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  • 101.
    Kalinowski, Mariusz
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Sulfatbeständighet med kalkstensfiller2013In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 102. Karabulut, E.
    et al.
    Pettersson, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ankerfors, M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, L.
    Adhesive layer-by-layer films of carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibril-dopamine covalent bioconjugates inspired by marine mussel threads2012In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, no 6, p. 4731-4739Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 103. Kargol, M A
    et al.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Properties and performance of silane: blended cement systems2013In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 46, no 9, p. 1429-1439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the results of a study dealing with the performance of water repellents on hardened blended cement pastes. Since on the European market Portland cement does not play the dominant role anymore and due to the new national and European policies concerning Greenhouse Gases and sustainability, cement manufacturers produce more and more blended cements (CEM II-CEM V). Nevertheless, the majority of experience concerning the efficacy of water repellents is gained from Portland cement; therefore knowledge in regard to the interactions of blended cement with water repellent agent is minimal. Two silane-based products were applied on 'fresh' and carbonated cement substrates containing limestone, fly ash, slag and trass, and were investigated in terms of their functionality. The evaluation of the treatments' performance and effectiveness were assessed using various laboratory measurements. Hydrophobicity, water absorption, colour changes and the penetration depth of silanes into the substrate were evaluated before and after artificial aging experiments. Moreover, the outdoor weathering test was performed to shed light on treated surface appearance in a 'real' outdoor environment. The results showed that surface wettability was independent on water ingress or colour variations, especially for cement specimens artificially aged by accelerated carbonation. Cement pastes containing slag and trass seemed to more distinctly affect the water repellents' surface performance.

  • 104.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Compositional Effects on Indentation Mechanical Properties of Chemically Strengthened TiO2-Doped Soda Lime Silicate Glasses2022In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TiO2 is an important oxide for property modifications in the conventional soda lime silicate glass family. It offers interesting optical and mechanical properties, for instance, by substituting heavy metals such as lead in consumer glasses. The compositional effects on the hardness, reduced elastic modulus and crack resistance as determined by indentation of chemically strengthened (CS) TiO2-doped soda lime silicate glass was studied in the current paper. The CS, which was performed by a K+ for Na+ ion exchange in a molten KNO3 salt bath at 450 °C for 15 h, yielded significant changes in the indentation mechanical properties. The hardness of the glass samples increased, and this was notably dependent on the SiO2, CaO and TiO2 content. The reduced elastic modulus was less affected by the CS but showed decrease for most samples. The crack resistance, an important property in many applications where glasses are subjected to contact damage, showed very different behaviors among the series. Only one of the series did significantly improve the crack resistance where low CaO content, high TiO2 content, high molar volume and increased elastic deformation favored an increased crack resistance.

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  • 105.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Dataset: Indentation mechanical properties of chemically strengthened TiO2 doped soda lime silicate glass2022Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium oxide has been added to the conventional soda lime silicate composition that is the most used glass in different applications. Surface mechanical properties through indentation using both nano- and micro-indenter has been studied both before and after chemical strengthening of the different glass samples.

  • 106.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Dataset: The viscosity effect of TiO2 on soda-lime-silicate bearing glass2021Data set
  • 107.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Dataset: Viscosity of alumina doped soda lime silicate glasses2021Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Adding alumina to the conventional soda lime silicate glass composition improves many properties, however, also increases the viscosity. Alumina doping of soda lime silicate glasses is investigated and its implications to high temperature viscosity as SiO2 is replaced by Al2O3.

