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  • 1.
    Asp, Leif
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Multiscale modelling of non-crimp fabric composites2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Damage initiation and evolution in NCF composites leading to final failure includes a multitude of mechanisms and phenomena on several length scales. From an engineering point-of-view a computational scheme where all mechanisms would be explicitly addressed is too complex and time consuming. Hence, methods for macroscopic performance prediction of NCF composites, with limited input regarding micro- And mesoscale details, are requested. In this paper, multi-scale modelling approaches for in-plane transverse strength of NCF composites are outlined and discussed. In addition a simplistic method to predict transverse tensile and compressive strength for textile composites featuring low or no fibre waviness is presented.

  • 2.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    André, Alann
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Hellström, Peter
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Rössler, Joraine
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Materials with variable stiffness2015Ingår i: ICCM International Conferences on Composite Materials, International Committee on Composite Materials , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study different concepts to attain a material that can reduce its stiffness upon external stimulation were evaluated regarding their suitability for traffic safety applications. All concepts rely on resistive heating of a carbon fibre reinforcement upon application of electric current through the fibres. The stiffness reduction is achieved by a phase transformation due to heating of the material. The phase transformation takes place either in a thermoplastic interphase, in a thermoplastic matrix or in a thermoset matrix, depending on the concept. The different concepts were studied regarding their thermomechanical and processing properties and their ability to reduce their stiffness upon application of an electric current was tested. Moreover, the materials were evaluated regarding their potential for fast activation, which is crucial for applications in traffic safety. Stiffness-reduction was achieved upon application of an electric current, where the activation temperature was between 60 and 120°C and the extent of stiffness-reduction varied between 50 and 90%, depending on the material. The response time was found to depend to a large extent on the amount of material, which leads to the conclusion that smart design solutions are required for larger parts. It is concluded that the concepts vary in their thermal, mechanical and processing properties as well as in their extent of stiffness-reduction upon activation. The results presented in this work prove the feasibility of the studied materials for traffic safety applications and the concepts allow further optimization of the materials for specific applications

  • 3.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rössler, Joraine
    Hellström, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stiffness-modifiable composite for pedestrian protection2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel functional material allowing stiffness-reduction upon external stimulation was developed. Implementation of such technology in the design of a car front has high potential to result in increased protection of vulnerable road users (VRUs). The composite material is obtained by coating carbon fibres with a thermoplastic polymer in a continuous process, followed by infusion with an epoxy resin. The process is scalable for industrial use. The coating process was optimized regarding coating efficiency, energy consumption, risks involved for operating personnel and environment, and tailored to gain the optimal coating thickness obtained from numerical calculations. A drastic decrease in transversal stiffness could be detected for the composite material by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), when the temperature was increased above the glass transition temperature of the thermoplastic interphase. The ability of the material to achieve such temperature and associated reduction in stiffness by the application of current was verified using a special 3-point bending setup developed for this task.

