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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Morell, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Mapping of biodiversity impacts and hotspot products in Nordic food consumption2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate impact of food production has been lively debated over the last decades. It is e.g. well known that some products have a higher climate impact in comparison to other food products. The biodiversity impact of different food products is however less known. To steer the food production in a positive direction as well as to enable consumers, restaurants, public kitchens, and the food industry to make well-informed decisions, we need to address and measure this impact. The aim of this study has been to examine the biodiversity impact of Nordic and European food consumption. In this report we present (1) a brief summary of biodiversity indicators linked to food production and consumption, (2) different methods to evaluate biodiversity impact of food products and (3) a literature review of studies that assess biodiversity impacts of food products and diets. Based on the literature review, we identify food products suggested to have a higher respectively lower negative impact on biodiversity and discuss what changes that could promote a Nordic diet with lower negative impact on biodiversity. Finally, we highlight knowledge gaps and possibilities for future work. There are different methods to examine the biodiversity impact on food products, such as life cycle assessment, input-output-model, and mapping tools. Biodiversity footprints are often based on the land use (area and intensity) in combination with parameters linked to where the production takes place and thus what biodiversity values can be affected. The consumed amount of food is also often considered – a product with a low impact per kg can get a high impact when consumed to a high degree and vice versa. Our literature review shows a variety of food products with high negative biodiversity impact. Particularly, products that are known drivers of deforestation in tropical regions, such as palm oil, coffee, and cacao – as well as meat and/or animal products that have been fed with soybeans derived from tropical regions have a high negative impact on biodiversity. On the other hand, consumption of foods as vegetables, starchy roots, and pulses – ideally with domestic origin – are examples of foods indicated to have lower biodiversity impact which would be beneficial to eat more of in the Nordic diet. There are also examples of agricultural systems where human interference is crucial for maintaining a high level of biodiversity, for example keeping grazing animals on high-naturevalue-grasslands. If these lands are abandoned or planted with forest, numerous of species will be extinct. Thus, meat linked to these grasslands can also support biodiversity, especially in the Nordic countries where there are relatively many of these landscapes left (in comparison to the rest of Europe). As the studies reviewed varied in their scope, methods, and results, they are difficult to compare. More research is needed to confirm our conclusions. Furthermore, none of the methods are flawless and there are obvious difficulties with finding a transferable and scalable unit – like CO2-equivalents – since biodiversity impacts are highly dynamic and sitespecific. Additionally, most of the reviewed studies do not consider transformation of natural areas driven by food production, e.g., deforestation, and may therefore be underestimating the impacts. In future studies, the reference systems may also be discussed and further developed, and more taxonomic groups (e.g., arthropods such as insects) should preferably be included.

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  • 2.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada; Aquaculture Stewardship Council, Netherlands.
    Mifflin, Kathleen
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Assessing seafood nutritional diversity together with climate impacts informs more comprehensive dietary advice2022Ingår i: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 3, nr 1, artikel-id 188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood holds promise for helping meet nutritional needs at a low climate impact. Here, we assess the nutrient density and greenhouse gas emissions, weighted by production method, that result from fishing and farming of globally important species. The highest nutrient benefit at the lowest emissions is achieved by consuming wild-caught small pelagic and salmonid species, and farmed bivalves like mussels and oysters. Many but not all seafood species provide more nutrition at lower emissions than land animal proteins, especially red meat, but large differences exist, even within species groups and species, depending on production method. Which nutrients contribute to nutrient density differs between seafoods, as do the nutrient needs of population groups within and between countries or regions. Based on the patterns found in nutritional attributes and climate impact, we recommend refocusing and tailoring production and consumption patterns towards species and production methods with improved nutrition and climate performance, taking into account specific nutritional needs and emission reduction goals. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 3.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Strid, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna-Karin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Systematic evaluation of nutrition indicators for use within food LCA studies2020Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 21, artikel-id 8992Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Expressing the environmental impact of foods in relation to the nutritional quality is a promising approach in the search for methods integrating interdisciplinary sustainability perspectives. However, the lack of standardized methods regarding how to include nutrient metrics can lead to unharmonized results difficult to interpret. We evaluated nutrient density indexes by systematically assessing the role of methodological variables with the purpose of identifying the index able to rank foods with the highest coherence with the Swedish dietary guidelines. Among 45 variants of the nutrient density index NRF (Nutrient Rich Food), a Sweden-tailored NRF11.3 index, including 11 desirable nutrients and 3 undesirable nutrients, calculated per portion size or 100 kcal with the application of weighting, ranked foods most coherently with the guidelines. This index is suggested to be suitable as complementary functional unit (FU) in comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) studies across food categories. The results clarify implications of methodological choices when calculating nutrient density of foods and offer guidance to LCA researchers on which nutrition metric to use when integrating nutritional aspects in food LCA. © 2020 by the authors.

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  • 4.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Moshtaghian, Hannieh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nutritional assessment of plant-based meat analogues on the Swedish market2022Ingår i: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, ISSN 0963-7486, E-ISSN 1465-3478, Vol. 73, nr 7, s. 889-901Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutritional quality of 142 plant-based meat analogues (PBMAs) on the Swedish market were assessed by nutritional contribution (NC) to recommended nutrient intake, three labelling systems (Keyhole, Nutri-Score, nutrition claims) and comparisons to meat references. Based on median (min-max) NC for macronutrients, PBMAs in general appeared as healthy options to meat due to higher NC per 100 g for fibre [PBMAs: 15% (1-33%) vs meat: 0% (0-2%)] and lower NC for saturated fat [PBMAs: 4% (0-59%) vs meat: 15% (1-51%)]. The NC per 100 g for salt was substantial for both PBMAs [25% (5-52%)] and meat [24% (2-55%)]. Limited data for micronutrients indicated that PBMAs are higher in iron compared to meat. Nutrition quality varied both between and within product categories. Mince, bite/fillet and nugget analogues were the main healthier categories, according to labelling systems. Bioavailability of iron, protein quality and effects of processing are important future aspects to consider. © 2022 The Author(s).