  • 108.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Effects on indentation mechanical properties by chemically strengthening of TiO2 and Al2O3 doped soda lime silicate glasses2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Soda lime silicate is an important industrial glass type, it is used in, e.g., windows, containers, household glasses, displays, cover glasses and in automotive glazing. The importance of soda lime silicate glass originates from the forming ability that enables low-cost manufacturing but also relatively high hardness, good chemical durability, and the essential transparency in the visible range. However, soda lime silicate glass suffers from brittleness and has a relatively low resistance towards surface defects. Therefore, is the practical strength of commercially available glass in the soda lime silicate glass family limited. The mechanical properties of glass is of great importance in various applications. Chemical strengthening (CS) of glass has become a successful process that today is used in many applications. It makes glass stronger by exchanging larger ions from a molten salt bath with smaller ions from the glass and thereby inducing compressive stresses in the surface. However, soda lime silicate glass is typically not well-suited for this process and therefore has the effect of dopants on surface mechanical properties as result of CS been studied. Hardness, reduced elastic modulus and crack resistance were studied. The CS was performed in a molten KNO3 salt bath at 450 °C. The results will be discussed in relation to the compositional and structural changes.

  • 109.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Spontaneous Fracture in Thermally Strengthened Glass - A Review and Outlook2017In: Ceramics-Silikáty, ISSN 0862-5468, E-ISSN 1804-5847, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 188-201Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal strengthening of glass is common for many different purposes including architecture, automotive, glasses for solar energy, tableware and occasionally also containers. It is an easy and relatively cheap method to make glasses stronger, however, with an Achilles heel that it can spontaneously fracture without the slightest applied external force. Though, fracture due to applied external force is the most common case, spontaneous fracture is rare. The current paper reviews the literature of spontaneous fracture and NiS inclusions and what kind of mitigation measures that have been done in order to reduce the frequency of spontaneous fracture. Finally is also an outlook for the alternative mitigation measures and their advantages as well as disadvantages. A personal perspective is given in discussions and gives an outlook to the most promising alternative methods to reduce and hopefully eliminate the NiS inclusions. These include multi-functional methods where not only the NiS inclusion issue is solved. 

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    Spontaneous Fracture in Thermally Strengthened Glass - A Review and Outlook
  • 110.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Spontangranulering: Akilleshälen för termiskt härdat glas2017In: Glas, no 4, p. 54-56Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla somhar läst Homeros epos Iliaden känner till Akilles, den grekiska mytologinsstörste hjälte som dessvärre hade en sårbar punkt, akilleshälen. Termiskthärdat glas är nästintill en perfekt produkt där man får både ett starkare glasoch ett betydligt säkrare glas genom den karaktäristiska sprickbildningen somger kantiga glasbitar som inte är så vassa och som ofta kallas granuler

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  • 111.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    The future development of cover glass for efficient harvesting of solar energy (INVITED)2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass as a cover material for solar energy harvesting constitutes a significant part of the cost. Furthermore, is glass an important component for efficient light capture and protection to the environment. Research and development of cover glass is needed to increase the service lifetime and to reduce the cost per watt peak. Recent research efforts have provided knowledge of which properties that needs to be optimized balancing efficiency, service lifetime and cost. Challenges with the development of cover glass for efficient harvesting of solar energy will be discussed. Some recent results related to optimization of the glass composition for enhancing properties for the purpose and the deposition of functional thin films will be presented. The failure modes for PV modules and how glass can improve the resistance to failure will be discussed. Developments of transparent and robust multifunctional coatings that provide anti-reflective and anti-soiling properties on the outer glass surface are desired. On the interior surface are anti-reflective and chemical barrier multifunctional coatings desirable to increase transmission and reducing potential induced degradation (PID). Replacing the conventional silver strings in PV modules with transparent conductive materials and back-reflecting backsheet materials are among the promising techniques for further maximizing the efficiency.

  • 112.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Viscosity of alumina doped soda lime silicate glasses – observation of anomaly in the linear increase as Al2O3 replaces SiO22021In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 573, article id 121149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adding alumina to the conventional soda lime silicate glass composition improves many properties, however, also increases the melting temperature. In the current paper, alumina doping of soda lime silicate glasses and its implications to high temperature viscosity are investigated in order to verify the linearity when replacing SiO2 for Al2O3. An anomaly in the linearly increasing viscosity was found when the ratio CaO/Al2O3 is <1, which is explained by Ca2+ acting as an inhibitor for viscous flow. The Angell and Rao and the Waterton-MYEGA models show very similar results, even for the extrapolated Tg. Thermodynamic data extracted using the Ojovan method generally increases linearly with the Al2O3 content. The Doremus fragility index shows a deviation in the linearity while the Angell fragility index on the other hand shows a linear increase with the Al2O3 content.