  • 4.
    Carlstedt, David
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Asp, Leif
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effects of state of charge on elastic properties of 3D structural battery composites2019Ingår i: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 169, s. 26-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of state of charge (SOC) on the elastic properties of 3D structural battery composites are studied. An analytical model based on micromechanical models is developed to estimate the effective elastic properties of 3D structural battery composite laminae at different SOC. A parametric study is performed to evaluate how different design parameters such as volume fraction of active materials, stiffness of constituents, type of positive electrode material, etc. affect the moduli of the composite lamina for extremes in SOC. Critical parameters and configurations resulting in large variations in elastic properties due to change in SOC are identified. As the extreme cases are of primary interest in structural design, the effective elastic properties are only estimated for the electrochemical states corresponding to discharged (SOC = 0) and fully charged (SOC = 1) battery. The change in SOC is simulated by varying the volume and elastic properties of the constituents based on data from literature. Parametric finite element (FE) models for square and hexagonal fibre packing arrangements are also analysed in the commercial FE software COMSOL and used to validate the analytical model. The present study shows that the transverse elastic properties E2 and G23 and the in-plane shear modulus G12 are strongly affected by the SOC while the longitudinal stiffness E1 is not. Fibre volume fraction and the properties of the coating (such as stiffness and Poisson's ratio) are identified as critical parameters that have significant impact on the effect of SOC on the effective elastic properties of the composite lamina. For configurations with fibre volume fraction Vf ≥ 0.4 and Young's modulus of the coating of 1 GPa or higher, the transverse properties E2 and G23 change more than 30% between extremes in SOC. Furthermore, for configurations with high volume fractions of electrode materials and coating properties approaching those of rubber the predicted change in transverse stiffness E2 is as high as +43%. This shows that it is crucial to take effects of SOC on the elastic properties into account when designing 3D structural battery composite components. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 5.
    Kopp, Alexander
    et al.
    German Aerospace Center DLR, Germany.
    Stappert, Sven
    German Aerospace Center DLR, Germany.
    Mattsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Olofsson, Kurt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kurth, Guido
    Bayern Chemie GmbH, Germany.
    Mooij, Erwin
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Roorda, Evelyne
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    The Aurora space launcher concept2018Ingår i: CEAS Space Journal, ISSN 1868-2502, E-ISSN 1868-2510, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 167-187Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview about the Aurora reusable space launcher concept study that was initiated in late-2015/early-2016. Within the Aurora study, several spaceplane-like vehicle configurations with different geometries, propulsion systems and mission profiles will be designed, investigated and evaluated with respect to their technical and economic feasibility. The first part of this paper will discuss the study logic and the current status of the Aurora studies and introduces the first vehicle configurations and their system design status. As the identification of highly efficient structural designs is of particular interest for Aurora, the structural design and analysis approach will be discussed in higher level of detail. A special design feature of the Aurora vehicle configurations is the utilization of the novel thin-ply composite material technology for structural mass reductions. Therefore, the second part of this paper will briefly discuss this technology and investigate the application and potential mass savings on vehicle level within simplified structural analysis studies. The results indicate that significant mass savings could be possible. Finally, an outlook on the next steps is provided.

  • 6.
    Larijani, Nasim
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Metal onto polymer composite casting: Degradation behaviour and mechanical performance2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A general three dimensional finite element model for modelling thermal degradation of polymer composites due to thermal loading is presented. In particular, the model is intended for modelling the thermal degradation of polymer composites due to "metal onto composites casting" with lightweight alloys. The model is implemented as a user defined subroutine into the general purpose FEpackage ABAQUS©. The applicability of the code was demonstrated by analysing the casting process of an aluminium alloy onto composite rods, resulting in a shrinkage fit. To succeed in manufacturing of this type of joint, a delicate balance between thermal loadings, metal shrinkage, composite degradation and the overall cooling must be met. The proposed subroutine together with finite element models provides the spatial distribution of these field variables, allowing for subsequent optimization of the assembly. In order to asses the quality of the composite/metal joints pull-out tests of cylindrical composite rods were performed and compared to numerical simulation predictions.

  • 7.
    Larsson, R.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Singh, Vivekendra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    A micromechanically based model for dynamic damage evolution in unidirectional composites2022Ingår i: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 238, artikel-id 111368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the micromechanically motivated, quasistatic to dynamic, failure response of fibre reinforced unidirectional composites at finite deformation. The model draws from computational homogenization, with a subscale represented by matrix and fibre constituents. Undamaged matrix response assumes isotropic viscoelasticity–viscoplasticity, whereas the fibre is transversely isotropic hyperelastic. Major novelties involve damage degradation of the matrix response, due to shear in compression based on a rate dependent damage evolution model, and the large deformation homogenization approach. The homogenized quasi-brittle damage induced failure is described by elastically stored isochoric energy and plastic work of the undamaged polymer, driving the evolution of damage. The developed model is implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit. Finite element validation is carried out for a set of off-axis experimental compression tests in the literature. Considering the unidirectional carbon–epoxy (IM7/8552) composite at different strain rates, it appears that the homogenized damage degraded response can represent the expected ductile failure of the composite at compressive loading with different off-axes. Favourable comparisons are made for the strain and fibre rotation distribution involving localized shear and fibre kinking. © 2021 The Authors