  • 5.
    Guo, Annie
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Strid, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Choice of health metrics for combined health and environmental assessment of foods and diets: A systematic review of methods2022Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 365, artikel-id 132622Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence-based scientific methods combining health and environmental perspectives are urgently required to support policy decisions and recommendations for more sustainable food systems. This review provides a systematic overview of health metrics and methods to combine health and environmental assessment of foods and diets. Key methodological considerations of importance for best practices are highlighted as well as trends over the past decade, and future research needs. A systematic literature review was performed in the databases Scopus, Dimensions and Pub Med. Eligible articles combined health impact and environmental assessment of food and were published in peer-reviewed scientific journals between 2010 and 2020. Differences in method choices were highlighted based on study approach, dietary baseline data, dietary exposure, dietary-related health outcome, method for health assessment, choice of health metric, environmental outcome and method for combined health and environmental assessment. A total of 33 articles using nine different health metrics in combination with environmental assessment of foods were identified. Avoided, averted, delayed or preventable deaths or cases, followed by disability- or quality-adjusted life years, and hazard ratio were the health metrics most commonly used. Three principal methods to combine health and environmental assessment of foods and diets were identified; parallel assessment (n = 26), scaled assessment (n = 7) and integrated assessment (n = 1). Method choices affecting reliability and uncertainty, as well as suitability for different purposes were described. Over the past decade, a strong acceleration in the research field of combined health and environmental assessment of food was noted, both regarding number of published studies and method development for more holistic sustainability assessments. Transition towards more sustainable food choices offers great potential to improve public health and reduce environmental impact from the food system. This review identified several health metrics that are suitable for use in methods combining health and environmental dimensions when studying the sustainability of food systems. For best practices, improved knowledge on how multi-criteria sustainability indicators can be assessed, communicated and implemented by different actors along the food supply chain is required. © 2022 The Authors

  • 6.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bajzelj, B
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Håkansson, N
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sjons, Josefin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Åkesson, A
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wolk, A
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Dietary climate impact: Contribution of foods and dietary patterns by gender and age in a Swedish population2021Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 306, artikel-id 127189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary climate impact in a Swedish population (56–95 years old) was estimated based on self-reported food intake from 50 000 men and women within two population-based cohorts and on climate data, covering emissions from farm to fork, for 600 foods representative for the Swedish market. Aims were to assess variation in dietary climate impact between population groups and between food categories. Mean dietary climate impact was 2.0 tons of CO2e/person/year, with about a threefold variation between high and low impact individuals. Food loss and waste accounted for 18%. Older individuals and women on average had lower total dietary climate impact per year, while differences between gender were smaller per 1000 kcal. Climate impact was greatly affected by dietary composition and especially by the content of animal-based and discretionary foods, responsible for 71% and 12% of total climate impact, respectively. Results indicate a large potential for reduced climate impact by adopting realistic dietary patterns. Suggested strategies to reach climate goals include reduction of red meat and prioritising lower impact foods within meat, dairy and seafood categories, limited consumption of discretionary foods and decreased over-consumption of total calories, combined with improvements in production including reduction of food loss and waste.

  • 7.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bajzelj, B
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Håkansson, N
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sjons, Josefin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Åkesson, A
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wolk, A
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Dietary climate impact: Contribution of foods and dietary patterns by gender and age in a Swedish population2021Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 306, artikel-id 127189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary climate impact in a Swedish population (56–95 years old) was estimated based on self-reported food intake from 50 000 men and women within two population-based cohorts and on climate data, covering emissions from farm to fork, for 600 foods representative for the Swedish market. Aims were to assess variation in dietary climate impact between population groups and between food categories. Mean dietary climate impact was 2.0 tons of CO2e/person/year, with about a threefold variation between high and low impact individuals. Food loss and waste accounted for 18%. Older individuals and women on average had lower total dietary climate impact per year, while differences between gender were smaller per 1000 kcal. Climate impact was greatly affected by dietary composition and especially by the content of animal-based and discretionary foods, responsible for 71% and 12% of total climate impact, respectively. Results indicate a large potential for reduced climate impact by adopting realistic dietary patterns. Suggested strategies to reach climate goals include reduction of red meat and prioritising lower impact foods within meat, dairy and seafood categories, limited consumption of discretionary foods and decreased over-consumption of total calories, combined with improvements in production including reduction of food loss and waste.

  • 8.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Mifflin, Kathleen
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Troell, Max
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Combined climate and nutritional performance of seafoods2019Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 230, s. 402-411Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    National authorities in many countries advise their populations to eat more seafood, for health and sometimes for environmental purposes, but give little guidance as to what type of seafood should be consumed. The large diversity in species and production methods results in variability both in the nutritional content and in the environmental performance of seafoods. More targeted dietary advice for sustainable seafood consumption requires a better understanding of the relative nutritional benefits against environmental costs of various types of seafood. This study analyzes the combined climate and nutritional performance of seafood commonly consumed in Sweden, originating all over the world. Nutrient density scores, assessed by seven alternative methods, are combined with species- technology- and origin-specific greenhouse gas emission data for 37 types of seafood. An integrated score indicates which seafood products provide the greatest nutritional value at the lowest climate costs and hence should be promoted from this perspective. Results show that seafoods consumed in Sweden differ widely in nutritional value as well as climate impact and that the two measures are not correlated across all species. Dietary changes towards increased consumption of more seafood choices where a correlation exists (e.g. pelagic species like sprat, herring and mackerel)would benefit both health and climate. Seafoods with a higher climate impact in relation to their nutritional value (e.g. shrimp, Pangasius and plaice)should, on the other hand, not be promoted in dietary advice. The effect of individual nutrients and implications of different nutrient density scores is evaluated. This research is a first step towards modelling the joint nutritional and climate benefits of seafood as a concrete baseline for policy-making, e.g. in dietary advice. It should be followed up by modelling other species, including environmental toxins in seafood in the nutrition score, and expanding to cover other environmental aspects.