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  • 113.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Andersson, S
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    Haller, KCE
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Kozlowski, M
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Persson, K
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Non-destructive testing of the glass strength in flat glass with indentationinduced cracks by Nonlinear Acoustic Wave method2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is a unique but unfortunately brittle material whose strength is primarily limited by the presenceof cracks on the surface [1]. The strength of glass is limited by the fact that very high stresses arise atthe crack tips when subjected to tensile load. In principle, without the presence of surface cracks, glasswould have a strength far exceeding many other structural materials, e.g., steel. The size and thedistribution of surface cracks vary greatly, which results in the strength of glass exhibit a great variationand thus requires that large safety margins must be applied for glass in practical applications, e.g., whenused as a load bearing building material.Today, there are no methods to determine the strength of flat glass non-destructively. Instead, thestrength is determined by different experimental methods requiring >10 samples for sufficient statistics.This procedure requires both lots of glassy materials and time. The future aim is to investigate if the useof nonlinear acoustic waves (NAW) could be an alternative for developing a standardized designstrength value. Developing a non-destructive inspection method for determining the glass strength is ascientific breakthrough that will have a great industrial impact for the sustainable development of glassmanufacturing.With the use of NAW it is possible to detect and quantify the defects in materials [2,3]. The nonlinearwaves are transmitted through the object and the nonlinear effects, caused by the defects in thematerial, corresponds to the level of damage in the material. This work present result from samplescontaining relatively precise defects. The defects were created using a microindenter with a sufficientload to cause indentation induced cracking in the glass. The indentations were created using a Vickersdiamond tip in the middle of commercial 4 mm float glass samples of the dimensions 10x10 cm2. Theapplied loads were 0.5N, 1N, 2N, 5N and 10N. The “damage value” of the sample series was thenquantified using the NAW technique. The fracture strength of the samples was correlated destructivelyusing a conventional ring-on-ring setup.The results show that there is a clear correlation between the indenter load, the damage value from theNAW inspection and the fracture strength. We noted that the standard deviation for the ring-on-ringtests for the 1N, 2N, 5N and 10N was low while the 0.5N and the reference samples presented a highstandard deviation. A possible explanation for this observation is that for 0.5N not all indents give radialcracks but in some cases the indentation produces only plastic deformation. The main conclusion fromthe research is that is possible to detect realistically large defects in glass using the non-destructive NAWmethod and these defects cannot be seen with the naked eye. Moreover, the results can be directlycorrelated with the strength of glass [4].

    References[1] Veer, F.A. and Y.M. Rodichev, The structural strength of glass: hidden damage. Strength of Materials, 2011.43(3): p. 302-315. DOI: 10.1007/s11223-011-9298-5.[2] Persson, K., K. Haller, S. Karlsson, and M. Kozłowski, Non-destructive testing of the strength of glass by a nonlinearultrasonic method. Challenging Glass Conference Proceedings, 2020. 7. DOI: 10.7480/cgc.7.4498.[3] Haller, K., Doctoral Thesis: Acoustical measurements of material nonlinearity and nonequilibrium recovery.2008: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology.[4] Karlsson, S., L. Grund Bäck, S. Andersson, K. Haller, M. Kozłowski, and K. Persson, Strength classification of flatglass for better quality – validation of method by well-defined surface defects and strength testing, in ÅForskReport,19-479. 2021: http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.32992.40962.

