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  • 101.
    Carlmark, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Modification of nanocellulose with tailored latex nanoparticles2018In: Recent advances in cellulose nanotechnology research: production, characterization and applications, Trondheim: RISE PFI , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 102. Carlsson, A.
    et al.
    Söderberg, L. Daniel
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lundell, F.
    Fibre orientation in the boundary layers of a planar converging channel2008In: Paper Conference and Trade Show: PaperCon '08, TAPPI Press, 2008, Vol. 1, p. 384-408Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental results on the fibre orientation in a laboratory scale headbox are reported. A steerable filter was used to determine the orientation of bleached and unbeaten birch fibres at different distances from one of the inclined walls of the headbox contraction. Due to optical limitations only low concentrations were studied. It is shown that the orientation varies with the distance from the wall. For most studied cases a more anisotropic profile was found closer to the wall.

  • 103. Carlsson, A.
    et al.
    Söderberg, L. Daniel
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lundell, F.
    Fibre orientation measurements near a headbox wall2010In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental results on the fibre orientation in a laboratory scale headbox are reported. Images containing fibres in approximately 1 mm thick slices parallel to the wall were captured at different wall distances. A steerable filter was used to determine the orientation of bleached and unbeaten birch fibres, suspended in water, at different distances from one of the inclined walls of the headbox contraction. Due to optical limitations only dilute suspensions were studied. It is shown that the fibre orientation distribution varies with the distance from the wall. Sufficiently far upstream in the headbox a more anisotropic distribution is found closer to the wall.

  • 104.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Advanced biomaterials based on nanofibrillated cellulose: from nanopapers to nanomedicine2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) offers a wide range of interesting opportunities and advantages, being biodegradable, renewable and thus environmentally sound. Extensive research has been performed on the effective production and application of NFC. The proposed applications extend from being a component in paper, coatings and composite materials to being applied in bio-medicine as part of wound dressings or in drug delivery systems. Some of the major advantages of NFC are the dimensions and the structural and chemical composition of nanofibrils, which lead to the formation of dense networks with optimized optical and mechanical properties. In this respect, the concept of nanopaper has been introduced. Nanopapers are strong structures, with high light transmittance and smooth surfaces. These characteristics open for novel applications, including the formation of smooth substrates for printing functionality. A recently explored example is the printing of bioactive biomacromolecules and conductive structures on tailor-made nanopapers, which could form the basis for novel biosensors. Additionally, nanobarriers are most promising in novel packaging applications where the self-assembly properties of the material facilitate the formation of dense structures with high barrier against oxygen. However, NFC alone does not seem to be sufficient for the formation of adequate nanobarriers due to the brittle and hygroscopic characteristics of the material. Novel biocomposite concepts need thus closer attention, where the strong and high barrier properties of NFC could be complemented with adequate bioplastics and additives for the formation of ductile films, suitable for conversion processes. From the biomedical point of view, NFC offers several advantages. Depending on the structural and chemical composition of the material and the cross-linking with adequate polymers and particles, micro-porous and elastic gels can be formed. Such gels can hold a considerable amount of water, thus being an excellent material for keeping a moist environment during wound healing and for facilitating the regeneration process of human tissue. Additionally, NFC gels based on oxidized nanofibrils can have pH-sensitive characteristics, a property with potential in drug delivery. With the intention of giving an extensive description of NFC and its modern applications, this presentation will be divided into three main sections; i) production and definition, ii) characterization including structural, chemical and biological aspects and iii) novel applications of NFC from nanopapers to biomedical devices.

