to extinguish, and by creating areas which should be avoided due to danger of components with voltage. When these points are considered, building attached photovoltaics should not be a problem.

    Further work: For building attached photovoltaics, there is little research on vertical mounting (on facades), and on how changed fire dynamics could affect fire spread and extinguishing. Also, today there is an increasing use of building integrated photovoltaics, which could potentially give many new challenges for fire safety and for regulations, as these are a part of the building and at the same time electrical components. German statistics indicate that there is an increased fire risk for these types of installations, compared to building attached photovoltaics, making this an important focus area for further work.

  • 117.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    Optisk varsling – Veiledningstekst2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet på oppdrag fra Direktoratet for byggkvalitet (DiBK) og Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB). Prosjektet har bakgrunn i at DiBK har mottatt et endringsforslag til eksisterende tekst i VTEK § 11-12, annet ledd annet ledd bokstav a, preaksepterte ytelser punkt 4. Teksten omhandler optisk varsling som en del av et brannalarmanlegg.

  • 118.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Bøe, Andreas G.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stolen, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Gjøsund, Gudveig
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Halvorsen, Kristin
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Almklov, Petter G.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Rett tiltak på rett sted: Forebyggende og målrettede tekniske og organisatoriske tiltak mot dødsbranner i risikogrupper2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Personer som på ulike måter kan kategoriseres som sårbare, er overrepresentert i dødsbrannstatistikken. Derfor er det viktig å finne fram til effektive og målrettede tiltak som kan forhindre framtidige dødsbranner der personer som tilhører det som omtales som sårbare grupper er involvert. I rapporten brukes en helhetlig analytisk tilnærming som skal fange opp mangfoldet av dimensjoner som kan påvirke forebygging av dødsbrann, og hvordan disse virker i samspill med hverandre. Prosjektet har operert med en forståelse av sårbarhet som inkluderer både det fysiske miljøet, de menneskelige behovene og de sosiale og organisatoriske omgivelsene. En del av rapporten retter seg mot tekniske løsninger som kan brukes for å forbedre brannsikkerheten til sårbare grupper. Det har vært et mål å finne ut hvordan organisatoriske og tekniske tiltak kan brukes og ses i sammenheng, og hvordan tekniske tiltak kan implementeres, vurderes og dokumenteres.

  • 119.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Ishol, Herbjörg M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Rømning i brann: funksjonen til ulike visuelle ledesystemer2014Report (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fire fatalities in Norway: An analysis of 350 fires from 2005 to 20142017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Thorvald, Peter
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde.
    Case, Keith
    Loughboroug University.
    Syntax and Sequencing of Assembly Instructions2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Valdés, Virginia
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Smouldering fires in wood pellets: the effect of varying the airflow2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smouldering is a flameless form of combustion, deriving its heat from heterogeneous reactions occurring on the surface of the fuel when heated in an oxidizer environment. Smouldering is of interest both as a fundamental combustion problem and as a practical fire hazard, for instance in industrial storage units [1]. Many materials can sustain a smouldering reaction, among them wood pellets, which are becoming more widely used as an alternative to oil -fired central heating in residential and industrial buildings. Smouldering fires are difficult to detect, becoming a hazard that must not be underestimated [2]. The influence of varying the airflow, using two different configurations of smouldering combustion was studied: reverse and forward propagation. These are defined according to the direction in which the smouldering reaction front propagates relative to the oxidizer flow. In reverse smouldering, the reaction front propagates in the opposite direction to the oxidizer flow. In forward smouldering the front propagates in the same direction as the oxidizer flow: convective transport is in the direction of the original fuel ahead, preheating it before the smoulder zone is reached.

  • 123. Van Hark, S.D.
    et al.
    Härröd, Magnus
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Fixed-bed hydrogenation at supercritical conditions to form fatty alcohols: The dramatic effects caused by phase transitions in the reactor2001In: Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 8885885, Vol. 40, no 23, p. 5052-5057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fatty alcohols are one of the major oleochemicals and can be produced by catalytic hydrogenation of fatty acid methyl esters. In the commercial multiphase process, the hydrogen availability to the solid catalyst limits the reaction rate. By adding propane to the reaction mixture, we can utilize the unique properties of supercritical fluids, properties between those of gases and liquids. Using propane, a substantially homogeneous supercritical phase is created, whereby hydrogen has complete access to the solid catalyst. At high substrate concentrations, a rapid fall of the reaction rate was observed, and the benefits of the propane addition were completely lost. This fall depends on a split of the supercritical reaction mixture into two phases (a substrate-rich and a hydrogen-rich phase). If this phase split occurred using small catalyst particles (?32 ?m), the pressure drop over the catalyst bed increased sharply because the formed liquid droplets blocked the void space in the porous catalyst bed. These two phenomena were used to deduce the product and substrate solubility in the reaction mixture. The product showed the most unfavorable solubility which increased with higher pressure. Under our process conditions (150 bar, 280 °C, and 11 mol % hydrogen), a single phase was observed up to 2 mol % (i.e., 15% by mass) product. Besides the minimum pressure in the catalyst bed, substrate transport limitation could be shown to be an important factor in process optimization. Therefore, egg-shell catalysts or fine catalyst particles (100-300 ?m) should preferably be used in the continuous supercritical reactors.