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  • 114.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Welinder, Jan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Liinanki, Matilda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Transparent intelligens för en bättre värld - en sammanfattning av fyra år med TIME2017In: GLAS, no 2, p. 58-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 115.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Kozlowski, Marcin
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Kinsella, David
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Haller, Kristian
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sara
    Acoustic Agree AB, Sweden.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Osby Glas AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Kent
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Kvalitetshöjning av planglas: Icke-förstörande provning av glasets hållfasthet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållfastheten och därmed kvaliteten på planglas varierar kraftigt beroende på förekomsten sprickor i glasets yta. Sprickorna fungerar som brottanvisningar vilket medför att man måste räkna med stora säkerhetsfaktorer då glas belastas i olika byggnadskonstruktioner. Trä som konstruktionsmaterial har en liknande problematik där man utvecklat virkessortering för att kvalitetsklassning. I den här förstudien har vi undersökt om det går att kvalitetsklassa planglas med hjälp av en oförstörande provningsmetod baserad på icke-linjärt ultraljud. Tre olika kantbearbetningar (A) dragen, (B) obehandlad och (C) polerad kant undersöktes i 4-punktsböjprovning med tre olika belastningshastigheter (0.6, 2 och 5mm/min) och kontinuerlig mätning av skadevärde med icke-linjärt ultraljud. Hållfastheten för de olika kantbearbetningar följer trenden (C) polerad > (A) dragen > (B) obehandlad  med avtagande hållfasthet. Som förväntat gav provningarna ett ökande skadevärde med en ökande last. Provningarna visade även att hållfastheten var lägre för lägre belastningshastigheter. Skadevärdet ökade mest för obehandlad kant vilket tyder på att det fanns en stor spricktillväxt medan lägst ökning gav polerad kant. Vi har även undersökt obehandlade brutna kanter med optiskt profilometri och i ljusmikroskop. Med ljusmikroskopi kunde vi linjärt korrelera kantskadans tjocklek till tjockleken på glaset. Luftsidan på planglas undersöktes med optisk profilometri och man fann tydliga skillnader i ytornas karakteristik. Skillnaderna är inte synliga för blotta ögat men de skulle kunna ge upphov till andra skillnader såsom t ex fuktkänslighet, mekanisk skärbarhet och hållfasthet. Sammanfattningsvis så finns det god potential för kvalitetsklassning av planglas men det kommer att behövas fler tester i ett större forskningsprojekt för att ta detta till marknaden. Marknadspotentialen är enorm med 80 miljoner ton planglas i marknadsbehov.

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  • 116.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Fransson, Anna-Lena
    GFAB Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Tomas
    GFAB Lindberg & Co AB, Sweden.
    Spontangranulering av härdade glas: En litteraturstudie och en genomlysning av problemet inom glasbranschen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Härdat glas har många fördelar i flera avseenden bl a sprickmönstret, hållfastheten och ett överkomligt pris. Akilleshälen för termiskt härdat glas är spontangranulering som är ovanligt men som trots allt förekommer. Syftet med den här förstudien var att genomlysa hur vanligt förekommande det är genom enkäter till företag inom duschväggsbranschen samt göra en litteraturstudie med syftet att undersöka vilka metoder det finns att råda bot på problemet. Enkäterna visade att branschen inte direkt ser det som ett problem men endast en relativt liten andel för statistik på hur vanligt förekommande spontangranulering är. Litteraturstudien visade på en splittrad bransch varav en del förespråkar den standardiserade HST-metoden (heat soak test) medan andra kritiserar den. Oavsett har man lagt ner mest arbete på HST-metoden och det är den som fått störst genomslag, men den används inte i hela branschen. Metoden har sina brister men just nu pågår arbete med att uppdatera den befintliga standarden vilket kommer att göra den mer tillförlitlig. HST-metoden har dock fortfarande nackdelarna att den är relativt dyr och minskar härdningsgraden något. För alternativa metoder krävs tydliga satsningar som dock är osannolika eftersom problemet anses vara litet. De alternativ som identifierats som mest intressanta är metoder som ger ytterligare fördelar såsom t ex hållfasthetssortering av planglas eller att man utvecklar en glassammansättning som lämpar sig för termisk härdning av glas.