  • 105.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Complementary microscopy techniques for surface characterisation of uncoated and mineral pigment coated paper2012In: Current microscopy contributions to advances in science and technology / [ed] Méndez-Vilsa A., Formatex Research Center, 2012, p. 1448-1455Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Complementary Microscopy Techniques for Surface Characterisation of Uncoated and Mineral Pigment Coated Paper2012In: Current Microscopy Contributions to Advances in Science and Technology, Formatex Research Center , 2012, , p. 8Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 107.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Microscopy and computerized image analysis of wood pulp fibres multiscale structures2010In: Microscopy: Science, technology, applications and education / [ed] Méndez-Vilas A., Formatex Research Center, 2010, p. 2182-2189Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Microscopy and computerized image analysis of wood pulp fibres multiscale structures2010In: Microscopy: Science, technology, application and education, Formatex Research Center , 2010, , p. 8Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Por una ciencia integrada2018In: Celulosa Y Papel, ISSN 0716-2308, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 110.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Aasrød, K.
    Leinsvang, Berit
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, Per-Åke
    RISE, Innventia.
    Structural effects on print-through and set-off2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, p. 596-603Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Averianova, N
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia.
    Kondalenko, O
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia.
    Garaeva, M
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia.
    Petrov, V
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia.
    The effect of residual fibres on the micro-topography of cellulose nanopaper2014In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 56, p. 80-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Brodin, Malin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Karlsen, Trond
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Wood pulp fibres and nanocellulose: Characterization and application in biocomposite materials2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A composite can be defined as a material composed of two or more components having distinct morphology and chemistry, and giving synergetic effects. In this paper the term biocomposite is used, referring to i) a material having at least one bio-component (e.g. wood pulp fibres and nanofibrils) or ii) biomaterials intended for biomedical applications. The utilization of wood pulp fibres in composite materials has gained major interest during the last years. There are various wood pulp fibres that can be used as reinforcement in composites, e.g. thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP), chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) and kraft pulp fibres. Depending on the pulping process (TMP, CTMP or kraft pulp), the pulp fibres differ greatly with respect to the fibre morphology and chemistry. Kraft pulp fibres have been one of the most used raw materials for producing nanocellulose. Nanocellulose from wood refers to various cellulose nano-materials such as cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrillated cellulose. Nanofibrillated cellulose is composed of a major fraction of structurally homogeneous nanofibrils having typical widths in the nanometre scale and lengths in the micrometre scale. Wood pulp fibres and nanofibrils have been proposed as reinforcement in composite materials. Some of the major motivations have been the potential improvements by using fibres and nanofibrillated materials with respect to e.g. strength, biodegradability and functionality. The purpose of the present work is to review some advances in biocomposite research and development, including three focus areas; structured biocomposites, flexible biocomposites and biomaterials.

  • 113.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Miettinen, A
    Hendriks, C.L.L
    Gamstedt, K
    Kataka, M
    Structural characterisation of kraft pulp fibres and their nanofibrillated materials for biodegradable composite applications2011In: Nanocomposites and Polymers with Analytical Methods, InTech , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Cellulose nanofibrils: production, characterization and applications2011In: Fine Structure of Papermaking Fibres, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences , 2011, , p. 13Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Yu, Y.
    Diserud, O.
    Quantitative Electron Microscopy of Cellulose Nanofibril Structures from Eucalyptus and Pinus Radiata Kraft Pulp Fibres2011In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Chniga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Miettinen, Arttu
    Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.
    Gamstedt, Kristofer E.
    Kataja, Markku
    Structural characterisation of kraft pulp fibres and their nanofibrillated materials for biodegradable composite applications2011In: Nanocomposites and polymers with analytical methods / [ed] Cuppoletti John, InTech, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 117. Cho, S.-W.
    et al.
    Blomfeldt, T.O.J.
    Halonen, H.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gällstedt, M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Wheat gluten-laminated paperboard with improved moisture barrier properties: A new concept using a plasticizer (glycerol) containing a hydrophobic component (oleic acid)2012In: International Journal of Polymer Science, ISSN 1687-9422, E-ISSN 1687-9430, article id 454359Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 118. Cho, S.-W.
    et al.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hedenqvist, M.S.
    Effects of glycerol content and film thickness on the properties of vital wheat gluten films cast at pH 4 and 112010In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 117, no 6, p. 3506-3514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the optical properties and plasticizer migration properties of vital wheat gluten (WG) films cast at pH 4 and 11. The films contained initially 8, 16, and 25 wt % glycerol and were aged at 23°C and 50% relative humidity for at least 17 weeks on a paper support to simulate a situation where a paper packaging is laminated with an oxygen barrier film of WG. The films, having target thicknesses of 50 and 250 Όm, were characterized visually and with ultraviolet/visible and infrared spectroscopy; the mass loss was measured by gravimetry or by a glycerol-specific gas chromatography method. The thin films produced at pH 4 were, in general, more heterogeneous than those produced at pH 11. The thin pH 4 films consisted of transparent regions surrounding beige glycerol-rich regions, the former probably rich in gliadin and the latter rich in glutenin. This, together with less Maillard browning, meant that the thin pH 4 films, in contrast to the more homogeneous (beige) thin pH 11 films, showed good contact clarity. The variations in glycerol content did not significantly change the optical properties of the films. All the films showed a significant loss of glycerol to the paper support but, after almost 9 months, the thick pH 11 film containing initially 25 wt % glycerol was still very flexible and, despite a better contact to the paper, had a higher residual glycerol content than the pH 4 film, which was also more brittle.