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  • 9.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Håkansson, N.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Åkesson, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wolk, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Dietary environmental impacts relative to planetary boundaries for six environmental indicators – A population-based study2022Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 373, artikel-id 133949Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impact of Swedish diets was assessed for six indicators (greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions, cropland use, nitrogen application, phosphorus application, consumptive water use and extinction rate), using self-reported food intake within two population-based cohorts of men and women, 56–96 years of age. The dietary environmental impact was assessed in relation to per capita planetary boundaries, overall and by population subgroups, addressing the relative importance of specific foods and food groups. The total average dietary impact exceeded the planetary boundaries by 1.6 to 4-fold for five of the six environmental indicators; consumptive water use did not exceed the boundaries. Comparing the highest with lowest quintiles of the population impact showed >2.5-fold differences across all environmental indicators. Of the diet's total average environmental impact, animal-based, plant-based and discretionary foods accounted for 28–83%, 8–40% and 9–37%, respectively, across the six indicators. Animal-based foods dominated the impact on GHG emissions, cropland use and nitrogen and phosphorus application, while plant-based and discretionary foods contributed more to consumptive water use and extinction rate. Environmental impact was driven predominantly by consumption of red meat, dairy, fresh fruit and coffee. The findings show major challenges in affluent countries that have to be addressed to achieving sustainable food production systems and diets. They provide guidance on critical food groups, environmental indicators and population subgroups to prioritize in future efforts to reduce the environmental impact. © 2022 The Authors

  • 10.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Using dietary quality scores to assess sustainability of food products and human diets: A systematic review2018Ingår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 93, s. 219-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased recognition of inter-relationships between the environmental and health effects of food has resulted in a new fast-growing research area. Development of methods for integrated analysis of environmental and nutritional impacts is essential to facilitate policy decisions and actions for sustainable food systems. Dietary quality scores is one of the methods suggested to combine environmental and nutritional assessments of foods, meals and diets. This systematic review provides an overview of how dietary quality scores are used in environmental sustainability studies of food products and diets. The review includes 24 articles applying 20 different types of dietary quality scores. We describe current approaches used to combine environmental and nutritional assessments, discuss methodological choices of importance and their impact on results, and identify research gaps that require further efforts to push the current frontier of knowledge. Based on our analysis we identify two different categories of dietary quality scores and four approaches used to integrate environmental and nutritional assessments. There is a large number of methods available to quantify a dietary quality score: which one is chosen as well as how they are combined with environmental assessments can affect the results, and hence also the conclusions of which foods that are more sustainable to eat. This is critical to understand for the set-up of studies and for the interpretation of results and drawing conclusions. Our categorization of existing methods used, how they differ, what applications they are suited for, and which methodological challenges they involve increases the understanding of what analyzes are possible today and point out areas where methods are lacking and where more research is required. Continued efforts are needed to bring about a transition to sustainable food systems that do not exceed the planets ecological limits and promote healthy populations. This systematic review provides guidance for future use and development of methods within the field of sustainable nutrition.

  • 11.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Håkansson, N.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Åkesson, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wolk, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Climate impact of alcohol consumption in Sweden2018Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 201, s. 287-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the environmental impact of alcohol is limited and as an effect alcohol is often excluded from environmental studies of diets or included in incomplete ways. This paper describes the climate impact of beer, wine and liquor by using life cycle assessment. The climate impact is quantified per litre of specific alcoholic beverages and per total amount of alcohol consumed based on self-reported data of 50 000 individuals from 2009 within two population-based cohorts in Sweden. The results show that alcoholic beverages generate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the range of 0.73–2.38 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per litre. Alcohol consumption in the population studied generates on average 52 kg CO2e per person and year. Within the 10% of the population with the highest intake of alcohol GHG emissions are up to 202 kg CO2e per person and year. Consumption of wine is responsible for the largest share of GHG emissions from alcoholic beverages (61%) followed by beer (33%), while liquor and strong wine account for a smaller share (6%). Alcohol consumption among men generates 90% higher GHG emissions than among women. Alcohol consumption and in consequence alcohol-related emissions are decreasing with increasing age of men and women. Our results indicate that alcohol consumption in Swedish men and women is responsible for an average of 3% of total diet-related GHG emissions and in sub-populations with the highest consumption up to 6–11%. Limiting alcohol could be an effective option to reduce the climate impact of diets, especially among men.

  • 12.
    Hjorth, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Huseinovic, Ena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Strid, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Changes in dietary carbon footprint over ten years relative to individual characteristics and food intake in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme2020Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to examine 10-year changes in dietary carbon footprint relative to individual characteristics and food intake in the unique longitudinal Västerbotten Intervention Programme, Sweden. Here, 14 591 women and 13 347 men had been followed over time. Food intake was assessed via multiple two study visits 1996–2016, using a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) related to food intake, expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents/1000 kcal and day, were estimated. Participants were classified into GHGE quintiles within sex and 10-year age group strata at both visits. Women and men changing from lowest to highest GHGE quintile exhibited highest body mass index within their quintiles at first visit, and the largest increase in intake of meat, minced meat, chicken, fish and butter and the largest decrease in intake of potatoes, rice and pasta. Women and men changing from highest to lowest GHGE quintile exhibited basically lowest rates of university degree and marriage and highest rates of smoking within their quintiles at first visit. Among these, both sexes reported the largest decrease in intake of meat, minced meat and milk, and the largest increase in intake of snacks and, for women, sweets. More research is needed on how to motivate dietary modifications to reduce climate impact and support public health. © 2020, The Author(s).