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  • 117.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Strengthening of oxide glasses: Chapter 3.122021In: Encyclopedia of Glass Science, Technology, History, and Culture / [ed] Pascal Richet, Reinhard Conradt, Akira Takada, Joël Dyon, John Wiley & Sons, 2021Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ways to strengthen oxide glasses are closely linked with surface defects, which act as stress amplifiers and thus reduce the practical strength of the material. In this chapter, a concise summary as to how to measure strength and stress limits are discussed in terms of advantages and drawbacks of the various methods. Furthermore, an overview is provided of the different ways to eliminate previously formed surface defects, including the different types of polishing and etching. Avoidance of surface defect formation is also discussed in terms of protective coatings as well as processing issues in the glass industry, such as cutting and finishing of glass products. Improvement of glass strength by inducing residual surface compressive stresses through thermal strengthening and different kinds of chemical strengthening is described. Finally, some applications through strengthening of oxide glasses and perspectives of the near future of thermal and chemical strengthening are provided.

  • 118.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Kinetics of chemical strengthening and trends in effective diffusion coefficients2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali cation exchange has received significant attention with respect to introducing compressive stress in the glass surface, a process frequently called chemical strengthening. Besides mechanical properties may also other properties such as optical, electrical and chemical properties be modified using ion exchange of various monovalent ions. The mobility of monovalent ions varies and the relations of structural and effective diffusion coefficients may help to understand how to improve the ion exchange kinetics of soda lime silicates. We discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by their correlations to physico-chemical properties. The most significant correlations were found to be the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that electron localization and the rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

  • 119.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Trends in Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Ion-exchange Strengthening of Soda Lime Silicate Glasses2017In: Frontiers in Materials, E-ISSN 2296-8016, Vol. 4, no 13Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monovalent cations enable efficient ion exchange processes due to their high mobility in silicate glasses. Numerous properties can be modified in this way, e.g., mechanical, optical, electrical or chemical performance. In particular, alkali cation exchange has received significant attention, primarily with respect to introducing compressive stress into the surface region of a glass, which increases mechanical durability. However, most of the present applications rely on specifically tailored matrix compositions in which the cation mobility is enhanced. This largely excludes the major area of soda lime silicates (SLS) such as are commodity in almost all large-scale applications of glasses. Basic understanding of the relations between structural parameters and the effective diffusion coefficients may help to improve ion-exchanged SLS glass products, on the one hand in terms of obtainable strength and on the other in terms of cost. In the present paper, we discuss the trends in the effective diffusion coefficients when exchanging Na+ for various monovalent cations (K+, Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+) by drawing relations to physico-chemical properties. Correlations of effective diffusion coefficients were found for the bond dissociation energy and the electronic cation polarizability, indicating that localization and rupture of bonds are of importance for the ion exchange rate.

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  • 120.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hamedi, Mahiar Max
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Thermoelectric Polymers and their Elastic Aerogels2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 22, p. 4556-4562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronically conducting polymers constitute an emerging class of materials for novel electronics, such as printed electronics and flexible electronics. Their properties have been further diversified to introduce elasticity, which has opened new possibility for "stretchable" electronics. Recent discoveries demonstrate that conducting polymers have thermoelectric properties with a low thermal conductivity, as well as tunable Seebeck coefficients - which is achieved by modulating their electrical conductivity via simple redox reactions. Using these thermoelectric properties, all-organic flexible thermoelectric devices, such as temperature sensors, heat flux sensors, and thermoelectric generators, are being developed. In this article we discuss the combination of the two emerging fields: stretchable electronics and polymer thermoelectrics. The combination of elastic and thermoelectric properties seems to be unique for conducting polymers, and difficult to achieve with inorganic thermoelectric materials. We introduce the basic concepts, and state of the art knowledge, about the thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers, and illustrate the use of elastic thermoelectric conducting polymer aerogels that could be employed as temperature and pressure sensors in an electronic-skin.