  • 119. Chunilall, V.
    et al.
    Bush, T.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE, Innventia.
    Kindness, A.
    A CP/MAS 13C-NMR study of cellulose fibril aggregation in eucalyptus dissolving pulps during drying and the correlation between aggregate dimensions and chemical reactivity2010In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 693-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in supramolecular properties of cellulose I, namely its lateral fibril aggregate dimension (LFAD), in bleached hardwood acid bisulphite pulp during drying was studied using cross-polarization/magic angle spinning carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C-NMR) in combination with spectral fitting. A significant change in aggregate dimensions was noticed when each of the pulp grades were oven dried. The effect of drying was further investigated with pulp samples subjected to different drying methods. A comparison of a harsh oven drying, mild and rapid air drying, and a very mild and slow condition drying showed that the LFAD of the material decreases in the following order: oven drying > air drying > condition drying. The correlation between the total extractable material S10 (%) and LFAD and also the LFAD increment (ΔLFAD in %) are presented and shown to be intimately related. This means that the method of drying influences the size of the fibril aggregate dimensions and depends on the presence of extractable material within the fibre cell wall. Reactivity studies were carried out based on the acetylation of cotton linters and commercial 96α pulp. Results indicate that the initial reaction rate is proportional to the specific surface area of the two cellulose pulp samples. Accordingly, the specific surface area is directly related to initial reactivity of the performed acetylation. We demonstrated that it is possible to control the LFAD and hence specific surface area in laboratory-produced pulps 91α, 92α, and 96α by the drying method. Thus controlling LFAD can probably be one viable route for controlling the initial reactivity of dissolving pulp towards acetylation.

  • 120.
    Coffin, Douglas W
    et al.
    Miami university, USA.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. BiMaC Innovation, Sweden.
    Creasing and folding2017In: 16th Fundamental research symposium, 2017, p. 69-136Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Andersson, M.
    Edström, P.
    Kinnunen, J.
    Limitations in the efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents in uncoated paper2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 3, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Andersson, M.
    Neuman, M.
    Edström, P.
    Fluorescence model for multi-layer papers using conventional spectrophotometers2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, no 2, p. 418-425Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Neuman, M.
    Edström, P.
    Lateral light scattering in paper: MTF simulation and measurement2011In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, no 25, p. 25181-25187Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Norberg, O.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE, Innventia.
    Paper whiteness and its effect on perceived image quality2010In: 18th Color and Imaging Conference: Color Science and Engineering Systems, Technologies, and Applications, Technical Papers and Proceedings: CIC18, 2010, p. 62-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whiteness is a commercially important characteristic of paper and board, although its perception depends on many factors that often are neglected by instrumental measurements. High whiteness improves the contrast of printed areas and increases the number of reproducible colours, but few quantitative studies have been published. In this paper, we report just-noticeable image quality difference (JND) from pair wise comparisons of images printed on paper substrate of different shades and whiteness. The JND was estimated to approximately 15 CIE whiteness, for the images and whiteness levels in this study, implying that a large substrate whiteness difference is required to get a significant visual impact on image quality. Unlike previous studies limited to colour rendering issues, the influence of the substrate’s shade as a surrounding frame to the images was also investigated here. It was found that the surrounding frame did not have a significant impact on image quality, when the images had an inherent dim background around the objects in the image. However, floating images in which the image objects are adjacent to the unprinted substrate would need further attention, since their perceived image quality seemed to depend both on the colour reproduction related to whiteness and shade, and on the contrast between the image and the substrate.