  • 124.
    van Kasteren, Anouk
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. University of Technology Eindhoven.
    The Contribution of Eye Tracking to Quality of Experience Assessment of 360-degree video2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research domain on the Quality of Experience (QoE) of 2D video streaming has been well established. However, a new video format is emerging and gaining popularity and availability: VR 360-degree video. The processing and transmission of 360-degree videos brings along new challenges such as large bandwidth requirements and the occurrence of different distortions. The viewing experience is also substantially different from 2D video, it offers more interactive freedom on the viewing angle but can also be more demanding and cause cybersickness. Further research on the QoE of 360-videos specifically is thus required.The first goal of this thesis is to complement earlier research by (Tran, Ngoc, Pham, Jung, and Thank, 2017) testing the effects of quality degradation, freezing, and content on the QoE of 360-videos. The second goal is to test the contribution of visual attention as influence factor in the QoE assessment. Data will be gathered through subjective tests where participants watch degraded versions of 360-videos through an HMD with integrated eye-tracking sensors. After each video they will answer questions regarding their quality perception, experience, perceptual load, and cybersickness.Results of the first part show overall rather low QoE ratings and it decreases even more as quality is degraded and freezing events are added. Cyber sickness was found not to be an issue. The effects of the manipulation on visual attention were minimal. Attention was mainly directed by content, but also by surprising elements. The addition of eye-tracking metrics did not further explain individual differences in subjective ratings. Nevertheless it was found that looking at moving objects increased the negative effect of freezing events and made participants less sensitive for quality distortions. The results of this thesis alone are not enough to successfully regard visual attention as an influence factor in 360-video.

  • 125.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Faktorer som påverkar en bostadsbrands storlek – analys av försäkringsbolagens data2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, the insurance sector reports 23 000 fire incidents in Sweden. Of these, the fire rescue service are called into 6 000. Since there is little knowledge on the fires that the fire rescue service is not involved in, incident data from insurance companies has been analyzed.

    One limitation to the results in this report is that the insurance sector’s definition of fire is broad; e.g. short-circuit is regarded a fire incident.

    Still, the data complies with the statistics from the fire rescue service: Kitchen fires and fire in electric equipment are the most common sources of fire in residential buildings.

    The cost (property damage) of a fire is also presented. It is seen that the most common fires sources commonly lead to a relatively low economical loss.

  • 126.
    Wangwacharakul, Promporn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Marina
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Gullander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Cultural Aspects when Implementing Lean Production and Lean Product Development–a Swedish Perspective2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Weiler, Petra
    et al.
    VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH, Germany.
    Steinke, Arndt
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lanting, Cees J. M.
    DATSA, Belgium.
    Standardisation of smart systems building blocks: A requirement for a globally competitive cooperative foundry2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Caous, L
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hall, Gunnar
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Dynamic analyses of sensory and microstructural properties of cream cheese2000In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 363-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flavour and texture in cream cheese depend on the microstructure. The objective of this work was to study the influence of fat content, salt content and homogenisation pressure on the microstructure and sensory properties of cream cheese. Twelve types of cream cheese were produced according to a full-factorial design, whereby the fat content was set at three levels, the salt content at two levels and the homogenisation pressure at two levels. The cheeses were analysed by a sensory panel, using both quantitative descriptive profiling and time intensity (TI) evaluation, and by using a confocal laser scanning microscope, CLSM, whereby the microstructure of the cheeses was analysed. All the design parameters had a significant influence on the flavour and texture, although fat had the largest effect. Interaction effects between the design parameters were also found to influence the character of cream cheese. The results showed that it is possible to create a cream cheese with lower fat content and with sensory attributes similar to the attributes in cream cheese with high fat content, by modification of production parameters. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 129.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The Nordic Rheology Society Conference 20072007In: Applied Rheology, ISSN 1430-6395, E-ISSN 1617-8106, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 301-302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The Nordic Rheology Society Conference 20082009In: Applied Rheology, ISSN 1430-6395, E-ISSN 1617-8106, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 121-122Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 131.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire risk management for vehicles2017In: Gulf Fire, ISSN 2059-691X, no 7, p. 66-68Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 132.
    Wünscher, Heike
    et al.
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Steinke, Arndt
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Ortlepp, Thomas
    CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik GmbH, Germany.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lidström, Oscar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Richert, Hans
    SETEK Elektronik AB, Sweden.
    Lagerkvist, Peter
    Niranova AB, Sweden.
    Supervision unit for harsh environments2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Valdramidis, Vasilis
    University of Malta, Malta.
    Impact of heating operations on the microbial ecology of foods2017In: Quantitative Microbiology in Food Processing: Modeling the Microbial Ecology / [ed] Anderson de Souza Sant'Ana, John Wiley & Sons, 2017, p. 117-141Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several drawbacks of heat processes as their application may also lead to nutritional and quality deterioration of the food product. The chapter presents basic information regarding the heating processes and unit operations and covers the impact of these operations on food-borne microorganisms. It describes the main cooking methods, such as grilling, broiling, and roasting. Quantitative methodologies are the main tools to describe the impact of a process as well as the storage conditions post-processing on the food stability. In order to assess the efficacy of a specific processing technology, the estimation of the time to achieve a certain number of log reductions can be applied. The most common process in the food industry is the thermal process. The chapter reviews a number of different thermal processes and outlines critical issues in relation to their efficacy and to their impact on the microbial inactivation