  • 121.
    Khayat, Kamal H.
    et al.
    Université de Sherbrooke, Canada; Missouri University of Science and Technology, USA.
    Omran, Ahmed F.
    Université de Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Naji, Siwar
    Université de Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Billberg, Peter H.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Yahia, Ammar
    Université de Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Field-oriented test methods to evaluate structural build-up at rest of flowable mortar and concrete2012In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 1547-1564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thixotropy of flowable mortar and concrete is an important property that affects stability and form pressure characteristics. The increase in thixotropy can reduce lateral pressure on formwork systems. On the other hand, low thixotropy or a continuous casting is required to eliminate the formation of weak interface between lifts in multilayer casting. Thixotropy can be assessed by determining the rate of structural build-up at rest, which necessitates the use of simple and robust test methods to be quantified. Five field-oriented test methods that can be used for the determination of structural build-up at rest of mortar and concrete are proposed in this paper in an attempt to select a reliable field-oriented test. This includes the inclined plane (IP), portable vane (PV), undisturbed slump spread (USS), cone penetration (CP), and K-slump test methods. The repeatability of these test methods was determined four times using two concrete-equivalent mortars and two self-consolidating concretes (SCC) of different thixotropy levels. The IP, PV, and USS tests showed relative error (RE) values of 0.5-37 %. The CP test was successfully used to determine structural build-up of mortar; however, it was difficult to assess the thixotropy of concrete. The K-slump test exhibited a RE, less than 12 % for SCC mixtures with low thixotropy, but up to 76 % for highly thixotropic SCC. Good correlations were established among the various structural build-up indices determined from the proposed test methods and those determined by rheometric tests using various concrete.

  • 122.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    En lösning till att undvika delaminering i betonggolv2014In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, Vol. 106, no 8, p. 42-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Hårdbetonggjutningar på gammal betong2011In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 124.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Hårdbetonggjutningar på gammal betong2010In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, Vol. 102, no 8, p. 54-64Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 125.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Pågjutningars vidhäftning mot hårdnad betong2012In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 8, p. 28-34Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 126.
    Kraft, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Studie av vägbetongs fysikaliska egenskaper, med eller utan tillsats av TiOmix2011In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 127.
    Kraft, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Söderberg, C-F
    Belgisk studie kastar ljus över svenska sprickor2014In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 6, p. 45-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 128.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Denzler, Patrick
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Bjelkemyr, Marcus
    Production System And Material Efficiency Challenges For Large Scale Introduction Of Complex Materials2017In: Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Vol. 2, no 8, p. 492-499Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper links production system research to advanced material research for the vehicle industry. Facilitated by need for reduction of fuel use, the automotive industry is pushing a radical change from using steel structures to new mixed materials structures. In production systems optimised for steel, the changes will affect productivity and material efficiency. Four industrial case studies focusing on production economy and productivity give implications of production technology demands on the material selection regarding new joining techniques and additive or forming methods which has to be investigated when considering new materials. Material efficiency analysis shows that minimising spill in production operations and regulatory demand of recycling need to be considered in material development, which implies both design for disassembly, advanced separation processes and use of recycled raw materials. To be successful in new material introduction, new information flows and knowledge sharing moving from operations and manufacturing development to materials development and design are needed. The material developers could use axiomatic design strategies to structure the production system demands on the materials. State of the art lightweight producers in vehicle and automotive industry are likely early adopters to advanced lightweight structures with need of information flows between material development and operations.

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  • 129.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Betong med krossad ballast2011In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 130.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Betong tar upp koldioxid under hela sin livstid2009In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När cement tillverkas bildas koldioxid. Å andra sidan tar betong upp koldioxid under hela sin livstid. Det viktiga är att minska utsläppen vid tillverkningen av cement och att minska cementhalten i betong.