  • 125.
    Coppel, Ludovic
    RISE, Innventia.
    Measuring and producing high perceived whiteness2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 126. Cozzolino, C.A
    et al.
    Nilsson, F.
    Iotti, M.
    Sacchi, B.
    Piga, A.
    Exploiting the nano-sized features of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) for the development of controlled-release packaging2013In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 127.
    da Silva, Paulo S P
    et al.
    Åbo akademi university, Finland.
    Engblom, Markus
    Åbo akademi university, Finland.
    DeMartini, Nikolai
    Åbo akademi university, Finland.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Åkerlund, Lars-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Release of carbon and nitrogen during pylolysis of reduced lignin black liquors: experimental results2017In: International chemical recovery conference, May 24-26, 2017, Halifax, Canada, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Removing lignin from black liquor is of increasing industrial interest. It has the potential to create a new product stream for pulp mills as well as being a method for reducing the load of over-loaded recovery boilers. Currently, there is very little information on the combustion properties of reduced lignin black liquors. Of particular importance is the split of carbon and nitrogen. The carbon split is especially important because it plays an important role in how much carbon reaches the char bed. This in turn affects the lower furnace temperature, which plays an important role in reduction efficiency; sulfur and alkali release; and NO and cyanate formation. The nitrogen split is of interest because a part of the black liquor nitrogen precipitates with the lignin, potentially changing the behavior of black liquor N. The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of lignin removal on carbon and nitrogen distribution between volatiles and char during pyrolysis. In this work, black liquors (one SW and one eucalyptus) with different levels of lignin removal were pyrolysed in a single particle furnace for 2 seconds at temperatures from 900°C to 1100°. Additional softwood and hardwood liquors were also pyrolyzed in order to study liquor to liquor variability. The carbon and nitrogen splits were obtained by analyzing the chars from the pyrolysis experiments using a CHNS elemental analyzer. Results show a similar carbon split for liquors with up to 25% lignin removal. The nitrogen split was also found to be fairly consistent with approximately 45% of the nitrogen staying with the char. This information has partly been used in another study in the CFD modeling of the combustion of black liquor with different levels of lignin removal.

  • 128.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    STFI.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Application of MALDI-TOF-MS to characterization of lignocellulosics2001In: 11th International Symposium on wood and pulping chemistry: Post symposium, 2001, p. 31-34Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    STFI.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Liljenberg, Annika
    STFI.
    Ismail Olsson, Asha
    STFI.
    Analysis of carbohydrates in wood and pulps employing enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent capillary zone electrophoresis2000In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 891, no 1, p. 157-174Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 130.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    STFI.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Nordström, Maria
    STFI.
    Characterisation of hemicelluloses from wood employing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisationtime-of-flight mass spectrometry2003In: Hemicelluloses: Science and technology, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2003, chapter 6, p. 80-93Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 131.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    STFI.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Sjöberg, John
    STFI.
    Molecular properties of hemicelluloses located in the surface and inner layers of hardwood and softwood pulps2003In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 325-334Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Jensen, Anna
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Tormund, Disa
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    ֖stlund, Johanna
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Processing of xylan from hardwood spent cooking liquors2008In: 2008 Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference - Proceedings: NWBC 2008, 2008, p. 114-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports conditions suitable for recovering and processing 4-O-methylglucuronoxylans from birch and eucalyptus spent kraft cooking liquors. The black liquor originating from the initial heating-up phase in birch kraft cooking exhibits a high xylan and low lignin concentration. The maximum concentration of polymeric xylan was found in the cooking liquor just before the cook reached its final cooking temperature. For eucalyptus kraft cooking, however, lignin was more abundant than xylan in the cooking liquor throughout the whole cook. Birch and eucalyptus xylan, exhibiting good purity, were produced by employing a process chain involving, redrawing of xylan-rich spent liquor early in the cook, upgrading of the spent liquor employing ultrafiltration with diafiltration followed by precipitation and drying.