  • 8.
    Larsson, R.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Singh, Vivekendra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    A micromechanically based model for strain rate effects in unidirectional composites2020Ingår i: Mechanics of materials, ISSN 0167-6636, E-ISSN 1872-7743, Vol. 148, artikel-id 103491Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses dynamic behaviour of fibre reinforced polymer composites in terms of a transversely isotropic viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model established at the unidirectional ply level. The model captures the prelocalized response of the ply in terms of rate dependent elasticity and strength without damage. A major novelty is that the model draws from computational homogenization, with matrix and fibre materials as subscale constituents for a representative volume element of the ply. The micromechanics of the strain rate dependent polymer matrix is represented by an isotropic pressure sensitive viscoelastic-viscoplastic prototype model. For the fibre material, transverse elasticity is assumed. The constituents are homogenized via the fluctuating strain of the subscale, where a simple ansatz is applied to allow for constant stress in the plane transverse to the fibre orientation. Despite the relatively simple modelling assumptions for the constituents, the homogenized model compares favourably to experimental data for an epoxy/carbon fibre based composite, subjected to a variety of challenging uniaxial off-axis tests. The model response clearly reflects observed strain rate dependencies under both tensile and compressive loadings. 

  • 9.
    Lundmark, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Olofsson, Kurt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Utvärdering av projektledarkurs Tankar och reflektioner ett halvt år senare2009Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Smältfogning av termoplastbaserade kompositer och lättmetall2012Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Transverse strength of unidirectional non-crimp fabric composites: Multiscale modelling2014Ingår i: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 65, s. 47-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A multiscale approach is used to predict transverse tensile and transverse compressive strength of unidirectional non-crimp fabric (NCF) composites. Numerical analysis on fibre/matrix scale is performed to obtain the transverse strength of the fibre bundle to be further used in an analytical mesoscale model to predict the strength of the unidirectional NCF composite. Design of unidirectional layer composites with the same fibres, interface, matrix and volume fractions as in the bundle is suggested as an alternative method for bundle strength determination. Good agreement of both methods for bundle transverse strength determination is demonstrated. The simple analytical model used on mesoscale gives accurate predictions of the tensile transverse strength whereas the compressive strength is underestimated. The necessity of including bundle waviness in models when bidirectional NCF composites are analysed is demonstrated by FEM stress analysis and by experimental data showing differences in transverse cracking pattern due to bundle waviness.

  • 12.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Eitzenberger, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Varna, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Nonlinear viscoelastic viscoplastic material model including stiffness degradation for hemp/lignin composites2008Ingår i: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 68, nr 9, s. 2156-2162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In repeating tensile tests with increasing maximum strain for every loading cycle the hemp/lignin composites clearly showed a nonlinear behavior and hysteresis loops in loading and unloading. The explanation for this behavior is the inherent viscoelastic nature for this type of material, but also noticeable stiffness degradation with increasing strain level. Creep tests performed at different stress levels revealed a nonlinear viscoelastic response and after recovery viscoplastic strain was detected for high stress levels. It is demonstrated that Schapery's model is suitable to model nonlinear viscoelasticity whereas viscoplastic strain may be described by a nonlinear functional presented by Zapas and Crissman. In a creep test this functional leads to a power law with respect to time and stress. In order to include stiffness reduction due to damage Schapery's model has been modified by incorporating a maximum strain-state dependent function reflecting the elastic modulus reduction with increasing strain measured in tensile tests. A generalized incremental model of the constitutive equation for viscoelastic case has been used to validate the developed material model in a linear stress controlled loading and unloading ramp. The model successfully describes the main features for the investigated material and shows good agreement with test data within the considered stress range. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Hallström, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Slutrapport Castcomp2009Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Hellström, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Wingborg, Jon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Evaluation of CFRP-Hybrix integrated joints2013Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Varna, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Micromechanical modelling of wood fibre composites2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A concentric cylinder model for an A/-phase composite with orthotropic properties of constituents was previously presented by the authors. With only minor modifications the model allows for including also free hygroexpansion terms in the elastic stress-strain relationship in order to deal with orthotropic phase swelling. Thus the effect of wood fibre ultrastructure and cell wall hygroelastic properties on wood fibre composite hygroexpansion may be analysed. Multiscale modelling was performed to calculate the hygroexpansion coefficients of both the fibre cell wall and the aligned wood fibre composite. Furthermore, the fibre's helical structure leads to an extension-twist coupling and thus a free fibre will deform axially and also rotate upon loading in longitudinal fibre direction. Within the composite, however, the fibre rotation will be restricted. Therefore, the decision was to compare the composite performance in the two extreme cases (i) free rotation (ii) no rotation of the fibre in the composite.