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  • 13.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wocken, Yannic
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sanders, Christophe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Jacobsen, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Trigo, João P
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Undeland, Ingrid
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Environmental and nutritional perspectives of algae2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Algae have gained increasing attention as promising food from both an environmental and nutritional perspective. However, current understanding is still limited. This report summarizes the status of knowledge for this emerging sector, focusing on micro- and macroalgae species most relevant for Europe (particularly Sweden). Environmental impacts, with focus on climate, are evaluated through literature reviews and analysis of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs), and nutritional potential in the form of data compilation and calculation of nutrient density scores. Overall, findings reveal that current data is incomplete and of poor representativeness. Most LCAs are not performed on commercial production, but at pilot or experimental scale, why often only indicative drivers for greenhouse gas emissions may be identified. For microalgae, there is a wide diversity of production systems in different conditions across the globe. Based on the data at hand, energy use is a key hotspot across most studies for this production, driven by the requirements of different types of systems and species, and to location. For macroalgae production, despite poor representativeness of especially green and red macroalgae, key aspects for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions are associated with energy consumption and use of materials for farming such as ropes. No LCA exists on wild harvested macroalgae, representing the largest production volume in Europe (>95%); large-scale wild harvest may also be associated with risks to ecosystems unless suitable management is enforced. Significant data gaps also exist in food composition databases regarding nutrient and heavy metal content in algae (e.g., vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids). When available, nutrient content was found to be highly variable within and across species, but overall, the evaluation of nutritional quality indicated that algae may be a considerable source of minerals and vitamin B12. The contribution of fiber and protein is generally minimal in a 5 g dry weight portion of macroalgae; microalgae may have higher protein content, and also fat. However, excessive amounts of iodine and several heavy metals may be represented even in very small amounts of unprocessed macroalgae. In summary, the suggested potential of farmed algae as a sustainable food resource is overall strengthened by its generally low carbon footprint during production compared to other food raw materials. However, more input data are needed to fill data gaps regarding both environmental impacts and nutrient quality, and effects from different processing, as well as improved understanding of nutrient and contaminant bioavailability. Pending further research, careful considerations of risks and benefits associated with algae production and consumption should be applied.

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  • 14.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Troell, Max
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Jonell, Malin
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Frisk med fisk utan risk?: Betydelsen av svensk konsumtion av sjömat för hälsa och miljö2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood is a diverse food commodity, comprising of over 2 500 species from capture fisheries and over 600 species from farming, with vast differences between production methods. Dietary advice often includes recommendations to increase consumption of seafood, based on health benefits and that seafood may be produced with less environmental impacts and resources use compared to many other animal-based foods. However, at the same time, there are frequent media alarms related to potential health risks (some species have diet restrictions) and destructive production practices from both fisheries and aquaculture. As a result, there is often confusion on which seafood to eat or not to eat.The aim of this report is primarily to collate available information on health risks and benefits of Swedish seafood consumption, and to combine this with environmental aspects (focus on carbon footprint).Around 40 seafood products consumed in Sweden were included in the analysis. Potential health risks could only be included qualitatively, since the collected data is risk-based and thus not all products are sampled. It was found that the nutritional content and carbon footprint vastly differ between species. There were also several data gaps identified, such as the need for more detailed data on performance from different production systems. The combined assessment of nutritional value and carbon footprint categorised some species as win-win in terms of nutritional content and environmental pressures (such as small pelagic fish), while others could be more categorised as having less nutritional value and with high environmental costs (such as Northern prawn) respectively.The report provides decision support for further data collection needed to enable combined assessment of nutritional risks, benefits and environmental sustainability of seafood products. Results may be used to discuss suitable level of details of dietary advice.

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  • 15.
    Jacobsen, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Trigo, João P.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Undeland, Ingrid
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nutritional and toxicological characteristics of Saccharina latissima, Ulva fenestrata, Ulva intestinalis, and Ulva rigida: a review2023Ingår i: International journal of food properties, ISSN 1094-2912, E-ISSN 1532-2386, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 2349-2378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nutrient and toxicant levels as well as their bioavailability in S. latissima and Ulva species (fenestrata, intestinalis, rigida) were reviewed. Nutritional quality was assessed by nutrient contribution to daily reference intake (DRI) per portion (5 g dry weight), nutrient density score NRF21.3, and comparisons to reference foods. Toxicological assessments comprised tolerable daily intake (TDI)-levels. Based on mean %DRI per portion, S. latissima and Ulva species were good sources (%DRI >15) of calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, and vitamin B12. Mean %DRI was <10% for fiber, sodium, and protein. Toxicological concerns were mainly due to iodine (mean %TDI per portion: 3160% for S. latissima and 41–91% for Ulva species). Mean %TDIs for inorganic arsenic, cadmium, and lead were <20% for S. latissima and 9–97%, 6–15%, and 21–46%, for the selected Ulva species, respectively. Bioavailability data were scarce and is, together with nutritional impact of processing, an important aspect to address in future studies.