  • 134.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Life cycle assessment of cable recycling: Part 1: Plastsep compared to state of the art2012Report (Other academic)
  • 135.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Recycling production cable waste: environmental and economic aspects2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main driver for recycling cable wastes is the high value of the conducting metal, while the plastic with its lower value is often neglected. New improved cable plastic recycling routes could provide both economic and environmental incentive to cable producers for moving up the "cable plastic waste ladder". The improvement potential for the European cable industry as a whole is roughly estimated to avoidance of 30 750 tonnes of CO

    2eq annually if these new techniques were to be applied to the 5% plastic waste stream from cable production. Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of the waste management of the cable scrap is suggested and explained as a method to analyze the pros and cons of different cable scrap recycling options at hand. Economic and environmental data about different recycling processes and other relevant processes and materials are given. Cable producers could use this data and method to assess the way they deal with the cable plastic waste today and compare it with available alternatives and thus illuminate the improvement potential of recycling cable plastic waste. Through using the data and methods provided, the user will be able to show the climate impacts of improving the cable waste recycling (compared to how it is done today) and also to show the economic and technical implications of such improvements.

  • 136.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Olsson, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost of Waste Management: Plastic Cable Waste2014In: Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, ISSN 2160-0392, E-ISSN 2160-0406, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 45002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main driver for recycling cable wastes is the high value of the conducting metal, while the plastic with its lower value is often neglected. New improved cable plastic recycling routes can provide both economic and environmental incentive to cable producers for moving up the “cable plastic waste ladder”. Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment, LCA, of the waste management of the cable scrap is suggested and explained as a method to analyze the pros and cons of different cable scrap recycling options at hand. Economic and environmental data about different recycling processes and other relevant processes and materials are given. Cable producers can use this data and method to assess the way they deal with the cable plastic waste today and compare it with available alternatives and thus illuminate the improvement potential of recycling cable plastic waste both in an environmental and in an economic sense. The methodology applied consists of: cradle-to-gate LCA for waste material to a recycled material (recyclate); quantifying the climate impact for each step on the waste ladder for the specific waste material; the use of economic and climate impact data in parallel; climate impact presented as a span to portray the insecurities related to which material the waste will replace; and possibilities for do-it-yourself calculations. Potentially, the methodology can be useful also for other waste materials in the future.

  • 137.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Samordning av ledningssystem och Lean Production: 203 telefonintervjuer med verkstadsindustrins miljöchefer2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    203 miljöchefer i svensk verkstadsindustri har intervjuats via telefon på temat integration av formella ledningssystem som ISO 14001 och ISO 9001 med Lean-baserade förbättringsprogram.

    Intervjuerna tyder på att verkstadsföretag med lean-baserade förbättringsprogram och formella ledningssystem samordnar dessa i hög utsträckning. Hela 73% tycker att nivån på samordningen är lagom. Dock är studien för begränsad för att dra några slutsatser om hur väl systemen/programmen är integrerade i verksamheten i övrigt och den sammantagna effektiviteten.

    En hypotes som framförts av många är att leanarbete främjar miljöarbete på ett positivt sätt. Intervjuerna tyder på att verkstadsföretag med lean är mer miljöinriktade än verkstadsföretag i gemen, eftersom de låter miljöchefen sitta med i ledningsgruppen i större utsträckning. Dock ser de (verkstadsföretag med lean) inte större ekonomiska vinster av miljöarbetet än andra verkstadsföretag.

    En intressant observation i denna studie som bekräftas av andra data är att ISO 14001 håller på att bli vanligare än ISO 9000 i Sverige. Totalt i världen är ISO 9000 fyra gånger större än ISO 14001.

  • 138.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Shahbazi, S.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, M.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Winroth, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Landström, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Almström, P.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, C.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Windmark, C.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    ֖berg, A.E.
    Volvo Construction Equipment AB, Sweden.
    Myrelid, A.
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Sweden.
    Sustainability Performance Indicators at Shop Floor Level in Large Manufacturing Companies2017In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 61, p. 457-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates sustainability in the performance measurement systems of Swedish manufacturing companies. It builds on a previous study that documents relatively few direct environmental indicators at shop floor level, which raises questions about possible indirect links between existing indicators and the environment that could be used to improve the environmental aspect of company’s sustainability ambitions. A method for identifying and categorizing indirect links to sustainability issues was defined and used. The results suggest that at shop floor level 90% of the indicators have at least an indirect relation to one or more of the sustainability dimensions economy, environment and social, of which 26% are at least indirectly related to the environmental dimension. Despite the many indirect connections, participating companies perceive a need to improve sustainability indicators and some ideas are suggested.

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