  • 16.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Varna, J.
    Lulea University of Technology.
    Modeling the effect of helical fiber structure on wood fiber composite elastic properties2009Ingår i: Applied Composite Materials, ISSN 0929-189X, E-ISSN 1573-4897, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 245-262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the helical wood fiber structure on in-plane composite properties has been analyzed. The used analytical concentric cylinder model is valid for an arbitrary number of phases with monoclinic material properties in a global coordinate system. The wood fiber was modeled as a three concentric cylinder assembly with lumen in the middle followed by the S3, S2 and S1 layers. Due to its helical structure the fiber tends to rotate upon loading in axial direction. In most studies on the mechanical behavior of wood fiber composites this extension-twist coupling is overlooked since it is assumed that the fiber will be restricted from rotation within the composite. Therefore, two extreme cases, first modeling fiber then modeling composite were examined: (i) free rotation and (ii) no rotation of the cylinder assembly. It was found that longitudinal fiber modulus depending on the microfibril angle in S2 layer is very sensitive with respect to restrictions for fiber rotation. In-plane Poisson's ratio was also shown to be greatly influenced. The results were compared to a model representing the fiber by its cell wall and using classical laminate theory to model the fiber. It was found that longitudinal fiber modulus correlates quite well with results obtained with the concentric cylinder model, whereas Poisson's ratio gave unsatisfactory matching. Finally using typical thermoset resin properties the longitudinal modulus and Poisson's ratio of an aligned softwood fiber composite with varying fiber content were calculated for various microfibril angles in the S2 layer. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 17.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Varna, J.
    Lulea University of Technology.
    Modeling the hygroexpansion of aligned wood fiber composites2009Ingår i: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 69, s. 1108-1114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of wood fiber ultrastructure and cell wall hygroelastic properties on wood fiber composite hygroexpansion has been analyzed. An analytical concentric cylinder model extended to include also free hygroexpansion of orthotropic phase materials has been used on several length scales. Using properties of the three main wood polymers, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin the longitudinal and transverse hygroexpansion coefficients for the microfibril unit cell were obtained and the volume fraction change of the wood polymers in the microfibril unit cell depending on relative humidity was calculated. The fiber cell wall was modeled regarding each individual S1, S2 and S3 layer and the cell wall longitudinal hygroexpansion coefficient was determined depending on microfibril angle in the S2 layer. A homogenization procedure replacing the S1, S2 and S3 layers with one single layer was found not to influence the results significantly for low microfibril angles. Finally the hygroexpansion coefficients of an aligned softwood fiber composite were calculated. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Varna, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Stiffness and strength modelling of non-crimp fabric composites2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work comprises methodologies for micro-meso stiffness modelling and limited analysis for strength prediction. It is intended to formulate some guidelines and recommendations when modelling NCF composites mechanical performance. For both micro- and meso stiffness modelling, analytical models are compared to FE investigations considering idealised structures. Important aspects when modelling matrix failure of NCF composite bundles are presented to highlight some of the challenges in future modelling. Possible failure criteria for modelling matrix failure within fibre bundles have been investigated; their strength, problems and weaknesses are revealed. Copyright © 2011 by Luleå University of Technology.