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  • 16.
    Landgren, Kajsa
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Quaye, Angela A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Tiberg, Irén
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Family-based prevention of overweight and obesityin children aged 2–6 years: a systematic review andnarrative analysis of randomized controlled trials2020Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Obesity, E-ISSN 2574-254XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight and obesity in childhood are highly preventable and parents are keyrole models in the establishment of healthy behaviours. The aimof this study wasto assess the effectiveness of family-based interventions for prevention of overweightand obesity in children aged 2–6 years. A systematic literature search wasperformed in the databases such as Medline, PsycInfo, Family Study Abstracts,Embase, and CINAHL, published between 2010 and May 2019. The eligible studieswere preventive randomised controlled interventions targeting the child or thechild’s caregivers. The primary outcome was body mass index (BMI).Twelve trials were included with a total of 3506 participants.

    Twelve trials were included with a total of 3506 participants. The overallfollow-up rate in the intervention groups was 83% as compared to 82% in thecontrol groups. Nine trials had a high or unclear risk of bias. The children werefollowed for between 6 weeks and 3 years. Four of the interventions showedsignificant intervention effects on BMI. Significant effects on children’s foodintake were reported in one (of five) study, whereas no significant changes inphysical activity were found (six studies). Two studies (of six) measuring sedentarybehaviours and one (of three) measuring sleep showed significant differencesbetween groups favouring the intervention group.

    The current evidence for the effects of preventive family interventions islimited. The four trials showing positive effects on BMI were multicomponentinterventions, lasting for a minimum of 12 weekly sessions.

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  • 17.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Swedish Food Agency, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moraeus, Lotta
    Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Strid, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå university, Sweden.
    Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Diet Quality in a Cross-Sectional Study of Swedish Adolescents2023Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 118, nr 5, s. 956-965Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Interventions to improve dietary intake and reduce dietary greenhouse gas emissions (dGHGE) are urgently needed. Adolescence presents a unique time in life to promote sustainable diets. Detailed dietary data are needed to inform public health strategies aiming at improving adolescents’ diet quality and reducing dGHGE. Objective: This study aimed to describe dGHGE in Swedish adolescents’ diets by socio-demographic characteristics, evaluate how food groups contribute to dGHGE, and examine dGHGE in relation to diet quality. Methods: Data come from the national, school-based, cross-sectional dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-17 of 3099 females and males attending school grades 5 (11–12 y old), 8 (14–15 y old) and 11 (17–18 y old). Participants completed 2 web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires on lifestyle factors. dGHGE was estimated based on life cycle assessment data. Diet quality was estimated using NRF11.3 (Nutrient Rich Food Index) and SHEIA15 (Swedish Healthy Eating Index for Adolescents 2015). Results: dGHGE were higher in males than females (medians 4.2 versus 3.8 kg CO2e/10 MJ, P < 0.001). In females, dGHGE were highest in grade 5 (4.0 kg CO2e/10MJ), whereas in males, emissions were highest in grade 11 (4.4 kg CO2e/10MJ), P < 0.001 for the sex/grade interaction. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with CO2e/10MJ, but parental education, birthplace, and degree of urbanization were not. In females, the proportion of dGHGE from animal-based foods was lowest in grade 11, whereas the proportions from plant-based foods and sweet foods/beverages were highest. In males, these proportions were similar across grades. NRF11.3 was not associated with CO2e/10MJ, whereas healthier eating, according to SHEIA15, was inversely associated with CO2e/10MJ. Conclusions: Food choices and dGHGE per calorie differ by sex in adolescents. Thus, intervention strategies to improve dietary sustainability need to be tailored differently to females and males. Diet quality should also be considered when promoting reduced GHGE diets.

  • 18.
    Röös, Elin
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wood, A.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Säll, S.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Abu Hatab, A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, H.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Diagnostic, regenerative or fossil-free - exploring stakeholder perceptions of Swedish food system sustainability2023Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 203, artikel-id 107623Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an analysis of food system sustainability challenges and solutions among Swedish food system actors using Q-methodology, five perspectives were identified. One of the main three perspectives placed the highest priority on reduced meat consumption, food waste, and climate impact in agriculture, but downplayed strategies highlighted in the national food strategy and social aspects, and can be interpreted as a diagnostic climate mitigation-oriented perspective that does not reflect current negotiated policy processes or ‘softer’ values of food. In an alternative regenerative perspective, industrialized large-scale farming and lack of internalization of external costs were regarded as the main problems, and diversity, soil health, and organic farming as the main solutions. Proponents of a third perspective regarded phasing out fossil fuels, increased profitability of companies, increased meat production, and self-sufficiency as high priorities. These contrasting views can be a major barrier to transforming the Swedish food system. However, a number of entry points for change (i.e. aspects highly important for some and neutral for others) were identified, including focusing on healthy diets and increased production of fruit and vegetables. Focusing on these can build trust among stakeholders before moving to discussions about the larger and more sensitive systemic changes needed. © 2022 The Authors

  • 19.
    Shanmugam, Kavitha
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Climate Impact of Plant-based Meat Analogues: A Review of Life Cycle Assessments2023Ingår i: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 36, s. 328-337Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition towards more plant-based diets is identified as an important measure for limiting dietary climate impact. Plant-based meat analogues (PBMAs) have been proposed as a viable lower carbon alternative to meat, and its market is rapidly growing globally. However, knowledge about the climate impact of PBMAs in relation to other foods is currently limited due to the challenge of comparing life cycle assessments (LCAs) using different methods. The aim of this study was to review the climate impact of PBMAs based on LCAs published up to 2021. Original LCA data were recalculated to harmonize differences in method choices among studies and presented as the climate impact of final products at factory gate. The median climate impact of PBMAs was estimated at 1.7 kg CO2 eq./kg of product with a more than fourfold variation in impact (0.5–2.4 kg CO2 eq./kg product). Climate impact per protein content of the final product varied from 0.4 to 1.2 kg CO2 eq./100 g protein with a median impact of 0.8 kg CO2 eq./100 g protein. Cultivation of raw materials and manufacturing were identified to be responsible for a large proportion of GHG emissions up to factory gate. However, the assessment of climate impact in the production chain was challenged by the level of detail of data provided. A transparent reporting strategy regarding the specific stages in the supply chain, method choices and product information is recommended to facilitate identification of hot spots to target for improved climate performance of future PBMAs and to enable accurate comparisons between studies. It could further be concluded that current scientific knowledge on the climate impact of PBMAs is based on a limited number of LCAs that often rely on a combination of secondary data and collected data at production scale or from pilot-scale production facilities. Future LCAs of PBMAs would benefit from additional assessments of commercial production using region- and site-specific data. © 2023 The Authors