  • 131.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Krossat berg som ballast till betong2008In: Svensk Bergs och Brukstidning, ISSN 0039-6435, no 4, p. 40-44Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Miljöbetong2009In: CBI nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Vilka krav kan ställas på ”grön betong”?2012In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 34-36Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 134.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Återtagning av koldioxid: karbonatisering2008In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 2, p. 59-61Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 135.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Bryne, Lars Elof
    Cement hydration and development of texture and bond at interfacial zone between hard rock and shotcrete2014In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 263-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sprayed concrete differs from ordinary concrete through application technique and addition of set accelerator that gives immediate stiffening. The alkali free set accelerator consists of sulphate and aluminate and forms an ettringite network that gives a stiff but not hard matrix. This work has investigated the interaction between the early ettringite matrix and the proper cement hydration and the development of the interfacial zone between concrete and rock. This has been correlated to the development of the bond strength.

  • 136.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Cirera Riu, Jaume
    How to evaluate fillers from crushed rock aggregate for concrete production2014In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 105-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In fresh concrete, the filler fraction (0-0.125 mm) is of vital importance for workability. With the use of superplasticizer, it is possible today to use quite large amount of fillers. This has made it possible to make self-compacting concrete and other special concretes. How to use the fillers and the amount of fillers depends on the size distribution and quality of the filler. Basically, the filler should be round and the distribution of filler and cement should be continuous. The size shall not overlap too much with that of the cement. Fillers from crushed rocks consist of minerals and the filler particles depend on the mineralogy and texture of the rock type. This work treats different methods, including paste rheology, to evaluate the quality of the filler fraction. By using good quality filler, it is possible to reduce the amount of cement in concrete

  • 137.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Fjällberg, Leif
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Sprutbetong krymper2007In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 138.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Gram, Hans-Erik
    Cementa AB, Sweden.
    Westerholm, Mikael
    Cementa AB, Sweden.
    Evaluation of the quality of fine materials and filler from crushed rocks in concrete production2014In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 67, no A, p. 121-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crushed rocks are, in general, more flaky and irregular in shape than natural aggregates. Especially granitic rocks display variable amounts or flaky free micas in the finer fractions when crushed. Moreover, the crushed rocks result in more fine material. Fillers can, in combination with superplasticizers and if the quality is appropriate be used to expand the paste phase of the concrete and thus be used to lower the cement consumption. To utilize the filler optimally one needs to evaluate the filler quality. There are several methods to evaluate the filler. In this article different methods both in regards to the material properties and the behavior in mortar and micro mortar tests are compared and evaluated. The analysis shows the importance of understanding the effect of both the particle shape and flakiness in the fine fractions and the properties of the material in the finest fraction i.e. <10 μm. This is very much related to the mineralogy of the rock.

  • 139.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Westerholm, Mikael
    Hållbar övergång till helkross2011In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 6, p. 39-40Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 140.
    Landström, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Carin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Windmark, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Almström, Peter
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Winroth, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Ericsson Öberg, Anna
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden.
    Myrelid, Andreas
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Sweden.
    Present state analysis of business performance measurement systems in large manufacturing companies2016In: PMA Conference 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to empirically investigate the present state of the performance measurement systems (PMS) at 7 sites of 6 different large Swedish manufacturing companies. The methodology has both a bottom-up and a top-down perspective. Important findings are that the PMSs are very similar in how they function but differ a lot in what is measured.

  • 141.
    Lerman, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Wiberg, Pär
    IKEA, Sweden.
    A laboratory setup for measuring the wood-surface temperature during drying by means of thermography2023In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 701-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface temperature of a drying wooden board is strongly related to the drying process. However, it is relatively difficult to determine the surface temperature accurately during drying. In this paper, an experimental setup for analyzing the wood surface during drying by thermal imaging as well as dry and wet-bulb temperature reference surfaces was tested. Spruce sapwood samples were dried in various climates and evaluated with respect to both mass loss and surface temperature. The experimental setup enabled both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the wood drying process. The results showed that thermal imaging enabled a detailed view of the drying progression. The distinct correlation between surface temperature and mass change showed that an accurate determination of a basic, often considered, and difficult-to-determine drying potential is possible. © 2022 The Author(s). 