  • 19.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Varna, J.
    Lulea University of Technology.
    Neagu, R.C.
    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL).
    Gamstedt, E.K.
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Stiffness of aligned wood fiber composites: Effect of microstructure and phase properties2008Ingår i: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 42, nr 22, s. 2377-2405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of wood fiber anisotropy and their geometrical features on wood fiber composite stiffness is analyzed. An analytical model for an N-phase composite with orthotropic properties of constituents is developed and used. This model is a straightforward generalization of Hashin's concentric cylinder assembly model and Christensen's generalized self-consistent approach. It was found that most macro-properties are governed by only one property of the cell wall which is very important in attempts to back-calculate the fiber properties. The role of lumen (whether it filled by resin or not) has a very large effect on the composite shear properties. It is shown that several of the unknown anisotropic constants characterizing wood fiber are not affecting the stiffness significantly and rough assumptions regarding their value would suffice. The errors introduced by application of the Hashin's model and neglecting the orthotropic nature of the material behavior in cylindrical axes are evaluated. The effect of geometrical deviations from circular cross-section, representing, for example, collapsed fibers, is analyzed using the finite element method (FEM) and the observed trends are discussed. © 2008 SAGE Publications.

  • 20.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vyas, Gaurav
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Hellström, Peter
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Modelling of textile composites with variable stiffness2015Ingår i: ICCM International Conferences on Composite Materials, International Committee on Composite Materials , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional composite materials allowing stiffness reduction upon external stimulation are being developed within the European projects ENLIGHT and SafeEV. The aim is to develop material concepts to reduce the severity of injuries involving vulnerable road users. The current work addresses the development of textile composite material models aimed to be employed in a car front structure during static loading to low velocity impact situations. The modelled material is a non-crimp fabric reinforced thermoplastic (LPET) composite, in which the stiffness reduction relies on resistive heating of the carbon reinforcement upon application of electric current through the fibres. The stiffness reduction is achieved by a phase transformation of the thermoplastic matrix material. In this paper it is shown how a micro- and mesomodelling methodology in concert with only a few simple DMTA measurements can be utilized to model the macroscopic stiffness response of an impacted beam at various temperatures and loading rates. The material models used for simulation of the material show a good correlation with the experimental data despite the exclusion of a damage model and failing to account for the temperature variation within the specimens used in the experimental testing. The peak loads are well predicted. 

  • 21.
    Olsson, Robin
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Asp, Leif E
    RISE., Swerea, SICOMP.
    Jansson, Niklas
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Sweden.
    Strength of NCF composite bundles under biaxial stress2011Ingår i: Proc. 32nd Risø International Symposium on Materials Science: Composite materials for structural performance: towards higher limits / [ed] S. Fæster, D. Juul Jensen, B. Ralph, B.F. Sørensen, Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, DTU, Denmark , 2011, s. 415-421Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experiments to support development of mesomechanics models for prediction of the strength of Non-Crimp Fabric (NCF) materials under tri-axial loading. Here we describe initial tests to characterise the failure envelope of the material in fibre bundles of a carbon fibre/epoxy NCF. Uniaxial loading of unidirectional off-axis specimens is used to obtain in-plane stress states ranging from highly shear dominated to fully transverse or axial tension, while future tests will include compressive stresses. The bundle material is represented by filament winding of unidirectional laminates and subsequent vacuum infusion of the resin. The resulting fibre volume fraction of 69% is representative of typical bundles in NCF materials. A modified Puck failure criterion provides reasonable predictions of the failure envelope.

  • 22.
    Olsson, Robin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Jansson, N.
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Testing of carbon/epoxy NCF strength under mixed in-plane loading2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The measured stiffness and strength of a carbon/epoxy unidirectional NCF system in shear, tension and compression are compared with test results for the pure resin and for impregnated bundle material under various combinations of in-plane compressive and tensile loading. The study is a part of a project to develop mesomechanics models to predict failure of NCF materials under triaxial loading by use of data for the pure resin and for bundles impregnated by resin. A simplified analytical rule-of-mixtures model is suggested for stiffness and strength of the NCF material. Good agreement is shown for shear and tension along and transverse to the bundles. Compressive strengths are significantly underestimated, apparently due to deficiencies in the compressive test method used for the bundle material.