  • 20.
    Sjons, Josefin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Florén, Britta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Biörklund Helgesson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    RISE klimatskalor för livsmedel2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    RISE Jordbruk och livsmedel har tagit fram tio klimatskalor för livsmedel med syftet att stötta aktörer i livsmedelskedjan genom att ge vägledning kring vad som är låg respektive hög klimatpåverkan inom en grupp av livsmedel med liknande funktion. Skalorna kan användas för att jämföra olika livsmedels klimatavtryck inom samma grupp av livsmedel och på så sätt främja mer klimatsmarta val av livsmedel. Målgruppen för klimatskalorna är användare av RISE klimatdatabas för livsmedel, såsom aktörer som producerar och säljer livsmedel och i slutänden deras kunder, konsumenterna. Även för kockar och andra måltidsaktörer är klimatskalorna tänkta som ett hjälpmedel i den dagliga menyplaneringen. Indelning av livsmedel i tio klimatskalor har gjorts utifrån livsmedlens funktion och användningsområden, se punktlista nedan. Fokus har varit på sju av de tio klimatskalorna vilka omfattar de livsmedelsgrupper som utgör den största delen av vår konsumtion. De övriga tre klimatskalorna, kursiverade i punktlistan nedan, inkluderar antingen produkter som ofta konsumeras i mindre mängder och är mer olika varandra och därmed inte direkt utbytbara, eller sammansatta rätter för vilka RISE klimatskala för måltider rekommenderas att användas i första hand.

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  • 21.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Dietary-dependent nutrient quality indexes as a complementary functional unit in LCA: A feasible option?2019Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 211, s. 620-627Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although food production is a main driver of environmental pressure and resource use globally, food delivers critical nutrition to humans. In life cycle assessment (LCA) of foods, the dominant functional unit is mass, despite the ISO requirement that the LCA unit should reflect the actual function. Studies have used various dietary quality scores in environmental assessments of foods, but the consideration of the dietary context is largely missing. The main function, i.e., nutrient supply, is complex since the nutritional value of a food item depends on its dietary context. Moreover, overall nutritional value is a combination of multiple nutrients. The aim was to combine scientific knowledge from the fields of nutrition and LCA to generate a basis for further research. The long-term aim was to help develop methods to support sustainability-based planning and decision making by food chain stakeholders. The proposed functional unit expresses the nutrient content of individual foods in relation to the nutritional supply of the complete diet, to create a single score reflecting the nutrient quality in a given dietary context. The nutrient quality index developed was evaluated by analyzing how relationships in global warming potential (GWP) between single products differed when using as functional unit either the mass of the food product, a nutrient quality index not considering the dietary context (the Nutrient Rich Foods Index 9.3, NRF9.3) and the new dietary dependent nutrient quality index (NQI) proposed. Two dietary scenarios were explored, an average Swedish diet and a typical unhealthy diet. The products considered were: bread, apples, tomatoes, milk, hard cheese, spread and chicken fillets. The results, calculated using bread as the reference, indicated that in both dietary contexts apples, tomatoes, and hard cheese had lower NQIadjusted GWPs compared to when GWPs were calculated using mass as the functional unit. Milk's NQI-adjusted and mass-calculated GWPs differed little, while the chicken fillet GWPs were the same in the unhealthy diet and performed better in the average diet. The NRF9.3-adjusted GWPs differed from the NQI-adjusted ones for all analysed foods. The main conclusions were: 1) considering nutritional value in the LCA of foods improves our understanding of how the environmental impacts and nutritional functions of food are related; 2) the environmental performance of different products varies with dietary context; and 3) application of the NQI could help industry, authorities, and consumers improve products and diets.

  • 22.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hjorth, Therese
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Huseinovic, Ena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Climate impact from diet in relation to background and sociodemographic characteristics in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme2019Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 22, nr 17, s. 3288-3297Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:The objective of this study was to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics in a population-based cohort in northern Sweden.Design:A cross-sectional study within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Dietary data from a 64-item food frequency questionnaire collected during 1996-2016 were used. Energy-adjusted greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) for all participants, expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents/day and 4184 kJ (1000 kcal), were estimated using data from life cycle analyses. Differences in background and sociodemographic characteristics were examined between participants with low and high GHGE from diet, respectively. The variables evaluated were age, BMI, physical activity, marital status, level of education, smoking, and residence.Setting:Västerbotten county in northern Sweden.Participants:In total, 46 893 women and 45 766 men aged 29-65 years.Results:Differences in GHGE from diet were found across the majority of examined variables. The strongest associations were found between GHGE from diet and age, BMI, education, and residence (all P < 0·001), with the highest GHGE from diet found among women and men who were younger, had a higher BMI, higher educational level, and lived in urban areas.Conclusions:This study is one of the first to examine climate impact from diet across background and sociodemographic characteristics. The results show that climate impact from diet is associated with age, BMI, residence and educational level amongst men and women in Västerbotten, Sweden. These results define potential target populations where public health interventions addressing a move towards more climate-friendly food choices and reduced climate impact from diet could be most effective. 