  • 133.
    Danielsson, S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sorption and desorption of black liquor xylan onto cellulose fibers2014In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 48, no 9-10, p. 819-823Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Danielsson, Sverker
    RISE, Innventia.
    Pure xylan from black liquor through new separation technique2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Danielsson, Sverker
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Holm, Richard
    RISE, Innventia.
    Öhman, Fredrik
    Lipnizki, Frank
    A novel approach for applied membrane filtration on processing flows2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Djafari Petroudy, Seyed Rahman
    et al.
    Shahid Beheshti University, Iran.
    Ghasemian, Ali
    Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
    Resalati, Hossein
    Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The effect of xylan on the fibrillation efficiency of DED bleached soda bagasse pulp and on nanopaper characteristics2015In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 385-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide and the most abundant hemicellulose component of soda bagasse pulp. In this study, bleached soda bagasse pulp (SB) and bleached bagasse dissolving pulp (DB) with varying amounts of xylan were fibrillated with a homogenization process. The produced fibrillated materials were used for making nanopaper structures. The surface, physical, mechanical and optical properties of the nanopaper were measured, and the effect of xylan was assessed. Laser profilometry (LP) and field emission scanning electron microscopy were applied to study the degree of the fibrillation. The pulp having the highest xylan content, SB, showed the highest yield of cellulose nanofibrils. Nanopaper produced from SB had a more consolidated structure than that produced from DB. Additionally, SB nanopaper yielded higher tensile strength, lower LP roughness, a higher barrier against oxygen and lower opacity. These results indicate a higher degree of fibrillation of the SB pulp compared to the DB pulp. Hence, the positive effect of xylan for facilitating the fibrillation of the starting pulp fibers was demonstrated.

  • 137. Djafari Petroudy, S.R.
    et al.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Ghasemain, A.
    Resalati, H.
    Gregersen, Ø.W.
    Oriented nanopaper (ONP) made of bagasse nanofibrils2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Dominic, Chris
    RISE, Innventia.
    Packaging logistics performance and how to evaluate the packaging performance by applying the tool packaperforma2010In: 17th IAPRI World Conference on Packaging 2010, 2010, p. 245-250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaperforma is a tool developed in order to increase the efficiency, effectiveness and differentiation in the future design of packaging systems. The tool is based on the theory Packaging Logistics Performance. Packaperforma is a further development of Packaging Scorecard and it could be utilized by packaging designers and supply chain managers to see the functions of the packaging system in the logistics processes. This means that the gap between packaging decisions and logistics decisions can be mitigated, as it can share the downstream information with the upstream and the designers. Packaperforma is used to conduct comparative studies in multiple Supply-Demand Chains. A study as such increases the quantity of data in the Packaperforma database that could be used to indicate the performances of the packaging, the agent and the Supply Demand Chains. The paper presents a study on Packaging Logistics Performance, how to evaluate packaging performance; how to collect feedback information from different agents and efficiently solve packaging related problem. Further the paper describes a web system based tool, packaging performance indicators and packaging performance database.

  • 139.
    Dong, F.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Fibre morphological effects on mechano-sorptive creep2010In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 475-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased creep rate of paper under load during moisture cycling conditions as compared to that at high constant humidity is a problem in the use of packaging materials. In order to investigate the influence of morphological factors of the fibres on the occurrence and magnitude of this phenomenon, i.e. the occurrence of mechano-sorptive creep, studies on wood fibres isolated from different parts of spruce wood were performed. Thus, creep properties were studied on earlywood and latewood fibres from both juvenile wood and mature wood. In general, latewood fibres showed a higher degree of mechano-sorptive creep than earlywood fibres, and mature wood showed a higher degree of mechano-sorptive creep than juvenile fibres. The difference in mechano-sorptive creep rate between different fibres was shown to be correlated to the differences in fibril angle. The smaller the fibril angle the higher was the mechano-sorptive creep ratio. It was suggested that at fibril angles approaching 45° wood fibres do not exhibit mechano-sorptive creep.