  • 23.
    Pallon, Love K. H.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion.
    Persson, Olle
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Malm, A
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Johansson, T.
    RenoveraVA, Sweden.
    Condition monitoring of excavated CIPP-liners to ensure lifespan2020Ingår i: 37th International NO-DIG Conference and Exhibition 2019, International Society for Trenchless Technology , 2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there is a lack of knowledge on the expected service life of installed CIPP-liners and a general aim to request CIPP-liners with a 100-year lifespan. In cooperation with Swedish water utilities a national project has been launched for condition monitoring of used CIPP-liners. A large number of CIPP-liners installed in sewage pipes will be excavated and analyzed in order to evaluate material degradation and estimating remaining service life. The CIPP-liners are all between 5-35 years old. The material performance of the CIPP-liners are either compared with the reference data provided from the installation, or in some case compared to pieces of corresponding CIPP-liners that have been kept in a storage. These pieces becomes especially valuable when looking at possible changes in mechanical properties that may have occurred during the time in use. The materials will be assessed by e.g. bending modulus to investigate material integrity and e.g. FT-IR for chemical stability in the environment of the sewage system. In total the results will give a valuable tool in assessing the expected lifetime of the installed CIPP-liners. The knowledge acquired will help Swedish water utilities to predict service life of installed CIPP-liners and to set sufficient quality demands on new installations for pipe renovation. At an initial stage two excavated CIPP-liners that have been in use for 12 and 16 years have been analyzed and compared with reference data from the time of installation.

  • 24.
    Pupurs, A.
    et al.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Loukil, Mohamed
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Varna, J.
    Riga Technical University, Latvia; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattsson, D.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Transverse Crack Initiation in Thin-Ply Laminates Subjected to Tensile Loading at Low and Cryogenic Temperatures2024Ingår i: Mechanics of composite materials, ISSN 0191-5665, E-ISSN 1573-8922, Vol. 59, nr 6, s. 1049-1064Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laminates with ultra-thin plies is a promising new development for polymeric composite materials expected to provide superior resistance to intralaminar crack propagation. The ply thickness effect on the crack initiation stress that according to some theoretical studies on fiber/matrix debonding does not depend on the ply thickness was investigated. Ultra-thin ply carbon fiber/epoxy cross-ply laminates subjected to tensile loading at room, –50, and –150°C temperatures relevant for cryogenic fuel storage, aeronautical, and aerospace applications were studied. The stochastic nature of the crack initiation stress in the 90°-plies was analyzed using Weibull strength distribution. The results obtained show delayed transverse crack initiation only in the thinnest plies with a clear trend that the scale parameter is much larger. This thickness effect on initiation is different than that for crack propagation which is observable in much larger ply thickness range. Regarding crack propagation, it was found that in most cases even at very high applied strain levels (1.5%) only a few transverse cracks have propagated from the specimen edges to its middle. 

  • 25.
    Singh, Vivekendra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ragnar
    Chalmers Univiversity of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of strain rate at compressive and tensile loading of unidirectional plies in structural composites2019Ingår i: Proc. 7th ECCOMAS Thematic Conf. on the Mechanical Response of Composites. / [ed] Turon A, Maimí P, Fagerström M, European Community on Computational Methods in Applied Science (ECCOMAS) , 2019, s. 177-183Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibre-reinforced polymer composites are widely used in structural applications due to their high specific stiffness and strength. In some applications the response of dynamically loaded composite components must be analysed. For example, in crash analyses of structural components, where very high loading rates occurs, the composite behaviour is not fully understood. For this, we present a novel transversely isotropic viscoelasticviscoplastic constitutive model for a unidirectional carbon-epoxy composite. The model is micromechanically motivated so that the matrix and fibre materials of the composite are treated as micromechanical constituents at the ply scale. Based on the Hill-Mandel condition, the phases are homogenized via the macroscopic and fluctuating strain fields. To arrive at a simple but still representative model, a simplistic ansatz is applied to the structure of the fluctuating strains leading to a non-standard homogenized response of the composite. The model is applied to the non-linear rate dependent anisotropic ply behaviour under quasi-static and dynamic loading at different off-axis angles. For a simple viscoelastic-viscoplastic prototype for the rate dependent matrix response, there is a good correlation between measured and model response of the IM7-8552 material system in compression and tension.