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  • 23.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Berndt
    University Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegärd
    University Umeå, Sweden.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University Umeå, Sweden.
    Adherence to the Swedish dietary guidelines and the impact on mortality and climate in a population-based cohort study2023Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess the associations between adherence to the Swedish dietary guidelines and all-cause mortality and thus assessing the index' ability to predict health outcomes, as well as levels of dietary greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs). Design: A longitudinal study 1990-2016 within the population-based cohort Västerbotten Intervention Programme. Dietary data were based on food frequency questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed by the Swedish Healthy Eating Index for Adults 2015 (SHEIA15), based on the 2015 Swedish dietary guidelines. Dietary GHGEs were estimated from life cycle assessment data including emissions from farm to industry gate. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause mortality were evaluated with Cox proportional hazards regression, and differences in median GHGEs were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA test, between quintiles of SHEIA15 score. Setting: Northern Sweden. Participants: In total, 49,124 women and 47,651 men, aged 35-65 years. Results: Median follow-up times were 16.0 years for women and 14.7 years for men, during which time 3074 women and 4212 men died. A consistent trend of lower all-cause mortality HRs for both sexes with higher SHEIA15 scores was demonstrated. For women, the all-cause mortality HR was 0.81 [(95% CI 0.71-0.92); p=0.001] and for men 0.90 [(95% CI 0.81-0.996); p=0.041] between the quintile with the highest SHEIA15 score compared with the quintile with the lowest SHEIA15 score. A consistent trend of lower estimated dietary GHGEs among both sexes with higher SHEIA15 scores was also found. Conclusions: Adherence to Swedish dietary guidelines, estimated by SHEIA15, seems to promote longevity and reduce dietary climate impact. © The Authors 2023.

  • 24.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adherence to the Swedish Dietary Guidelines and the Impact on Mortality and Climate in a Population-Based Cohort Study2022Ingår i: Current Developments in Nutrition, E-ISSN 2475-2991, Vol. 6, nr Suppl 1, s. 950-950Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract <sec> Objectives <p>To assess 1) the association between adherence to the Swedish dietary guidelines and all-cause mortality, and 2) the difference in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from diets of participants with higher and lower adherence to the Swedish dietary guidelines.</p> </sec> <sec> Methods <p>Dietary data from the Swedish population-based cohort Västerbotten Intervention Programme (49,124 women and 47,651 men, 35–65 years at baseline), collected between the years 1990–2016, were used. Diet quality was assessed by the Swedish Healthy Eating Index for Adults 2015 (SHEIA15). SHEIA15 is based on the Swedish dietary guidelines from 2015, and includes assessments of intakes of vegetables and fruits, seafood, whole grains, fiber, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, red and processed meat and added sugar. GHGE of diets were estimated from life cycle assessment data, including CO<sub>2</sub>e from primary production to industry gate. Information on all-cause mortality was acquired from registers at the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden using personal identification numbers. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, comparing the lowest and highest quintile of SHEIA15 score. Potential confounders were adjusted for. Difference in GHGE of diets was compared between the lowest and highest quintile of SHEIA15 score, using the Mann Whitney U test.</p> </sec> <sec> Results <p>Median follow-up times were for women 16.0 years and for men 14.7 years, during which time 3074 women and 4212 men died. For women the highest SHEIA15 score was associated with lower mortality compared with the lowest score (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.98; P = 0.027). No statistically significant difference in HR of mortality was found for the men with the highest SHEIA15 score compared with the lowest score (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.01; P = 0.083). The participants with the highest score of SHEIA15 had lower dietary GHGE compared to those with the lowest score in both women and men (P &lt; 0.001).</p> </sec> <sec> Conclusions <p>Higher adherence to the Swedish dietary guidelines, estimated by SHEIA15, was associated with lower all-cause mortality for women, but not for men, and indicated lower GHGE from diets for both women and men.</p> </sec> <sec> Funding Sources <p>The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (Formas).</p> </sec>

  • 25.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sjons, Josefin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sustainability indicators for foods benefiting climate and health2021Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikel-id 3621Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New methods for combined evaluation of nutritional and environmental aspects of food products are needed to enable a transformation of dietary guidelines integrating both health and environmental perspectives. We evaluated two sustainability aspects; nutrition and climate im-pact, of foods commonly consumed in Sweden and the implications of using parallel or integrated assessments of these two aspects, also discussing the usability and suitability of these food sustain-ability indicators in relation to Swedish dietary guidelines, industry food product development, and consumer communication. There were large differences in both nutrient density and climate impact among the different foods. The parallel assessment easily visualized synergies and trade-offs between these two sustainability aspects for the different foods. Coherence with dietary guidelines was good, and suitability and usability deemed satisfying. The integrated indicator showed better coherence with dietary guidelines than indicators based solely on nutrient density or climate impact; however, the difficulty to interpret the score limits its usability in product development and consumer communication. With both methods, advantageous as well as less advantageous plant-based and animal-based food alternatives were suggested. The two alternative methods evaluated could serve as useful tools to drive individual and societal development towards more sustainable food production and consumption. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 26.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Diets benefiting health and climate relate to longevity in northern Sweden.2021Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 114, nr 2, s. 515-529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Diets combining adequate nutritional quality and low climate impact are highly needed for human and planet health. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to 1) evaluate nutrient density indexes' ability to predict mortality, and 2) assess the effects of diets varying in nutrient density and climate impact on total mortality. METHODS: Dietary data from 49,124 women and 47,651 men aged 35-65 y in the population-based prospective study Västerbotten Intervention Programme (Sweden) were used. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) were estimated using data from life cycle assessments. Fifteen variants of nutrient density indexes were evaluated and the index that best predicted mortality was used to estimate participants' nutrient density. GHGEs and nutrient density were adjusted for energy intakes. Total mortality risk was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models for 4 groups of women and men, respectively, i.e., higher nutrient density, lower climate impact (HNutr/LClim); higher nutrient density, higher climate impact (HNutr/HClim); lower nutrient density, lower climate impact (LNutr/LClim); and lower nutrient density, higher climate impact (LNutr/HClim-reference group). RESULTS: NRF11.3, a Sweden-adapted variant of the Nutrient Rich Foods index, was identified to have the best ability to predict mortality in the study population. Median follow-up times for women and men were 16.0 and 14.7 y, respectively. For women a significantly lower mortality risk was found for HNutr/LClim (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.96; P = 0.008) and HNutr/HClim (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.97; P = 0.011) than for LNutr/HClim. Among men LNutr/LClim had a significantly higher mortality risk (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.21; P = 0.033) than LNutr/HClim. CONCLUSIONS: Diets beneficial for both health and climate are feasible and associated with lower mortality risk in women. Further studies are needed to understand how men may transition into diets that are more sustainable from a combined health and climate perspective.