  • 142.
    Li, Dongfang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hydrophobic materials based on cotton linter cellulose and an epoxy-activated polyester derived from a suberin monomer2015In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 721-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suberin is a natural hydrophobic material that could be used to improve the water repellency of cellulose surfaces. It is also abundant in the outer bark of birch (Betula verrucosa); birch bark is a side-stream product in Scandinavia from the forest industry, which is generally burned for energy production. A suberin monomer, cis-9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, was isolated from birch outer bark and polymerized via lipase (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B). The resulting epoxy-activated polyester was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and size exclusion chromatography. Then the polyester was cured with tartaric or oxalic acid, and the crosslinked polyesters were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry. Hydrophobic materials were prepared by compression molding of polyester-impregnated cellulose sheets, and the final products were characterized by FTIR, cross-polarization magic angle spinning 13C NMR, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The water contact angle was significantly increased from 0° for the original cellulose sheets to over 100° for the produced hydrophobic materials.

  • 143.
    Limbach, René
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Scannell, Garth
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    Mathew, Renny
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Edén, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
    The effect of TiO2 on the structure of Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glasses and its implications for thermal and mechanical properties2017In: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, ISSN 0022-3093, E-ISSN 1873-4812, Vol. 471, no C, p. 6-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titania represents an important compound for property modifications in the widespread family of soda lime silicate glasses. In particular, such titania-containing glasses offer interesting optical and mechanical properties, for example, for substituting lead-bearing consumer glasses. Here, we provide a systematic study of the effect of TiO2 on the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties for three series of quaternary Na2O–CaO–TiO2–SiO2 glasses with TiO2 concentrations up to 12 mol% and variable Na2O, CaO, and SiO2 contents. Structural analyses by Raman and magic-angle spinning 29Si NMR spectroscopy reveal the presence of predominantly four-fold coordinated Ti[4] atoms in glasses of low and moderate TiO2 concentrations, where Si–O–Si bonds are replaced by Si–O–Ti[4] bonds that form a network of interconnected TiO4 and SiO4 tetrahedra, with a majority of the non-bridging oxygen ions likely being located at the SiO4 tetrahedra. At higher TiO2 contents, TiO5 polyhedra are also formed. Incorporation of TiO2 strongly affects the titanosilicate network connectivity, especially when its addition is accompanied by a decrease of the CaO content. However, except for the thermal expansion coefficient, these silicate-network modifications seem to have no impact on the thermal and mechanical stability. Instead, the compositional dependence of the thermal and mechanical properties on the TiO2 content stems from its effect on the network energy and packing efficiency.

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  • 144.
    Lind, Jonas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Simanläggningar med "salta bad"2012In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 145.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hartzen, Ann-Sofie
    Wodke, Thomas
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hierarchic design and material identity2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 146.
    Lindell, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Zero Vibration Injuries – A Swedish Holistic Approach Fighting Vibration Injuries2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 147. Lindgård, Jan
    et al.
    Nixon, Philip J
    The EU “PARTNER” Project — European standard tests to prevent alkali reactions in aggregates: final results and recommendations2010In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 40, no 4 Special Issue, p. 611–635-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ballast står pall mot frost och salt2008In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 3, p. 43-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Historisk utveckling av bruk och bindemedel till murverk i Sverige2013In: Svensk Bergs & Brukstidning, ISSN 0039-6435, Vol. 92, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 150.
    Lindqvist, Jan Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Rilem TC 203-RHM: Repair mortars for historic masonry.: Testing of hardened mortars, a process of questioning and interpreting2009In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 853-865Article in journal (Refereed)
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