  • 26.
    Singh, Vivekendra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ragnar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    A micromechanics based model for rate dependent compression loaded unidirectional composites2023Ingår i: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 232, artikel-id 109821Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Strain-rate effects in a unidirectional non-crimp fabric carbon/epoxy composite are addressed. To allow for kink-band formation including strain-rate effects and damage in such composites, the paper advances a recent model focused on compression loading at small off-axis angles. The model is based on computational homogenization with a subscale represented by matrix and fibre constituents at finite deformation. The fibre constituent is assumed to be elastic transversely isotropic and the matrix is viscoelastic–viscoplastic with damage degradation. Novel model improvements of special importance to small off-axis loading relate to the isostress formulation of the homogenized response in transverse shear. In this context, an enhanced homogenized elastic response is proposed based on Halpin–Tsai corrections to account for the nonuniform stress distribution on the microscale. The model captures the strongly rate sensitive kink-band formation due to localized matrix shearing and fibre rotation, confirming the experimentally observed increase in compressive strength for high strain rates. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 27.
    Singh, Vivekendra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ragnar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Rate dependent compressive failure and delamination growth in multidirectional composite laminates2023Ingår i: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793XArtikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel intralaminar model has, for the first time, been applied and validated for the rate-dependent failure of multidirectional carbon/epoxy laminates. Quasi-static compressive failure is evaluated by the growth of intralaminar rate-dependent damage combined with the interaction of cohesive zones for interlaminar delamination. A special feature of the intralaminar model is the homogenised ply response, allowing simultaneous damage-degradation of the polymer matrix combined with the fibres. To model the observed quasi-brittle failure response of the plies under finite deformation, we have used a viscoelastic-viscoplastic matrix combined with damage and isotropic hardening behaviour. Elastic transverse isotropy is used to model the fibre reinforcement of the plies. Standard cohesive surfaces are used to model the initiation and propagation of delamination. Numerical simulations using ABAQUS/Explicit are performed to predict the growth and delamination of intralaminar damage under compression in different laminates with 56 plies of IM7/8552 carbon/epoxy. Predictions of stress versus strain and damage growth are shown to agree well with experimental results for a range of strain rates and stacking sequences. 

  • 28.
    Zrida, Habiba
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ayadi, Zoubir
    Ecole Européenne D'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, France.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effective stiffness of curved 0°-layers for stiffness determination of cross-ply non-crimp fabric composites2014Ingår i: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 33, nr 14, s. 1339-1352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the 0°-tow waviness on axial stiffness of cross-ply non-crimp fabric composites is analysed using multiscale approach. The curved 0°- and 90°-layers are represented by flat layers with effective stiffness properties and classical laminate theory is used to calculate the macroscopic stiffness. The effective 0°-layer stiffness is calculated analysing isolated curved 0°-layers subjected not only to end loading, but also to surface loads. The surface loads are identified in a detailed finite element analysis and approximated by a sinus shaped function with amplitude depending on the waves parameters. The sinus shaped surface loads are then applied to an isolated curved 0°-layer finite element model together with end loading to calculate the effective stiffness of the layer. Finally, the effective 0°-layer stiffness was successfully used to calculate the macroscopic stiffness of the composite proving validity of the approach being used and showing that, without losing accuracy, elastic properties in the 90°-layers with bundle structure can be replaced by the transverse stiffness of the homogenised 90°-layer material.

  • 29.
    Zrida, Habiba
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ayadi, Zoubir
    Ecole Européenne D'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, France.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Master curve approach to axial stiffness calculation for non-crimp fabric biaxial composites with out-of-plane waviness2014Ingår i: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 64, s. 214-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of 0°-tow out-of-plane waviness on the biaxial non-crimp-fabric (NCF) composite axial stiffness is investigated. Homogenizing, the bundle mesostructure of the NCF composite is replaced by layers. Then the composite is represented by a laminate with flat layers with effective stiffness properties representing the curved 0°-layer and the 90°-layer with varying thickness. It is shown that the NCF composite knock-down factor characterizing the stiffness degradation has almost the same dependence on wave parameters as the knock-down factor for the curved 0°-layer. Numerical analysis showed that 90°-layer knock-down factor versus amplitude curves for different wavelength can be reduced to one master curve which can be described by a one-parameter expression with the parameter dependent on the used material. This observation is used to obtain high accuracy for analytical predictions for knock-down factors for cases with different wavelength and amplitudes based on two FE calculations only.

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