  • 27.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Toward a More Climate-Sustainable Diet: Possible Deleterious Impacts on Health When Diet Quality Is Ignored2023Ingår i: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 153, nr 1, s. 242-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Nutritional quality, and health and climate impacts are important considerations in the design of sustainable diets. Objectives To investigate the association between diets varying in nutrient density and climate impact and MI and stroke HRs. Methods Dietary data of 41,194 women and 39,141 men (35–65 y) who participated in a Swedish population-based cohort study were employed. Nutrient density was calculated using the Sweden-adapted Nutrient Rich Foods 11.3 index. Dietary climate impact was calculated with data from life cycle assessments, including greenhouse gas emissions from primary production to industry gate. HRs and 95% CIs for MI and stroke were assessed with multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, comparing a least-desirable diet scenario reference group (lower nutrient density, higher climate impact) with three diet groups that varied with respect to higher/lower nutrient density and higher/lower climate impact. Results Median follow-up time from the baseline study visit to MI or stroke diagnosis was 15.7 y for women and 12.8 y for men. The MI hazard was significantly higher for the men with diets of lower nutrient density and lower climate impact (HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.33; P = 0.004), compared with the reference group. No significant association with MI was observed for any of the diet groups of women. No significant association with stroke was observed among any of the diet groups of women or men. Conclusions The results among men suggest some adverse health effects for men when diet quality is not considered in the pursuit of more climate-sustainable diets. For women, no significant associations were detected. The mechanism underlying this association for men needs further investigation.

  • 28.
    Stubbendorff, Anna
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ramne, Stina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Drake, Isabel
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Development of an EAT-Lancet index and its relation to mortality in a Swedish population.2022Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 115, nr 3, s. 705-716Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Current global food systems threaten human health and environmental sustainability. In 2019, the EAT-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems defined the first global reference diet to improve both areas, but there is no consensus on how to quantify the EAT-Lancet reference diet as a diet index and its relation to mortality has not been widely studied. OBJECTIVE: To develop a new dietary index to quantify adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet and assess its association with mortality in a large population-based Swedish cohort. We also examined food components included in the index and their individual associations with mortality. DESIGN: We used the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (n = 22,421, 45-73 years at baseline). Dietary data were collected using a modified diet history method. The EAT-Lancet index was developed based on intake levels and reference intervals of 14 food components defined in the EAT-Lancet diet (0-3 points per component, 0-42 points in total). Associations with mortality were examined based on registers during a mean of 20 years of follow-up and were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Divided into five adherence groups, the highest adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet (≥23 points) was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.85), cancer mortality (HR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.92) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.84) than the lowest adherence (≤13 points). Several food components included in the index contributed to the observed reductions in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a new dietary index to investigate adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet. The findings indicate a 25% lower risk of mortality among those with the highest adherence to the EAT-Lancet diet, as defined using our index, which adds to the evidence base for the development of sustainable dietary guidelines.

  • 29.
    Åkesson, Agneta
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Swede.
    Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; ISGlobal, Spain; Center for Networked Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Widenfalk, Anneli
    Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Wolk, Alicja
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Associations between dietary pesticide residue mixture exposure and mortality in a population-based prospective cohort of men and women2023Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 182, artikel-id 108346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a concern that pesticide residues, regularly detected in foods, might pose a health risk to the consumer, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We assessed the associations between dietary exposure to a mixture of pesticide residues and mortality. Methods: Food consumption was assessed in 68,844 participants from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men, 45–83 years at baseline (1997). Concentrations of pesticide residues detected in foods on the Swedish market (1996–1998), mainly fruits and vegetables, were obtained via monitoring programs. To assess mixture effects, we summed per food item the ratios of each single pesticide mean residue concentration divided by its acceptable daily intake to create for each participant a Dietary Pesticide Hazard Index (adjusted for energy intake and expressed per kilogram of body weight). Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 %CI). Results: During 15 years of follow-up (1998–2014), a total of 16,527 deaths occurred, of which 6,238 were caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 5,364 by cancer. Comparing extreme quintiles of Dietary Pesticide Hazard Index, the highest category was inversely associated with CVD mortality HR, 0.82 (95 % CI, 0.75–0.90) and with cancer mortality HR 0.82 (95 % CI 0.75–0.91). In analyses stratified by high/low Dietary Pesticide Hazard Index, similar inverse associations were observed by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Conclusions: We observed no indications that dietary exposure to pesticide residue mixtures was associated with increased mortality, nor any clear indications that the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on mortality was compromised. Yet, our results need to be interpreted with caution. © 2023 The Author(s)

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