  • 140.
    Drotz, Mattias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Influence of pulp and process parameters on the strength properties of low grammage laboratory2017In: Tissue World Milan 2017: Proceedings, 2017, article id 23Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Toilet, towel and facial products have important properties, for example, softness, absorption, wet strength and strength. Research has been undertaken to investigate the influence of pulp and process parameters on the strength properties of low grammage sheets. Various pulps were investigated and their fibre length, fibre width, fines and coarseness were determined. Based on analysis, it has been concluded that fibre length is essential for tear related properties. Compared with a softwood fibre, a crack propagates faster in a hardwood sheet. Although refining improved the tear related properties to a certain extent, it had a negative impact on the dewatering properties and density. This PowerPoint presentation incorporates some stand-alone graphically presented data with minimal textural interpretation.

  • 141.
    Duker, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Ankertors, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Glad-Nordmark, Gunnel
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    The use of CMC as a dry strength agent: The interplay between CMC attachment and drying2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 65-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the ability to use high molecular weight CMC as a dry strength agent in paper and how the drying of the pulp, either before or after the CMC attachment, affects the mechanical properties of the paper. The effect of the counter-ion form used during drying and reslushing was also investigated. In the case of the calcium and hydrogen counter-ion forms, drying after CMC attachment had no impact on the attached amount. The sodium form did, however, result in some detachment of CMC. When the pulp was dried prior to CMC treatment, the counter-ion form had no effect on the attached amount. It was also shown that drying of a CMC-treated pulp reduced the positive effect of CMC on the mechanical properties. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties were still better than those of paper made from the never-dried reference pulp. The relative effect of CMC on the mechanical properties was independent of the drying strategy used and the counter-ion form did not affect the mechanical properties. However, surface carboxymethylation prior to drying resulted in sheets with better final mechanical properties than sheets made from pulp that had first been dried and then surface carboxy-methylated.

  • 142.
    Duker, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    On the mechanisms behind the ability of CMC to enhance paper strength2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The attachment of CMC to pulp is known to have a strong impact on the tensile strength properties. The mechanisms behind the strength-enhancing ability of the CMC have been investigated by studying the effect of surface carboxymethylation on some basic fibre and sheet properties. Standard methods were used for the strength evaluation, and the relative bonded area was determined from both light-scattering measurements and BET-analysis. The effect of CMC on the shear bond strength was calculated using Page’s equation. The attachment of CMC was shown to increase the shape factor and reduce the number of kinks per fibre, which is beneficial for the tensile strength. Surface carboxymethylation also increased the relative bonded area, but on a small-scale structural level detectable only using BET-analysis and not by the scattering coefficient. The sheet density was not affected by the treatment. CMC attachment also increased the shear bond strength. In order to use Page’s equation for this evaluation, the relative bonded area had to be determined by BET-analysis. The positive effect of CMC on sheet formation also contributed to an increase in tensile strength.

  • 143. Ek, Monica
    et al.
    Chirat, Christine
    Li, Dongfang
    Iversen, Tommy
    Malmström, Eva
    Norström, Emelie
    Sixta, Herbert
    WOBAMA: wood based materials2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 144. Enberg, S
    et al.
    Rundlöf, M
    Paulsson, M
    Axelsson, P
    Eriksson,  Ø
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Some causes of formation of colour during storage of hydrogen-peroxide bleached Norway spruce mechanical pulp2014In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 2, no 29, p. 356-366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 145. Enberg, S
    et al.
    Rundlöf, M
    Paulsson, M
    Axelsson, P
    Eriksson,  Ø
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The influence of process waters on optical properties during storage of hydrogen-peroxide bleached Norway spruce mechanical pulp2014In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 2, no 29, p. 344-355Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 146. Enberg, S.
    et al.
    Rundlöf, M.
    Paulsson, M.
    Johnsen, I.A.
    Axelsson, P
    The influence of process conditions during pulp storage on the optical properties of Norway spruce high-yield pulps2013In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 28, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Eriksen, O.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Holmqvist, Claes
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Mohlin, Ulla-Britt
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Fibre floc drainage - a possible cause for substantial pressure peaks in low-consistency refiners2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 321-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is floc drainage a cause for substantial pressure peaks in low-consistency refiners? High-resolution pressure measurements using a sensor mounted in a stator bar have been performed. These show that during the initial stage of a bar crossing, a substantial pressure is sometimes generated, which can reach a level of several MPa. A theoretical model that explains the pressure pulses is presented. The analysis is based on the assumption that a floc of fibres is trapped between the leading edges of the approaching bar surfaces. Water needs to be expelled from the part of the floc that is compressed and enters into the refiner gap. The hydrodynamic resistance to expel the liquid from within the floc is shown to give rise to substantial pressures in the region close to the leading edge of the rotor bar. The estimated pressures are of the same order as the measured values.

  • 148.
    Eriksen, O.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Holmqvist, Claes
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Mohlin, Ulla-Britt
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Theoretical outline of the cause for observed cavitation in a low-consistency refiner2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 315-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-frequency pressure measurements in the refining zone have exposed features that strongly indicate that cavitation occurs regularly in low-consistency refiners. In order to explain the cavitation, it is assumed that pulp fibres are trapped between opposing bars on the discs in such a way that liquid is hindered to enter into the refining gap at the leading edge of the stator bar. In order to prevent a void as the rotor bar drags liquid away from the trapped fibres, a counter flow towards the trapped fibres then needs to be set up. This necessitates a low pressure in the gap, in order that liquid from the groove in front of the rotor is accelerated into the gap at the required rate. It appears that this mechanism can yield gap pressures several hundred kPa below that in the grooves. Cavitation bubbles may then form, which subsequently collapse and cause shock waves when the pressure rises after the bar passage.

  • 149.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH Royal institute of technology, sweden.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Larsson, Per A.
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal institute of technology, Sweden.
    On the mechanism behind freezing-induced chemical crosslinking in ice-templated cellulose nanofibril aerogels2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 40, p. 19371-19380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The underlying mechanism related to freezing-induced crosslinking of aldehyde-containing cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) has been investigated, and the critical parameters behind this process have been identified. The aldehydes introduced by periodate oxidation allows for formation of hemiacetal bonds between the CNFs provided the fibrils are in sufficiently close contact before the water is removed. This is achieved during the freezing process where the cellulose components are initially separated, and the growth of ice crystals forces the CNFs to come into contact in the thin lamellae between the ice crystals. The crosslinked 3-D structure of the CNFs can subsequently be dried under ambient conditions after solvent exchange and still maintain a remarkably low density of 35 kg m-3, i.e. a porosity greater than 98%. A lower critical amount of aldehydes, 0.6 mmol g-1, was found necessary in order to generate a crosslinked 3-D CNF structure of sufficient strength not to collapse during the ambient drying. The chemical stability of the 3-D structure can be further enhanced by converting the hemiacetals to acetals by treatment with an alcohol under acidic conditions.

  • 150.
    Faia, Pedro M.
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CEMUC Centre of Mechanical Engineering, Portugal.
    Krochak, Paul
    RISE, Innventia.
    Costa, Harold
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CEMUC Centre of Mechanical Engineering, Portugal.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Silva, Rui
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CIEPQPF Research Centre on Chemical Process and Forest Products, Portugal.
    Garcia, Fernando A. P.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CIEPQPF Research Centre on Chemical Process and Forest Products, Portugal.
    Rasteiro, Maria Graca
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CIEPQPF Research Centre on Chemical Process and Forest Products, Portugal.
    A comparative study of magnetic resonance imaging, electrical impedance tomography and ultrasonic doppler velocimetry for semi-dilute fibre flow suspension characterisation2016In: International Journal of Computational Methods & Experimental Measurements, ISSN 2046-0546, E-ISSN 2046-0554, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 165-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental comparisons between imaging techniques serve to provide confidence in the validity of each technique for the study of multiphase flow systems. Such cross-validation can establish the limitations of each technique quantitatively. In the present paper, the authors report efforts made on the characterization of semi-dilute, mono-dispersed suspensions of rayon fibres in turbulent water flow using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) and Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Increasing flow velocities and fibre concentration were studied using these three experimental techniques. For lower fibre concentrations more uniform distributions were observed and as flow velocity increased fibre agglomerations were found in the centre region of the pipe.

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